Military Review

ICRC "Liana" in the process of deployment

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ICRC "Liana" in the process of deployment

General view of the apparatus "Lotos-S"


In the interests of the naval fleet a naval space reconnaissance and target designation system (MCRTs) "Liana" is being created. It will include spacecraft of two types, designed to monitor the situation on the seas and detect ships and submarines of a potential enemy. To date, the Liana system has been deployed only partially, but its construction will be completed in the near future.

Construction processes


In 1978, the first domestic MKRTs 17K114 "Legend" was put on alert. It consisted of two types of spacecraft, carrying radars and passive electronic reconnaissance means. The full-fledged work of the "Legend" continued until the beginning of the nineties, after which the formation of a working space group turned out to be impossible. In a reduced configuration, the system was operated until the mid-XNUMXs.

In 1993, taking into account the prospects of the "Legend", the Ministry of Defense ordered the development of a new ICRC with increased characteristics under the code "Liana". During that period, the main requirements for the system were formed and the timing of its deployment was determined. In the future, the terms of reference were repeatedly adjusted, and the work schedule was revised.

The first satellite of the type 14F138 "Lotos-S" from the "Liana" was launched into orbit only in November 2009. The next launch was performed at the very end of 2014, this time the upgraded satellite 14F145 "Lotos-C1" went into space. In December 2017 and in October 2018, two more launches took place. The fifth spacecraft Liana was launched into orbit on February 2 this year.

In parallel with the withdrawal of "Lotosov-S", work was carried out on the apparatus 14F139 "Pion-NKS". According to the Ministry of Defense, a new schedule for completing work on this project was approved in December. Details were not specified, but the launch of the first Pion-NKS is scheduled for the near future. Soon Izvestia was informed that this device was already undergoing ground tests, and this year it would be able to go into space.


Pion-NKS apparatus

With the help of a new satellite and some other means, Liana is planned to be operational. The system will acquire the required configuration and will be able to solve all assigned tasks for monitoring the situation in the World Ocean. However, the exact dates for the start of full-fledged combat duty and acceptance into service remain unknown.

As part of the complex


According to open data, the Liana ICRC must solve the problems of passive radio-technical and active radar reconnaissance, for which it has two types of satellites. Earlier it was reported that the minimum operating configuration of the system includes two products "Lotos-S" and "Pion-NKS". As follows from the events of recent years, an increase in the number of vehicles in orbits is possible.

It was reported that the ICRC "Liana" satellites should operate in circular orbits with an altitude of 800-900 km. Their task is to monitor the assigned areas, identify the ships of a potential enemy and issue data about them. Such reconnaissance can be used both to track the actions of foreign fleets and for target designation to fire weapons of surface ships, submarines, coastal troops and sea aviation.

Satellites "Lotos-S" and "Lotos-S1" are intended for electronic intelligence. They must track radio signals from ships, submarines or enemy ground targets, process them and identify the location of sources. The data on the detected objects is automatically transferred to the control loops of the fleet and can be used by different consumers.

The Pion-NKS product is distinguished by the presence of a full-fledged radar station on board, capable of monitoring the situation at sea and on land. The active principle of detection allows you to detect targets that observe radio silence, and also provides high accuracy in determining the coordinates.


The launch of the Soyuz-2.1b rocket with the Lotos-S1 spacecraft, October 25, 2018

It is reported that the ICRC "Liana" will be able to ensure the operation of all modern and advanced weapons of the navy. So, with its help, it will be possible to organize strikes with the use of missiles "Caliber" or use "Zircon" on moving surface targets.

Great future


A new satellite from the Liana ICRC is planned to be launched into orbit this year. This means that the reconnaissance and target designation system will approach its full working configuration and receive a new critical function. Then the launch of the second "Pion-NKS" is possible, in accordance with the minimum operating configuration, which provides a full-fledged solution of all tasks.

The commissioning of spacecraft of two types will have obvious consequences. First of all, we are talking about the full restoration of the space reconnaissance and target designation system. The old "Legend" stopped working in the middle of the two thousandth, and new devices with radar on board have not been launched since the late eighties. Accordingly, the deployment of the new Liana ICRC will allow the fleet to regain its long-lost capabilities.

ICRC "Liana" will become a new component in the general surveillance and tracking systems that ensure the protection of the country's maritime borders. In the near zone, within a radius of up to hundreds of kilometers, monitoring of the situation is carried out using coastal radars of various types, independent or included in weapon systems. Also, to monitor the situation in the World Ocean, there is a grouping of base patrol aircraft. While on the high seas, ships and submarines, as well as deck-based aircraft, must solve similar problems.

All these forces and means create an echeloned system of tracking, detection and target designation. However, their specificity imposes restrictions on the areas of observation, detection range, etc. The use of reconnaissance satellites solves most of these problems. A space group of sufficient numbers is capable of conducting constant surveillance far beyond the zones of responsibility of coastal radar stations and covering larger areas in comparison with patrol aircraft.


Preparations for the launch of the fifth "Lotus-S", February 2, 2021

Some of this potential has already been realized with the help of the Lotos-S and Lotos-S1 electronic reconnaissance devices. It will be possible to get all the Liana's capabilities in full only after the launch and commissioning of the Pionov-NSK radar.

Of great interest is information on the compatibility of the ICRC "Liana" with modern and future armaments of the fleet. The presence of a satellite reconnaissance and target designation system will allow strikes in the entire range of missile ranges without colliding with the limitations of shipborne detection equipment.

Development continues


Thus, the Ministry of Defense continues to restore and develop the military space group. Every year, several satellites of different types are launched into orbit, designed to solve certain problems. For example, in recent years, the number of space reconnaissance vehicles using different principles of target tracking has been restored.

Right now, you can observe the process of restoring the grouping used in the interests of the navy. Five Liana satellites are already operating in space, and this year the sixth will go into orbit. Thanks to this, the reconnaissance and target designation system will acquire a minimum workforce capable of performing all assigned tasks.
Author:
Photos used:
Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, MZ "Arsenal"
39 comments
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  1. WHAT IS
    WHAT IS 10 March 2021 18: 12
    +31
    The Ministry of Defense continues to rebuild and develop the military space group. Every year, several satellites of different types are launched into orbit, designed to solve certain problems.

    I can not but rejoice, success in this necessary business!
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. The comment was deleted.
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 10 March 2021 18: 29
    +5
    Development continues

    So there is no need to slow down, to the end!
    1. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 10 March 2021 22: 18
      +11
      Quote: rocket757
      So there is no need to slow down, to the end!

      Here is the target designation for hypersonic anti-ship missiles of all types and sizes. And the adversary now knows that if anything ... they see him and will not miss.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 10 March 2021 22: 29
        +3
        I never tire of repeating that intelligence and control systems, plus information processing systems, are an important element of the state's military infrastructure.
      2. Volder
        Volder 10 March 2021 23: 28
        +2
        "Zircons" and "Daggers" will be put into service in 2022, by that time "Liana" should already be functioning.
        1. Mountain shooter
          Mountain shooter 10 March 2021 23: 47
          +2
          Quote: Volder
          "Zircons" and "Daggers" will be put into service in 2022, by that time "Liana" should already be functioning

          So plans of this kind are synchronized. Although, "Dagger" seems to have already been adopted ...
          1. Boris63
            Boris63 20 May 2021 11: 01
            0
            20 pieces of "carts" for transportation to the carrier and suspension are already at the customers' disposal. Moreover, even a few pieces arrived for warranty repair. But maybe someone else is making these carts ...
        2. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 11 March 2021 03: 36
          +1
          Quote: Volder
          Zircons and Daggers to enter service in 2022

          Let's just say that the light did not converge on them, missiles of other types and classes need target designation no less!
      3. Pilat2009
        Pilat2009 11 March 2021 10: 18
        +1
        Quote: Mountain Shooter
        Quote: rocket757
        So there is no need to slow down, to the end!

        Here is the target designation for hypersonic anti-ship missiles of all types and sizes. And the adversary now knows that if anything ... they see him and will not miss.

        The adversary knows and tests anti-satellite missiles
        1. Grits
          Grits 11 March 2021 15: 08
          +1
          Quote: Pilat2009
          The adversary knows and tests anti-satellite missiles

          At an altitude of 800 - 900 km. how difficult it is to talk about the effectiveness of anti-satellite missiles
          1. Your stranger
            Your stranger 12 March 2021 17: 12
            -4
            Rocket speed
            Block IA / B 2,7 km / s

            Block IIA 4,5-5,0 km / s
            Maximum range
            Block IA / B 700 km

            Block IIA 2500 km
            Height of the affected area
            Block IA / B 500 km

            Block IIA 1500 km [1]
            Payload
            homing kinetic interceptor
            Warhead
            kinetic interceptor
            Guidance system
            infrared homing head
            Basing method
            surface ship, land-based stationary launcher
            Launch history
            Condition
            in service with the US Navy
            Introduced into service in countries
            USA, Japan, Romania
            Total produced
            more 336
            1. abc_alex
              abc_alex April 28 2021 12: 57
              +1
              Well? Do you remember the meaning of the first space? 7,91 km / s.
        2. max702
          max702 25 March 2021 08: 36
          0
          If satellites are shot down, this is war .. And how will the Strategic Missile Forces look at this? Screams that zassut use to change nuclear weapons are not accepted because then the meaning in the Army as such disappears! Nafig need it if the enemy gets offended .. Partners know perfectly well that they shot down a satellite and doomed themselves to destruction, as long as there is an understanding of this, the world is not in danger ..
  3. Ros 56
    Ros 56 10 March 2021 18: 38
    +3
    Serious equipment, let's hope for its efficiency and quality.
  4. Taoist
    Taoist 10 March 2021 18: 44
    +19
    Well, that's actually the answer to the question why do we need long-range anti-ship missiles .... The question of target designation and that same "AUG catching, I hope will be resolved by the introduction of this system.
    1. lucul
      lucul 10 March 2021 20: 37
      +11
      Well, that's actually the answer to the question why do we need long-range anti-ship missiles .... The question of target designation and that same "AUG catching, I hope will be resolved by the introduction of this system.

      5 satellites Lotos-S, in an orbit of 900 km, completely block the sea approaches to Russia. They work in a passive mode and register any radar, both a ship and an AWACS aircraft. That is, enemy ships and aircraft can go unnoticed only in radio silence mode. But in the radio silence mode, they cannot perform their functions.
      This year, the launch of the Pion-NKS satellite is expected; it will have an active radar on board, which will accurately determine the location of enemy AUGs at any time of the day and regardless of weather conditions.
      Simply put, target designation will be possible for our Zircons and Calibers at a distance of 1000 km and 2500 km, respectively.
      Full coverage requires 5 passive Lotus-C satellites and 5 active Pion-NKS satellites.
      1. AUL
        AUL 10 March 2021 22: 50
        +3
        Wondering how target selection happens? The ocean is large, there are many vessels of all kinds. How to distinguish an aircraft carrier from Abramovich's yacht?
        1. Podvodnik
          Podvodnik 11 March 2021 00: 16
          +8
          How to distinguish an aircraft carrier from Abramovich's yacht?


          Different characteristics of radiation, frequencies and modes of operation. Application
          radio technical equipment for specific purposes. "Portraits" are different. It's like distinguishing between a person and a dog by voice, for example.
        2. lucul
          lucul 11 March 2021 06: 41
          +1
          Wondering how target selection happens? The ocean is large, there are many vessels of all kinds. How to distinguish an aircraft carrier from Abramovich's yacht?

          With the development of neural networks, target selection does not pose a particular problem.
        3. Ka-52
          Ka-52 11 March 2021 12: 34
          +15
          to distinguish an aircraft carrier from Abramovich's yacht

          on Abramovich's yacht the flag of FC "Chelsea" and naked beautiful girls. On the American aircraft carrier, the BLM flag and scary girls in the US NAVY uniform on the deck
          1. AUL
            AUL 11 March 2021 14: 28
            +6
            Quote: Ka-52
            on Abramovich's yacht the flag of FC "Chelsea" and naked beautiful girls. On the American aircraft carrier, the BLM flag and scary girls in the US NAVY uniform on the deck

            So they would say right away! And then - a signature, neural networks ... laughing
        4. TerraSandera
          TerraSandera 19 May 2021 02: 10
          0
          These goals, if not equal, are both important. Strange that you put that in opposition to the aircraft carrier. That it is impossible to be mistaken with such an important person for the world? Well, the rest does not come out very well, for example, a cruise liner or some kind of dry cargo ship.
      2. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 11 March 2021 01: 16
        0
        Quote: lucul
        ..... active satellites Pion-NKS
        I wonder if the radars are powered only by solar panels? In the past, it was practiced to put on similar and nuclear power sources. Probably, some of them are still spinning in high orbits (ours practiced to bury them after the end of their service life, taking them further away, and not dumping them into the ocean)
        1. lucul
          lucul 11 March 2021 06: 38
          -4
          I wonder if the radars are powered only by solar panels?

          I don’t know, I don’t know - maybe on new physical principles, or maybe on the basis of ROFAR)))
          But the bottom line is that the issue has already been decided, since they are going to launch this year.
      3. SovAr238A
        SovAr238A 11 March 2021 13: 24
        -3
        Quote: lucul

        Full coverage requires 5 passive Lotus-C satellites and 5 active Pion-NKS satellites.


        Why is this calculation?
        Have you come up with?

        I've never read or heard about 5 and 5 anywhere ...

        Have you looked at the flight paths of the Pion and Lotus satellites on the map?

        For full coverage of all coastal zones of Russia and, accordingly, target designation, at least 12 satellites of each type are required.
        Otherwise there will be dead zones.
        And since satellites with radars have an extremely short life cycle, then, accordingly, they will need to be riveted 6 pieces per year to replace natural loss.

        It is cheaper to build a fleet of 30 nuclear submarines and use them to defend their water lines at any given time than to maintain such a satellite constellation.
        1. max702
          max702 April 21 2021 17: 50
          0
          Well, well .. Where did the firewood come from?
      4. Vladimir Koshevoi
        Vladimir Koshevoi 14 June 2021 18: 01
        0
        D.B. there is something to crackle about ...
  5. Bez 310
    Bez 310 10 March 2021 18: 52
    -18%
    Yes, we have known for a long time that we have no control system.
    Now we have learned that this system will not exist in the foreseeable future.
    "Zircons", "Calibers", "Daggers" ... will not be able to work soon
    on surface ships.
    Sad ...
    1. Volder
      Volder 10 March 2021 23: 36
      0
      Quote: Bez 310
      Now we have learned that this system will not exist in the foreseeable future.
      We have learned that this system will appear in the foreseeable future.
      "Zircons", "Calibers", "Daggers" ... will not be able to work soon
      They will be able to very soon.
      Sad ...
      No need to pretend. On the contrary, you are gladdened by the thought of Russia's failures.
  6. ccsr
    ccsr 10 March 2021 18: 58
    +8
    In 1978, the first domestic MKRTs 17K114 "Legend" was put on alert. It consisted of two types of spacecraft, carrying radars and passive electronic reconnaissance means. The full-fledged work of the "Legend" continued until the beginning of the nineties, after which the formation of a working space group turned out to be impossible.

    Here it is necessary to clarify that we are talking only about specialized naval reconnaissance satellites, but in addition to them there were reconnaissance satellites of the GRU General Staff, information from which could be promptly received at the Main Headquarters of the Navy. Moreover, in 1988 the top military leadership of the country was presented with a mobile complex for receiving information from reconnaissance satellites "Most", and which was supposed to go to the district and naval echelon. So the fleets at that time should have been able to remove information not only from the "Legend", but also from the optical-electronic and radio-technical intelligence satellites of the GRU General Staff. I don't know if the naval forces brought all this to mind, but the events of 1991 of course made changes in the process of equipping new reconnaissance equipment, although a new part was deployed in the GSVG already in 1989. More modern mobile systems appeared at a later time, so that naval intelligence could, if desired, take them into service. As far as I know, the naval ones seem to have them, although I may be wrong.
  7. sevtrash
    sevtrash 10 March 2021 19: 36
    +1
    In peacetime, as a type of "force projection", this system is not bad. A potential adversary will understand that he is under constant targeting. How good will this one be in wartime? Probably, it will be the first target of anti-satellite weapons, more likely a space plane from Boeing x 37, which has already flown into space more than once. Since no one is going to fight, such a system seems very useful, as a psychological impact on the enemy.
    1. Eroma
      Eroma 11 March 2021 02: 16
      +5
      The space race is just beginning, more and more dependent on space! Therefore, I think to protect Liana, something is envisaged in the form of space mines, when X37 approaches, some kind of Cosmos354 device will come to life and collide with a Boeing soldier
      Or what other options for protection
  8. An64
    An64 11 March 2021 08: 40
    +6
    In 1993, taking into account the prospects of the "Legend", the Ministry of Defense ordered the development of a new ICRC with increased characteristics under the code "Liana". During that period, the main requirements for the system were formed and the timing of its deployment was determined.

    It is reported that the ICRC "Liana" will be able to ensure the operation of all modern and advanced weapons of the navy.

    This is what a gift of foresight one must possess - 28 years ago to formulate requirements, and weapons for them have not yet been created !!!
    But seriously - OCD, which has been going on for more than a quarter of a century, needs to be closed as soon as possible. Soviet developments, a Soviet-trained designer - that's great. But everything there is already covered with mold, and they are all sawing and sawing the defense budget ...
  9. dgonni
    dgonni 11 March 2021 13: 15
    +2
    Right now Timokhin will come and tell on his fingers for the unreality of constant control and target designation! And he will be partially right!
    More satellites are new and durable. And there will be an idyll!
  10. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 11 March 2021 14: 00
    -1
    Really, with the full number of Lianas in orbit, the issue with target designation by the American AUG will be closed. And this pleases! good
  11. smaug78
    smaug78 11 March 2021 16: 07
    +1
    Hooray patriots on the march ...
  12. Old26
    Old26 11 March 2021 17: 37
    +5
    Quote: SovAr238A
    I've never read or heard about 5 and 5 anywhere ...

    It is true that they did not hear. The EMNIP complex consists of 4 "Lotos" satellites plus the "Pion" satellite. And to cover the entire coastal zone, you will need a lot of satellites, incl. and "Peony". Taking into account the fact that he is not in orbit yet, next year we will have ONE workable system ... How long will we have a system that will completely cover - I don’t even presume. God grant that in 6 years, and more realistically, it is probably worth talking about a period of 10-12 years
  13. abc_alex
    abc_alex 11 March 2021 18: 57
    +3
    But I wonder what kind of power plant on a satellite with active radar? Here you can't do with batteries, here you need a GENERATOR. The Legend's active locators were powered by the nuclear power plant, and in January 1978 the Canadians received an excellent gift from the USSR in the form of a sample of the latest nuclear technologies.
    What will power the active satellite now?
    1. nPuBaTuP
      nPuBaTuP 28 March 2021 00: 52
      +1
      The RTG is likely ...