Military Review

13th SS Mountain Division "Khanjar". The birth of an unusual military unit

41

Bosnian volunteers of the 13th SS Division "Khanjar" in the gorge of the Balkan Mountains.


Translation of an article published in the German military history magazine "DMZ-Zeitgeschichte" No. 45 May-June 2020.
By Dr. Walter Post
Translation: Slug_BDMP
Illustrations: magazine "DMZ-Zeitgeschichte"


Translator's note. This material echoes the sketches “Operation“ Knight's Move ”previously published in the Military Review. Drvar, May 1944 "and" The Hunt for Tito. May 1944 ". In particular, it provides answers to some of the questions asked by readers in the comments, for example, about the origins of the conflict between the Chetniks and the communist partisans.

As a result of the First World War, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed. Its southeastern provinces - Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina united on December 1, 1918 with the Kingdom of Serbia, which was one of the victorious powers. Thus, the State of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (GSHS) was born.

This multinational state also included Montenegro, North Macedonia and Vojvodina, which was home to some 340000 ethnic Germans. The most numerous ethnic group in the GSKhS was the Serbs. They made up more than 40 percent of the population and were among the winners of the First World War. Thus, the Serbs occupied a dominant position in the country. In addition, the State Agricultural Union was one of the poorest and most backward countries in Europe.

All this led to high social tension and interethnic conflicts, especially between Serbs and Croats. The situation threatened to explode, which led to the establishment of the dictatorship of King Alexander I Karageorgievich in early January 1929.


King Alexander I Karageorgievich with his wife - Queen Mary (1933)

As a result of the constitutional reform, the name of the state was changed to "Kingdom of Yugoslavia".

On October 9, 1934, during a state visit to French Marseille, King Alexander Karadjordievich fell victim to an assassination attempt organized by Croatian nationalists and carried out by the Macedonian Vlado Chernozemsky.

The heir to the throne, Peter II, at that time was only 11 years old, so the prince-regent Paul became the ruler of the country.

***
In 1940, after the victorious French campaign, Hitler called on Yugoslavia to join the Axis. With the help of trade and economic treaties, he tried to ensure a reliable connection between Germany through the territory of Yugoslavia and Hungary with Romania and Bulgaria - the most important suppliers of raw materials for the German economy in the Balkans. Another goal was to prevent Britain from gaining a foothold in the region. On October 29, 1940, the Kingdom of Italy opened hostilities against Greece from the territory of Albania (formerly under the Italian protectorate).

However, two weeks later, as a result of fierce resistance from the Greek army and the harsh natural conditions of the mountainous terrain, the Italian offensive stopped. Mussolini started this war without an agreement with Berlin. The result was what Hitler most feared - Britain entered the war on the side of Greece, sending there not only material assistance, but also a military contingent. British troops landed in Crete and the Peloponnese.

On March 25, 1941, the Belgrade government succumbed to German pressure and joined the 1940 Triple Pact concluded by Germany, Italy and Japan.

But two days later, a coup d'état took place in Belgrade, led by General Dusan Simovic and other high-ranking military men - supporters of the alliance with Great Britain and the USSR. Prince Regent Paul was removed from power. And the 17-year-old King Peter II Karageorgievich was declared the current ruler.

Hitler took these events as a violation of the treaty.

And on the same day, in his order No. 25, he declared the need for a lightning strike

"... to destroy the state of Yugoslavia and its military force ...".

The next step was to be the occupation of Greece and the expulsion of British troops from the Peloponnese and Crete.

***
The Balkan campaign, in which the troops of Italy, Hungary and Bulgaria also participated, began on April 6, 1941.

The resistance of the royal Yugoslav army was ineffective. One of the reasons for this was that the Croats, Slovenes and ethnic Germans who served in it were unwilling to fight. And they often openly sympathized with the Axis forces.

Fierce resistance was offered only by purely Serb units, which, however, could not prevent defeat. Only eleven days later, on the evening of April 17, Foreign Minister Aleksandr Chinar-Markovic and General Miloiko Jankovic signed an unconditional surrender.

Since the Wehrmacht and the Italian army were in a hurry to invade Greece as soon as possible, they did not have the opportunity to systematically dissolve the Yugoslav army. Of the more than 300000 prisoners of war, only Serbs were held in camps, while representatives of other ethnic groups were released.

Others (about 300000 Yugoslav military personnel, who, in general, were out of the reach of the Germans and their allies) simply went home. Many took with them weapon and moved "into the mountains", joining the monarchists - Chetniks or communist partisans.

Berlin and Rome pursued the following goals in Yugoslavia:

- to take control of the country's raw materials and put them at the service of German and Italian industry;

- After satisfying the territorial claims of Hungary and Bulgaria, tie these countries more strongly to the Axis.

The fact that Yugoslavia began to disintegrate during the war contributed to these plans. On April 5, the day before the start of hostilities, the leader of the Croatian Ustasha movement Ante Pavelic, who was in exile in Italy, spoke on the radio and called on the Croats

"To turn arms against the Serbs and accept the troops of the friendly powers - Germany and Italy - as allies."

On April 10, 1941, one of the leaders of the Ustasha - Slavko Quaternik - proclaimed the Independent State of Croatia (NGH). On the same day, German troops entered Zagreb, where they were triumphantly met by the local population. They were just as friendly received in Bosnia and Herzegovina.


Political division of Yugoslavia in 1941-1945


Ante Pavelic (right), the “leader” (leader) of the Independent State of Croatia, meets with A. Hitler and G. Goering.

Italy annexed western Slovenia with its largest city Ljubljana and part of Dalmatia - a coastal territory with the cities of Split and Sibenik and islands. Montenegro was occupied by Italian troops.

Most of Kosovo and northeastern Macedonia were annexed to Albania. Lower Styria, which has been under the rule of Yugoslavia since 1919, was annexed to the German Reich. Bulgaria inherited most of Macedonia, and Hungary - parts of Vojvodina - Bachka and Baranya, as well as the Medzhimursk region.

A German military administration was established in Serbia. At the end of August 1941, a “Government of National Salvation” was proclaimed in Belgrade, headed by General of the Yugoslav Royal Army, Milan Nedić. The command of the German troops in Serbia tried not to interfere in internal Serbian affairs.

Thus, the government of Nedich enjoyed a certain degree of autonomy. It had at its disposal a paramilitary gendarmerie, whose number at the end of 1943 was about 37000 people.

***
On April 15, 1941, the head of the Ustasha, Ante Pavelic, was proclaimed the "head of the head" - the leader of the NGH. "Ustashi" - "rebels" - is a Croatian nationalist fascist party that had its own armed formations - the Ustash army.

Initially, fascist Italy was the patron saint of the Ustasha. But the fact that Italy annexed part of Dalmatia caused tensions between the countries.

The NGH, to which parts of Bosnia and Sirmia were also annexed, were home to about 6 million people, most of whom were Catholic Croats, as well as about 19 percent of Orthodox Serbs and about 10 percent of Bosnian Muslims. Serbs were severely persecuted and subjected to ethnic cleansing.

The German command, realizing what negative consequences this could lead, did not support such actions of the Croatian side. These consequences were not long in coming - fierce clashes broke out between the Ustash, communist partisans and monarchists - the Chetniks - on the territory of the NGH.

The word "chetnik" has Serbian and Bulgarian roots. In the XNUMXth and early XNUMXth centuries, this was the name given to Christian rebels - fighters against the hated Ottoman rule. Over the centuries, in the tradition of the Balkan peoples, the Chetniks (heirs of the Haiduks and Komitajs) became “real men”, for various reasons, broke with the Turkish government and “fell into the mountains”. They were called both robbers and freedom fighters - this is a matter of taste.

During World War II, all members of the Serbian monarchist formations began to be called chetniks. Their leader was the colonel of the royal army Dragolyub "Drazha" Mikhailovich. Under his leadership, the scattered detachments of the Chetniks united in the "Yugoslav Army at Home" (Hugoslovenska wax u Otaџbini - YuvuO), formally subordinate to the royal government of Peter II in exile, who settled in London. The goal of the Chetniks was to create a "Great Serbia", cleansed of foreigners.


The leader of the Chetniks, Colonel Drazha Mikhailovich (in the center, with a pipe) with his associates (1943)


A group of Chetniks are posing with their weapons and banner. (Sokobania, winter 1942)

The Chetniks operated mainly in Montenegro, western Serbia, Bosnia and in the interior of Dalmatia.

Mikhailovich deliberately restrained the actions of his detachments against the German-Italian troops and limited himself mainly to sabotage, since he did not want to expose the civilian population to the danger of punitive actions by the invaders (for example, the mass destruction of hostages, which took place in Kraljevo and Kragujevac).

In 1942, Drazha Mikhailovich established contacts with the government of General Milan Nedic, which began to supply the Chetniks with money and weapons. And many Chetniks, in turn, joined the government's armed formations.

The German and Italian occupation authorities did not have a single opinion regarding the Chetniks.

For example, the commander of the 2nd Italian Army, General Mario Roatta, viewed them as potential allies in the fight against Tito's forces and from the beginning of 42 supplied the Chetniks with weapons, ammunition and food.

In April 1942, the first joint operation of the Italians with the "division" of the governor Mamchilo Juich was carried out. At first, the Germans were against this.

But in 1943, the command of the German troops in the NGH began to establish contacts with the Chetniks at the grassroots level.

***
After Nazi Germany attacked the USSR on June 22, 1941, the Communist International called on all European Communist Parties to join the armed struggle.

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia on the same day responded to this appeal.

On July 4, 41, a meeting of the General Staff of the Communist Partisan Forces of Yugoslavia was held in Belgrade under the chairmanship of Josip Broz Tito (ethnic Croat). As a result of the decisions made there, in early July, a number of uprisings broke out in Montenegro, Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia, which, however, were quickly suppressed by the invaders.

On December 22, 1941, in the eastern Bosnian village of Rudo, the First Proletarian Brigade, numbering about 900 people, was created - the first large partisan formation. The number of partisans grew from year to year and reached 1945 by 800000. Tito's partisans were the only force in the civil strife that defended the equality of all the peoples of Yugoslavia.

After Italy surrendered to Anglo-American forces on September 8, 1943, most of the Italian troops in Yugoslavia fled or ended up in German captivity. As a result, large territories fell under the control of the partisans. On November 29, 1943, in the Bosnian town of Jajce, the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia proclaimed the founding of a socialist state on the territory of the former kingdom.

***
In Bosnia, in the summer of 1941, the age-old enmity between the Croats and the Serbs resulted in conflicts between the Ustashes and the Chetniks. The Chetniks perceived the Bosnian Muslims as "accomplices" of the Ustasha.

In the settlements of Focha, Visegrad and Gorazde, the Chetniks carried out mass executions of Muslims, many Muslim villages were burned, and the inhabitants were expelled. But the Ustashis also hated Muslims and carried out their own punitive actions.

The commander of the SS volunteer mountain division "Prince Eugen" Artur Pleps, who came from Transylvania and served in the First World War in the Austro-Hungarian army, remarked:

“Bosnian Muslims are out of luck. They are equally hated by all the neighbors. "

Nationality was determined primarily by religious affiliation.

Serbs were Orthodox, Croats were Catholics. The Bosnians (Serbs and Croats), who converted to Islam during the Ottoman rule, were "traitors" for both.

Regular troops of the NGKh - local self-defense (house-building) - did not protect Muslims. And so they had to create their own militia. The most powerful of these formations was the Hadjiefendich Legion, created in Tuzla by Muhammad Hodjiefendich. Its creator and commander was a lieutenant in the Austro-Hungarian army and subsequently rose to the rank of major in the army of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.


Fighter of the Ustasha armed formations. Judging by the buttonholes, he belongs to the personal protection of the "head" Pavelic

Pavelic wanted to win the sympathy of Muslims and proclaimed their civil equality with the Croats.

In 1941, the Zagreb Palace of Fine Arts was given over to a mosque. But such symbolic gestures have made little difference at the grassroots level. Against the background of dissatisfaction with the Ustasha regime among the Muslim population, nostalgia grew for the times of Austria-Hungary, of which Bosnia and Herzegovina was a part.

***
The growing instability in the NGH caused concern in the leadership of the Wehrmacht and the SS.

On December 6, 1942, SS Reichsfuehrer G. Himmler and the head of the SS headquarters, Gruppenfuehrer Gottlob Berger, presented to Hitler a project for the formation of an SS division from Bosnian Muslims. An important role in this was played by the Muslim rejection of all forms of atheism, and hence communism.

The views of Hitler, Himmler and other leaders of the Reich were based mainly on the "oriental" adventure novels of Karl May. Although the writer himself visited the East only in 1899-1900, after writing his novels, in his work on them he relied on the works of the leading orientalists of that time. As a result, the image of the Islamic East, presented in his novels, is undoubtedly romanticized, but on the whole it is quite reliable.

For Karl May himself, other educated Germans and National Socialists, Islam was a primitive faith of backward peoples, in civilizational terms, standing immeasurably below Western Europe or North America.

The interest of the German leadership in the Muslims was purely pragmatic: to use them in the fight against communism and the colonial empires - Great Britain and France.

In addition, Himmler was of the opinion that Croats, including Muslims, are not Slavs, but descendants of the Goths. Hence, purebred Aryans. Although this theory is highly controversial in terms of ethnology and linguistics, it nevertheless had supporters among Croatian and Bosnian nationalists. In addition, Himmler wanted to create a Bosnian-Muslim SS division to build a bridge to the glorious traditions of the "Bosniaks" - infantry regiments of the Austro-Hungarian army during the First World War.

Formally, the creation of the Croatian SS Volunteer Division began on March 1, 1943. The reason for this was the order of the Fuehrer of February 10, 1943. This division became the first in a series of large SS formations formed from representatives of "non-Aryan" peoples.

Himmler appointed SS Gruppenführer Arthur Pleps responsible for the formation of the division.


Commander of the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division "Prince Eugen" Arthur Fleps

Pleps arrived in Zagreb on February 18, 1943, where he met with the German Ambassador Siegfried Kasche and the Croatian Foreign Minister Mladen Lorkovic.

The consent of the "head" Pavelic was already there, but the opinions of the Croatian government and the command of the SS troops differed significantly. Pavelic and Kashe believed that a purely Muslim SS division would provoke an increase in separatist sentiment among Bosnian Muslims. Lorkovic believed that it should be an "Ustashe" SS division, that is, a Croatian formation, created with the assistance of the SS. Himmler and Pleps, on the other hand, planned to create a regular formation of SS troops.

The new division was commanded on 9 March by SS Standartenfuehrer Herbert von Oberwurzer, who had previously served in the SS Mountain Division "Nord". Standartenführer Karl von Krempler was in charge of recruiting. This former lieutenant in the Austro-Hungarian army spoke Serbo-Croatian and Turkish well and was considered an expert in Islam. He was supposed to work together with the representative of the Croatian government, Alia Shuljak.

On March 20, Krempler and Shuljak began touring Bosnian areas to recruit volunteers. In Tuzla, in central Bosnia, Krempler met Muhammad Hadjiefendich, who accompanied him to Sarajevo and brought him into contact with the head of the Muslim clergy, Reis-ul-ulem Hafiz Muhammad Penj.

Hadjiefendich supported the creation of a new division and by the beginning of May had recruited about 6000 people, thus forming its core. Despite the efforts of the SS leadership, Hadjiefendich himself did not join the new division. The Croatian authorities in every possible way obstructed the formation of the unit: they forcibly included volunteers in their local self-defense, and some were thrown into concentration camps, from where the Germans had to pull them out with the support of Himmler.

In April 1943, Gottlob Berger invited the Berlin-based Mufti of Jerusalem, Mohammad Amin al-Husseini, to Bosnia to support the recruitment of volunteers. Al-Husseini, having flown to Sarajevo, convinced the Muslim clergy that the creation of the Bosnian SS division would serve the cause of Islam. He stated that the main task of the division will be to protect the Muslim population of Bosnia, which means that it will operate only within its borders.

Despite the support of the mufti, the number of volunteers was lower than expected. To bring the number of personnel to the required level, even 2800 Croatian Catholics were included in the division, some of whom were transferred from the Croatian local self-defense. The strict requirements for recruits in force for the SS troops were not observed in this case, the minimum fitness for military service was sufficient.
The division was completed on April 30, 1943.

It received the official name "Croatian SS Mountain Volunteer Division", although everyone called it simply "Muslim". On vehicles provided by the NGH government, personnel were sent for training at the Wildenfleken training ground in Bavaria. By the time the training was over, the number of officers and non-commissioned officers was about two-thirds of the required number. They were mostly Germans or Volksdeutsche sent from SS spare parts. Each unit had a mullah, with the exception of a purely German communications battalion.


Column of Italian armored vehicles Typ A Autoblinda AB 41 during a combat operation in Yugoslavia

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
magazine "DMZ-Zeitgeschichte"
41 comment
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Oleg Aviator
    Oleg Aviator 10 March 2021 18: 09
    +19
    Rare villains. We fought poorly against a worthy enemy. Mostly with civilians. Typical punitive unit.
    1. WHAT IS
      WHAT IS 10 March 2021 18: 22
      +21
      Likewise, "Galicia" and other collaborators differed in this ...
    2. Victor Tsenin
      Victor Tsenin 10 March 2021 19: 05
      +15
      The rabble cannot fight warriors, women / children / unarmed peasants / old men - that's all. They grieve the shortcomings in the form of undercutting such a trash in the post-war years.
  2. Cowbra
    Cowbra 10 March 2021 18: 23
    +5
    The king's saber hidden in the pocket is epic.
    And surprisingly ... After Rommel's blacks or "free India" - nothing surprising
    1. Slug_BDMP
      10 March 2021 19: 31
      +17
      The king's saber hidden in the pocket is epic.

      The fashion was like this:
      "... during the lull, I was wandering around the area not far from the battery and ran into Colonel Sheremetyev, not yet knowing him by sight. A handsome colonel walked along the snowy path in an overcoat, perfectly cut and sewn from the best soldier's cloth, the so-called guard, without buttons, and on hooks, tightly girded with a wide officer's belt. From the specially cut pocket of the greatcoat protruded a golden hilt of an honorary saber - a golden weapon - with a St. George lanyard ribbon and a tiny white enamel St. George cross on the lower part of the hilt, and the whole checker was hidden under the greatcoat - a special purely front-line chic, which made it clear to everyone that the colonel is not some kind of headquarters logistician, but a real military officer, "a servant to the tsar, a father to soldiers."
      V.Kataev "Sukhoi estuary"
  3. rocket757
    rocket757 10 March 2021 18: 27
    -10%
    This is their story and it is up to them to decide, to give marks to the actors.
    1. Victor Tsenin
      Victor Tsenin 10 March 2021 19: 07
      +4
      Objective assessment together with criticism / self-criticism is a common cause in the context of world history. One way or another, we are all sailing in the same boat called the Earth.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 10 March 2021 19: 24
        +1
        If national military units took part in crimes on a foreign territory, this is no longer NATIONAL, SS units and the like, were condemned by an international tribunal, this is also NOT NATIONAL ... but maybe it’s not worth examining the whole, the entire internal history of states, peoples? because a natural question arises - who are the judges?
        Even now, if you look, understand, it has not become any better, although the international community has developed some general rules, BUT, again everyone turns them in their favor, especially those who are STRONGER.
        There are exceptional cases, it is necessary to intervene from the outside in order to stop real crimes ... but again, who and how has the right to do this, the question is ???
        1. Victor Tsenin
          Victor Tsenin 10 March 2021 22: 05
          +1
          It always stands, there are no judges, there is history and the right to get carried away with it / analyze / ultimately concretize, as everyone interested in the article has.
          1. rocket757
            rocket757 10 March 2021 22: 15
            +1
            Professional interest, the work of a SPECIALIST, this is one thing ... and throwing accusations after reading one article ... no, no, the probability of error is too great.
            We cannot find any common opinion on the issues, problems, events that are happening now, nearby, covered by the media from all sides !!! And to climb into the history of a foreign state with their judgments, condemnations ... no, the mess will be complete.
            1. Victor Tsenin
              Victor Tsenin 10 March 2021 22: 26
              0
              There is no general opinion / was not / will not be. However, if there is no sensible discussion, polemics, what kind of interest will then be in history, politics and suppression?) Do not persist, be sane
              1. rocket757
                rocket757 10 March 2021 22: 32
                +1
                I do not prevent anyone from discussing what they want ... not my topic, I do not want to smack a gag or worse.
                1. Victor Tsenin
                  Victor Tsenin 10 March 2021 22: 34
                  0
                  This is constructive, but even better, pour in, as long as we are all here) No kidding, a resource suitable for dialogue.
            2. Jager
              Jager 11 March 2021 19: 05
              0
              The history of the Balkans is porridge. As well as the Caucasus. Hundreds of years of mutual massacre of everyone with everyone at every opportunity.
  4. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 10 March 2021 18: 44
    +15
    Meeting of the Grand Mufti of Palestine, Mufti of Jerusalem Muhammad Amin al-Husseini with the Reich Chancellor of Nazi Germany Adolf Hitler and soldiers of the Bosnian SS division.

  5. knn54
    knn54 10 March 2021 18: 51
    +7
    Thanks to Italy, which massively resettled the Albanians in Kosovo, the Serbs remained in the minority there.
    Even in WWI their Croats, the Austrians formed punitive detachments.
    1. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 10 March 2021 22: 30
      +1
      To be honest, Serbs already at the end of the 19th century accounted for less than half of the population of Kosovo. And in 1939, before the start of the war, they were 35% of the population of Kosovo.
  6. Tank hard
    Tank hard 10 March 2021 19: 15
    +2
    Why is it in opinion, and not in history, for example, or is it not historical material, but just an opinion?
  7. Catfish
    Catfish 10 March 2021 21: 03
    +3
    Commander of the 13th Volunteer Mountain Division Arthur Pleps.


    Actually, his last name is Fleps.
    On February 1, 1942, he was appointed commander of the SS "Prince Eugen" division, formed mainly from Volksdeutsche from Croatia, Serbia, Hungary and Romania (including his fellow countrymen from Transylvania), led its formation (in the photo he was just with the emblem and the name of this division on the left sleeve of his uniform). He was popular among his subordinates, who called him "Papa Fleps". The division under his command took an active part in the struggle against the Yugoslav partisans, while subjecting the civilian population to brutal repression. On July 4, 1943, Fleps was awarded the Knight's Iron Cross for successful anti-partisan actions and was appointed commander of the 5th SS Mountain Rifle Corps, which he remained until the end of his life. The corps consisted of the Prince Eugen division, the 13th SS Mountain Rifle Division "Khanjar", and a number of Wehrmacht units.
    So he did not command the SS "Khanjar" division specifically.
    In September 1944, going on official business in a car together with an adjutant and a driver to Arad, he was taken prisoner by Soviet troops. There is information that during the interrogation a raid by German aircraft began, after which Fleps was immediately shot to death for fear that he would try to escape. He was buried by local residents.
    The emblem of the SS Khanjar division.



    SS men from this division, emblem in the right buttonhole.

    1. Slug_BDMP
      10 March 2021 21: 18
      +7
      You are right, Fleps was not the commander of the 13th, but the 7th division. This is my mistake when typing. I have already sent an error notification to the editor
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 10 March 2021 21: 19
        +5
        In my opinion, it's okay, we figured it out by common efforts. smile
        Thanks for the article! drinks
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 11 March 2021 09: 54
          +2
          In my opinion, it's okay, we figured it out by common efforts.

          By the way, he looked very gloomy ... Photo - Wikipedia:

          To the author - thank you for the article. hi
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 11 March 2021 11: 10
            +3
            So, before serving with the Germans, he was a lieutenant general of the invincible Romanian army, and in the SS he was accepted with a demotion to Oberführer. True, on this photo, he with the Obergruppenführer's collar tabs, began to be even raised.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 11 March 2021 12: 00
              +2
              True, on this photo he with the Obergruppenführer's collar tabs, he even began to be raised.

              He rose to this rank in the SS.
          2. Doliva63
            Doliva63 11 March 2021 17: 08
            +3
            Quote: Pan Kohanku
            In my opinion, it's okay, we figured it out by common efforts.

            By the way, he looked very gloomy ... Photo - Wikipedia:

            To the author - thank you for the article. hi

            Nothing gloomy - a typical Bauer-drinker in appearance, of those who prefer to eat lard and sauerkraut. On such NSDAP and relied, however.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 11 March 2021 17: 10
              +2
              that they prefer to eat lard and sauerkraut. On such NSDAP and relied, however.

              If you remember the "beer putsch" - a direct analogy.
              1. Doliva63
                Doliva63 12 March 2021 20: 43
                +1
                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                that they prefer to eat lard and sauerkraut. On such NSDAP and relied, however.

                If you remember the "beer putsch" - a direct analogy.

                I had this in mind. hi
          3. Jager
            Jager 11 March 2021 19: 09
            +1
            Well, nothing, Soviet bullets amused him a little. His hands are up to their ears in blood.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 12 March 2021 09: 59
              +1
              His hands are up to their ears in blood.

              They all have blood up to their ears .... Yes, ours wrote him a burning ticket to Satan. angry
    2. jekasimf
      jekasimf 10 March 2021 23: 52
      +5
      Very reminiscent: the Tatars in the service of the Wehrmacht

      https://otvet.mail.ru/question/214526150

      1. Slug_BDMP
        11 March 2021 10: 18
        +4
        In this photo, just the Bosnians. It will be in the next part of the essay.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 11 March 2021 11: 21
        +1
        Crimean battle group is mute. SS-Waffengruppe Krim Crimean Cat. Qırım cenk taqımı
        It was formed as a result of the disbandment of the 8th Tatar SS mountain infantry brigade on December 31, 1944, which wore the same chevron.

        One of the variants of the patches of the Crimean legionnaires
        Years of existence 1942 -1945
        Country: Germany
        Part of the Eastern Legions
        Number of 3518 people
        Talisman Tamga Geraev
  8. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 10 March 2021 22: 37
    +4
    A small correction. It was not the State of the UCS that was in 1918-1929, but the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, Slovenes. It was formed on December 1, 1918 as a result of the unification of the Kingdom of Serbia (which included Montenegro on November 26 of the same year) and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (in this sequence of listing peoples) with the capital in Zagreb, which was formed on October 29, 1918 years on the lands of the southern Slavs, formerly part of Austria-Hungary (Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, Kingdom of Dalmatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Carniola).
  9. Cork
    Cork 11 March 2021 02: 32
    0
    By the way, Drazhe Mikhailovich was the first to raise an uprising in Yugoslavia against the Germans, and not Tito, and the Germans appointed Mikhailovich the first award for him.
  10. Stas1973
    Stas1973 11 March 2021 04: 51
    +3
    By the way, Galicia had number 14. And yet these divisions, the 13th and the 14th, did not belong to the Waffen-SS, but were formations attached to them. What does the preposition der say in their name? These were the pretext that distinguished the rabble from the regulars. That does not implore their criminal activity.
    1. Slug_BDMP
      11 March 2021 10: 19
      +3
      Wait for the continuation. There will be about it too.
  11. Cure72
    Cure72 11 March 2021 11: 14
    +2
    Great article. Thanks to the author (translator) for returning. !!!
  12. Usher
    Usher 12 March 2021 02: 39
    -1
    For some reason, all these Balkan brothers, Romanians, Croats, Bulgarians, Albanians ... all kinds of gypsies. They cause rare disgust.
  13. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 12 March 2021 08: 52
    +1
    "Eastern" adventure novels of Karl May, "however, they had" intelligence ".
    Colleagues, read the biography of Karl May, he had a prison ts: "" Alma mater "and his education was also" enviable "just to match the Nazis
  14. kamakama
    kamakama 12 March 2021 10: 21
    0
    You read all this and clearly realize - such is the fate of all divided peoples, whom they wanted to unite after 100 years or more. Ethnically Croats, Serbs, Montenegrins and Bosnians are closer to each other than Russians and Belarusians. Approximately at the level of the Hessians and Bavarians, who are not divided outside of Germany.
    But the Balkan peoples were unlucky. They were divided between other states (Turkey, Austria, Hungary, Serbia) and on religious grounds. And for hundreds of years, their own mentality was developed, their own heroes and elites, who, after the forcible unification after WWI, began to actively promote their "vision" of the situation with inevitable bloody conflicts.
    I would like to draw a small analogy with the Great Church schism among the Orthodox into Nikonians and Old Believers. The immediate reason for this was the Khmelnitsky uprising, according to which the Left Bank became part of Muscovy. It suddenly became clear that despite the formal identical name of the faith, there were a lot of inaccuracies and logical reasoning. And for the sake of the unity of faith on the scale of the state, religious reforms were carried out, which shed a lot of blood. Undoubtedly, the personal ambitions of Nikon, who thus wished to gain personal power over the entire Orthodox world (Ukraine had its own metropolitan at that time), also played a significant role in this.
    If we recall that Zasbruchye had nothing to do with the rest of Ukraine from the time of Daniel Galitsky to 1939, it is not surprising that the future is seen there in different parts of the country in completely different ways.
  15. Nikolay Tsymbalov_2
    Nikolay Tsymbalov_2 14 March 2021 10: 03
    0
    What's unusual? There were a lot of such rabble in the SS troops at the end of the war.