Military Review

Fortress Oreshek. 500 days of defense

Fortress Oreshek. 500 days of defense
Fortress Oreshek after all shelling in 1943

Founded back in 1323 by Novgorodians, the Oreshek fortress became an important stronghold at the source of the Neva for many years. During the Great Patriotic War, a small garrison of Soviet troops defended the fortress for almost 500 days, to be exact, 498 days before the break of the blockade of Leningrad in January 1943.

During the defense, about 50 thousand enemy shells and mines fell on the heads of the defenders of the ancient fortress, while the Germans also bombed the fortress from the air. The fortress, located at the source of the Neva near Shlisselburg, for hundreds of days turned into an advanced outpost for the defense of the left flank of the Leningrad Front.

The presence of the fortress and a permanent garrison of its defenders prevented the Germans from crossing the Neva in this place and reaching the western bank of Ladoga. Similar plans were being worked out by the German command. For Leningrad, the exit of the Germans to the western shore of Lake Ladoga would have ended in disaster, since it was through Ladoga that the city was supplied with food and ammunition. The Road of Life worked here both in winter and in summer. During navigation - on water, in winter - on the ice of the lake.

Fortress history

The Oreshek fortress was founded in 1323 by the Novgorodians, it got its name in honor of the Orekhovy Island, on which it was located. The fortress was founded by Prince Yuri Danilovich, who is the grandson of the legendary Alexander Nevsky. In the same year, the first treaty between Novgorodians and Swedes was signed on Orekhovy Island. stories name Orekhovsky world. For many years the fortress turned into an outpost between Sweden and the Novgorod lands, and then the Moscow principality.

In the period from 1612 to 1702, the fortress was occupied by the Swedes, but then again recaptured by the Russians during the Northern War. The Swedes also called the fortress Noteburg (nut city). With the construction of Kronstadt, the fortress at the source of the Neva lost much of its military significance, so in 1723 it was transformed into a political prison.

The modern look of the Oreshek fortress. Photo: Solundir,

Since 1907, the Oreshek fortress was used as a central convict prison. In the same years, the reconstruction of the old and the construction of new buildings took place here. Among the famous prisoners of the fortress was Lenin's brother, Alexander Ulyanov, who was executed here, who attempted to assassinate Emperor Alexander III. In the last years of the empire's existence, well-known political prisoners were kept here, including populists, Socialist-Revolutionaries and terrorists, a large contingent of prisoners was made up of Poles.

The Oreshek fortress itself occupied the entire territory of the Orekhovoy Island. Externally and on the plan, it is an irregular triangle, which is noticeably elongated from east to west. Towers were located along the perimeter of the fortress walls. There were seven of them around the perimeter of the fortress, one of them, called Vorotnaya, was quadrangular, the rest round. Three more towers were internal and defended the citadel. Of these ten towers, only six have survived to this day in a different state.

The fortress, founded in the XIV century, was rebuilt many times, having survived until the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. At the same time, during the hostilities, she was badly damaged due to shelling. Almost all buildings built by that time on the territory of the fortress were badly destroyed or damaged, the same applied to the walls and towers.

The beginning of the defense of the fortress Oreshek

On the night of September 7, 1941, Hitler's troops reached Shlisselburg, and the next day they finally occupied the city. With this step, they cut off all existing ground communications of Leningrad with the rest of the country, and traffic along the Neva was also blocked. Soviet troops retreated to the right bank of the river and settled there, relying on a water barrier. At the same time, the Oreshek fortress remained empty for a while. For some reason, the Germans ignored this object, perhaps believing that they could control all approaches to the fortress with fire, which was several hundred meters from the side of Shlisselburg.

Soviet troops, retreating to the right bank of the Neva, already on the night of September 9, sent reconnaissance to the fortress as part of two platoons of the 1st division of the NKVD troops, commanded by Colonel Donskov. By dawn they reached the fortress and surveyed the island, the fortress was not occupied by the enemy. The soldiers immediately organized a perimeter defense and began to wait for reinforcements.

The next day, September 10, the Oreshek fortress was inspected by high-ranking officials of the command, headed by the representative of the Military Council of the Leningrad Front, General Semashko, the commander of the 1st division of the NKVD troops, Colonel Donskov and Captain Chugunov, who, as a result, was appointed the first commandant of the fortress. Already on September 11, an order was signed to create a permanent garrison in the fortress, the basis of which was to be formed by the soldiers of the NKVD division.

This division was formed in August 1941, mainly from border guards. The size of the garrison was determined at 300 people. The main task that was set before the garrison of the fortress was to prevent a possible crossing of German troops to the right bank of the Neva in this area. Apparently, the fortress was considered not only as an important stronghold of the defense, but also as an important object for subsequent operations to capture Shlisselburg.

The Soviet command made such attempts as early as September 1941. On September 20, the division fighters tried to land south of the city near the mouth of the Chernaya Rechka, but failed, most of the landing was destroyed. On September 26, another attempt was made, this time the landing force landed in the city itself in the area of ​​the Sheremetyevskaya pier. Two companies of the 2nd regiment of the division, which were fighting in the northwestern part of the city, were able to cross; on September 27, a reconnaissance platoon of the regiment was also landed to help them.

The further fate of the landing remains unknown, apparently, it was completely defeated by the enemy. The 1st Rifle Division of the NKVD troops did not make more attempts to cross in the Shlisselburg area. At the same time, the garrison of the Oreshek fortress, from which it was less than 300 meters to the city, was reinforced with the 1941th naval battery in October 409. The battery then consisted of five 45-mm guns and about 60-65 personnel.

Despite the failure of the landing, the fortress proved to be important as a springboard for a possible offensive. In addition, it was a ready-made long-term firing point that provided fire support for the landing. From the fortress, the city was sufficiently shot through, it is no coincidence that in the future the sniper movement will become widespread in the division. Only by December 1941, the snipers operating in the fortress recorded at their own expense 186 killed Nazis.

Also, the active actions of the fortress garrison, which was sitting right next to the Germans, did not allow the enemy to transfer forces from this area to other directions, for example, to the Moscow Dubrovka area. It was here that Soviet troops at the end of September 1941 created a bridgehead on the left bank of the Neva, which went down in history as the Nevsky Piglet.

Everyday life of defenders

In November, another artillery battery was transferred to the fortress across the ice. The 409th battery took up positions in the northwestern part of the island. By that time, she had two 76-mm guns, five 45-mm cannons, two 50-mm mortars and 4 anti-tank guns. The battery also had 6 heavy machine guns. She alone represented a rather formidable force. The 61st Battery of the Leningrad Front, which arrived on the island, was located in the southeastern part of the island. She was armed with two 76 mm guns and three 45 mm guns.

There was enough firepower in the fortress; in addition to artillerymen and riflemen, there was also a mortar company here. The entire southern wall of the Oreshek fortress and the towers located here were equipped for firing points. The guns were raised on the walls and in the towers, while the soldiers lived and hid from shelling in the lower tiers of the towers, casemates, equipped dugouts and hidden communication passages.

The presence of sufficiently large artillery forces, as well as machine guns, made it possible to periodically arrange fire raids on German positions. This very unnerved the Nazis, as well as the reconnaissance and sabotage sorties that were conducted from the fortress. Very often fire duels arose between the defenders of the fortress and the Germans. At the same time, the enemy outnumbered the Red Army in artillery. At the disposal of the Germans near Leningrad was a large number of heavy guns and howitzers, including siege weapons.

Shells and mines rained down on the fortress almost every day, sometimes the Germans fired on Oreshek literally on schedule at 7, 16 and 19 o'clock. In total, more than 50 thousand shells and mines were fired at the fortress. They made their first serious attempts to suppress the garrison and raze the fortress to the ground on September 21, 1941.

In the diary of a German officer, who was discovered after the liberation of Shlisselburg, the artillery shelling of the fortress in these days was described in paints. For XNUMX hours a red cloud of dust and smoke stood over the fortress, several dozen heavy guns were firing. Because of the cloud of brick dust that rose into the sky, practically nothing was visible, and the Germans themselves in the city became deaf from the sounds of explosions. Despite the terrible-looking consequences of the shelling, the fortress came to life again, from its walls they again opened fire on the areas of the city occupied by the Germans.

Another very large-scale shelling of the fortress took place on June 17, 1942. Then the Germans fired at the walls and towers for six hours, firing during this time 280 heavy shells and more than 1000 shells and mines of medium caliber. During such attacks, the garrison of the fortress inevitably suffered losses, and on June 17, in addition to the killed and wounded, the garrison temporarily lost 4 guns of the naval battery.

Fortress supply difficulties

The situation of the garrison was complicated by the fact that all supplies went through the Neva. Until there was ice on the river, ammunition and food were transported to the island on boats, in the same way they brought in replenishment and took the wounded. At the same time, the crossing was not safe, since the Germans kept it under machine-gun and mortar fire. It was especially difficult with supplies during the white nights, when even small objects on the river could be seen from a distance of a kilometer.

Internal view of the fortress, all the destruction was caused mainly by the battles of the Great Patriotic War.
Photo: Tretyakov Dmitry,

As the boatmen recalled, it was almost impossible to get to the fortress on boats during the white nights. Most often it was possible to break through only in one direction. Moreover, the way from the fortress to the coast was easier than from the coast to the fortress. The Germans could keep the boats under targeted machine-gun fire only until the middle of the river, after which they switched to mortar fire when the boats were in the blind zone.

As a result, from time to time the defenders had difficulties with supplies. For example, in the spring of 1942, a real shell hunger was felt in the fortress, this is not to mention the usual hunger, since the food supply in that harsh winter of 1941-1942 and in the spring of 1942 was very meager both in the rear and in the units defending Leningrad ... To get shells, an expedition was undertaken to a barge that sank in the Neva in the fall of 1941.

The operation to raise the ammunition went on for several nights, while the volunteers did not just risk their lives, since the Germans could find them at any moment, they could simply drown while diving into cold water and looking for shells on the barge. Taking into account the low water temperature and the strong flow of the river, lifting the shells was a very difficult task. Despite all the difficulties, in a few nights the much-needed ammunition was transferred to the fortress, most of which turned out to be quite suitable for firing.

The epic with the defense of the fortress lasted until January 18, 1943. On this day, the city of Shlisselburg was liberated from the Germans by units of the 67th Army during Operation Iskra, which began on January 12. During the assault on the city, the attackers were supported by the garrison of the Oreshek fortress, which fired at the identified enemy firing points, suppressing them with artillery fire.

Monument to the defenders of the fortress during the Great Patriotic War in the destroyed church.

According to various sources, during the days of the defense of the fortress, dozens of Soviet soldiers were killed in it. According to some sources, the number of killed and seriously wounded reached 115 people, according to others, the garrison of the fortress lost 500 people in almost 182 days of defense alone, dozens of soldiers were wounded and then evacuated from the fortress, many died during the crossings across the Neva.

Today the Oreshek fortress is a cultural heritage site of the peoples of the Russian Federation of federal significance, it is also included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In 1985, a memorial complex dedicated to the events of the Great Patriotic War was solemnly opened on the territory of the fortress. Also on the territory there is a mass grave, in which the remains of 24 defenders of the fortress are buried. The fortress itself today is a museum and is open to tourists, as a branch of the State Museum of the History of St. Petersburg.
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  1. 1331M
    1331M 6 March 2021 05: 31
    The epic with the defense of the fortress lasted until January 18, 1943.

    The feat of the defenders of the fortress is akin to the feat of the Brest fortress ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 March 2021 06: 00
      Thank you, Sergey!
      If memory serves. The last lines in the manuscript of the History of the State of the Russian Karamzin ended with "Nut holds on."
      1. Richard
        Richard 6 March 2021 06: 20
        Fortress Oreshek, founded back in 1323 by Novgorodians

        The first mention of the Oreshek Fortress dates back to 1323, it is recorded about it in the Novgorod Chronicle. At that time, it was a wooden fortress, erected by Yuri Danilovich, the grandson of Alexander Nevsky.
        “In the summer of 6831 (1323 A.D.) Novgorodtsi went with Prince Yuri Danilovich to the Neva and set up the city at the mouth of the Neva on Orekhovy Island; the same ambassadors who arrived are great from the King of Sveis and will end eternal peace with the prince and with the New city according to the old duty ... "

        Here is how the Novgorod chronicler describes the walls of Oreshka in 1323: “... on the Orekhovy Island the pine city is cut into one wall with bulls, a bridge is paved on the bulls, the city is cut into two walls over the bridge near the city, it is cut into two cage walls, and the cages are cut through doors, walk around the city "
        Already at that time, the Fortress was named Oreshek (alternative name - Nut Fortress), which was associated with the location of the location - Orekhov.
        During the construction, the Novgorodians took into account the location of the island and its inaccessibility - it is separated from the mainland by two tributaries of the Neva with a strong current. Also, the Fortress has already been fenced off with a moat. The fortress was on the way of the Swedes to Lake Ladoga, which provided the Novgorodians with a path along the Neva to the Gulf of Finland, which was used for trade with the countries of Western Europe.
        The Swedes regularly encroached on the right to own this important fort and in August 1348 managed to capture Oreshek, but already in February 1349, the island was returned to its rightful owner by forces of militias from various Russian cities. However, during the battle, a fire broke out, which destroyed the wooden fortress.
        1. Richard
          Richard 6 March 2021 06: 23
          The construction of the stone Fortress Oreshek was completed in 1352
          The construction was supervised by the head of the Novgorod Republic, Archbishop Vasily. The stone version of the Fortress of that time was located on a hill in the southeastern part of the island and occupied only 1/5 of its territory. The fortress was surrounded by a 3-meter high stone fence and had dimensions of 100 * 90 meters, resembling a triangle in shape. During the construction, the features of the terrain were taken into account, so the walls were curved in the shape of the island. The walls of the Fortress itself consisted of boulders and limestone slabs, the length of the walls was 351 meters, in the upper part of the walls there were square loopholes. The foundation was laid in three rows of boulders on a clay base. At first, the fort itself was separated from the suburbs by a 3-meter canal, which was subsequently filled up. Later, the suburb was also surrounded by a high fence and built up with one-story residential buildings where warriors, farmers, merchants and artisans huddled.
          Another reconstruction of the Oreshek Fortress took place in 1478
          It was in this year that the Novgorod state lost its independence and joined the Moscow centralized state. It was decided to rebuild the Oreshek Fortress in accordance with modern military conditions. The fact is that with the advent of firearms, the walls of the fort have completely lost their relevance. Fortress Oreshek was dismantled to the foundation and rebuilt. The fortress began to look like an elongated hexagon, and the total length of the walls was 740 meters, the height reached 12 meters, and the width was 4,5 meters. The height of the towers reached 16 meters, and the inner diameter was 6 meters. There were 4 floors inside each tower, each floor had 5-6 loopholes. The walls of the towers were up to 4,5 meters thick. Inside, the Fortress was conditionally divided into 2 parts - the main territory and the citadel.
          In terms of preparedness for battle, the Fortress was the pinnacle of engineering at the time. In addition to the general endurance of the structure, many nuances were thought out that made Oreshek as unapproachable as possible. The strategic location of the towers and loopholes was created taking into account the uniformity of fire, each tower had ventilation holes, windows for supplying ammunition and easily barricaded entrances.
          The central passage to the territory of the Fortress was located on the first floor of the Tsar's Tower (the only one whose inner diameter was larger than that of the others - 8 meters). The entrance was not through, but made at an angle. This made it difficult to use rams in the siege of the Fortress.
          The citadel of the Oreshek Fortress deserves a separate mention. This is a kind of fortress inside the fortress, which was protected by three more towers around the circumference. It was surrounded by a 12-meter ditch and had its own walls. It kept weapons, food and ammunition. In case of danger, a folding bridge to the citadel rose and closed the archway to the citadel. In the same arch there was a lowering lattice.
          Many military leaders of that time recognized the genius of the Oreshek Fortress as a defensive structure.
          1. Richard
            Richard 6 March 2021 06: 27
            The history of the Oreshek Fortress includes another bloody battle, during which the Fortress passed into the hands of the enemy - in September 1611, as a result of a many months siege, Oreshek went to the Swedes. Of the 1300 defenders of the Fortress, no more than a hundred emaciated fighters survived, the rest fell victims of hunger and disease. In 1617, the Swedes and the Russians signed an armistice, under which Oreshek went to the Swedes and lost its name. The new owners named it Noteburg.
            In 1700, the Great Northern War began. Peter 1 understood that the Fortress had not lost its defensive properties and could only be taken with the help of the fleet. In September 1702, Russian ships approached the fort, and on October 14, 1702, the official transfer of the fortress to its rightful owner took place. The assault lasted only 13 hours. First In the same year, Oreshek receives a new name - Shlisselburg (key-city).
            1. Richard
              Richard 6 March 2021 06: 34
              Walnut Island and Oreshek Fortress

              1. Richard
                Richard 6 March 2021 06: 43
                During the Great Patriotic War, the city of Shlisselburg was occupied (September 8, 1941), at the same time the fortress itself held a heroic defense for 500 days, preventing German troops from crossing to the right bank of the Neva. On September 25, 1941, in the area of ​​the city, the ships of the Ladoga military flotilla landed and the Shlisselburg landing party was killed. On January 18, 1943, during Operation Iskra, Shlisselburg was liberated by units of the 67th Army of the Leningrad Front: the 86th Infantry Division, a separate armored battalion of the 61st Tank Brigade and the 34th Ski Brigade. Immediately after the liberation of the city, construction began on a temporary railway crossing across the Neva. It was erected under constant shelling from the German side in record time: it took only 17 days to build the ice-pile crossing. Later, a wooden high-water pile bridge was built across the Neva [12]. The first train with food, which passed along the Shlisselburg - Polyany branch, arrived in Leningrad on February 7, 1943. During the night, 20-25 trains passed across the bridge, later - up to 35.
                From 1944 to 1992 Shlisselburg bore the name Petrokrepost. In 1996, he seceded from the Kirovsky district, becoming an independent municipal entity. On January 1, 2006, it again entered the Kirovsky district as an urban settlement.
                Until 2010, Shlisselburg had the status of a historical settlement, but by a joint order of the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation of July 29, 2010 No. 418/339, the city was deprived of this status
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 6 March 2021 07: 30
                Was in Oreshka in September 2017. Quite by chance, the trip coincided with the Fortress Day. View of the Golovin tower from the side of the pier:
      2. Malyuta
        Malyuta 6 March 2021 06: 23
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Thank you, Sergey!
        If memory serves. The last lines in the manuscript of the History of the State of the Russian Karamzin ended with "Nut holds on."

        Prophecy. Although Herzen, of course, is closer to me in spirit, "The state is located in Russia, like an army of occupation. We do not feel the state as a part of ourselves, as a part of society. The state and society are waging a war. The state is punitive, and the society is partisan."
      3. Sergey Krasnodar
        Sergey Krasnodar 14 March 2021 19: 37
        Nut did not give up
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 14 March 2021 20: 21
          Quote: Sergey Krasnodar
          Nut did not give up

          Dear Sergey, you may be right.
          I wrote from memory with meaning. Thanks for the fix. It's a shame it's so late. Comrades are unlikely to come back here and appreciate the revision.
          Once again, with respect, Kote!
    2. Malyuta
      Malyuta 6 March 2021 06: 26
      Quote: 1331M
      The feat of the defenders of the fortress is akin to the feat of the Brest fortress ...

      During the Second World War, the whole country became the Brest fortress.
      And for those who like to talk about the detachments of bloody NKVED soldiers, the article directly indicates that the NKVD troops played a crucial role in the defense of Oreshk.
    3. Richard
      Richard 6 March 2021 07: 23
      In 1985, a memorial complex dedicated to the events of the Great Patriotic War was solemnly opened on the territory of the fortress

      A Brat-Leningrader told that an unusual bas-relief was installed in the fortress in memory of the defenders - in the form of a nut, which the Germans did not manage to crack. Unfortunately, I couldn't find his photo. Maybe someone can post it?
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 6 March 2021 07: 42
        Dima, welcome!
        This monument?

        1. Richard
          Richard 6 March 2021 07: 49
          Sergei hi
          It looks like this one. I myself have not seen him
          The brother said that the everyday life of the defenders of the fortress was forged on it. It would be interesting to take a closer look at it
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 6 March 2021 07: 54
            Here! Please, no bigger.

        2. aleks neym_2
          aleks neym_2 13 March 2021 13: 06
          According to the picture - yes! And I also want to add: once, in 50-60, I watched a film - there the soldiers took out shells from the bottom of the lake. Perhaps this is just about Oreshek?
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 6 March 2021 07: 43
        As always, your comments and illustrations are great! good
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 6 March 2021 10: 23
          Oh! * Tatrophiles * pulled up! laughing
          Guys, hello! You are great, how good it is from around the corner. And you do not need to think about the answer. Let you, ridiculous, everything will be fine! wink
    4. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 6 March 2021 22: 16
      The feat of the defenders of the fortress is akin to the feat of the Brest fortress ...

      This is not a very good comparison, probably Stalingrad is closer in this sense - in the end, the Brest Fortress fell, and Oreshek survived.
    5. Igor Svir
      Igor Svir 12 March 2021 20: 12
      Well - with all due respect to the fighters of Brest - Oreshek was more abruptly, more abruptly .. after all, the number of fighters in the Brest Fortress was much greater, but they held out for less time ..
  2. Richard
    Richard 6 March 2021 06: 53
    The order to create a garrison in the fortress was signed on September 11, 1941. The garrison consisted of 300 people: the NKVD, border guards, gunners-sailors. In total, 500 people took part in the defense of the island. Let me remind you that the Swedish garrison in 1702 was 600 men.
    They lived in the lower tiers of the towers: in the Royal Sailors, in the Towers of Flagnaya, Golovkin and Golovin - infantrymen, in Svetlichnaya there was a first-aid post. There were command and observation posts in the Golovkin tower. Machine guns were in the loopholes, which made it possible to fire at some of the streets of Shlisselburg.
    We lived like this. There were bunks against the wall, and in the middle of the room was a table with a canister smokehouse. For heating, a stove made of an iron barrel.
    They thought out the defense system very well. At night, with chisels, picks, shovels, they punched embrasures in the walls, dug trenches for safe movement around the fortress. The firing points were called: "Dunya", "Duck", "Chaika", "Nut", "Russia", "Ermak", "Baikal", etc. Their location was not constant, they changed depending on the situation.

    In winter, anti-personnel barriers appeared.

    There were also observation posts on the shore at the foot of the fortress. Tracked the time of changing of the guard, the number of patrol groups. Winter 1941-42 was unusually severe, there were 30-40 * frosts. The duty time was reduced to 30 minutes.

    After the liberation of Shlisselburg, the diary of a German officer was found. Here is an entry from September 21, 1941:
    “A red cloud has been standing over the fortress for 13 hours already. Dozens of our heavy weapons hit her incessantly. Because of this cloud, the walls are not visible. Solid thunder. We are deafened by this squall. How are they? Anyway, I would not like to be in their place. I feel sorry for them ... XNUMX hours. Our guns stopped firing. The cloud dispersed. The fortress stands like a rock with gnawed cliffs. Again we can't see anything. The Russians opened fire from the fortress. It seems there are even more of them. Do not raise our heads, their bullets await us at every step. How did they manage to survive? "
  3. Richard
    Richard 6 March 2021 06: 56
    In May 1942, Oreshk's defenders began to publish their handwritten magazine "Okopny Oreshek", which is now kept in the Museum of the History of St. Petersburg. There were 10 issues of the magazine in total. These are simple school albums with articles and pictures.
    1. Richard
      Richard 6 March 2021 07: 05
      On some sheets there are sketches of the fortress, portraits of soldiers. This work Stepan Alexandrovich Levchenko, who died at the front in 1944. It is remarkable that the esteemed author has included his drawing in his article.
      Here are some more of his siege jobs.

  4. Richard
    Richard 6 March 2021 07: 14
    On January 12, 1943, Operation Iskra began. On January 15, our troops reached the outskirts of Shlisselburg. On January 16-18, battles took place in the city. The guns of the fortress supported our troops, as they knew every street and intersection, every house where the Germans could equip pillboxes. The gunners received a radiogram from the participants in the assault on Shlisselburg - "Thank you for the light." On January 18, the submachine gunners of the fortress garrison were ordered to seize the fortified strip on the edge of the Novoladozhsky canal. The blockade of Leningrad was broken.

    But it was still only a breakthrough, a complete withdrawal was a year later. Then they freed only a corridor only a few kilometers wide, and they began to build a railway road and two bridges. Our engineers built them in just two weeks! The road was shot by the Germans from the Sinyavinsky heights, people died. This road worked for a year. It was called the Victory Road.
    About these ice-pile bridges and the road, I ask the Author to write the following article as a continuation of the topic.
    Thank you for the article!
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 6 March 2021 07: 49
      There was such a publication.
      1. Richard
        Richard 6 March 2021 07: 51
        Thank. I will definitely read
    2. ANB
      ANB 6 March 2021 11: 21
      You wrote an article in the comments better than the author's one.
      Thanks a lot.
      1. Richard
        Richard 6 March 2021 11: 33
        The Author has better, and my comments here are rather superficial, alas, not VikNik request
        IMHO, on this topic today, the best comment is undoubtedly this:
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 6 March 2021 08: 20
    By the way.
    The cost of visiting the fortress is only 250 rubles. Includes round-trip ferry and excursion.
    When and if there are people willing to visit Oreshek this summer, I will be happy to join you.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 6 March 2021 10: 27
      That's it, Anton. You take them on an excursion, and they are for you, bam! And * minus *. From around the corner.
      Even my * plus * didn't help.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 March 2021 11: 17
        I don’t care. Mycosis of the brain is incurable.
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 6 March 2021 08: 33
    Serve Oreshek Russia well!

    Has done well Royaia Nutlet.

    Heroic defense.

    It is a pity that the fortress has not been restored ...

    Nutlet has served Russia well and for many centuries.
    Oreshek has served Russia well and for centuries. It is a pity that such a heroic fortress has not been restored ...
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 6 March 2021 08: 46
      Hi Andrey, is the site ugly? laughing
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 6 March 2021 09: 27
        Quote: Phil77
        Hi Andrey, is the site ugly?

        I welcome, Sergey! hi

        Yes, I look and ... I don’t recognize MYSELF ... belay recourse repeat
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 6 March 2021 10: 30
          And not only the site, I see. But the * rats * crawled out * around the corner * to * minus. bully
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 March 2021 10: 53
        "Believe it or not, comrades, they are tamed" (c).
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 6 March 2021 11: 05
    On September 26, another attempt was made, this time the landing force landed in the city itself in the area of ​​the Sheremetyevskaya pier.
    The landing party did not land on the Sheremetyevskaya pier, but from the Sheremetyevskaya pier.
    On September 26, units of the 2nd joint venture tried to cross the Neva from the Sheremetyevskaya pier. They managed to ferry two companies that captured the Shlisselburg pier and fought in the northwestern part of the city. On September 27 the reconnaissance platoon of the regiment crossed. The further fate of these units is unknown.
  8. ycuce234-san
    ycuce234-san 6 March 2021 11: 47
    Unfortunately, on Oreshka, his administration has not yet figured out a set of webcams available on the Internet, as is the case at other cultural sites.
    But there are videos of past years on the network and photos - those who are interested can watch them.
    That's it - I found an interesting online tour of the fortress on the network and went for a walk! ..- although it is old and without modern VR - but the summer sun is beating there, warming the fortress stone, the cloudless sky turns blue and the grass grows - everything is so you have time to get bored with the long, harsh coarse winter.
  9. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 6 March 2021 14: 30
    It is strange that the author of the article did not remember, talking about the fortress, about the importance that the artillery battery at Cape Sosnovets had for its defense. There was a three-gun battery of 102 mm naval guns with rangefinder and searchlight stations, all in concrete. It was this battery that prevented the activity of the Germans against Oreshek with its fire, it was she who was the main fire means of suppressing the Germans in the Shlisselburg area, it was her fire that prevented the Germans from capturing Oreshek in 41. The guns threw their shells at 16 km and could fire at Shlisselburg to its entire depth.
    A little more strained by the phrase of the author
    Also, the active actions of the fortress garrison, which was sitting right next to the Germans, did not allow the enemy to transfer forces from this area to other directions, for example, to the Moscow Dubrovka area. It was here that Soviet troops at the end of September 1941 created a bridgehead on the left bank of the Neva, which went down in history as the Nevsky Piglet.

    It is not entirely clear what the author means by "exactly here" - opposite Oreshk or in the area of ​​Moskovskaya Dubrovka? If in the Dubrovka area, then it would be more appropriate to use the word "there" or construct a proposal differently.
    Just in case, I am attaching a map where I marked Oreshek, Sosnovets and Nevsky Pyatachok.
  10. vladcub
    vladcub 6 March 2021 16: 32
    Thanks for the little-known stuff. Why does it happen that some episodes of the Second World War are not something that they have forgotten, but they did not tell especially.
  11. Bogatyrev
    Bogatyrev 7 March 2021 00: 13
    Every time they took off, they saw Leningrad. Its nearest outskirts began very close to the airfield. Except for Lunin and Kuznetsov, none of the squadron's pilots had ever been to Leningrad, had never seen it, and they looked at the famous city with eager curiosity.

    Leningrad amazed them first of all with its enormity. It lay on a flat plain, cut by arches of rivers, and even in clear weather, even from a great height, the eyes were unable to grope its distant edge. But clear weather was rare, and usually the gigantic city was immersed in a wavering haze of December fog, on the surface of which towers, spiers, domes, pipes seemed to float ...

    They wanted to fly over the city, but this was not their task. Having risen from the airfield, they usually headed south over the forests, to that section of the front that passed along the banks of the Neva. Over the Neva, they turned to the east, to the left, and followed over the front to the place where the Neva flowed out of Lake Ladoga.

    They looked at both low wooded banks of the river. At first glance, the forests covered with snow seemed calm and deserted. And only numerous light hazes, rising here and there, betrayed what a tense life lurked in them. Having got used to it, the eyes of the pilots gradually began to guess camouflaged passages, dugouts, dugouts, batteries, the most complex lines of trenches, nodes and accumulations of bunkers, and it became clear that all the earth here was blown up and looked like honeycombs, that many people. The front line had been running here for over a year, and during this time both armies managed to erect fortifications of extraordinary power. Only the river separated them. On the river, here and there, the openings still blackened, but every day they diminished, and a solid ice bridge connected both banks more and more tightly.

    So, over the Neva, they reached Lake Ladoga, to Shlisselburg. The town, captured by the Germans, lay on the southern bank of the river, and right in front of it, on an islet separated from it by a narrow channel, a dark heap of large stones was piled up - all that remained of the Shlisselburg fortress, in whose gloomy casemates the tsarist government once rotted revolutionaries.

    Lunin had seen this place only once before - last winter, flying east with Rassokhin and Serov. Even then, he looked at the Shlisselburg Fortress with curiosity, since even then he heard stories about a handful of seamen-artillerymen who, having sat down on an island outside the walls of an ancient fortress, blocked the Germans' way across the Neva, did not allow them to unite with the Finns advancing from the north and cut off Leningrad from Ladoga. More than a year has passed since then, now the second winter has already come, and the same invincible handful of Red Navy men sat on an island in front of the Germans, separated from them by a channel that seemed from above not wider than a ditch. The Germans fired at them with direct fire from a distance of one hundred meters and endlessly stirred up a pile of old stones with shells. But they achieved nothing. The Red Navy men sat in deep holes under the stones and, when necessary, responded to the Germans with fire, suddenly rolling out their guns from the holes.

    The entire Baltic Fleet and two fronts - Leningrad and Volkhov - listened with love and respect to the stories about their exploits. There were a lot of these stories. They said, for example, that there were times when food could not be delivered to the island for weeks on end. The entire space between the island and the northern bank of the river was shot through by the enemy, and on bright summer nights it was impossible to get to the island alive. In the spring, communication with the island was interrupted for a long time by the ice of Lake Ladoga, rushing into the Neva. In the fall, the nights were dark enough, but the fragile ice could not bear the weight of a person. And in winter, the Germans could easily spot a daredevil crawling to or from an island against a background of white snow. The islanders lived from hand to mouth under the boulders of the ruined fortress, and in their dark holes it was always damp and cold, because it was even more difficult to deliver fuel to the island than food. The wounded and sick remained here, together with the healthy, as they could not be taken out. But the Germans did not succeed in breaking the will of the defenders of the fortress, and the small island in the middle of the Neva remained unapproachable to the end.

    All this was well known to the pilots. They also heard the story of a cat that lived on the island and endured all the hardships along with its defenders, passed from mouth to mouth. This cat was the favorite of brave sailors, her eyes sparkled in the darkness of their dungeon, she purred, sitting on their knees, and, stroking her, they warmed their chilled hands. She reminded them of comfort, of a peaceful life, of their home. They shared their meager food with her and carefully guarded her from danger.

    However, it was difficult to protect her, since this cat was distinguished by an amazing fearlessness. She hit the island as a kitten, and her whole life was spent among the explosions of shells, among the gunshots. She was used to these deafening noises and did not pay any attention to them. The tips of her ears moved at the slightest rustle in some far corner, but when a shell exploded, very close to her, she continued to sleep.

    She had a favorite place - above, on the broken stones of the collapsed fortress wall. There she was attracted by the same force that attracts other cats to attics and roofs. There she chased sparrows, walked, arching her back and raising her tail, sleeping in the sun. The German gunners watched her closely through binoculars and rangefinders. And since, apart from her, they could not find anything moving and living on the island, they began to fire at her from heavy weapons.

    Every time, when the next shelling of the island began, the Red Navy men asked each other: "Where is the cat?" And if she did not find herself in the dungeons of the fortress, there was always a daredevil who crawled out and, crawling between the stones, tried to catch her. The cat was persuaded, locked up, punished, but nothing helped: she found a loophole and ran away upstairs.

    Finally, the Germans wounded her.

    She dragged herself into the dungeon, bleeding, dragging her paralyzed hind legs. The military assistant, who was treating the wounded Red Navy men, began to treat her too. He performed an operation on her, removed several small fragments from her body, and bandaged her wounds. She was between life and death for a long time, and people, entering the room where she was lying on a clean mat, spoke in a whisper so as not to disturb her.

    Little by little, she began to get better. And on the very first day, when the ability to move her hind legs returned to her, she again ran upstairs. German cannons burst out. This time, nothing was found from the fearless cat but the tip of its tail ...
    1. nikon7717
      nikon7717 7 March 2021 11: 40
      For such an addition to the article, I want to put a bunch of pluses, and not one!
    2. Igor Svir
      Igor Svir 12 March 2021 20: 22
      NOOOOPTVAYUMAT !! Germans KOZZLY !!! could not cope with the soldiers - on the cat they won back .. although .. the shells spent on it are someone's soldier's LIFE. it would be necessary to reward her with a medal !!! and to the Germans a copy of the order from the plane to drop - Schaub knew HEROES !!
  12. Miyamoto musasi
    Miyamoto musasi 7 March 2021 21: 55
    Everlasting memory! To all defenders of the fatherland, their feat will always be in our hearts.
  13. IPC 245
    IPC 245 9 March 2021 06: 17
    I had to visit the fortress on excursions, it's impressive ..
  14. Crimea26
    Crimea26 April 16 2021 23: 51
    In the title photo in the center there is some kind of building with an inclined top "from the wall". What is it? Where is it now?
  15. Igor Svir
    Igor Svir April 21 2021 21: 19
    FORGOT ABOUT THE CAT !!!!! disorder - it is necessary to correct the article
  16. Valentina Slotina
    Valentina Slotina 9 May 2021 17: 31
    My grandfather Alexei Mikhailovich Boldyrev was drafted into the army in 1940. He fought from the first to the last day of the war.
    Defender of the Oreshek Fortress near Leningrad, artilleryman. When I asked him how you survived, he answered: "They took care of me, I repaired the tools." There he was concussed and covered with earth. But comrades dug up, lucky ...