Military Review

How cockades appeared: from the history of military symbols

24
How cockades appeared: from the history of military symbols

Today, a badge on a headdress is associated with a cockade - a cap, a cap, a beret. But a few centuries ago, at the dawn stories of this insignia, cockades could be worn on the shoulder. From French, the word cocardes is translated as "cock feathers". Let's try to figure out how the cockades appeared and which ones have undergone changes over their rather long history.


At the dawn of cockade history: from the Magyar hussars to the Russian army


The first cockades, as historians believe, appeared in the XNUMXth century. So, the image of the Spanish commander don Juan of Austria with a red cockade on his shoulder is known. That is, initially, the badges were called the sleeve ribbons of different colors, which were worn by knights and landsknechts in order to distinguish each other from the soldiers of the enemy armies in battle.

In the XNUMXth century, cockades moved to headdresses: the first to start this fashion were the Hungarian cavalrymen, who decorated their caps with the likeness of cockades. In the XNUMXth century, cockades on headdresses became widespread in European armies, primarily in the army of France.

Initially, the French army used paper cockades, since 1767 - only white, symbolizing loyalty to the ruling Bourbon dynasty. Then cockades were worn only in infantry units.


The situation changed after the Great French Revolution - the Marquis de Lafayette suggested adding blue and red to white as the colors of revolutionary Paris. Subsequently, the combination of blue, white and red officially became a combination of the colors of the French flag, and blue-white-red cockades appeared on the headdresses of military personnel.

In the Russian Imperial Army, cockades also appeared in the 1700th century and underwent a rather complicated history. If you follow the Explanatory Dictionary of V.I. Dahl, the first Russian cockade appeared in 1764 and had a white color, in 1815 the cockade was black with orange edges, and in XNUMX a white stripe was added to the black cockade with orange edges.

At the same time, historians often agree that the first badge in the Russian army can be considered the field sign installed in 1724 for the cavalry guards: their hats on the left side were decorated with a white silk ribbon bow attached with a gold button. Then such a sign was adopted in other guards and army units, but among the lower ranks and non-commissioned officers, instead of silk, woolen fabric was used.

The rules for wearing the cockade were streamlined in the 1874th century. Since XNUMX, military cockades were supposed to be worn on the band, civilian ones on the crown of a uniform cap.

Badges in the Soviet and Russian armed forces


The post-revolutionary era has become a new page in the history of the cockades of the Russian army. Immediately after the revolution, the cockade was replaced by a red star. The return of the cockade to the uniform of the Soviet army took place before the start of the Great Patriotic War: in 1940, the cockade was introduced for the top commanding staff of the Red Army.


Interestingly, the Soviet military leadership for a very long time did not consider it necessary to extend the wearing of the cockade to the officers and, moreover, the non-commissioned officers. Only starting in the 1970s were cockades introduced for officers and military personnel on long-term service.

The combined-arms everyday cockade installed in the SA had an oval shape: a red star was placed in a white medallion, surrounded by golden rays. For the officer corps of the Air Force and Airborne Forces, it was envisaged to frame the cockade with golden twigs.

In addition, officers, warrant officers and conscripts of the Air Force, Airborne Forces, aviation units of other branches of the armed forces, cadets of aviation schools of pilots wore the emblem on the crown, which was popularly called "birdie" on the ceremonial day off and everyday caps. On the caps of generals and marshals, the cockades were surrounded by embroidery from gilded threads. On the field uniform, it was necessary to wear a khaki-colored cockade.

The badge underwent serious changes after the end of the existence of the Soviet state. In 1995, the RF Armed Forces installed a unified cockade - a metal oval medallion of St. George's flowers, surrounded by 32 dihedral rays of golden color, and a gilded star on the medallion. The field cockade has exactly the same appearance but is completely olive green.

Foreign armies have their own types of cockades and the rules for wearing them. Now the cockades used in foreign armed forces differ, first of all, in their colors. Most often, they are painted in the colors of the national flags of foreign countries, although there are many exceptions.
Author:
Photos used:
YouTube / Pribambas TV, Gennadiy Suprun
24 comments
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  1. Egoza
    Egoza 11 March 2021 10: 22
    +12
    There is nothing better than a red star! Immediately "short and clear".
  2. Free wind
    Free wind 11 March 2021 10: 27
    +2
    But now the crowns are one meter high, the Armenians and the Georgians are envious.
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 11 March 2021 12: 41
      +7
      Quote: Free Wind
      But now the crowns are one meter high, the Armenians and the Georgians are envious.

      Show at least one photo of a modern cap with such a crown? "Cow saddles" have long been out of fashion, and with the introduction of "Kozhugedovki" into the form, it is difficult to make crowns one meter high ...
    2. bk0010
      bk0010 11 March 2021 20: 36
      +2
      The high crown is a legacy of the era of euphoria in the CIS: they were going to place the CIS cockade and the cockade of a specific country on the caps, but no unified armed forces were created (these are all rumors, there will be no proofs).
      1. saygon66
        saygon66 13 March 2021 15: 46
        +1
        - According to an army bike, the style of the cap corresponded to the size of Pavel (Mercedes) Grachev's turnip ... wink
  3. WHAT IS
    WHAT IS 11 March 2021 10: 34
    +21
    For the officer corps of the Air Force and Airborne Forces, it was envisaged to frame the cockade with golden twigs.


    The naval badge of the USSR Navy is the most beautiful.
    It would be possible for the author to write more and add pictures ...
    1. Oleg Aviator
      Oleg Aviator 11 March 2021 10: 36
      +9
      Aviation is not worse)
    2. Oleg Aviator
      Oleg Aviator 11 March 2021 10: 39
      +9
      My grandfather was a destroyer commander. During the war he led convoys to Murmansk. So his cockade was not stamped, but from gold gimp. He wanted to make everything out of me, but I was drawn to heaven)
    3. Fitter65
      Fitter65 11 March 2021 12: 49
      +12
      Quote: WHAT IS
      The naval badge of the USSR Navy is the most beautiful.
      It would be possible for the author to write more and add pictures ...
      Well, on the first point, everyone's sandpiper ... In our Air Force, too, "wagons" and cockades looked
      And what was the front door, although the naval forces had more, drinks And on the second point - ... write more ... - I agree. Especially considering that in 1939 the Air Force had
      And also embroidered with "gold" were ...
      1. WHAT IS
        WHAT IS 11 March 2021 15: 06
        +10
        Yes, I do not argue, comrade, you are also very beautiful -
        but "every sandpiper is his" of course! drinks
    4. RoTTor
      RoTTor 11 March 2021 16: 46
      +5
      CRAB - it was called exclusively so
    5. The comment was deleted.
  4. Catfish
    Catfish 11 March 2021 11: 43
    +15
    In fact, such material is not enough for one article, but here there is nothing and nothing to read, and there is nothing to say about illustrative material.




    It is not clear why the author even took up this topic if he has nothing to say.
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 11 March 2021 12: 03
      +4
      Bravo! That's a collection! Is it really yours?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 11 March 2021 12: 04
        +4
        What are you, Igor! Downloaded from the network. Of course, I also have something, but so, haphazardly and more on trifles. smile
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 11 March 2021 12: 07
          +3
          And I really wanted to be envious. No, I don’t collect cockades, but somehow a small collection of hats formed by itself: a cap, caps, three headsets, two skullcaps, a Kazakh hat, and so on)))
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 11 March 2021 12: 08
            +4
            Already drawn to an article about the headdresses of the armies of the world. smile drinks
            1. The leader of the Redskins
              The leader of the Redskins 11 March 2021 12: 16
              -3
              I regret that when I was in Poland, I did not buy a "confederate". It seemed expensive))) And so, if possible, of course I would have bought all sorts of forms. I love camouflage. Especially if they are of high quality and comfortable.
    2. saygon66
      saygon66 13 March 2021 13: 12
      0
      - Even a flea market is in the second picture ... recourse
  5. alystan
    alystan 11 March 2021 18: 51
    +1
    The author burns today (or is he always like this?)!
    It was the translation of "cock feathers" that I met nowhere, but I read it on the website of the National Assembly of France, where it was said about the soldiers of one of the regiments of King Louis 14th, who wore a bunch of cock feathers on their uniforms. And that's all. True, there is still such an explanation - ... ribbons or feathers on the headdress, tied in such a way as to give the appearance of a "tousled nape of a rooster". That's all. The word cockade itself is explained as a rosette made of fabric (and ribbons) or round metal, on which the colors of the national flag of France are always present.
    But about the appearance of the colors of the national flag of this country, I like the following explanation:
    3 days after the fall of the Bastille, King Louis the 16th was invited to a reception as a sign of reconciliation at the mayor's office of Paris, where he was greeted by the Mayor of Bayy in red and blue ribbons (the colors of Paris), and the soldiers of the National Guard guarding the king were dressed in white uniforms ... There was also the Marquis de Lafayette, who was among the authors / drafters of the text of the Declaration of Human Rights. But that's another story...
  6. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 12 March 2021 16: 20
    0
    And it's all?!.
    Not. This is not serious...
    Even at my (civilian) school I had a cap with a cockade!
    It delivered!
    True, it was already the end of everything ... '91 / 93.
    And before that! Yes, I went there to study for her sake! ..
    And ... my God! What the right decision I made so spontaneously then! ..
  7. saygon66
    saygon66 13 March 2021 11: 21
    +1
    - Since the French were mentioned as the inventors of cockades, it was worth mentioning that in the French army, cockades, in their classical form, ceased to exist ...
    - In a somewhat rudimentary form, they are present on the headdresses of the armies of Austria, Germany, Estonia ...
    - The cockade of our armed forces (black and orange rosette) could look much more laconic ... everyday - anyway!
  8. Bogalex
    Bogalex 14 March 2021 16: 06
    0
    The article contains a lot of controversial statements, and in some places just mistakes.
    So, the red star on Budennovka and Red Army caps is also a cockade. Why the author does not consider it as such, but refers to the cockades only insignia, similar to what is shown in the photo in the article - the question ...
    Secondly, in the workers 'and peasants' Red Fleet already in 1924, that is, long before 1940, the same famous anchor placed on the bay, framed with golden twigs, crowned with a red star, appeared on winter headdresses.
    Finally, the statement "The combined-arms everyday cockade installed in the SA had an oval shape: a red star was placed in a white medallion surrounded by golden rays. For the officers of the Air Force and Airborne Forces, a framing of the cockade with golden twigs was provided." indicates that the author does not know the subject of the discussion. What he wrote about and showed in the photo is the everyday officer's badge. "Framing the cockade with golden twigs" was provided for its ceremonial version both in the Air Force and Airborne Forces, and in all other types and branches of the USSR Armed Forces. But the privates and non-commissioned officers, including the Navy, since 1969 wore a completely different sign on their headdresses - everyone has a well-remembered red star in a wreath of ears.
    Somehow the material was not very good ... Poor.
  9. Radikal
    Radikal 16 March 2021 21: 41
    +5
    Nice article, respect!
  10. Radikal
    Radikal 16 March 2021 21: 46
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    In fact, such material is not enough for one article, but here there is nothing and nothing to read, and there is nothing to say about illustrative material.




    It is not clear why the author even took up this topic if he has nothing to say.

    Well, he just probably updated the topic, then you can ask to expand, deepen - in general, everything is according to Gorbachev. bully
    However, the topic is interesting, by the way, alas for Lapis! bully