Military Review

UAV kamikaze: new capabilities of ground units

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The military conflict between Armenia / Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR) on the one hand and Azerbaijan / Turkey on the other hand clearly showed the increased importance of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) on the battlefield. If everyone is somehow accustomed to striking anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs) using medium-sized UAVs (MALE class), then the use of kamikaze UAVs, destroying targets by self-detonation, is still a novelty, although even before Azerbaijan in their use already Israel has long been noted.


We can say that homing kamikaze ammunition was created during the Second World War, but at that time they were not unmanned. And if the projects of German missiles of the FAU type with a person on board did not receive development, then the Japanese experience of using kamikaze aircraft showed the highest efficiency of this type weapons.


The project of a cruise missile (CR) FAU-4 with a pilot on board. At the final guidance site, the pilot had to leave the rocket with a parachute. Japanese kamikaze pilots did not have such an opportunity.

The concept of "UAV-kamikaze"


"UAV-kamikaze" is in many ways a conditional concept. The possibility of long-term loitering in the air and retargeting in flight can be given to other types of ammunition, for example, cruise missiles, but no one calls them UAVs. Theoretically, the boundary condition for loitering ammunition / kamikaze UAVs could be the reusability of UAVs, that is, the possibility of their return if no suitable targets for the attack were found, in order to refuel and reuse the UAV. However, in fact, many kamikaze UAVs are initially disposable.


Tomahawk Block IV and Block V cruise missiles are capable of loitering in the air, and the UHF satellite communication system allows you to re-target the missile in flight at any of 15 pre-programmed targets, having previously estimated the feasibility of hitting it with optical reconnaissance means of the Kyrgyz Republic

It is possible to divide the possibility of retargeting to pre-entered targets (as in the case of missiles of the Tomahawk type) and the possibility of direct target detection by the ammunition itself, but some ammunition that is not formally related to UAVs also have such capabilities. For example, anti-tank missile systems (ATGMs) of the Spike series of the Israeli company Rafael provide the ability to transmit images directly from the homing head (GOS) of the missile and to retarget it in flight.

Transmission of control commands and video images can be carried out over a two-way fiber-optic cable or over a radio channel. Such complexes can operate both in the "fire and forget" mode, and in the launch mode without preliminary target acquisition, when the ammunition is launched from behind cover at the approximate coordinates of a previously reconnoitered target, invisible by the ATGM operator, and target capture is carried out already in the flight according to the data obtained from the GOS.

UAV kamikaze: new capabilities of ground units
Israeli ATGM Spike-NLOS

In general, according to some documents, Russia classifies UAVs as cruise missiles, making claims against the United States in the context of the Treaty on the Limitation of Intermediate and Shorter-Range Missiles (INF Treaty) in the sense that the deployment of medium and large UAVs (HALE and MALE), with a long duration and range flight, contradicts the terms of the specified contract.

In general, most likely, the use of the term "UAV-kamikaze", and not "loitering ammunition" was largely a consequence of marketing, as the prefix "nano" has become common in modern scientific and pseudo-scientific circles. In practical terms, the name is not so critical, the effectiveness of the ammunition is much more important, especially its compliance with the cost / effectiveness criterion.

If we are talking about the use of kamikaze UAVs against military equipment, then in this case the cost / effectiveness criterion will most likely be in favor of the attacking ammunition, since the cost of military equipment will always be an order of magnitude higher. Of course, there are extremely outdated military equipment, such as are used in some regions. tanks during the Second World War or ersatz-military equipment, such as "shaitan machines" - off-road vehicles equipped with a large-caliber machine gun / recoilless weapon / explosives and a pair of bearded men, but in this case, it is necessary to take into account not only the cost of the target, but also the potential harm that it could cause, for example, destroying "own" armored personnel carrier (APC) with infantry.


A variety of handicraft military equipment used by various illegal armed groups can cost less than the ammunition that hits it, but these costs can be much less than the damage that a destroyed "shaitan-mobile" can cause

Types of kamikaze UAVs


Kamikaze UAVs are mostly relatively compact models. It is economically unprofitable to make a kamikaze UAV of the HALE and MALE class. In fact, as mentioned above, it will be just an advanced guidance cruise missile. Yes, and it will be much more difficult for a large-sized UAV to approach the target for its direct destruction than to drop several inconspicuous small-sized guided munitions.

UAV kamikaze can be divided into two subtypes. The first type is an airplane-type UAV or UAV, which in design is close to the form-factor of a missile with cruciform wings of relatively large elongation.

One of the latest aircraft-type UAV solutions is the recently introduced Green Dragon UAV by the Israeli company Israel Aerospace Industries.

The mobile launcher (PU), which can be installed on an army vehicle HMMWV, houses 16 UAVs capable of automated detection and destruction of targets at a distance of up to 40 km with a loitering time of up to 1,5 hours. The mass of the Green Dragon UAV warhead is 3 kilograms.


UAV Green Dragon

Another example is, again, the Israeli kamikaze UAV Hero-30, which is launched using a pneumatic launcher. Thanks to its cruciform wings and an electric motor, the Hero-30 UAV is highly maneuverable. He is able to carry out low-altitude flight over difficult terrain, bend around obstacles. The loitering time is up to 30 minutes, the range is up to 40 kilometers at an altitude of up to 600 meters and a speed of up to 200 kilometers per hour. The total mass of the Hero-30 kamikaze UAV is 3 kilograms, of which the weight of the warhead is 0,5-1 kilograms.


UAV-kamikaze Hero-30 (it is easy to notice the similarity of the layout of the UAV Hero-30 and the ATGM Spike-NLOS missile)

The second type is a helicopter or quad / octa / hexacopter type UAV, reminiscent of commercial UAVs. For example, the promising Israeli kamikaze UAV of the Spike Firefly helicopter type (for the Israeli army it will be supplied under the name Maoz), equipped with two coaxial propellers, successfully passed military tests at the end of 2019 - beginning of 2020.

A distinctive feature of the Spike Firefly UAV is its reusability - the operator can issue a command to safely return the UAV to the launch site for its reuse. The Spike Firefly UAV weighs 3 kilograms, a height of 40 centimeters, a hull diameter of 8 centimeters, and a warhead weight of 350 grams. The ammunition is equipped with an electric motor and a battery that allows it to stay in the air for about 15-30 minutes. The range of the Spike Firefly UAV is about one kilometer. Detection and guidance of UAVs to mobile and stationary targets is carried out using an optoelectronic guidance system.


UAV Spike Firefly

The Canadian company AerialX has developed a quadrocopter-type kamikaze UAV AerialX designed to destroy enemy UAVs. The manufacturer positions the AerialX UAV as a hybrid of a rocket and a UAV, which has the speed of a rocket and the maneuverability of a quadcopter. This small-sized UAV with a takeoff weight of 910 grams has a range of up to four kilometers and a flight speed of up to 350 kilometers per hour. The AerialX kamikaze UAV can automatically approach the target and attack it from the optimal angle. The device is reusable, if the attack is canceled, it can be reused.


AerialX kamikaze UAV and its control panel


Application of UAV-kamikaze AerialX

Since 2017, the Turkish company STM has been producing kamikaze UAVs of the quadrocopter type "Kargu", and since 2019, a modified version of "Kargu-2" has been produced. The UAV weighs 15 kilograms, the maximum flight speed is up to 150 kilometers per hour. The UAV "Kargu-2" can be equipped with a fragmentation, thermobaric or cumulative warhead weighing up to 1,5 kg.


UAV "Kargu"

UAV-kamikaze "Kargu" can be controlled at a distance of up to 10 kilometers directly by the operator or in a semi-automatic mode, when the operator sets the search zone, and the UAV independently detects and destroys the target. In the near future, it is planned to provide group actions of UAVs of the Kargu type in a flock of up to 20 drones.

In 2020, the Turkish Ministry of Defense signed a contract for the production of 356 Kargu-2 UAVs.


UAV presentation "Kargu"

Russian UAV kamikaze


Russia is just beginning to catch up with the leaders of the UAV market, including the kamikaze UAV. At the moment, two UAVs are ready for serial production - "Cube-UAV" and "Lancet-3" by ZALA Aero.

UAV-kamikaze "Cube-UAV" can carry out destruction of the target according to preset coordinates, which greatly limits its capabilities. However, it is stated that the optical image can be transmitted from the payload placed on the UAV, the mass of which can reach 3 kilograms (it will also include the mass of the warhead).

The duration of the flight "Cube-UAV" is 30 minutes at a speed of 80-130 kilometers per hour, the dimensions of the UAV are 1210 x 950 x 165 millimeters.


UAV-kamikaze "Cube-UAV"


Presentation "Cube-UAV"

A more modern and promising model is the Lancet-3 kamikaze UAV, conceptually reminiscent of the aforementioned Israeli Hero-30 UAV. Its range is up to 30 kilometers, the payload mass is 3 kilograms, with a total UAV weight of up to 12 kilograms. Loitering time up to 40 minutes at a speed of 80-110 kilometers per hour. UAV "Lancet-3" is equipped with a television communication channel, which allows the detection of targets and guidance of the UAV at them. The developer declares the possibility of self-detection of the UAV target.


UAV-kamikaze "Lancet-3"


Presentation of the kamikaze UAV "Lancet-3"

The degree of localization of Russian UAV components, such as communication, control and guidance system components, electric motors, batteries, etc., remains in question. If access to components can be limited by the introduction of new sanctions, then the prospects of Russian kamikaze UAVs may be questioned.

The role and place of the kamikaze UAV on the battlefield


What place will the kamikaze UAVs take and how will they affect the appearance of the battlefield?

It can be assumed that over time they will become an integral part of the armament of ground units, as mortars and ATGMs have become. They can be used both as a support weapon for infantry units and as an independent offensive tool. Kamikaze UAVs are capable of not only complementing the capabilities of mortars and ATGMs, but also replacing them in many cases. As mentioned above, the kamikaze UAVs themselves are in many ways conceptually similar to the conventional fourth generation ATGM.

It is difficult to overestimate the role of the kamikaze UAV for conducting reconnaissance and sabotage operations. It can be expected that in this capacity they will be used as intensively as possible by various illegal armed groups that make homemade kamikaze UAVs based on commercial models and individual components.

The carriers of the kamikaze UAV can be a wide variety of combat units - off-road army vehicles, trucks. And as additional weapons, they can be placed in containers on armored vehicles - tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, artillery systems, as now ATGMs are placed. Container placement options can be implemented in various weight and size versions - portable, transportable, car versions.


The Chinese system of salvo launch of UAV-kamikaze allows the transportation and launch of 48 loitering ammunition CH-901 from China Poly Defense


Presentation of the Chinese combat vehicle for the salvo launch of the kamikaze UAV

There is an opinion that the use of modern means of electronic warfare (EW) can completely paralyze the work of the UAV, blocking the communication channels and the satellite navigation system. UAV supporters, in turn, argue that modern communication channels are difficult to block, and the navigation system is even more complicated, and its noise immunity is constantly increasing.

In practice, the truth will be somewhere in between. Electronic warfare systems can really complicate the life of UAVs, but not completely paralyze their work. Moreover, the active means of electronic warfare themselves are an excellent target for specialized ammunition. The enemy can first "clean up" the electronic warfare means, and then strike the UAV.

The use of modern digital noise-immune transmitters, simultaneously operating in several wavelength ranges, with pseudo-random frequency tuning (PFC), will minimize the effect of electronic warfare equipment. Satellite navigation systems are supplemented by inertial ones, allowing the UAV, if not to strike, then safely return back, leaving the field of action of electronic warfare means. Intelligent navigation systems are being developed based on the analysis of terrain images, which are not affected by electronic warfare systems at all. All this sounds very "expensive", but in fact, with mass production, all this can be realized in the dimensions and at the cost of a modern smartphone.

For those who cannot afford effective systems for countering small-sized UAVs, including kamikaze UAVs, they can become a huge threat, which will be extremely difficult for the armies of the "past" to fight.

We will talk about the means of dealing with small-sized UAVs in general and kamikaze UAVs in particular in the following materials. Other areas of use of UAVs by ground units will also be considered.
Author:
Photos used:
zala-aero.com, uvisionuav.com, topwar.ru
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  1. Sling cutter
    Sling cutter 6 March 2021 04: 30
    +19
    UAVs can be safely called the weapon of the 21st century and woe to those countries who do not realize this fact and will not have modern drones.
    1. venik
      venik 6 March 2021 19: 50
      +1
      Quote: Stroporez
      and woe to those countries that do not realize this fact and will not have modern drones.

      ========
      And effective means of dealing with them!
  2. 1331M
    1331M 6 March 2021 05: 26
    +14
    For those who cannot afford effective systems for countering small-sized UAVs, including kamikaze UAVs, they can become a huge threat, which will be extremely difficult for the armies of the "past" to fight.

    That the war in Karabakh very clearly and demonstrated to everyone.
    1. Hermit21
      Hermit21 6 March 2021 15: 21
      -4
      The war in Karabakh demonstrated, by and large, only the power of public relations between the people of Erdogan's son-in-law
  3. OgnennyiKotik
    OgnennyiKotik 6 March 2021 06: 04
    +9
    HERO is a whole family of UAVs, not just one option. Moreover, older models fly hundreds of kilometers. There are land, sea and air launch options. They are returned by parachute.



    USMC considers HERO-400 on L-ATV chassis
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 6 March 2021 06: 10
      +7
      The US Navy purchased a whole batch of Kayot Block 3 UAVs. It is not clear what kind of specific UAVs.

      A good solution for defense against flocks of boats from Iran.


      Block 1 looks like this



      Block 2 looks like this:

      1. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 6 March 2021 09: 55
        +5
        The funny thing is that Iran itself began to rivet these drones ... and put them on boats.
  4. OgnennyiKotik
    OgnennyiKotik 6 March 2021 06: 28
    +4
    The SHORAD system looks interesting from the countermeasures. The concept is similar to the BMPT. Universal support tool. Radars can work on air and land, weapons can do the same.
    The army purchased a striker chassis.


    KMP tests on the basis of L-ATV. The radars are the same. Armament 30 mm autocannon XM914 with UAV Kayot block 2 or energy.


    Leonardo offers a versatile turret with a variety of weapons.


    Radars are very interesting.

    Competitors



    Auto translation
  5. Thrifty
    Thrifty 6 March 2021 06: 40
    +2
    Andrey, any UAV is profitable in production if it is smartly applied! Light uavs can be supplied with a buckshot charge to destroy manpower, in case of not finding a target for itself, such a drone returns back for repeated use. And "Lancet" is actually a series of drones, there are at least two models of them Lancets 1 and 3, it seems that Lancet 5 has already been created, and the figure indicates the weight of the warhead of the drone. And, in general, the article is very interesting, thanks!
  6. madrobot
    madrobot 6 March 2021 08: 46
    -5
    New fetish. A sort of wunderwaffe. Mortarmen as part of a motorized rifle company will create many times greater density of fire for ridiculous money. And their mobility is not an issue at all - any Ural or even GAZ-66. But it should also be borne in mind that they cannot be in the field on their own. They will have at least tanks and air defense. Those. covering the positions of the mortars with the same loitering ammunition will not work. All these are expensive weapons with ridiculous 2.5 - 3 kg warheads, these are weapons for the MTR. And certainly not for the linear parts. Somehow so shorter.
    1. Jacket in stock
      Jacket in stock 6 March 2021 09: 47
      +2
      Quote: madrobot
      Mortar gunners in a motorized rifle company will create several times greater density of fire

      And why do we need the density of fire?
      The point of the UAV is precisely to destroy the target with one shot. And before that, also conduct a reconnaissance of the area in order to discover this very target, and at the same time everything else.
      The mortar men in the company, too, must first know where to fire.
      1. madrobot
        madrobot 6 March 2021 10: 11
        -8
        Lord, what kind of target could it be that you can kill with one shot? Even if this projectile is completely controlled by the OFS (the same tank shot)? Well, after all, this is a typical task for MTR-shnikov. Destroy the head of the terrorist gang or something like that. And when it comes to 10 km of the front, where should this funny land mine attach? Rumor has it that in Artsakh Turkish UAVs did a good job on tanks. But this will not last long. After a couple of years, such a ficus cannot be cranked out. And then all these expensive toys will become just toys. No, they will remain in service, but they will no longer be given such importance.
        1. Jacket in stock
          Jacket in stock 6 March 2021 10: 36
          +4
          Quote: madrobot
          Oh dear, what kind of target could it be that can be taken down with one shot?

          Tank.
          Armored personnel carrier.
          BMP
          Helicopter.
          Radar.
          Car.
          A gun.
          Mortar.
          Machine gun nest.
          DOT.
          Dugout.
          A group of fighters.

          And other-other-other ...

          Watering an area with cast iron from a mortar can sometimes be cheaper, but not always.
          1. madrobot
            madrobot 6 March 2021 10: 50
            -4
            Uv. The jacket is in stock, you just read your own commentary. Where will a tank or an armored personnel carrier (BMP) come from in an open field? Where can a bunker or a free-standing mortar come from? Yes, even a free-standing Acacia? If the minbat has "short arms," ​​then the divisional MLRS will pull up. They will mix everything with dirt there. And I assure you, it will be so. Yes, it will not turn out very well if you work around the city, from where not even all the civilians left, but the war is generally a cruel thing. The Russians have experience of the Second World War. If it comes to this, then all these Israeli toys will cost a little less than zero.
            1. OgnennyiKotik
              OgnennyiKotik 6 March 2021 11: 48
              +4
              They thought exactly the same in Armenia. But the reality is different.
              Covering air defense? So this is goal # 1. S-300, shells, tori in 2020 were destroyed confidently.
              MLRS and artillery target number 2, tens and hundreds of them were destroyed.
              Are your arms short? Kamikaze drones have a range of 200-300 km, and they do not need to know the exact target, they can conduct additional reconnaissance on their own.
              You have strange reasoning that UAVs are canceling mortars and MLRS. They remain with the enemy and work much better in combination with the UAV. This is a relatively new weapon, not in replacement of something, but in addition.
              WWII remembered, and you got to do with it? Why was the heroism of grandfathers and great-grandfathers dragged here? They could, but now can we? Be responsible for yourself, and do not hide behind other people's successes and heroes. Your attitude towards him is zero. We can only admire and remember this feat.
            2. Jacket in stock
              Jacket in stock 6 March 2021 12: 42
              +3
              Quote: madrobot
              Where will a tank or an armored personnel carrier (BMP) come from in an open field? Where can a bunker or a free-standing mortar come from? Yes, even a free-standing Acacia?

              In a maneuver war, the situation changes very quickly, I agree about the bunker, but it takes minutes for a tank / armored personnel carrier or Akatsia to change location. Yes, and bunkers to scout everything in advance is also not 100%.
              Quote: madrobot
              If the minbat has "short arms," ​​then the divisional MLRS will pull up. They will mix everything with dirt there.

              Yeah?
              Is everything straight?
              And it's not that the probability of 40 Grad missiles hitting a single target such as a tank is much less than 50%.
              Quote: madrobot
              The Russians have experience of the Second World War.

              Is.
              And not only the Second World War, but also Chechnya, for example.
              And he shows that neither the support of artillery / MLRS, nor aviation, nor even the obligatory presence of an infantry fighting vehicle or a tank, according to the charter, may in reality not appear and the whole city will be fought off by several dozen infantrymen. And it’s good if everyone has at least an assault rifle with cartridges, as in Chechnya, otherwise there was also one rifle for two, as in the Second World War.
          2. Hermit21
            Hermit21 6 March 2021 15: 25
            -4
            I do not want to upset, but almost everything from the list will not be destroyed by the kamikaze UAV or even seriously damaged.
      2. Proctologist
        Proctologist 6 March 2021 12: 45
        +3
        "density of fire" is a perfect example of concepts that are outdated in the XNUMXst century. Because "density" implies "imprecision", a complete antagonist of modern concepts of hitting a target from one, first shot.
        1. Hermit21
          Hermit21 6 March 2021 15: 31
          -2
          Who decided that this is an outdated concept and when?
    2. Intruder
      Intruder 6 March 2021 20: 52
      +2
      Those. covering the positions of the mortars with the same loitering ammunition will not work.
      well, yes, well, yes .... a swarm of 20 units., 50% with 1,5 kg warheads of thermobaric, and air defense targeting channels are overloaded with the remaining ones, with "other imitators", at least three to five will be knocked down during a given duration in real conditions, with very great luck and other "astrology"! ??? What's coolest is that shock (loitering ammunition) drones will reach the terminal section of the trajectory at an extremely low altitude, in radio shadows (folds of the terrain and near the underlying surface - trees and grass) for the complexes: REP and air defense radar ... seals "from the mortar crew, you won't be able to escape to another position! winked
      1. OgnennyiKotik
        OgnennyiKotik 6 March 2021 20: 55
        +1
        Quote: Intruder
        "seals have arrived"

        What have the cats got to do with it? No need to touch the cats.
        1. Intruder
          Intruder 6 March 2021 21: 37
          +2
          What have the cats got to do with it? No need to touch the cats
          Soryan is a colleague, but I'm not in that sense ... request
  7. vladcub
    vladcub 6 March 2021 10: 39
    -2
    About: "the highest efficiency of kamikaze" is debatable. The site has already dealt with this issue more than once. In fact, it was already an act of despair and made more of an impression on the public.
    The V-4 remained in the project, and the Luftwaffe began practical tests of the jet torpedo aircraft. It was assumed that such an aircraft approaches the enemy squadron and explodes, destroying enemy aircraft. In general terms, or rather I don't remember
    1. Proctologist
      Proctologist 6 March 2021 12: 50
      0
      I remember the analysis of the effectiveness of the kamikaze (and different points of view about it), but I do not agree with your conclusion. If we take the life of the pilot and all the costs associated with the inevitability of his death outside the parenthesis, then the kamikaze were definitely a very effective weapon, demonstrating an excellent ratio of the prices of the weapon (aircraft + bomb) and the target (1/3 of the battleship).
      1. OgnennyiKotik
        OgnennyiKotik 6 March 2021 12: 54
        +2
        Yes, that's why the United States developed the kamikaze UAV. In the same years. True, initially they wanted to carry out the tasks of a torpedo bomber, but at that technical level, it was difficult to implement.
        By the way, LoyalWingman, the control came from a manned aircraft.
    2. Intruder
      Intruder 6 March 2021 21: 03
      +1
      In fact, it was already an act of despair and made more of an impression on the public.
      The V-4 remained in the project, and the Luftwaffe began practical tests of the jet torpedo aircraft.
      oh yeah ... tell this to the British Isles:
      From mid-June 1944 to March 1945, 8070 V-1s were released across England. As for the V-2, only 1944 of them fell on British soil from September 1945 to March 1115. The V-1s alone caused £ 1944 million in damage during the summer of 47,6, four times the cost of making and using them. Losses in the wounded and killed by rocket weapons amounted to 4 thousand people. To destroy the V-33 launch pads, allied aviation dropped 1 thousand tons of bombs by the beginning of September 1944 - 82 times more than the weight of the warheads of the projectiles that had fallen on London by that time!
      !
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 7 March 2021 08: 40
        +1
        Comrad intruder, I didn't say anything for V-1 or 2
        1. Intruder
          Intruder 7 March 2021 16: 38
          0
          About: "the highest efficiency of kamikaze" is debatable. The site has already dealt with this issue more than once. In fact, it was already an act of despair and made more of an impression on the public.
          V-4 remained in the project
          did not write out about it, especially in terms of the statement or bold assumption about:
          In fact, it was already an act of despair and made more of an impression on the public.
          I simply replied, to this I gave you some real figures in the historical fact of the use of the world's first, serial samples of controlled and unmanned weapons in essence during World War II, I hope no offense !? Best regards, comrad vladcub ... hi
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 7 March 2021 16: 48
            +1
            1) belonged to the kamikaze.
            2) I agree: Fau -1 and 2 are the predecessor of the UAV
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 8 March 2021 01: 20
              +1
              Quote: vladcub
              1) belonged to the kamikaze.
              2) I agree: Fau -1 and 2 are the predecessor of the UAV

              On the second point of the FAA, these are the predecessors of the cruise and ballistic missiles!
              The forerunner of the UAV was "Drones" based on aircraft. Let's shine from here and the name "Drone".
              The Karabakh conflict was a fuss in the sandbox. Full-fledged armies will not allow themselves to be beaten remotely, like the Armenians, even if the air defense systems show their ineffectiveness, then everything that flies will be lowered by air nuclear explosions over the enemy's army.
              Unfortunately, the Azerbaijani side forgets that it was not it that won this war, but it was given to win. The time for septenary responses has passed, and units are ready for asymmetric responses.
              1. vladcub
                vladcub 8 March 2021 09: 25
                +1
                I agree and disagree.
                1) the Armenians did not have modern air defense systems, while Azerbaijan had an advantage in manpower, in modern weapons.
                2) Azerbaijan is now drunk with victory, and this is not always good.
                3) YAO - the way to TMV
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 8 March 2021 13: 07
                  +1
                  Quote: vladcub
                  3) YAO - the way to TMV

                  Even more / this is the road to nowhere!
  8. iouris
    iouris 6 March 2021 11: 40
    +3
    Bottleneck: engines, materials and parts. Problems are not being solved. This is called addiction.
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 6 March 2021 13: 19
    +2
    Whether we like it or not, the UAV is already a reality. At first, these UAVs were as a means of peeping, the next step was kamikaze drones.
    I think that these kamikaze UAVs will develop in huge steps, which means that the means of protection will also develop. This is the eternal competition of shield and sword
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 8 March 2021 01: 26
      +2
      Vlad's full-fledged army will fight not with drones, but with the means of their control. In the case of Azerbaijan, it was enough to destroy the airport and the UAV manufacturing plant. For Armenia - this is from the region "not likely", for Russia or the United States - just to sneeze a cat!
  10. Alexey Zigalov
    Alexey Zigalov 6 March 2021 13: 31
    +4
    Andrey thanks for the article. I agree this is a war of the near future. Unfortunately, our generals spit on it. First, we are catastrophically lagging behind in the development of tactics and application strategies. It can be seen that our two main companies are developing Kronshtadt and Zala. The Sukhoi S-70 was copied, but they don't know what he should do. Otherwise, in all the pictures he is flying in front of the Su-57. The second is not enough to do L.A. he needs to be taught to fly, and this is software. L.A. you can rip it off, and they'll sell you horseradish brains. Straight flight, bend, barrel, slide, etc. it is not artificial intelligence. You don't need a bunker pilot for this. UAVs can be torn off and done quickly, but brains are needed for years.
    1. Proctologist
      Proctologist 6 March 2021 14: 43
      0
      Quote: Alexey Zigalov
      UAVs can be torn off and done quickly, but brains are needed for years.
      Yes, you need it all the time. It will not be possible to work out the tactics of using UAVs and cure "childhood illnesses" either. Even having a fit, LA approved.
    2. Intruder
      Intruder 6 March 2021 21: 10
      +1
      First, we are catastrophically lagging behind in the development of tactics and application strategies.
      and the element base, advanced avionics for drones (lightweight and compact), solid-state gyroscopes and other bodywork, not everything can be ordered in Taiwan and assembled at TSMC sites, where assemblies for all Baikals and other Elbruses are ordered ... to a bunch of engines, like theaters and turbojet engines, as well as conventional valve electric motors for propeller-driven vehicles, this, alas and ah, is not yet visible in the territories of the Russian Federation, especially specialists who need to be trained and gain experience from at least 5 to 10 years and preferably for the budget, and not for their hard-earned or parents ...
  11. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 6 March 2021 14: 47
    +2
    In the video of congratulations of the MTR brits, there are shots where the Lancet of babakhs are thrown on modelcules in the next Toyota. So we have chio kamikaze drones.
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 6 March 2021 21: 12
      0
      Lancet bangs are thrown on modelcules in another Toyota. So we have chio kamikaze drones.
      just not everywhere and not enough, we need mass production of different types, for army and naval needs, and so only for MTR and in single actions ... sad !?
      1. tralflot1832
        tralflot1832 6 March 2021 21: 18
        +2
        Yes, the factory for Lancetics did not interfere with good performance. Lancet as a consumable.
  12. Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 6 March 2021 15: 09
    0
    It is interesting to consider the prospects for the use of such systems in the elimination of riots. The type of organization of patrolling the streets of small, but with a long battery life by drones with AI elements, capable, for example, of performing face recognition and, at the command of the operator or a pre-laid task, to eliminate the most dangerous elements.
    1. Nestor Vlakhovski
      Nestor Vlakhovski 6 March 2021 16: 33
      +3
      I even know where you get your inspiration from

      City 17 - the city of dreams
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 6 March 2021 21: 16
        0
        City 17 - the city of dreams
        no, it already happened - Moscow-City 17, last year ... laughing wink
  13. sawic1
    sawic1 6 March 2021 16: 14
    0
    In the video of the Turkish UAV, the karg does not understand why a komikadze made it, he can just as well unhook a land mine and fly back to the base, why should he crash himself, he is not cheap
    1. Nestor Vlakhovski
      Nestor Vlakhovski 6 March 2021 16: 29
      +2
      It is exactly cheap, the cost (not to be confused with the military prices) is less than $ 500, which by military standards is just a pittance.
      Bombing will not give the required accuracy, and a relatively weak warhead requires an accurate hit.
    2. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 6 March 2021 16: 39
      -1
      Quote: sawic1
      In the video of the Turkish UAV karg it is not clear why it was made by komikadze

      For great precision. It can fly into shelters, dugouts, pillboxes.
      From 55 seconds of video its application in Karabakh. It is not necessary to undermine it, it can simply carry out reconnaissance. It will be bigger with bombs.
      Quote: sawic1
      he can just as well unhook a land mine and fly back to the base

      For this there is another UAV Songar. It can be armed with an assault rifle, machine gun, grenade launcher or mines.


      1. Intruder
        Intruder 6 March 2021 21: 24
        0
        Brothers Belarusians, also in the race - for the dominance of drones:


        especially amused on the video, the level of technological equipment ... wink in such conditions and with such a set ..., nevertheless, well done, these gloomy geniuses with Belarusian ingenuity! lol wink
        1. OgnennyiKotik
          OgnennyiKotik 6 March 2021 21: 35
          +1

          Any other country would show saboteurs here. But no, this is Belarus. They even have a leader, Agroführer. I bought their sour cream and condensed milk today, always at the highest level.
          And the production of the principle of norms, more than in a working mode, they do not pretend to world domination, it is enough for their tasks.
          1. Intruder
            Intruder 6 March 2021 21: 41
            +1
            I bought their sour cream and condensed milk today
            and I also love Ukrainian, also: sour cream and condensed milk and Kiev sausages ... mnyamm., now the Russian patriotic layers "will throw a hungry obscene ...", or will carry it for today ...!?
        2. Intruder
          Intruder 6 March 2021 21: 35
          0
          and another interesting view (more precisely, the type of vertical start) from another fraternal people in this part of Eurasia:
          1. OgnennyiKotik
            OgnennyiKotik 6 March 2021 21: 38
            -1
            Quote: Intruder
            interesting view (more precisely, the type of vertical start)

            A controversial decision, in this case you just need to copy from Israel. They have already calculated and counted everything.
            1. Intruder
              Intruder 6 March 2021 22: 11
              -1
              A controversial decision, in this case you just need to copy from Israel.
              by no means, you need to develop your own school, but just copy - well, this is for Russian leaders, they have already succeeded in this ... laughing wink Plus a vertical (more precisely, a propeller-driven take-off mode, pneumatic, or pyro-gas / pyromechanical ...) is also needed in various applications where there is limited space, or "no need to stick out the nose" with the apparatus, also on different naval versions, directly from the under-deck launcher ..., in short, a lot where it can come in handy ...
              1. Ua3qhp
                Ua3qhp 7 March 2021 09: 12
                0
                Why is there such ammunition in the Navy?
                It will not cause real damage to the ship, it will not hide above the surface of the sea, but getting in response to such a real anti-ship missile or a burst of shells is quite a possible option.
                1. Intruder
                  Intruder 7 March 2021 17: 17
                  0
                  It will not cause real damage to the ship, it will not hide above the surface of the sea, but getting in response to such a real anti-ship missile or a burst of shells is quite a possible option.
                  the ship itself does not, I completely agree with you, and the target simulator (an elementary snag - on the fingers if), for the ship's air defense systems, with the function of a long flight, will allow the carrier of such a drone to leave the area at full speed - this is razz ..;
                  aerial optical reconnaissance (cheap, by the way) behind the radio horizon of the enemy ship's radar, from an unobtrusive drone - that's two ...!
                  and for dessert, a battle swarm with AI elements, a dynamic configuration for directly detected targets in flight, 10 or 20 pieces, with a penetrating warhead and a concentrated land mine - up to 10 kg., for an MRK or a patrol boat, an unmanned coast guard ship ... , namely, the disabling of antenna-feeder devices on superstructures or open weapon systems, with the defeat of deck mechanisms ... and truncated - cheap and menacing, for small countries, without serious navies and ships, with naval aviation and other things ...
                  The situation in the near future, for example: there is a lighter, any self-propelled barge, an officially chartered ship under a neutral flag, at night, a container opens and from there the start of the same swarm of UAVs, then they are, according to external target designation of satellite reconnaissance, such as: commercial remote sensing the surface of the Ocean, they will easily sell this information to any private client, and then I think there is no need to continue ... drinks
                  PS 2008, not too distant past:

                  In the patrol area, Russian ships found 5 unidentified boats traveling at high speed (according to later data - 1 hydrographic boat, 3 patrol boats and 1 missile boat "Dioscuria" (of the "Combatant-2" type, received from Greece, armed with 6 anti-ship missiles Penguin MK2 "), Side number 303), which violated the border of the security zone declared by Russia and did not react to warnings, - Georgian boats went to the rapprochement with the ships of the Black Sea Fleet. At 18.39:18.50, one of the Russian ships fired an anti-aircraft missile from the Osa-M air defense system, which fell between the boats. The Georgian boats continued to move in the same direction of rendezvous and increased their speed. At 15:82 one of them again went for a rendezvous with the ships of the Black Sea Fleet. MRK "Mirage" from a distance of XNUMX km fired a missile at it from the "Osa-M" air defense missile system. After the missile hit the side of the DHK-XNUMX boat of the Yaroslavets type, it lost speed and left the line of fire, and after the crew was removed by another boat, it burned out and sank;

                  On the VO, there is also an article: "Anti-aircraft missile - at ships!", On this topic ...
                  1. The eye of the crying
                    The eye of the crying 7 March 2021 17: 25
                    +1
                    Quote: Intruder
                    and for dessert, a battle swarm with AI elements, a dynamic configuration for directly detected targets in flight, 10 or 20 pieces, with a penetrating warhead and a concentrated land mine - up to 10 kg.


                    How far will they be launched? How will targets be detected "directly in flight"? And why won't Phalanx-based CIWS mow them down?
                    1. Intruder
                      Intruder 7 March 2021 19: 01
                      0
                      How far will they be launched? How will targets be detected "directly in flight"? And why won't Phalanx-based CIWS mow them down?

                      Many good and interesting questions, honestly!
                      in the first place: here everything in the performance characteristics also lies in the purpose, each has their own and there are many different types of them, right now ... so you can talk about it a lot and for a long time wink
                      How to detect !?, methods and types of preliminary target designation, as well as in the first case, invented to the heap, recall what has already been used, for example: in the USSR and the Russian Federation, also: "Legend" (GRAU index - 17K114) Soviet / Russian system of global satellite maritime space reconnaissance and target designation (MCRTs) for the Navy, operated from 1978 to 2006. The system made it possible to track and predict the tactical situation in the oceans and transmit information in real time to ships, submarines and ground stations, however, the short service life of active satellites predetermined the episodic nature of its work.
                      Then "Liana", already in the Russian Federation: The key element of "Liana" is a network of satellites of the "Lotos-S" and "Pion-NKS" families - reconnaissance and target designation. For example, "Pion" is able to track armored vehicles from a height of thousands of kilometers, acting as a gunner in missile destruction of objects. The first satellite of the system went into space in 2010.
                      The key to effective operation of the Liana system is the timely launch of satellites into orbit in order to maintain the orbital grouping of military spacecraft. At the moment, the entire constellation, including the Liana satellites, has at least 140 devices for various purposes .... there is an article on this system on the VO !!!
                      Phalanx based CIWS?
                      ,
                      a) due to design criteria, its effective range is very small compared to the range of modern ASMs, from 1 to 5 nautical miles (2 to 9 km);
                      b) CIWS does not recognize a target with qualitative and dynamically changing characteristics (behavior and potential threat factor), also known as IFF. The CIWS only has data that it collects in real time from radars to decide if the target is a threat and hit it ... Perhaps there are still drawbacks, did not dig deep on the Phalanx topic, it just did not make sense!
                      1. The eye of the crying
                        The eye of the crying 7 March 2021 19: 15
                        0
                        Quote: Intruder
                        How to detect !?, methods and types of preliminary target designation, as well as in the first case, invented to the heap, recall what has already been used, for example: in the USSR and the Russian Federation, also: "Legend" (GRAU index - 17K114)


                        Ah, so the Legend should be attached to a flock of cheap (they should be cheap?) UAVs?

                        Quote: Intruder
                        due to design criteria, its effective range is very small compared to the range of modern ASMs, from 1 to 5 nautical miles (2 to 9 km);


                        Even if the proposed UAVs have a speed of 0.5M, the Phalanx has almost a minute.

                        Quote: Intruder
                        also known as IFF


                        The only IFF transcript I know is "Identification Friend or Foe". And here it is, I do not understand.
                      2. Intruder
                        Intruder 7 March 2021 19: 21
                        0
                        The only IFF transcript I know is "Identification Friend or Foe". And here it is, I do not understand.
                        drone behavior, how will Phalanx define it !? Plus a drone, the size of a frigate or an albatross in the sky, there is a flock of birds and drones .., and there can be a lot of these "birds" ... and shoot the entire ammunition, well, it will shoot down 10 drones, new ones will arrive .. while it is charging stand...!?
                      3. The eye of the crying
                        The eye of the crying 7 March 2021 19: 36
                        +1
                        Quote: Intruder
                        drone behavior, how will Phalanx define it !?


                        And the drone flies at the speed of an albatross, seriously? However, the albatrosses approaching the ship must also be brought down.

                        Quote: Intruder
                        Well, he will shoot down 10 drones, new ones will arrive .. while it will be charging ...!?


                        Will they arrive from where? If the mother ship is below the horizon, and the drones fly at the speed of an albatross, Phalanx will have time to recharge several times. This is still assuming the attack was not detected.
                      4. Intruder
                        Intruder 7 March 2021 20: 20
                        0
                        And the drone flies at the speed of an albatross, seriously? However, the albatrosses approaching the ship must also be brought down.
                        in particular, are we already falling in, my dear !? The speed is higher than that of this bird! wink
                        To bring down ... well, if only with a fool, and then the "green" with the progressive public "overwhelm", with the approval of UNESCO, any ship .., in other offices! There are also eco-extremists of all stripes, to the heap ...
                      5. Intruder
                        Intruder 7 March 2021 20: 21
                        0
                        Phalanx will have time to recharge several times. This is still assuming the attack was not detected.
                        and how many of these complexes can there be on a patrol boat, or other little things sea! ???
            2. Ua3qhp
              Ua3qhp 7 March 2021 19: 15
              +1
              Quote: Intruder
              there is a lighter, any self-propelled barge, an officially chartered ship under a neutral flag, at night, a container opens and from there the start of the same swarm of UAVs, then they, according to the data of external target designation of satellite reconnaissance, such as: commercial remote sensing devices for the surface of the Ocean, will easily sell this information , to any private client, and then I think it is not necessary to continue ...

              Those. we start terrorist actions at sea. This is called piracy. They can not be taken prisoner.
              1. Intruder
                Intruder 7 March 2021 19: 23
                0
                It's called piracy
                , so ... we still have to prove ...:
                Piracy is any of the following:
                a) any unlawful act of violence, detention or any
                robbery, for private purposes by the crew, or
                passengers
                any private ship or
                private aircraft and
                directed:
                i) on the high seas against another ship or aircraft
                apparatus or against persons or property
                on board;
                ii) against any ship or aircraft,
                persons or property in a place outside the jurisdiction of whatever
                whatever the state;
                b) any act of voluntary participation in the use of any
                either a ship or an aircraft, committed with
                knowledge of the circumstances by virtue of which the ship or aircraft
                the device is a pirate ship or aircraft
                apparatus;
                c) any act that is incitement or conscientious
                assistance in the performance of an action envisaged
                in subparagraph a or b.
                Where is it about UAV or BANK, plus and potentially future complexes with AI do not fall under the definition of a crew and passengers, and nowhere ... laughing wink
                1. Ua3qhp
                  Ua3qhp 7 March 2021 21: 00
                  0
                  There is an act of aggression. The flag of the country on whose behalf the same was acting.
                  The one who arranged this petty dirty trick will be looked for persistently. They will find and will beat them, so that the others will be discouraged. Attack patrol boats. What's the point?
                2. Intruder
                  Intruder 7 March 2021 23: 32
                  0
                  The one who arranged this petty dirty trick will be looked for persistently. They will find them and will beat them, so that they will not disdain others. Attack the patrol boats. What's the point?
                  special operations, terrorists of all stripes, they are still looking for ..., local conflicts, there are also a lot of them every year ... wink
                3. Ua3qhp
                  Ua3qhp 8 March 2021 10: 28
                  +1
                  Again we are slipping into petty terrorist activities. There is no sense in equipping ships with this.
                  By the way, I read the relevant UN convention.
                  The state whose flag is hoisted on the ship is responsible for the damage caused.
                  If a ship operates under several flags, then it is considered to have no jurisdiction, so it can be captured, inspected and treated with the crew according to the laws of the country that seized the ship.
                4. Intruder
                  Intruder 8 March 2021 16: 41
                  0
                  The state whose flag is hoisted on the ship is responsible for the damage caused.
                  and if it is on sea freight, i.e. a private person of another country on lease, there are so many legal incidents that immediately pop up, with the "unpleasant smell" of international law and state accessories ...!?
                  If a ship operates under several flags, then it is considered to have no jurisdiction, so it can be captured, inspected and treated with the crew according to the laws of the country that seized the ship.
                  I agree, and the most important thing is that first you need to capture and inspect it, carry out the appropriate procedures and examinations ... which takes time and money ... everything else, and only then "notes of protest and screams" in the UN Security Council, and in the meantime the crew a patrol ship feeds crabs or other inhabitants of the seabed ... plus the cost of the goal itself and the loss of political influence, only the world media will be happy, in this case ... laughing
                  Again we slide into petty terrorist activities
                  many renegades and all sorts of insurgents in the Persian Gulf will be glad to the one who would sell such a complex to them, plus small Asian countries in the Pacific and Indian Oceans ... The market has not yet been mastered, and there are no monopolies yet ... you can trade them for all four sides ... wink
                5. Intruder
                  Intruder 8 March 2021 16: 52
                  0
                  shamanize this platform, replace some components, instead of the UR PU - it's easier to install a UAV than to create it from scratch:
                6. Ua3qhp
                  Ua3qhp 8 March 2021 18: 35
                  +1
                  Receive the honorary title of "Terrorists' Accomplice"?
                  For example, an attack by such UAVs in the amount of 40 pieces of a patrol ship of Project 22160.
                  They won't drown him. There will be an act of aggression. The patrolman will completely catch up with the ship from which this evil spirits were launched, then either inspection or anti-ship missiles on board.
                  He also has radio communication, and planes can arrive from the shore. It is practically useless to hide a ship at sea. They will find it. Look further above. And from this crew everyone will be otmazyvatsya.
                7. Intruder
                  Intruder 9 March 2021 00: 58
                  0
                  For example, an attack by such UAVs in the amount of 40 pieces of a patrol ship of Project 22160.
                  But what about the channel of "Positive-MK", with other parameters of the 80s it turns out !? Field of view: in range - up to 128 km., And in elevation - 40 degrees., Somehow it does not overwhelm, even the presence of Caliber and X-35U on board, but 1 x PU SAM 3M-47 "Gibka", 8 × MANPADS "Igla-S", "Verba", well, this is the Stone Age already, especially for stealthy drones with low ESR and thermal signature, the way it will drop them, maybe: 1 × 76,2 mm AU AK-176MA, or 2 x MTPU 14,5 mm ....! ??? laughing fellow Although this does not help, targeting channels - and less than 40 units are guaranteed to score, and there will still be a reserve ... but what about the LMS with small-sized targets, have digital ballistic computers delivered ... ???
                  In short, I was not impressed by your example .... and how many of these patrol ships in general around the world go ...! ??? request
                8. Ua3qhp
                  Ua3qhp 9 March 2021 16: 17
                  +1
                  And what damage can they inflict on him? Will they deny the move? Doubtful.
                  The patrolman was taken as an example. He doesn't have a helicopter. But there is no electronic warfare. With a helicopter it will be even more fun.
                  To sink the Rook-type patrol boats? Meaning?
                9. Intruder
                  Intruder 9 March 2021 17: 07
                  0
                  And what damage can they inflict on him? Will they deny the move? Doubtful.
                  The move will not be deprived, here I agree! But antenna-feeder ones can damage, here a large mass of warheads is not needed, a fragmentation flow and all the things, so that the electronic warfare and radar station, technical, before repair at the base, or send it to the repair dock !? A turntable is not a panacea, against a drone with a small-sized airborne missile system, it will slam it and go further, it is not intended for air combat ... winked
                10. Ua3qhp
                  Ua3qhp 9 March 2021 17: 57
                  +1
                  The spinner is not against drones, it is against the carrier ship. Spot, overtake and guide a decent ship.
                11. Intruder
                  Intruder 9 March 2021 20: 15
                  0
                  The spinner is not against drones, it is against the carrier ship
                  Several loitering drones in the air security of the ship (base carrier) were left, and they have small-sized airborne missile systems that can be effectively used against helicopters, then what !?
                  Spot, overtake and guide a decent ship.
                  can also be detected with the transmission of coordinates, namely from the board of a light drone to the container of the complex on its carrier, and there already to the satellite and further .., (and if the second container with the air defense missile system is at least 2 units), for manned "large brothers ", with anti-ship missiles and other heavy and long-range" gifts ".., as an assumption about the applicability of preliminary target designation, in the field of drones functionality !?
                12. Ua3qhp
                  Ua3qhp 9 March 2021 20: 34
                  0
                  Drones carrying an explosive missile missile with a range of 50 kilometers, and even preferably with a guidance radar, are not at all small and cheap, and plus an air defense system. It turns out a full-fledged warship, which was sent alone to destruction. He will certainly be drowned. and why then drones, hammer the anti-ship missiles at once, at least drown someone.
                13. Intruder
                  Intruder 9 March 2021 20: 49
                  0
                  Drones carrying an explosive missile missile with a range of 50 kilometers, and preferably with a guidance radar, are not at all small and cheap
                  , somehow at 50 km., for a long time every little thing that has been loitering has been flying, plus not a radar, but an OES, with a thermal imaging channel, for detecting a helicopter, this may not be possible, on a base carrier, this is from the category of completely economical complete set for a poor customer, for example, I indicated him that it may be, but not a mandatory option ...
  • Sckepsis
    Sckepsis 10 March 2021 07: 24
    0

    All this sounds very "expensive", but in fact, with mass production, all this can be realized in the dimensions and at the cost of a modern smartphone.

    There is reason to doubt this statement.
  • justas-xnumx
    justas-xnumx 10 March 2021 11: 34
    0
    Undoubtedly, the kamikaze UAV is the next stage of high-precision weapons, especially the use of a swarm. It is necessary to develop a defense that confidently strikes this swarm. What will it be - an electromagnetic gun, a beam weapon, or something else, let's see. Surely they are already thinking about this, and they are thinking intensely.
  • Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 13 May 2021 13: 34
    +1
    In practice, the truth will be somewhere in between. Electronic warfare systems can really complicate the life of UAVs, but not completely paralyze their work.

    Completely paralyze the operation of weapons with a radio command control system.

    The use of modern digital noise-immune transmitters, simultaneously operating in several wavelength ranges, with pseudo-random frequency tuning (PFC), will minimize the effect of electronic warfare equipment.

    They will not allow it - the PPRCH did not appear yesterday and the means of dealing with it were worked out in the GSVG.

    The enemy can first "clean up" the electronic warfare means, and then strike the UAV.

    This is a naive idea of ​​the tactics of the electronic warfare systems.
    The electronic warfare of the area is initially in a passive mode. In order to initiate active countermeasures to electronic warfare against a UAV raid, there must be certain factors - for example, the massiveness of the raid, the entry of the UAV into a certain area, etc.
    Yes - you can try to provoke electronic warfare, open the system of antenna emitters, this is already from the field of tactical tricks of the opposing sides and factors of mobility of electronic warfare systems.
    Rather, the electronic warfare will catch a massive UAV raid by surprise and "hang" unguided UAVs until they run out of fuel.
    I would use 2-3 mobile jammers, alternately changing their location and maintaining a continuous jamming field in the protected area.

    And in the offensive, he would have thrown the enemy's near rear with cheap broadband jammers - interrupting tactical communications for hours and processing enemy units one by one, if these lovers of "gadgets" do not think to stretch a fiber-optic line or twisted pair to each tactical link.

    Once again, I will give an example of the weight of electronic warfare in combat: in 1988, the GSVG electronic warfare battalion, as part of combat training, almost "landed" without fuel a group of F-16 aircraft relocated from Italy to Germany with a complete loss of orientation, "clogging" communication channels and navigation beacons. The adversaries have disaccustomed to flying on paper maps ...
    The command equated each EW battalion in terms of effectiveness with a motorized rifle division.