Military Review

How the Nazi FAU missile program became the base of the Soviet rocket and space program

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How the Nazi FAU missile program became the base of the Soviet rocket and space program

The formation of the American missile program under the leadership of the German designer Wernher von Braun is well known. There is very little information about the birth of the Soviet missile program with the participation of another team of German specialists under the leadership of Helmut Grettrup.


Nazi missile program


After the end of the war in 1945, American and Soviet intelligence services began hunting for the secret technology of the Third Reich in the field of missile production and for specialists with this knowledge. The Americans are more fortunate. They were the first to occupy Thuringia and the Peenemünde rocket range, removed all the equipment and the surviving missiles, taking with them all the specialists who were there.

When this territory was handed over to the Soviet troops, there was practically nothing left there.

The collection of information on missile technology and the search for scientists and designers involved in the development of missiles was led by Zhukov's deputy, General Serov. At his suggestion, a group of Soviet designers in rocketry, disguised as Soviet officers, was sent to Germany in 1945, consisting of Korolev, Glushko, Pilyugin, Ryazansky, Kuznetsov and a number of others. The group was headed by the future Marshal of Artillery Yakovlev and the People's Commissar of Armaments Ustinov.

The interest was due to the fact that the German missile program was much more successful than the American and Soviet ones. If Western and Soviet specialists created liquid-propellant rocket engines with a thrust of up to 1,5 tons, then the Germans launched mass production of engines with a thrust of up to 27 tons.

Under the leadership of Werner von Braun, the V-1 cruise missile was created with a range of 250 km and a speed of 600 km / h. And also a V-2 ballistic missile with a range of 320 km and a speed of 5900 km / h.

Since June 1944, about 10 V-000 rockets have been launched across London. Of these, only 1 reached the goal. And since September 2400, 1944 V-8000 missiles have been launched, and only about 2 have reached the target. The V-2500 rocket became the prototype of cruise missiles in the USA and the USSR, and the V-1 - the prototype of ballistic and space missiles.

Restoring the production of V-2 missiles in Germany


Despite Serov's best efforts, the entire rocket could not be found. But soon the Dora underground plant found components for several sets of missiles.

We also managed to attract German specialists. The case helped.

All leading experts, including Brown and his deputy Helmut Grettrup, were moved by the Americans to their zone of occupation. Grettrup's wife came to the Soviet command and made it clear that everything is decided not by her husband, but by her. And, if the conditions suit her, then she is ready to go to the Soviet zone with her husband and children. A few days later, the whole family with two children was transported to the Soviet zone. An attempt to get Wernher von Braun out failed. The Americans guarded him too well.

Grettrup helped to find specialists. And Serov decided to restore production and assembly of the FAU-2 with the involvement of Korolev and Glushko. Institutes, laboratories and pilot plants were organized in different places.

Grettrup, close to Brown, was better informed than other specialists about the V-2 work. And at the Rabe Institute a specialized “Bureau of Grettrup” was created, which compiled a detailed report on the work on the V-2.

In February 1946, all units involved in the V-2 work were merged into the Nordhausen Institute, whose director was General Gaidukov. He had earlier achieved the release of Korolev and Glushko from the camp, the first of whom became the chief engineer of the institute, and the second - the head of the engine department.

The institute included three V-2 assembly plants: the Rabe Institute, plants for the production of engines and control equipment, and bench bases. Grettrup was one of the leaders in the restoration of V-2 production.

By April 1946, the pilot plant for the assembly of missiles was restored, the testing laboratory was restored, five technological and design bureaus were created, which made it possible to assemble seven V-2 missiles from German parts. Of these, four were prepared for bench tests, and three missiles were sent to Moscow for further study. In total, up to 1200 German specialists were involved in this work.

In the presence of Serov and the heads of divisions, bench tests of rocket engines were successfully carried out. Then 17 missiles were sent to Moscow.

Subsequently, at the Kapustin Yar test site in October 1947, with the participation of German specialists, V-2 missiles were launched, which were taken to the Soviet Union by Serov's group.

The first three launches were unsuccessful.

The missiles were seriously off course. One of the rockets rose to an altitude of 86 km and flew 274 km. At a meeting with the Germans, one of the control system specialists suggested that the missile's deviation from the course was due to the high voltage applied to the gyroscopes. And he suggested installing a voltage regulator.

These recommendations have been implemented. And subsequent launches ensured high accuracy up to 700 m. Created on the basis of the V-2 with the participation of German specialists, the first Soviet R-1 missile systems were put into service in November 1950.

Soviet designers under the leadership of Korolev significantly improved the German design by installing a number of new units. And they laid the foundation for the Soviet rocket and space program.

Deportation of German specialists to the Soviet Union


Considering that, according to the decision taken together with the allies, the territory of Germany was subject to complete demilitarization with a ban on the development and production of any types of weapons, Serov at the end of the summer of 1946 proposed to Stalin to take the largest German specialists in atomic, rocket, optical and electronic technology to the Soviet Union.

This proposal was supported by Stalin. And the preparations for the operation began in secret.

In early October, all the main leaders of the Nordhausen Institute were gathered for a closed meeting with Gaidukov. Here they first saw Colonel-General Serov. In addition, he was also Beria's deputy for counterintelligence and had unlimited powers.

Serov asked everyone to think and draw up lists with brief characteristics of German specialists who could be useful while working in the Union.

Selected German specialists were taken to the Union regardless of their wishes. The exact date of the deportation was unknown.

The operation was carried out by specially trained operatives, each of whom was assigned a military translator and soldiers to help load things.

German specialists were told that they were being taken out to continue the same work in the Soviet Union, since it was unsafe for them to work in Germany.

The Germans were allowed to take any things with them, even furniture. Family members could go or stay at will. Under such free conditions, one of the scientists, as it turned out later, under the guise of his wife, wrote down his mistress, and no claims were made to him. The Germans were indeed provided with the most favorable conditions for their fruitful work in the USSR.

In order to avoid leakage of information, the deportees were not informed of anything in advance. They should have found out about it on the last day. To soften the deportation, Serov suggested organizing a banquet for the Germans and treating them well with alcohol in order to avoid any excesses. Such an action was simultaneously carried out in several cities at once. There were no excesses.

The evacuation of German specialists with their families to the Soviet Union was carried out in one day on October 22, 1946.

On the day of the dispatch, Grettrup's wife showed herself again, declaring that she was not going to starve her children, she had two beautiful cows here, and she would not go anywhere without them. The high-ranking husband did not dare to contradict his wife. Serov gave the command to attach a freight car with two cows to the train, supplying them with hay for the road. But the question arose who would milk them, the road was long. Frau Grettrup said that she would milk the cows herself.

Under Serov's leadership, 150 German specialists with their families (about 500 people in total) were sent to the Soviet Union. Among them there are 13 professors, 32 doctors of technical sciences, 85 graduated engineers and 21 practical engineers.

They were sent to sanatoriums on the Gorodomlya Island on Lake Seliger near the town of Ostashkov. And placed on the territory of the former Sanitary-Technical Institute, redesigned for the development of rocket technology. It was an ideal place where foreign intelligence could not penetrate.

Accommodation conditions for German specialists were very good for the post-war years. They lived like in a resort. And they were given the opportunity to work quietly in their specialty.

To manage missile development in the USSR, NII-88 was created in Kaliningrad (Korolev) near Moscow, headed by Lev Honor, a major organizer of military production.

In the structure of this institute on Gorodomlya Island there was a Branch No. 1, the chief designer and soul of which was Grettrup.

It should be noted that after Germany, Korolev, for some unknown reason, was "pushed" to third roles and headed only one of the departments in NII-88. At the same time, other comrades-in-arms on the "German business trip" became the heads of the leading institutes and factories. But soon (thanks to his remarkable organizational skills) he found himself at the head of an entire industry.

A group of German specialists on Gorodomlya Island made a significant contribution to the formation of the Soviet rocket and space program.

How they lived, spent their time and what they developed are the subject of a separate conversation in the next article.
Author:
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  1. mat-vey
    mat-vey 4 March 2021 04: 19
    +9
    "Under the leadership of Werner von Braun, the V-1 cruise missile was created with a range of 250 km and a speed of 600 km / h." - another opening at VO?
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 4 March 2021 04: 32
      -6
      Have you heard anything about the FAU-2?

      And in the States he was on a tour, just visiting the president? And did the Yankees do the Apollo project on their own?

      Familiar faces?

      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 4 March 2021 04: 34
        +11
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Have you heard anything about the FAU-2?

        It's strange all my life I thought that the FAU-1 and the FAU-2 are completely different (and in principle) things ... What do you think?
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 4 March 2021 05: 10
          -4
          Similar.
          1. mat-vey
            mat-vey 4 March 2021 05: 11
            +4
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Similar.

            Then what is your answer to me?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 4 March 2021 05: 50
              -10%
              Exclusively for the reason that you mentioned only the projectile plane and not a word about the rocket.
              1. mat-vey
                mat-vey 4 March 2021 05: 59
                +6
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Exclusively for the reason that you mentioned only the projectile plane and not a word about the rocket.

                Why should I mention the rocket? Brown did exactly that.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 March 2021 06: 09
                  -4
                  And I'm not saying that you owe someone something. And the fact that von Braun did it, this is, as you put it, "another discovery", only not VO, but yours.
                  1. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 4 March 2021 06: 16
                    +6
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    as you put it, "the next discovery", but not VO, but yours.

                    Have you read the article? I quoted a direct excerpt.
                  2. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 4 March 2021 07: 50
                    +5
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    as you put it, "the next discovery", but not VO, but yours.

                    Would you like to quote an excerpt from the article again? No problems: "Under the leadership of Wernher von Braun, a V-1 cruise missile with a range of 250 km and a speed of 600 km / h was created." Although you yourself can read this in the article ...
                    In general, everything is clear to you with this question ..
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 06: 56
        -5
        Uncle Kostya do not throw the beads to the "pigs" will not be appreciated !!!
        Regards, Vlad!
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 4 March 2021 07: 08
          +8
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Uncle Kostya do not throw the beads to the "pigs" will not be appreciated !!!
          Regards, Vlad!

          You don't seem to have bothered to read the same article ..
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 4 March 2021 08: 02
          -8
          I won't, Vlad, I'm already tired of it. drinks
          1. mat-vey
            mat-vey 4 March 2021 08: 07
            +3
            Aren't you tired of writing nonsense?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 4 March 2021 08: 13
              -8
              Well, not only to you, do not make a monopoly out of this.
              1. mat-vey
                mat-vey 4 March 2021 08: 15
                +3
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Well, not only to you, do not make a monopoly out of this.

                I never wanted to compete with you ... Especially now ..
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 March 2021 08: 21
                  -7
                  Modesty is a positive quality of a person. yes
                  1. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 4 March 2021 08: 22
                    +2
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    Modesty

                    And maybe secrecy ... although time made the same contribution - PM and civil ... there was no time for publications ...
                  2. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 4 March 2021 08: 26
                    +3
                    And he also made the first aircraft engine with injection, and for some reason many praise the "German genius" ..
                  3. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 4 March 2021 08: 28
                    +4
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    Modesty is a positive quality of a person.

                    And the ability to admit mistakes indicates the presence of intelligence.
                    Naturally the first answer was not for you .. And the second.
        3. Undecim
          Undecim 4 March 2021 08: 07
          +6

          You guys are wrong about the beads. Von Braun did not create the V-1, Matvey is right. The V-1 was created by Robert Lusser (pictured) and Fritz Goslau. The lead developer is Fieseler. The rocket was called Fieseler Fi 103. Engines - Argus, control system - Askania.
          1. mat-vey
            mat-vey 4 March 2021 08: 14
            +6
            Quote: Undecim
            You guys are wrong about the beads. Von Braun did not create the V-1, Matvey is right. V-1 was created by Robert Lusser and Fritz Goslau. The lead developer is Fieseler. The rocket was called Fieseler Fi 103. Engines - Argus, control system - Askania.

            And if my memory serves me the "mathematics" of the engine B. Stechkin.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 4 March 2021 08: 17
              +8
              It is possible that the Germans were familiar with his work on the WFD, he began to publish them in 1929.
              1. mat-vey
                mat-vey 4 March 2021 08: 19
                +2
                Quote: Undecim
                he began publishing them in 1929.

                And for some reason in my memory it was deposited that before ... He generally created a lot of things both in theory and in practice.
          2. Undecim
            Undecim 4 March 2021 12: 04
            0
            Oh, already some kind of ignorant organism pulled up with minuses.
            1. mat-vey
              mat-vey 4 March 2021 12: 22
              0
              Quote: Undecim
              Oh, already some kind of ignorant organism pulled up with minuses.

              And not one ..
          3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 12: 32
            -5
            Quote: Undecim
            You guys are wrong about the beads. Von Braun did not create the V-1,


            Viktor Nikolaevich, where on the branch did I or Konstantin claim to be involved in the creation of the FAU-1 (V-1) by von Braun?
            It started with
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Have you heard anything about the FAU-2?

            And in the States he was on a tour, just visiting the president? And did the Yankees do the Apollo project on their own?

            Familiar faces?


            Then came the rudeness on the part of the opponent.
            1. mat-vey
              mat-vey 4 March 2021 12: 37
              +5
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              Viktor Nikolaevich, where on the branch did I or Konstantin claim to be involved in the creation of the FAU-1 (V-1) by von Braun?

              Well then, a non-polite gentleman can easily point out where I stated this ... Although the light lords seem to have the ability to read ..
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              Then came the rudeness on the part of the opponent.

              For example?
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 12: 41
                -8
                Aren't you tired of writing nonsense?

                hi
                1. mat-vey
                  mat-vey 4 March 2021 12: 43
                  +5
                  Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                  Aren't you tired of writing nonsense?

                  Do not tell me when the truth became rudeness? Here is a brazen lie quite similar to rudeness.
                  And your quotes are out of place ...
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 12: 55
                    -4
                    You and Konstantin wrote about different things and at the same time managed to quarrel, if you do not hear your opponent, then these are your problems, not his.
                    Although the most important thing for you is "HYIP", but even here you are an outsider.
                    For four years and with almost 4000 comments, you have been vegetating as a "colonel". This is almost two times less effective than that of Constantine.
                    1. mat-vey
                      mat-vey 4 March 2021 13: 01
                      +6
                      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                      if you do not hear your opponent, then these are your problems, not his.

                      Well, teach Konstantin to listen ...
                      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                      For four years and with almost 4000 comments, you have been vegetating as a "colonel". This is almost two times less effective than Konstantin's.

                      Oh, oh, what a pity .. Do you go here for cardboard spillikins? And what is "efficiency" in what? And for what?
                    2. mat-vey
                      mat-vey 4 March 2021 13: 21
                      +4
                      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                      Although the most important thing for you is "HYIP", but even here you are an outsider.

                      Did you write something about rudeness there?
            2. Undecim
              Undecim 4 March 2021 12: 45
              +7
              Perhaps I did not understand correctly the course of the discussion, but it began with the fact that mat-vey quite rightly caught the author of ignorance and cited his statement that "Under the leadership of Werner von Braun, the V-1 cruise missile was created with a range of 250 km and a speed of 600 km / h.".
              At the same time, von Braun's involvement in the creation of the V-2 was not denied, this is a separate topic.
              What then is the essence of the claims?
        4. vladcub
          vladcub 4 March 2021 13: 28
          +1
          Namesake, in the bible: "do not throw pearls in front of pigs"
    2. Professor
      Professor 4 March 2021 07: 46
      -4
      Quote: mat-vey
      "Under the leadership of Werner von Braun, the V-1 cruise missile was created with a range of 250 km and a speed of 600 km / h." - another opening at VO?

      Why not? Supersonic RR ... wink
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 4 March 2021 07: 58
        +5
        Quote: Professor
        Why not? Supersonic RR ...

        laughing
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 04: 57
    +2
    ... But the question arose who would milk them, the road was long. Frau Grettrup said that she would milk the cows herself.

    Class aunt! "There are women in German villages" !!! laughing
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 4 March 2021 05: 44
      -1
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      she will milk the cows herself.

      She then reincarnated as Matroskin .... "We, with my Murka, will get twice as much milk!" smile
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 4 March 2021 09: 41
      +1
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      Class aunt! "There are women in German villages" !!!

      About 20 years ago, Finnish TV showed a program with German project participants who worked in the USSR. One professor or doctor was even awarded the title of "Hero of Socialist Labor", who showed the decree handed to him, and joked, "I should be a hero of capitalist labor, but I became a Hero of socialist". The supply of food and clothing was an order of magnitude higher than for Soviet specialists, as were salaries. Children of specialists studied in Russian schools.
  3. WHAT IS
    WHAT IS 4 March 2021 05: 40
    +9
    An interesting topic, thanks to the author, it remains to wait for the continuation.
  4. Kisa
    Kisa 4 March 2021 05: 55
    +12
    there is a wonderful book "People and Rockets". colorfully described they were still shooting around and they were settled by hicks in the castle of a German baron ... candelabra ... when it all began ...
    the Germans went very far in these missiles. the V-2 engine was used in the R-1 on oxygen and ethyl alcohol in the 1950s. in R-2 in 1952 the same forced from V-2. ...
    only in 1956 did the P-11 switch to nitric acid and kerosene.
    made in Dnepropetrovsk at Yuzhmash.
    by the way, 90 types of steel per rocket. 60 types of non-ferrous metals. 60 kinds of non-metals (plastic, rubber, graphite ...). 90 relays ....
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 4 March 2021 06: 02
      +8
      Quote: kitty
      only in 1956 did the P-11 switch to nitric acid and kerosene.

      Although work on these engines began almost immediately in parallel ...
    2. mark1
      mark1 4 March 2021 06: 15
      +6
      Quote: kitty
      in R-2 in 1952 the same forced from V-2.

      This is what - in the R-5 in 54m the same forced engine from the FAU-2 (R-103)
  5. U-58
    U-58 4 March 2021 06: 05
    +8
    Very informative. Previously, this topic was not detailed.
    But I wonder how much difference did Korolev and Glushko see between the conditions created for the Germans and the conditions in the Kazan sharashka?
    1. sir Galant
      sir Galant 4 March 2021 08: 55
      +4
      they saw it, but what could the prisoner do about it. I read somewhere that the Germans received more money Korolev every 10
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 4 March 2021 08: 02
    +7
    The case helped.

    All leading experts, including Brown and his deputy Helmut Grettrup, were moved by the Americans to their zone of occupation. Grettrup's wife came out to the Soviet command and made it clear that everything is decided not by the husband, but by her... And, if the conditions suit her, then she is ready to go to the Soviet zone with her husband and children. A few days later, the whole family with two children was transported to the Soviet zone.


    Boy-woman, everything was always decided by herself. good I decided to decide, but ended up in the Soviet Union for 7 years with my family, and then they still left in 1953 for West Germany.

    But when the Americans already offered Grettrup a contract to work on missiles in the United States, he said that ... consult with wife.

    Imgardt Grettrup stated that she has enough rocketry in Russia, she won't go anywhere from Germany and she doesn't need America... Despite persuasion, the Grettrups categorically refused to go to the United States. Six hours later, they were simply put out on the street from a luxurious apartment along with a raven. (C)

    All his further scientific activities in Germany were no longer associated with astronautics. But the man was so talented that he achieved squeezing successes in a completely new field - computer science. Clever girl!

    He, in particular, laid the foundations for storing identification data on integrated circuits (now it is used in SIM cards of mobile phones, credit and debit plastic cards), etc.

    And his restless leading wife wrote a book of memoirs about his stay in the USSR:
    While we are sitting there, Pyotr (the son of the Grettrupovs) is playing on the street with the village children, watching the smoking of bacon and chasing chickens and geese. Last Sunday, when we all watched them play, I said: “We could live peacefully if there was no war ...»


    Interesting family ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 13: 00
      +1
      Quote: Olgovich
      The Grettrups flatly refused to go to the United States. Six hours later, they were simply put out on the street from a luxurious apartment along with a raven. (C)

      And where did the cows go? laughing
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 4 March 2021 13: 40
        +3
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Quote: Olgovich
        The Grettrups flatly refused to go to the United States. Six hours later, they were simply put out on the street from a luxurious apartment along with a raven. (C)

        And where did the cows go? laughing

        I think. they stayed on Seliger (maybe their offspring are still giving the vengeful milk): our Grettrups were no longer needed, but they themselves, I think, were glad to take their feet away quickly without any conditions. And the kids have grown up for seven.

        But in Germany, upon returning from the USSR in 53, they had ...raven/

        And how she sent the amers!

        Grettrup's wife was just wow! yes
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 13: 56
          0
          Quote: Olgovich
          But in Germany, upon returning from the USSR in 53, they had ... a raven /

          And I already thought that they met gypsies on the way back! laughing
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 4 March 2021 14: 54
        +1
        How where? Ate
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 4 March 2021 08: 28
    +3
    He had previously achieved release from the Queen's camp,
    Well, actually, Tupolev pulled Korolev out of the camp even before the war, another thing is that his criminal record was removed much later.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 13: 01
      +1
      Quote: Aviator_
      Well, actually, Tupolev pulled Korolev out of the camp even before the war, another thing is that his criminal record was removed much later.


      For the space program!
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 4 March 2021 18: 45
        +3
        For the space program!

        Earlier, when he managed to repeat A-4 (V-2), we called it R-1. It seems that Chertok has about it.
  8. Undecim
    Undecim 4 March 2021 08: 30
    +5
    And since September 1944, 8000 V-2 rockets have been launched.
    The author made a report. Apparently I spent all my strength on articles about Ukraine.
    In total, according to various sources, they collected from 5200 to 5975 missiles. Launched - 3200.
  9. sir Galant
    sir Galant 4 March 2021 08: 53
    +2
    Thank you for the article! we look forward to continuing!
  10. Undecim
    Undecim 4 March 2021 12: 03
    +5
    There is very little information about the birth of the Soviet missile program with the participation of another team of German specialists under the leadership of Helmut Grettrup.
    From the fact that the author almost literally rewrote the chapters from the book by Boris Evgenievich Chertok "Rockets and People", there is no more information.
    For those interested, I recommend this series of four books, especially since it is online.
    For those who speak "enemy languages" it will be interesting to read the memoirs of Imgard, the wife of Grettrup, published in 1959. I have not met in German on the net, in English - "Rocket Wife" can be found.
  11. vladcub
    vladcub 4 March 2021 14: 52
    +3
    "Brown and his Deputy Grettrup" in Vick says that Grettrup was
    Deputy Steinhof.
    Deputy Brown or Steinhof is not important. It is more important that the
    kilo Frau Grettrup, get in touch with us. Maybe she really isn't
    felt sympathy for fascism. Perhaps some kind of female "graters"
    with Brown's girlfriend. Somewhere on TV I heard that Brown had cupids with
    secretary. Together with her, he surrendered to the Americans
  12. ikrut
    ikrut 4 March 2021 15: 21
    +3
    In the mid-70s, we, as strategic missilemen, were trained at the military department of the university. So there, as teaching aids, there were units from the FAU "in the cut". Practically copies of 8K63 units. Sobs-but this rocket was created on the basis of the FAU. But it was done exclusively by our specialists at the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau and at Yuzhmash. There were no Germans there at all.
  13. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 4 March 2021 15: 39
    +2
    Gertrup is a minor figure in the von Braun group. He was not taken to the United States because they did not want to, and so he remained at the disposal of his wife. Not a single German leading rocket scientist made it to the USSR.
  14. Old26
    Old26 4 March 2021 19: 23
    +7
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Familiar faces?


    Significant, but similar to a photomontage. They sit side by side, and von Braun has a head twice as large as Kennedy's ... laughing
    1. IPC 245
      IPC 245 9 March 2021 06: 58
      +9
      Quote: Old26
      but it looks like a photomontage. They sit side by side, and von Braun has a head twice as large as Kennedy's ...

      By the way, yes! I somehow did not pay attention right away, thanks!
  15. Unknown
    Unknown 4 March 2021 20: 23
    +3
    They were the first to occupy Thuringia and the missile range in Peenemünde, took out all the equipment and the surviving missiles, taking with them all the specialists who were there ......... After these lines, the whole article can be questioned. There were no Americans in Peenemünde, but Penemünde was occupied by the advancing Soviet troops on March 10. There were no more such valuable trophies as on the Mittelwerk, all the most valuable by that time had already been taken away. It remained for Soviet specialists to study the test facilities of the range, firing stands, bunkers for launches and boxes of empty workshops. “All equipment down to the last device and even machine tools at a large factory, the building of which was almost not damaged, was dismantled, taken out, and what they did not manage to evacuate before the appearance of Marshal Rokossovsky's troops was rendered unusable by the SS Sonderkommando,” complained Academician Chertok.

    Nevertheless, later in other German cities, primarily in the same Nordhausen, which entered the Soviet zone of occupation, scientists from the USSR managed to collect a sufficient amount of information about the Nazi missile program, recruit some specialists, restore with their help several copies of the "V-2" ... Sergei Korolev became the chief engineer of the Nordhausen Institute, created in 1946 to study the German experience, and Valentin Glushko, the future father of the Soviet rocket engine building, became the head of the engine department. That's how it was, and the article is a figment of the author's imagination.
  16. dgonni
    dgonni 4 March 2021 22: 42
    -1
    Well, if on business? Then the entire modern weapons system was created on the basis of Deutsch developments!
    From tanks to space with air defense missiles!
    Shooters and guns with RPG from tel zhy!
    Since the 60s, in fact, there have been no major breakthroughs.
    Musk? Musk is reusable. Breakthrough.
    But there is nothing fundamentally new yet.
    Musk about manufacturability.
  17. alpamys
    alpamys 5 March 2021 02: 43
    -1
    Werner von Braun was a petty clerk at the KB.

    but on October 3, 1942, the Germans were the first to launch a V2 rocket into Space, at an altitude of more than 100 km.
  18. Chack wessel
    Chack wessel 5 March 2021 07: 20
    +2
    It is clear to every cultured person who knows at least a little about technology that the Soviet Vostok rocket, on which Gagarin flew into space, is an exact copy of the German Von Braun FAU-2 rocket, and the Vostok descent vehicle, which returned Gagarin to Earth, is an exact copy of the Von Munchausen nucleus. It is enough to look at the pictures on the Internet to be convinced of this.
  19. Chack wessel
    Chack wessel 5 March 2021 07: 22
    +2
    Quote: alpamys
    but on October 3, 1942, the Germans were the first to launch a V2 rocket into Space, at an altitude of more than 100 km.


    It seems to me that the Germans on October 3, 1942 had more pressing problems than launching rockets into space. :)
  20. Trapp1st
    Trapp1st 5 March 2021 10: 59
    0
    How the Nazi FAU missile program became the base of the Soviet rocket and space program
    On one well-known video hosting there are declassified Soviet films about assembly, testing, methods of using / using missiles starting with the FAU-2 / R-1 and beyond. You can trace (not too lazy) the stages of evolution of rocketry, and even in modern ballistic missiles, you learn the influence of the old FAU) But just say the FAU has become a base, many of the Nazis' unrealized ideas and projects (did not have time) for the development of rocket technology were already implemented by Soviet scientists in the early stages of the formation of the Soviet program, we can say that it, in principle, was completely based on the ideas of the gloomy Teutonic genius, and not just on the FAU rocket.
  21. IPC 245
    IPC 245 9 March 2021 06: 57
    +9
    Well, it was a help, of course, but the work of our scientists cannot be ignored ..