Military Review

Spacesuit Yu.A. Gagarin: 250 days to develop

33

prehistory



The work on the preparation of the first manned space flight was difficult, since many tasks were solved for the first time. And in some issues, there was no complete understanding of how a person would behave in space flight.

Work on the creation of the space suit began in the spring of 1959. The spacesuit under development received the index "C-10". Several samples were made and submitted for testing. But in February 1960, OKB-1 decided to abandon the use of the spacesuit in the first space flight. And instead of the spacesuit, work began on the creation of a V-3 protective suit.

The decision to use the SC in space flight was returned only in August 1960. Through uncompromising persistence aviation doctors and physiologists. But the requirements for the suit and coolant have changed again.

Thus, Plant No. 918 (NPP Zvezda JSC) developed a space suit for Yu.A. Gagarin in less than eight months (in fact, six months). And many studies confirming certain characteristics of the spacesuit, ensuring the safety of the cosmonaut, without which human flight was impossible, were formalized by decisions and acts literally days before the launch of the Vostok-1 spacecraft.


Spacesuit SK-1


The successful development of the SK-1 spacesuit in such a tight timeframe is due to the fact that it was created on the basis of the Vorkuta aviation spacesuit and the existing developments for the first version of the C-10 spacesuit, having undergone a number of changes to adapt to the new requirements set by OKB-1.

In particular, unlike Vorkuta, the SK-1 was equipped with an irreversible pressure helmet with double glazing and a system for automatically closing the glazing in the event of a drop in barometric pressure below 400–450 mm Hg. Art. (equivalent to an altitude of 5 km).

Spacesuit Yu.A. Gagarin: 250 days to develop

Structurally, the SK-1 was a classic soft-type spacesuit with an overpressure operating mode of 0,27 kgf / cm².

SK-1 had an inner (sealed) and outer (power) shell, on top of which an orange protective overalls were additionally worn, which facilitated the detection of the astronaut at the landing site and hid the general view of the spacesuit from Western special services.


A heat-protective suit was worn under the spacesuit (in fact, it was a B-3 heat-protective suit, which was originally supposed to be used without a spacesuit). It provided protection for the cosmonaut during an emergency splashdown. It had a forced ventilation system for the spacesuit. In addition, the suit was used in combination with parachute boots, necessary to reduce injuries when landing on a parachute.

The spacesuit provided the possibility of a space flight in the normal mode for up to 12 days and up to 5 hours when the spacecraft was depressurized in orbit. In the event of an accident during the descent from orbit, the autonomous coolant ensured the safety of the astronaut for 25 minutes. To fulfill natural needs during a long flight, the spacesuit had a so-called small appendix.

At the stage of standard ejection at an altitude of 8 km, the spacesuit provided oxygen supply to the cosmonaut until his descent to an altitude of 5 km. Then the suction of atmospheric air began.

In case of splashdown, the suit had a swimming gate filled with a can of carbon dioxide. A heat-protective suit provided protection for the astronaut from hypothermia in cold water for 12 hours.

The difference between the SK-1 spacesuit and the Vorkuta aviation SC was that sheet rubber was used as the containment. While in Vorkuta, porous rubber (neoprene) was used, which at the same time served as a heat-shielding layer.

The power system SK-1 used a steel cable running along the sides of the body from the armpits to the power belt. Adjustment of the cable (adjustment to the height of the astronaut) was carried out by tension using a special drum.

During the most dangerous sections of the flight (launching into orbit and entering the dense layers of the atmosphere), the spacesuit was hermetically closed. When flying in orbit, it was allowed to open the glazing of the pressure helmet and remove the gloves.

In the event of a sudden depressurization, the helmet glazing was lowered automatically. If at the time of the accident the cosmonaut did not have gloves, then their role was played by inflatable cuffs, which hermetically sealed the sleeves, isolating the bare hands. In this case, the cosmonaut had 1–2 minutes, during which he could have time to put on gloves before the hands swelled from vapor-gas emphysema so that it would be impossible to put on gloves.

The SK-1 spacesuits were used on the Vostok spacecraft. But (as experience gained in real space flights), modernization was constantly carried out for each subsequent flight.

In particular, on the basis of the SK-1 for Valentina Tereshkova, a “female” spacesuit “SK-2” was specially developed, adapted for female anthropometric features.

Продолжение следует ...
Author:
Photos used:
https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5ec81fa81c6c0b05eff079c2/skafandr-iua-gagarina-opisanie-i-harakteristiki-6024e9e2c597941f8b286263
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  1. rocket757
    rocket757 3 March 2021 18: 13
    +19
    The work on the preparation of the first manned space flight was difficult, since many tasks were solved for the first time.

    So our ancestors knew how, knew how to do business !!! They also remembered and followed the motto - If not WE, then WHO ???
    1. donavi49
      donavi49 3 March 2021 18: 19
      +3
      There, by the way, a serious competitor was announced from RocketLab (it shares the 4th place in launches in 2020 with ESA).
      8000
      KILOGRAMS TO LEO
      1500
      KILOGRAMS TO MARS / VENUS

      REUSEABLE
      LAUNCH AGAIN AND AGAIN
      HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT CAPABLE.

    2. WHAT IS
      WHAT IS 3 March 2021 18: 20
      +26
      Even how they knew how to do things - some 16 years after such a war and devastation they flew into space First in the world!
      1. Aag
        Aag 3 March 2021 18: 51
        +15
        Quote: WHAT IS
        Even how they knew how to do things - some 16 years after such a war and devastation they flew into space First in the world!

        Glory to the Soviet Space, starting with the hard workers, in a good, not current understanding of the word, I suspect that many of them did not even suspect what result they were working for ...
        But, there is a question: who of the members of the forum heard anything about domestic neoprene in those years, and much later? ...
        1. ycuce234-san
          ycuce234-san 4 March 2021 13: 17
          +2
          In the USSR it is "sovpren", "nairit", bypren, butachlor, skypren. Known since 1935.
          1. Aag
            Aag 4 March 2021 13: 20
            0
            Quote: ycuce234-san
            In the USSR it is "sovpren", "nairit", bypren, butachlor, skypren. Known since 1935.

            Thank...
            And then with wetsuits in the Union somehow it was not very ...
            1. ycuce234-san
              ycuce234-san 4 March 2021 13: 25
              +1
              Domestic wetsuits what is now what then - "terra ignore", including for articles.
              Interestingly, the same weapons of hunters were produced in large quantities, but civilian wetsuits and any body kit for a lover of scuba diving, fishermen and spearfishing - very much not even.
              1. Aag
                Aag 4 March 2021 14: 58
                0
                Quote: ycuce234-san
                Domestic wetsuits what is now what then - "terra ignore", including for articles.
                Interestingly, the same weapons of hunters were produced in large quantities, but civilian wetsuits and any body kit for a lover of scuba diving, fishermen and spearfishing - very much not even.

                The dry type "Tegur" -25 rubles, less often - "
                Sadko ". Wet, I do not know whose production, in the 80th year in Riga hung, EMNIP, for 200 (!) P.
                Underwater guns: some kind of wild crossbow (for 11 rubles. 80 kop), pneumatics: RPO-2 (27 rubles), RPO-4, ..., hydropneumatics: RPS-3 ...
                Now in Russia there are several brands producing wetsuits (even to order, according to your size) .Only imported neoprene (((.
                1. ycuce234-san
                  ycuce234-san 4 March 2021 16: 42
                  +1
                  The Nairit plant is one of the oldest chemical enterprises in Armenia, in 1940 it became the monopoly producer of chloroprene rubber in the USSR. Until the end of the 80s, the enterprise occupied 10-12% of the world market for synthetic rubber. In natural weight, this is 700-750 tons per year of this very isoprene-nairite.
                  However, rubber in the USSR was not at all in short supply - the same ATP and industrial equipment - did not experience any catastrophic difficulties with tires and rubber goods; the population and production did not have a shortage of rubber footwear and special footwear. That is, little was produced specifically of nairite (0,22 g / year per person), and even that population mainly consumed it in the form before polymerization - that is, in the form of a specific glue of shoemakers.
                  (https://www.kavkaz-uzel.eu/articles/269003/)
                  1. Aag
                    Aag 5 March 2021 10: 17
                    0
                    Quote: ycuce234-san
                    The Nairit plant is one of the oldest chemical enterprises in Armenia, in 1940 it became the monopoly producer of chloroprene rubber in the USSR. Until the end of the 80s, the enterprise occupied 10-12% of the world market for synthetic rubber. In natural weight, this is 700-750 tons per year of this very isoprene-nairite.
                    However, rubber in the USSR was not at all in short supply - the same ATP and industrial equipment - did not experience any catastrophic difficulties with tires and rubber goods; the population and production did not have a shortage of rubber footwear and special footwear. That is, little was produced specifically of nairite (0,22 g / year per person), and even that population mainly consumed it in the form before polymerization - that is, in the form of a specific glue of shoemakers.
                    (https://www.kavkaz-uzel.eu/articles/269003/)

                    Thank you, curious.
                    I wonder how things are now ...
                    1. ycuce234-san
                      ycuce234-san 5 March 2021 14: 49
                      +1
                      On the internet I saw, oddly enough, advertising of domestic neoprene and even for its use in diving it was advertised and even exported somewhere. It seems that now it is produced in the Russian Federation inland and for export, and that plant is still standing. And they do not do it enough again, because there is a large export from Italy and Taiwan, and from Armenia - there is nothing at all in this regard. Well, in the form of rubber adhesives, it was even earlier - this was always written on any tube of glue of any year - it was indicated that it contained rubber or chloroprene rubber.
  2. Alien From
    Alien From 3 March 2021 18: 44
    +9
    An interesting series of articles. Thanks to the author)
  3. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 3 March 2021 18: 48
    +10
    Glad to continue the series, respect to the author. One note - the text could have been larger.
    1. Bshkaus
      3 March 2021 22: 08
      +13
      One remark

      Then one reproach: no one would have read the larger text to the end (((, so I thought it expedient to split the material into several separate independent articles, which together give an overall picture. As for SK-1, I will publish two more articles 1-devoted inflatable cuffs on the sleeves, which made it possible to ensure the tightness of the spacesuit in the event of a depressurization of the spacecraft, even if the astronaut was at that moment without gloves - intriguing?;)
      and 2- description of the spacesuit operation algorithm in the event of depressurization and during standard ejection. Alternatively, a comparison of the SK-1 with the Mark-4 spacesuit for the Mercury spacecraft, but if there is a request and interest.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 3 March 2021 22: 19
        +1
        Come on, an interesting text, read in one breath. Of course, you need to compare with the suits of overseas "partners". About the cuffs - everything is clear, it is necessary to prevent air leakage from the spacesuit and give time to put on the gloves, and the design of their lock must be very reliable and fixation must be very fast.
        1. Bshkaus
          3 March 2021 22: 58
          +8
          Come on, interesting text, read in one breath

          It's just that the public is interested in VO. On another platform, where materials are published initially, and which promises to find potentially interested readers by itself, the picture is completely different: 1,5 views in 560 months !!!, here in five hours more than five times more))))). But since the chief designer said "anneal" and make information about our plant and products "available" to everyone, so you have to twirl around)))
          1. Alien From
            Alien From 4 March 2021 02: 12
            0
            Go for it) the theme of spacesuits is not hackneyed and the members of the forum like it))
      2. Per se.
        Per se. 4 March 2021 08: 06
        +2
        Quote: Bshkaus
        no one else would have read to the end of the text
        For those who are always "a lot of bukaff", they will not finish reading anyway. Do not be guided by such individuals, there are comics for them, there used to be the magazine "Funny Pictures". Thanks for the article and topic.
      3. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 4 March 2021 08: 07
        +1
        before the hands are swollen from vapor-gas emphysema so much that it will be impossible to put on gloves.
        I wonder how this effect was discovered? In real flights on stratospheric balloons and airplanes or on volunteers in pressure chambers?
        1. Bshkaus
          4 March 2021 10: 15
          +3
          I wonder how this effect was discovered? In real flights on stratospheric balloons and airplanes or on volunteers in pressure chambers

          At first, the very fact of vapor-gas emphysema at altitudes of more than 19,5 km was discovered on animals in a pressure chamber. And then on the testers. Last night I sent an article on this topic for publication, where I cited the results of research and an excerpt of an interview with a tester who had emphysema of the hands at an altitude of 30 km when he went up the climb in a pressure chamber without gloves. The article should be published in a few days. Those that do not go to the "news" section are moderated and edited according to the leftover principle and are published automatically according to the schedule
  4. beeper
    beeper 3 March 2021 19: 07
    +12
    So we waited for the story about the Gagarin spacesuit, told in a simple and accessible language, and very clearly, Thanks to the dear Author! good
    As a child, I had a favorite toy made of yellow thin plastic, 25 ÷ 30 centimeters tall, a Soviet cosmonaut in a spacesuit, with an appearance similar to the face of Yuri Gagarin and the red letters of the USSR on a pressure helmet.
    And then, like many Soviet boys, I dreamed of growing up and also becoming an astronaut in order to take off into space heights and go to the unknown depths of the Universe! yes
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 3 March 2021 20: 33
      +3
      As a child, I had a favorite toy made of yellow thin plastic, 25 ÷ 30 centimeters tall, a Soviet cosmonaut in a spacesuit, with an appearance similar to the face of Yuri Gagarin and the red letters of the USSR on a pressure helmet.
      I remember her, one of my beloved ones .., I also had a model "Vostoka-1" - the pride and envy of any Soviet child, with my older brother we modeled different devices and grinded small external elements by hand for six months, oh, times !!! smile
      1. Bshkaus
        3 March 2021 22: 09
        +2
        I also had a model "Vostok-1"

        Do you mean a plastic team? I remember this, I saw it with friends, now I look at flea markets, but alas ...
        1. Intruder
          Intruder 3 March 2021 23: 57
          +3
          Do you mean a plastic team?
          yeah, the national team was the first to be given to me by my parents on the DR ..., but the second one we already made for the competition at the Palace of Pioneers, in honor of the next anniversary on April 12, was made together with my brother, we took a plastic version as a sample and "sharpened our own." ., it was a fun time! smile
  5. Pete mitchell
    Pete mitchell 3 March 2021 19: 14
    +11
    Nice cycle of articles, to the author respect and respect
  6. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 3 March 2021 19: 18
    +8
    Thanks to the author.
    Didn't know such technical details.
    Reasonable design and timing is something.
    If the author is in the subject, then it is interesting to know the development trends of ejection seats.
    1. Bshkaus
      3 March 2021 22: 10
      +5
      If the author is in the subject, then it is interesting to know the development trends of ejection seats.

      Theoretically, such a cycle is also possible, now I am collecting historical materials, but we'll see.
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 3 March 2021 22: 44
        +2
        Thanks for answering.
  7. AB
    AB 3 March 2021 20: 02
    +4
    Yes, there were people in Soviet times, not like in the current tribe: Heroes are not you!
    1. Niko
      Niko 4 March 2021 00: 13
      +2
      There were people in the pre-Soviet times, there are now, and there will be people later. Question: how are they selected to achieve the result, how are they supported, trained, etc., etc. (i.e. the question of organization and management)
  8. Intruder
    Intruder 3 March 2021 20: 30
    +5
    Great article ... without water and modern bullshit.
    The author, come on again .., the people are "hungry"! hi
  9. Freedim
    Freedim 3 March 2021 23: 13
    +2
    I just discovered where SpaceDragon suits have such glamorous boots. smile


    A scene from the 1957 film "The Road to the Stars" (USSR)
    1. ycuce234-san
      ycuce234-san 4 March 2021 13: 20
      +1
      The SpaceDragon spacesuit is structurally rather the same simplified protective suit against which the doctors protested ...