Military Review

Space as a continuation of the expansion of mankind

71

“I'm not sure the human race will live another thousand years,

if he does not find a way to escape into space.
There are many scenarios for
how can all life on a small planet die.
But I'm an optimist. We will definitely reach the stars. "
Stephen Hawking

Biological organisms began to engage in expansion from their very inception on planet Earth. First, the cell, having found the necessary habitat and resources, began to transform. Then there was the first exit of the creature on land, the conquest of all its tidbits by dinosaurs ...

Note. Expansion (from Lat. Expansio - distribution, expansion) - territorial, geographic or other expansion of the habitat. Or zones of influence of a separate state, people, culture or species.

The first conquest of the resources of some tribes by others. Ancient Roman conquests. Expansion of Genghis Khan. Advancement of the Russian Empire to the Far East, Caucasus and Central Asia. The first manned flight to near-earth orbit, and then to the moon. It is necessary to spend many hours on textbooks in order to at least briefly get acquainted with the significant expansions of the zones of influence that took place in stories human civilization in the foreseeable past.

Human civilization needs to go further, to develop. But here's how to progress, which way to move?

Expansion into space


For its further successful development, mankind in the coming decades should focus on the expansion of our civilization into space.

Of course, this proposal is not a revelation.

Many people have spoken and are still talking about this. A hundred years ago, our domestic self-taught scientist and visionary Konstantin Tsiolkovsky called on humanity to finally leave its "cradle" and embark on the path of conquering outer space and, as a result, the entire Universe. Thousands of books have been written on this topic, hundreds of films have been shot.

The direction of future expansion is the problem of the further development of mankind as a whole, and not only of individual countries.

If we look at human nature, we can say that almost each of us individually and humanity as a whole develop only when they expand.

Earlier, that is, until the middle of the twentieth century, expansion could be carried out within the boundaries of planet Earth. But in August 1945, after the United States used atomic bombs on Japanese territory, it became clear that in the struggle for the territories and resources of states among themselves, our common home - the planet Earth - could be destroyed.

And therefore, at present, the direction for the expansion of mankind, in addition to openly cannibalistic ideas for the destruction of its "unnecessary part" (the so-called theory of the "golden billion" and others similar to it, in fact), only one thing is possible - this is the development of the neighbor first, and then deep space.

It is a pity that few understand this today.

And even fewer people are doing anything to make this dream come true.


The USSR could be the locomotive of all mankind in the struggle for space.

But, unfortunately, for a number of reasons (both external and internal) the Soviet Union has become a thing of the past. And today's Russia will not be able to reach such a goal yet. First of all, due to the absence of any ideology and the current capitalist structure of society, aimed only at making a profit (although the economy, with the existence of a intelligible and fair ideology, could be restored rather quickly).

Let's omit the technical possibilities of space exploration available to mankind today.

I am sure that very little time will pass, and everything that is considered technically impossible today will be taken for granted by people. With only one condition - if by that time humanity does not destroy itself.

For any action, motives and compelling reasons are needed. Without them, practical activities in space exploration will not become widespread and will not lead to outstanding results.

I believe that the main and main motive for the exploration of space by human civilization is the fact that humanity is mortal. Moreover, it may end in a not so distant future. For example, not from the natural extinction of a star named the Sun (which is still waiting for billions of Earth years), but from more prosaic and transient reasons that may happen in the near future.

The alternative is dead end and extinction


There are a number of main reasons for this.

Threat from space: a sharp change in the luminosity of the Sun, the fall of a sufficiently large asteroid to the Earth, a supernova explosion.

Natural phenomena on our planet: a possible change in the Earth's magnetic field, the eruption of supervolcanoes, the ice age, or, conversely, global warming.

And much more.

All this, too, can happen at any time. And what exactly can serve as a trigger for this kind of events is not exactly known.

There is one more group of anthropogenic reasons.

The impact of the human factor on the planet: lack of habitable territories and fresh water. By the way, this is already being felt now with a population of almost eight billion people.

And finally, the reason for the extinction of humanity can be the limits of the capabilities of the human immune system. This is indirectly proved by the currently observed coronavirus pandemic (there are quite plausible versions about the artificial origin of the virus).

And also the destruction of most of humanity can occur as a result of the use weapons mass destruction. Alas, such scenarios are likely now.

And even if all of the above threats (if they come true) do not kill us at all, they can at least throw the development of human civilization back many centuries or even millennia.

There is an opinion of a number of historians that such major natural disasters have already occurred earlier in the history of mankind. For example, in almost all the epics of antiquity, there is mention of a worldwide flood, which practically destroyed humanity.

The civilization of selfishness


A little self-criticism.

We call ourselves a Homo sapiens, the master of the Earth, the crown of the creation of nature or God - that's what anyone thinks. In fact, we just want to be better than we are. But words are not the main thing, the main thing is deeds.

And the deeds that humanity does testify to the fact that in reality we live on our planet unreasonably. Only conquerors, temporary workers behave this way. We are gradually transforming the beautiful planet Earth into a cesspool. We live mainly in gas-polluted cities, next to landfills and hazardous industries. Human civilization as a whole suffers from extreme forms of selfishness, greed, satiety and desire for comfort.

And many leaders of countries very often behave accordingly.

Moreover, in the vast majority of them, linear-binary thinking prevails:

"Cause - effect",

“Problem - solution”.

However, in huge and complex systems, this approach works primitively. This is the same as trying to do a neurosurgery on the human brain using a sledgehammer and an ax.

But just a little - such democrats immediately remember about the most radical way to heal international issues - these are local or global wars. What can the death of millions of compatriots mean? Little things! Ambition and material benefits are more important. Moreover, these ambitions are supported by some of those compatriots while they are still alive.

And as long as humanity is locked within the framework of one small (on the scale of the Universe) planet, all of the above risks will exist. At the moment, all of us - individuals taken separately, small and large nations, tiny states and superpowers, will resemble spiders eating each other in a jar. Only with that difference: spiders cannot break a jar. But we (that is, humanity) - can make our home (planet Earth) of little use for life.


There have always been, are and will be skeptical people who do not understand the value of why people need to explore space. They are constantly trying to prove that this is just a waste of taxpayers' money. And that research isn't really needed.

However, if the most fierce skeptic begins to study the issue in detail, then, most likely, he will very soon understand the need for mankind to step beyond its cradle - the planet Earth, and in a more distant future - beyond the solar system.

The fact is that much of what is already an integral part of life today became possible thanks to space research.

Most of us do not even realize that the most familiar things around us are used only thanks to space programs.


Why does man need space?


Why does human civilization need space exploration?

There are many answers to this question.

Here are just a few of them.

- Technology development, some of which have already found application in everyday life. These are information about storm warnings and weather, telephone conversations on a satellite phone, satellite TV, etc. All this has already been achieved through space exploration. Navigators in cars, planes and ships receive information directly from there.

- Scientific discoveriesthat will add to our knowledge of the universe and advance the fundamental sciences. Here the dependence of one on the other is directly proportional. The higher the level of development of science, the more space will be explored, and vice versa, the deeper the space research, the more scientific discoveries will appear.

- Solution of energy and resource problems, thanks to the deposits of useful substances on other planets and celestial bodies.

- Employment issues of the population... Thanks to the development of the space industry, hundreds of thousands (and in the future, millions of people) will be provided with jobs.

- Transfer of environmentally harmful industries outside the Earth. Almost all industry is not environmentally friendly. And the prospect that it will slow down in the future is nil.

- Development of space tourism, which promises to become one of the largest and most profitable areas in the future.

- Development of military technology, the creation of space weapons (controversial, but still a necessary point).

- Development of space technologies aimed at protection of our planet from the "invasion" of the heavenly onesl. Protecting humanity from the fate of the dinosaurs.

- Establishment of colonies on the Moon and Mars, and later on other celestial bodies of the solar system. If necessary, and the construction of large artificial structures in case of earthly cataclysms and (or) the inevitable overpopulation of the planet.

- Raising prestige its countrywhich depends on the success of space programs.

- An association... Space can become a single goal around which all humanity will unite, regardless of national or religious affiliation. (The likelihood of such a development of events, especially in the current capitalist system, of course, is very small. But we would like to hope so).

- And the most important answer to the question,

"Why would people explore space?"

Space is knowledge and beauty... It will allow us to look into the past, understand the present, and see the future. In addition, space is very interesting, extraordinary and beautiful.


Conclusion


There is a very famous Russian proverb:

"Until the roasted cock pecks at the crown of the head, the man does not cross himself."

This is how we live, it seems.

Until overpopulation, hunger, lack of fresh water and unfavorable environmental conditions have not become the most significant factors determining the life of every person, humanity is in no hurry to think about the issue of space exploration.

But in any case, the time will come when life will force.

And then humanity will have to move forward - into Space.
Author:
Photos used:
Yandex.Pictures ›space
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 2 March 2021 12: 03
    +5
    The USSR is the only country whose coat of arms was space! Russia, unfortunately, is not such a country, but I hope only for now.
    1. Snail N9
      Snail N9 2 March 2021 12: 59
      +3
      There is such a good series called "Expansion". It shows the life of mankind in space very well. And, moreover, without romantic snot. Those who will live there will be under the complete control of those who will supply vital resources for survival in this absolutely aggressive environment.
      1. Civil
        Civil 2 March 2021 13: 15
        -5
        Are you serious? The country is in decline, and you want space?
        1. Klingon
          Klingon 2 March 2021 13: 38
          -2
          it is precisely because of such pessimists as you that the country is in decline. You have forgotten how to dream. This is Russia's problem. there are no more dreamers, there are only hucksters and consumers
          1. Civil
            Civil 2 March 2021 14: 36
            +4
            Quote: Klingon
            it is precisely because of such pessimists as you that the country is in decline. You have forgotten how to dream. This is Russia's problem. there are no more dreamers, there are only hucksters and consumers

            All dreamers have been turned into suckers by speculators. The country was lost just like that. I agree.
          2. astepanov
            astepanov 2 March 2021 17: 40
            +2
            Optimism is a good thing if it does not degenerate into Manilovism. The output of 1 kg of cargo into deep space cannot be spent less than 17,2 kWh of energy; the same amount must be spent on landing. In reality, the energy consumption is still (and much) higher, because the efficiency of any engine is less than unity, and also because not only the ship, but also the working fluid needs to be accelerated. Cosmonautics is not only energy-consuming business, but also requires huge material resources, and no one knows a way out of this impasse. But this is only part of the problem.
            The illusion that you can spit on the Earth, make rockets and fly away can only lead to one thing: contamination of the Earth and its complete destruction. Neither Mars nor the Moon are suitable for life. Doom descendants to live in a completely alien environment is a fanatical idea.
            Overpopulation, you say? And on Mars it will come much earlier, because there you will have to live in cramped cages and get every breath of air at the cost of huge costs. And who's stopping to put birth control on Earth under control? Or do we have an overpopulation problem in our country?
            Resources in space? Do not make me laugh. Even if space is filled to capacity with diamonds and platinoids, they will still be more expensive than earthly ones - but space is poor in both. Energy? What kind of energy are you going to mine there? Sunny? In the same way, it can be mined on Earth, only without transmission problems, without the problem of the radiation resistance of batteries.
            The science? The author says that space exploration provides fundamental knowledge. I doubt that he will give at least one example of solving fundamental problems using space research - except, perhaps, the discovery of gamma-ray bursts. And what is the applied exhaust in this? Null.
            Building a space civilization without wars? And who is stopping such a building on Earth? Or will people change only from the fact that they went into space? Maybe you need to start with yourself, and not by sending unreliable overpopulated troughs into the black void?
            And so - for each item. Yes, space needs to be mastered - but plans must be verified and not lead to a senseless waste of funds. And there is no need to compose bad fiction at all.
            1. Mantykora
              Mantykora 3 March 2021 02: 13
              +2
              Plus, you can add that the poor will be sent into space to plow for a pittance, live in slums on Mars, the Moon, Venus, and the Earth will become a super-expensive resort and place of life for the elite. That is, globally nothing will change. And this is perfectly shown in science fiction, films, the same Star Wars.
              Yes, space is needed, it is necessary to explore, but at the same time tearing the veins and putting it at the forefront - I think not. The same USSR rushed forward as an inexperienced athlete at the start, and now they are exhausted and are rolling back at the pace of space exploration. Too fast and too slow are equally bad.
              And the problems of humanity on Earth must first of all be solved on the Earth itself. Wherever a person goes, he takes himself with him. And including into space.
              The author is partially right, but unrestrained idealism is useless.
              1. Kart
                Kart 4 March 2021 09: 17
                +1
                Quote: Mantykora
                The same USSR rushed forward as an inexperienced athlete at the start, and now they are exhausted and are rolling back at the pace of space exploration.

                Exhausted much earlier. This became clear at the moment when the Americans went to the moon, and ours still remained with the technology of the times of Korolev.
                1. Skyscream
                  Skyscream 5 March 2021 23: 21
                  0
                  It was at the same time, if that. Check out the chronology of the exploration of outer space, so as not to dishonor further And how did their technologies differ from the royal ones, well?;)
        2. Ryusey
          Ryusey 3 March 2021 15: 12
          0
          Well, your country may be in decline, but mine is not.
    2. dSK
      dSK 2 March 2021 13: 38
      -1
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      but I hope
      и I believe in the immortality of the soul!
      All are born with angelic souls and the main task is to preserve the "image and likeness".
      Human civilization as a whole suffers from extreme forms selfishness, greed, satiety and desires for comfort.
      - "victory over oneself, over one's intergrowths (from the word suffering) is the biggest victory. "
      Whichever planet you fly away, you will take your "vices" with you.
      The "Good News" of Jesus Christ 2000 years ago said the true truth: "The kingdom of God is within you ..."
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 2 March 2021 12: 09
    +3
    "Until the roasted cock pecks at the crown of the head, the man does not cross himself."

    I believe, friends. our footprints will remain on the dusty paths of distant planets

    Not soon, probably!?!?!?
    1. Destiny
      Destiny 2 March 2021 12: 22
      +10
      Not during our lifetime, for sure.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 2 March 2021 12: 43
        +1
        Well, it will not be superfluous to take care of our descendants.
        A beautiful dream of humanity, which will gradually come true!
        1. Aerodrome
          Aerodrome 2 March 2021 13: 11
          +5
          90-year-old bastard gorbach, violated everything, including the road to space ...
          .Military Review Opinions
          Cosmic degradation
          Today, 10: 00


          1. rocket757
            rocket757 2 March 2021 13: 28
            +3
            Unfortunately, he was not alone. We will not absolve ourselves of our guilt either ... we slept through the most important thing in our life, and we gave our descendants a fair amount of money.
          2. Kart
            Kart 4 March 2021 09: 18
            +1
            Quote: Aerodrome
            90-year-old bastard gorbach, violated everything, including the road to space ...

            There were Khrushchev and Brezhnev. Who prevented them from leaving their footprints on the dusty paths of at least the Moon?
  3. Dimy4
    Dimy4 2 March 2021 12: 11
    +3
    There are a lot of articles about space today. Probably because April 12 is coming soon.
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 2 March 2021 12: 28
      +2
      No.
      The space industry has launched the second wave of space exploration. New players and new approaches have appeared. From idealistic dreams, commercial and military projects emerged. Science is also not lagging behind. There are 3 different missions on Mars right now. News about new rockets and projects literally every week. Therefore, there are so many materials here. Here's just yesterday:

      Peter Beck:
      kept his word, ate his hat on the video (moment 3:10)
      AND ANNOUNCED THAT ROCKET LAB IS CREATING A NEW MEDIUM ROCKET NEUTRON!

      Capable of delivering up to 8 tons of payload to LEO, the carrier will meet all the requirements for launching military satellites, it will be able to deliver manned vehicles to the ISS, after test flights it will become partially reusable. And, with a development cost of $ 200 million, it is planned to be launched in 2024.

      In its presentation, Rocket Lab says bluntly that it is going to compete with SpaceX and its Falcon 9. And that Electron with Neutron will be able to cover 98% of the needs of the commercial market according to forecasts until 2029. And the new 40-meter rocket is also intended to launch "satellite mega-constellations."

      https://youtu.be/agqxJw5ISdk
      1. Kart
        Kart 4 March 2021 09: 21
        0
        Quote: OgnennyiKotik
        The space industry has launched the second wave of space exploration. New players and new approaches have appeared.

        And most importantly, new technologies, apparently in engines.
        The new media looks very nifty, but it puts out an acceptable load, and is about to be recoverable, or is already.
        1. Skyscream
          Skyscream 5 March 2021 23: 35
          0
          New media (Starship, for example) looks like a conversion pan. Compare the lunar modules of the USA and the USSR, just the appearance. What looks more like a working mowing machine? An absurd tent, wrapped in foil cellophane, with wallpaper studs at the corners of plywood sheets, or a laconic layout design, clearly designed for possible overloads with a margin of safety.
  4. The comment was deleted.
  5. Cowbra
    Cowbra 2 March 2021 12: 15
    -4
    And therefore, at present, the direction for the expansion of mankind, in addition to openly cannibalistic ideas for the destruction of its "unnecessary part" (the so-called theory of the "golden billion" and others similar to it, in fact), only one thing is possible - this is the development of the neighbor first, and then deep space.

    You can finish reading.
    Compared to any area of ​​the Earth that has been mastered by man, the World Ocean is a couple of orders of magnitude larger. As a resource base - again by orders of magnitude more than everything that has been pulled out of the depths so far. And yet, in comparison with space, it is not only not an aggressive environment, but it can also provide those resources that cannot be found in space - organic matter. Grub, roughly speaking. As well as housing, projects of floating cities have appeared for a long time, and the first ones of this kind were built in general by the Aztecs.
    Hello to the author, about ultimatum statements, especially short-term ones - Sharikov loved them very much, for example. I recommend reading about the concept of sustainable development, and then sculpting about the fact that "there is only one way"
    1. forester1971
      2 March 2021 13: 17
      +4
      "Hello to the author, about ultimatum statements, especially short-term ones - Sharikov loved them very much, for example. I recommend reading about the concept of sustainable development, and then sculpting about the fact that" there is only one way "

      Rudeness is not the best way to invite your interlocutor to a discussion. But you apparently have your own principles of communication with people.
      1. Cowbra
        Cowbra 2 March 2021 13: 37
        -6
        I am learning from Preobrazhensky, the grounds are a carbon copy:
        The paths of development of civilization are extensive and intensive. They seem to be studied in grades 5-6 of the school, using the example of slash-and-burn and sedentary agriculture. Then read about that. that there is only one path of development — an extensive one, that is, to cut down, to abandon, to go on to cut down — this is even more abruptly than the correspondence between Engels and Kautsky. Extensive - the constant development of new lands and space, intensive - the concept of general development, if you do not even know about such a concept, then
        and you, in the presence of two people with a university education, allow yourself with completely unbearable swagger give some cosmic advice and cosmic nonsense about how to divide everything ...

        To begin with, space exploration, in principle, does not solve, but only gives a delay to the problem of lack of resources
        1. forester1971
          2 March 2021 14: 33
          0
          If you read the article carefully, you would see that the lack of resources is only one of the reasons for the need for space exploration - and not the most important one. I will not retell the text of the article in the comments. Read it if you want.
          I will not express my opinion about your mental abilities, but the fact that you write categorical opinions in a boorish manner, based only on a part of the information, says a lot.
        2. astepanov
          astepanov 2 March 2021 17: 48
          0
          Cowbra, if I could, I would put two pluses. None of the author's theses stand up to scrutiny. Some declarations.
          1. Kart
            Kart 4 March 2021 09: 24
            0
            And the declarations in the style of the "Young Technician" magazine for the pioneers.
  6. Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter 2 March 2021 12: 20
    +1
    At the moment, all of us - individuals taken separately, small and large nations, tiny states and superpowers, will resemble spiders eating each other in a jar.
    For the tidbits of the infinite Universe, humans will fight as fiercely as for territories on Earth. The colonists fought for islets in the Caribbean, instead of peacefully sailing past and discovering another island for themselves. The nature is like that.
    1. Kart
      Kart 4 March 2021 09: 28
      0
      As soon as (and if) the necessary technologies appear, expansion and a fight will immediately begin.
      Just like the Caribbean and stuff. We learned how to build ships quickly and reliably - expansion began immediately. All random single swims to new lands do not count.
  7. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 2 March 2021 12: 26
    +5
    But in any case, the time will come when life will force.
    .. No, it will not force, with the existing economic formation on Earth, it will not force healthy, intelligent people to fly into space. And when, pay for health, to be healthy, pay. For education, pay… etc. etc. what kind of space exploration can we talk about.
    1. Kart
      Kart 4 March 2021 09: 30
      -1
      Who pays American robots on Mars?
      How did it happen in the world of cash and the invisible hand of the market that spaceships have been surfing the solar system for many decades?
  8. Berber
    Berber 2 March 2021 12: 26
    +5
    Conditions in Antarctica and the Arctic are much better than on Venus and Mars. You must first master your planet. Moreover, to master it correctly, in compliance with environmental standards. And the majority of the world's population does not need space expansion. Because all thoughts and ambitions dance (conventionally) from the "belly".
    1. AUL
      AUL 2 March 2021 17: 27
      +3
      The article is emotional and romantic. She reminded me of school essays on the topic "Why does a person strive for space?" - he himself wrote this about 60 years ago ... But the article is well divorced from the real possibilities of mankind for the near foreseeable future. Unfortunately.
  9. Andre___86
    Andre___86 2 March 2021 12: 37
    +2
    Ehh. The author has raised the right topic. Necessary for those who think not here and now, but for the future ... It is a pity that now the iPhone in hand has replaced the dream of space and the desire to realize it. No, the iPhone (the collective image of consumption) is not that bad at all. There are pluses (not within the scope of this discussion), but it replaced us with something more - the vast world of exploration and discovery. Yes, not everyone will share this idea, unfortunately most are concerned only with their own wallet, at best, and at worst, only animal needs. But should bright heads appear, with powerful charisma, to pull humanity forward ???
    1. astepanov
      astepanov 2 March 2021 17: 58
      +2
      Quote: Andre___86
      But should there appear bright heads, with powerful charisma, to pull humanity forward ???

      Yes, charisma is everything. A charismatic blower (I will not give examples) ousted a pragmatic techie, economist, analyst ... Can anyone here be able to name such a space resource, which in the foreseeable (say, century-old) future will become cheaper than the terrestrial analogue? Does anyone agree to while away his life not on the vast and beautiful Earth, but in a tin can, even a kilometer-long one, or on Venus, in comparison with which Atacama is paradise, or on Mars, cold and rusty, or in caves on the Moon? I do not want. And I don't see the slightest reason for that.
    2. Kart
      Kart 4 March 2021 09: 35
      -2
      Quote: Andre___86
      Ehh. The author has raised the right topic. Needed for those who think not here and now, but for the future ...

      Thinking for the future is our everything. Projection, bragging, and heated discussions.
      However, it is not our robots that travel on Mars. Much earlier it was not our foot that set foot on the moon, and not our spacecraft went into deep space.
      At the dawn of astronautics, our people also liked to discuss. Disputes were arranged about morality in space about a person with a capital letter and the like. Like what should sound on the air from our spacecraft - international or anthem?
      Meanwhile, more pragmatic peoples were solving purely technical problems - they invented computers, new engines, reliable and compact electronics.
  10. Woodman
    Woodman 2 March 2021 12: 47
    0
    And therefore, at present, the direction for the expansion of mankind, in addition to openly cannibalistic ideas for the destruction of its "unnecessary part" (the so-called theory of the "golden billion" and others similar to it, in fact), only one thing is possible - this is the development of the neighbor first, and then deep space.
    If by the near space we mean the solar system, then this is probably possible. Back in the days of the Soviet Union, and maybe even now (I'm just not particularly interested in space under the burden of everyday problems) there were projects to terrorize Mars. True, it was about two hundred years ...
    But regarding deep space, i.e. exploration of other star systems, then an obstacle arises in the form of the location of the solar system on the outskirts of the Milky Way. Distances are too great. Even by the standards of the Cosmos.
    If there were a System somewhere nearby with a proven presence of intelligent life on one of the planets, then humanity would make incredible efforts to get to it. Like Europeans when America was discovered. As soon as someone was found to conquer and plunder, so sharply increased interest in the construction of fleets and the resettlement of "surplus" human resources. And so ... Nobody really tried to purposefully explore the planet, there were enough more pressing problems ...
    1. Klingon
      Klingon 2 March 2021 13: 46
      +3
      terraforming Mars in 2 hundred years? but you are a very optimist however! even if the form of lichens that is resistant to cosmic radiation is urgently removed and a cloud of dust is raised with the help of nuclear charges in the hope of provoking a greenhouse effect, it will take at least a thousand years for some primitive shrubs to grow there and reservoirs with water appeared and the atmosphere resembled at least high mountains ... And then there remains the problem of the absence of a global magnetic field on Mars, which is critically important for maintaining the atmosphere.
      1. Disant
        Disant 2 March 2021 19: 57
        +1
        then there is still the problem of the absence of a global magnetic field on Mars

        in my opinion, this is the main problem for Mars - any atmosphere will simply be blown off into space. Only dig a prison
        1. Klingon
          Klingon 2 March 2021 22: 32
          0
          quite right drinks
          therefore, the honeycomb technology remains. dome-shaped structures in the form of honeycombs on supports of a kilometer height, which is quite efficient in conditions of low gravity and the absence of tectonics. Some kind of advanced nano glass will filter UV and the magnetic coils on the consoles will trap high-energy particles. Below, its own microclimate will form, possibly even the formation of fogs and light drizzle
          1. Disant
            Disant 3 March 2021 00: 15
            0
            Yes, this is already a death star - we will not pull it in the next five hundred years.
            and the coils will bounce or catch and pull? the bombardment is going on from different angles
            1. Klingon
              Klingon 3 March 2021 05: 18
              0
              that's what I meant for the next 1000 years. Magnetic coils will create a field that will redirect particles, it may even be possible to convert their energy into electricity or some other energy.
  11. yehat2
    yehat2 2 March 2021 12: 53
    +2
    expansion into space requires a radical improvement in resource management technologies
    rushing there, not paying attention to such "little things", is simply pointless.
    It is enough to look at super-heavy rockets or calculate how long to fly to Mars to understand this. We need to solve a huge variety of problems, including sociological ones, on Earth in order to have a chance to go beyond the Earth's orbit.
  12. U-58
    U-58 2 March 2021 13: 08
    -1
    The last 40 space expansion of mankind is clearly stalled.
    The facts are there, and this is not the place or time to discuss them.
    But what is the reason for this slipping?
    We do not have the necessary engine and, accordingly, the aircraft.
    We fly into deep space only in the works of science fiction writers.
    And here they are, these science fiction writers, lead to quite definite conclusions.
    Namely: humanity is not ready for the role of expansionists. Morally, ethically not ready.
    Give us the opportunity to terraform Mars and Venus overnight, we will immediately begin to build cities, mines and metallurgical plants, so that in 60 years and there everything will be poisoned and dirtied. And then rush to the new frontiers of the Universe with the same goals.
    Maybe there is some Higher or higher intelligence that does not allow us to develop technical ideas until such time as humanity becomes at least semi-intelligent and can stand in the row of worthy civilizations of the Universe.
    Here you will truly believe that after the cataclysms of the past, the planet was quarantined until the wisdom of mankind.
    So, as the Strugatskys wrote, the main thing is on Earth ..
    1. IS-80_RVGK2
      IS-80_RVGK2 2 March 2021 16: 36
      0
      Now is the time for cat-lamp stories. Here it is banal there are no technologies that allow to explore space on an industrial scale, but the problem is of course in morality, yes.
    2. Liam
      Liam 2 March 2021 17: 49
      0
      Quote: U-58
      Terraform Mars and Venus overnight, we will immediately begin to build cities, mines and metallurgical plants, so that in 60 years and there everything will poison and dirtiest

      Do you have an approximate idea of ​​the temperatures, pressure, composition of the atmosphere of the same Venus? At least in general terms ...
      1. U-58
        U-58 2 March 2021 19: 11
        0
        So I'm not talking about Venus, but about humanity ...
        At least work your head ... in general terms
  13. Alex66
    Alex66 2 March 2021 13: 15
    +2
    present-day Russia will not be able to reach such a goal yet. First of all, due to the lack of any ideology and the current capitalist structure of society, aimed only at making a profit

    Space exploration requires a new level of education and culture, an order of magnitude higher. Will such a person be able to tolerate unfair treatment of himself? It is hardly for nothing that we are talking about the fall in the level of culture and education; they are simply being adapted to capitalism. This is where the contradiction is for space exploration you need a high level of education, and for the preservation of capitalism you need a herd of non-thinking animals.
  14. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 2 March 2021 13: 15
    +1
    Until overpopulation, hunger, lack of fresh water and unfavorable environmental conditions have not become the most significant factors determining the life of every person, humanity is in no hurry to think about the issue of space exploration.

    And when this comes, then no more forces, no resources will not be enough for space exploration, humanity will return to a primitive communal state.
  15. Dima Nikolaev
    Dima Nikolaev 2 March 2021 14: 04
    -1
    Only a single TECHNOCRATIC government of the Earth can cope with such a scale of work. Not the bourgeoisie, democrats, communist proletarians, "soldiers and military dictatorship", etc. Effectively-only Technocratic elites (united).
    1. Israel
      Israel 2 March 2021 15: 48
      0
      It is not at all necessary, if there is a commercial benefit, then the bourgeois can very much cope.
      1. Dima Nikolaev
        Dima Nikolaev 2 March 2021 16: 59
        0
        The bourgeois can basically arrange a war, provoke ... A bourgeois private owner will not be able to do this. And they are unlikely to be able to unite for such projects. Greed. They are only capable of robbing, provocateurs, seizing, speculating, war ...
        1. Israel
          Israel 2 March 2021 17: 11
          0
          Of course, the bourgeois can also be in war, and if, again, it is profitable to build combat spaceships, then the bourgeois will sharpen them with unprecedented efficiency. Who could have believed 50 years ago that the bourgeoisie would master 5 nm. those. process, but this is also a gigantic work. Well, that is, the main driver for the bourgeois / capitalists is commercial gain, and what to do to conquer another planet or sew panties does not really matter.
          1. Dima Nikolaev
            Dima Nikolaev 2 March 2021 18: 03
            0
            Bourgeois capitalists, and so on, it's all obsolete. They won't pull such a cool "strategy". They will quarrel among themselves because of money. And then again, after all, there are wars (but not themselves, of course, and cannon fodder will be used up again).
            1. Israel
              Israel 2 March 2021 18: 08
              0
              The bourgeoisie are already pulling this strategy and are cutting through the extraction of resources on asteroids. And war, unfortunately, best of all spurs scientific research and progress, in fact, to which the whole resource topwar is devoted).
              So far, the coolest space research (especially in the field of deep space exploration) has been done by the bourgeoisie.
              You bury the bourgeoisie and capitalism too early, these capitalists will still divide asteroids and hire PMCs to guard any drilling rigs on Venus.
              1. Dima Nikolaev
                Dima Nikolaev 3 March 2021 10: 21
                0
                ... The research was done not by the bourgeois, but by the technocrats. They used (plagiarized) ready-made ideas and paid the performers. The bourgeois is an intermediate "secondary" link. This is understandable. But at the same time, the main thing for them is "primitive" profit, not science , progress on a cosmic scale. Money is a finite value, considered limited and it also slows down scientific and technological revolution.
                1. Kart
                  Kart 4 March 2021 10: 49
                  0
                  Don't just pay performers.
                  They also pay other performers to create scientific instruments, laboratories, materials, software, etc.
                  And only then it all gets to the performers about whom you write, and they make discoveries.
                  And yes - for some reason the performers do not work for the sake of the great vague idea of ​​the happiness of mankind.
                  But for my life here and now I work willingly. That is, for a fee.
    2. Kart
      Kart 4 March 2021 10: 36
      0
      Quote: Dima Nikolaev
      Only a single TECHNOCRATIC government of the Earth can cope with such a scale of work.

      The government of the Earth is key here. That is, united humanity.
      Oddly enough, it is for this that the globalists are drowning.
      That is, for the destruction of traditional states and values, population reduction at the expense of the poorest peoples, the use of a single language, etc.
      "The Hunger Games".
      A technocratic government will never spare the hungry and the sick.
      On the contrary, it recognizes their existence as inexpedient in the name of the technical development of civilization as a whole.
      Is this option right for you?
  16. Israel
    Israel 2 March 2021 15: 46
    +2
    Good article, worthy of the scientific industry.
    But while a man in Space has nothing to do with a modern chemical engine, the limit is to deliver an expedition to Mars and, at best, take it back. Now the Cosmos is the lot of robots, robots can be put into a rocket as you like, they do not need water, food, gravity, psychological relief, and most importantly, they do not have to be returned back to Earth. And from a practical point of view, Mars needs to be “covered” with robots, even if they drill there, extract resources, build “factories”, sending a person with current technologies is just a waste of resources in pursuit of political dividends.
    The Americans landed on the Moon six times, the coolest achievement (probably the greatest space achievement at the moment), but by the current moment all technologies have been lost, the factories and workshops for the Apollo mission have long been destroyed, because there is no great practical sense in them, of course, something- That was received, but significantly less than was invested.
    As for the spare planet, at the moment, even in Antarctica or the Sahara, living conditions are incomparably better than on any nearby planet available to us, and as a result, even if an inhabited colony is built (Mars, Moon), without support from our main planet, this colony will not be at all viable and in addition will consume the resources of an already overpopulated planet.
    It will be possible to talk about the serious exploration of Mars when a man's flight to Mars is comparable in complexity and cost to a transatlantic flight. But even in this case, the planet is completely unfit for habitation, after which another giant evolutionary step should follow in the possibility of changing the planet on a global scale making it habitable.
  17. nikvic46
    nikvic46 2 March 2021 16: 08
    -1
    Until we figure out what we need to do on Earth, our way into deep space is closed. Political obstacles are everywhere. The battle of real energy with green is all pure politics. Space travel will need both. And as long as there is political tension, we will continue to revolve around the Earth and the Moon. And dreams of long-distance flights will be eat up money for weapons.
    1. Kart
      Kart 4 March 2021 10: 38
      0
      There is another option - an external threat.
      But it should be really serious, like the complete destruction of civilization or life in general, and it should become known about it very early, many years before the onset.
  18. Raven 95
    Raven 95 2 March 2021 17: 34
    +10
    Let's imagine for a second that the author is publishing this article not today in the XNUMXst century about expansion into space, but at the end of the XNUMXth century, about expansion into the New World.
    Absolutely everything fits!

    Why does a person need Space New World?
    - Technology development
    - Scientific discoveries
    - Solving energy and resource problems
    - Issues of employment of the population
    - Relocation of environmentally harmful industries outside Earth Of the old world
    - Development of military technologies
    - Creation of colonies
    - Raising the prestige of your country


    It's funny. For 500 years, humanity has not changed a bit.
    1. Israel
      Israel 2 March 2021 18: 04
      +1
      The analogy does not fit in the XNUMXth century there were just "technologies" for the development of the New World, there was an opportunity to transport hundreds of thousands of people, millions of tons of cargo, and most importantly, there was still a planet in the New World.
    2. Kart
      Kart 4 March 2021 10: 39
      0
      Quote: Raven-95
      It's funny. For 500 years, humanity has not changed a bit.

      It has not changed much over the past 5000 years.
      This period is negligible.
  19. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 3 March 2021 09: 43
    0
    At the moment, there is not a single prerequisite for a manned spacewalk. Not a single one. Absolutely. The limit and ceiling of a person's exit is an exit into the near-planetary space. It's all. Even if in some unthinkable way (although this is incredible) a flight is organized somewhere to Mars, it will not be a spacewalk.
    Spacewalk is the invention of a propulsion device suitable at least for interplanetary flights, and, most importantly, for an economical launch from a planet. This would, of course, be an exit only into interplanetary space, not into space, but at least that is. This would be the beginning. Nothing of the kind is happening, since no one on the planet is doing this. Generally. Absolutely.
    At the moment, you can go into space only from the research laboratory, from the scientific research sheet, but not from the cosmodromes that we have. Chemical astronautics and spacewalk are incompatible. It's just PR and a waste of resources.
    To our great regret, at the moment our physics is at a dead end, from which it does not want to get out at all. They are already well fed. There have been no physicists on the planet for a long time. As soon as various fraudsters, deceivers and outright thieves realized that by manipulating complex words and thick glasses, they could fool a lot of appropriations for their "research", scientists simply did not have a place at the table where they divide money. What Science? What for?! Absolutely all people who are currently engaged in "fundamental science" are simply deceivers.
    There is no space and will not be. Don't even hope.
    1. Kart
      Kart 4 March 2021 10: 42
      0
      Quote: Mikhail3
      Spacewalk is the invention of a propulsion device suitable at least for interplanetary flights, and, most importantly, for an economical launch from a planet.

      There is another option - putting components into orbits for the construction of factories there.
      Or the same thing on the moon. It is easier to start from there.
      But this, too, is still a fantasy. However, at least this is exactly what you can start doing right now, without inventing some fantastic super engines for launching from Earth.
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 4 March 2021 13: 09
        0
        It's not an option, it's the same pathetic dead end. Due to the fact that the launch of each rivet into orbit costs like a cruiser, all this is futile. Harness the entire planet in order to create a tiny industrial area producing what? Small cans to move around an empty system? What is there to do for such a price? Place cameras to show interesting views?
        Well, we'll get to the asteroid belt. There it is possible (only possible!) To find some kind of raw material. What will this affect? No matter what!
        We must have a way to navigate our planetary system simply and inexpensively. Only then is the expansion of humanity possible, and some kind of hope can appear. The only way to ensure this is through mass shootings. As usual. All modern "physics" should be put in prisons, starting from the level of the zavlab. An exception should only be allowed if the topic under study has practical application and clear success has been achieved. All other characters are thieves and swindlers. There are no exceptions. So they, as well as the officials, thanks to whom this gang rakes mountains of money from the budget, can be absolutely calmly put up against the wall, everyone will only feel better.
        Alas, in our modern civilization, thieves of such a scale are almost never shot. Only China is holding on, and only and exclusively in China are some breakthroughs, some kind of progress possible. And in other countries, no way. Well, no way, no way. The robbery under the guise of science will continue.
        And all this will inevitably end in a general collapse, or a general war. Billions will die, possibly all people. But we will groom thieves and swindlers and undead to the last! Hehe ...
  20. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 3 March 2021 16: 44
    0
    And all this sounds nice - if you don't go into the details. And the details are that, firstly, space is very inhospitable conditions - against the background of Mars, which, to put it mildly, is far from being able to live on it, other places in the solar system, excluding our home planet, seem to be just hell in terms of a set of parameters.
    If we look at our own planet - we have here even the most murdered corners, in which no one (or practically no one has ever lived) - it already seems like paradise compared to Mars. Enjoying life on the summit of Jamalungma or at the "pole of cold", flourishing in central Antarctica and farming on a floating platform at "Point Nemo" - all this will be many times more enjoyable and easier than the best conditions outside our atmosphere, apparently also within 10 light years from our system.
    If we are talking about expansion, it will not be superfluous to look at the population density map on our planet. It turns out that 3/5 of the land is at least practically NOT inhabited and not even close to cultivated. Siberia, most of our Far East, Northwestern regions of China, central regions of Australia, Sahara, most of Canada, Greenland, circumpolar regions, Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, the Mongolian and US deserts, Central Asia and so on. This I am not yet touching upon the potential development of coral reefs and bulk islands - in terms of "living space" and farming. We have huge oceanic territories, where life would also be much more comfortable and sufficient than on the same Mars - I mean in the case of an integrated technological approach to this task, comparable to space exploration. Finally, we have huge spaces underground, which have all the resources necessary for life - I don't want to work. Compared to Mars. On which there is 0.5% oxygen in the atmosphere, poisonous soil, rarefied atmosphere and -30 "in summer" at the equator. And which is half a year of flight (minimum) from the Earth, at the cost of a kilo / output, how much is there now? 10-12 thousand $?
    With all these considerations, I lead to the fact that on our own planet we haven’t even come CLOSE to the development of territories where there is stupid OXYGEN, a normal atmosphere, there are some sources of water and the ability to deliver something needed in, for example, a month, and not in window every two years.
    So all this is a cold tub on the head for lovers of the "beautiful far away" - the next hundred years, even if someone crawls out to Mars - we still sit here as if nailed down. Stupid because of economic laws. And due to the fact that a person loves warmth, comfort and space.
  21. DimanC
    DimanC 4 March 2021 19: 59
    0
    Well, if you stay in the category of the capitalist world, then this world has clearly shown that it does not need space. The capitalist world is now trying to degenerate into global fascism, and with such an agenda, space cannot be mastered. Space can be mastered only by truly free people who know how to think, create, responsibly and meaningfully perform certain actions. Such people leave no place on Earth for the entire current "elite". Therefore, the current "elite" is striving with all its might to shove humanity into a "brave new world" - a digital concentration camp. What kind of space is there, sorry ...
  22. Antagonist
    Antagonist 10 March 2021 22: 57
    0
    Space as a continuation of the expansion of mankind

    Humanity has not yet mastered everything on Earth. So, about the expansion of mankind in space, it will be necessary for the next hundred or two hundred years, only to fantasize.
  23. ximkim
    ximkim 29 March 2021 19: 32
    0

    If we look at human nature, we can say that almost each of us individually and humanity as a whole develop only when they expand.

    History says that expansion only leads to golden bricks, expansion of power, annals, and the creation of a history book for schools.
    Conquest alone ..

    The expansion of space will not make a person immortal and the wars will not end, but the resources that are there, then yes, they are needed to continue to wage wars and extract new resources ... hmm ... so there is development .. recourse л