Military Review

Bosporan Kingdom. Fall of Mithridates VI Eupator

92
Bosporan Kingdom. Fall of Mithridates VI Eupator
Source: https://www.roman-glory.com


Skillfully using the image of the defender of Hellenic culture and tradition, maneuvering on the waves of political currents and closely following the crises in the regions, the Pontic king Mithridates VI Eupator absorbed the states of the Black Sea region one after another. Having reached the Bosporus lands and having included them in the structure of his state, he turned his gaze to the west. There, washed by the waters of warm seas, the Roman Empire was confidently building up its strength. Not yet omnipotent, but already very powerful, and Mithridates had personal scores for her.

Two great states were destined to meet on the battlefields. A long and prolonged struggle eventually resulted in three military campaigns filled with campaigns, bloody battles, betrayal and heroism of their participants. As shown история, the advantage was still not on the side of Mithridates. But, despite the bitter defeats, the Pontic king again and again rose to battle, relying each time on the huge resources of the Bosporus kingdom and the lands of the Northern Black Sea region, the role of which in these confrontations can hardly be overestimated.

Power of Mithridates on the Bosporus


As mentioned in the previous article, retaining the conquered lands of the Northern Black Sea region was almost more difficult than capturing them. The first thing Mithridates started with was to free the Greek cities from paying tribute for a time, lowered taxes, granted freedom to some groups of the slave population and provided benefits for the rise of craft and agricultural activities.

Greek cities, although they were part of Pontus, still had some autonomy. So, Panticapaeum, Phanagoria, Gorgippia, as well as Chersonesos and Olbia could even mint their own coins. It is worth noting that the coins, although they were their own, were mainly depicted on them Mithridates VI Eupator.

In parallel with the economic strengthening, the tsar was building up the defenses of the lands. Moreover, they defended themselves mainly not from the main rival of Pontus - Rome, but from the local barbarian tribes who threatened the Hellenic lands with constant raids and plunder. The tribal world of the Northern Black Sea region at this time was distinguished by great mobility and could greatly shake the position of Mithridates in the region. On the Asian part of the Bosporus (Taman Peninsula), old fortifications were hastily reconstructed and new ones were erected. These buildings, with an area of ​​about 200 m2 and the thickness of the walls about 1,7 m, clearly make it clear about the desire of Mithridates to protect himself from the invasion of the North Caucasian tribes who lived nearby. The so-called Hellenistic "tower houses" have also become widespread. On the Bosporus, they were erected earlier, but under the Pontic rule, their number increased markedly.


Plans of "house-towers" of the Cimmerian Bosporus (after Ya. M. Paromov). 1 - at the Seven-Brothers Fortress; 2 - near the village "For the Motherland"; 3 - Jubilee I; 4 - near the village of Anapskaya; 5 - Dzhemete I; 6 - Tsemdolinskoe; 7 - Vladimirovka; 8 - near the Rassvet farm; 9 - on the bank of the Akhtanizovsky estuary. Source: http://www.krimoved-library.ru

The Crimean peninsula was strengthened less significantly. This was partly due to the calmer situation in the European part of the Bosporus, partly due to the fact that an impressive system of fortifications existed here from the beginning.

Protection from pirate and barbarian raids, economic incentives and tax breaks had a significant effect on the Hellenic cities. Later, after the end of the grace period, the Bosporus lands were able to pay tribute to the Pontic king in the amount of 180 thousand medims of bread and 200 talents of silver.

It is important to note that this tax, apparently, was significant, but still not too burdensome. He did not interfere with the growth and development of Greek cities during the recovery period after the crisis associated with the transfer of power.

Medymne - the basic unit of measure of bulk solids in ancient Greece, is approximately 52 liters.

Talent - a measure of weight, common at one time in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. It was also used as a monetary (non-monetary) unit in Ancient Greece. Approximate weight 30 kilograms.

As mentioned earlier, Mithridates fought with Rome three times. And after the First War, unsuccessful for the Pontic king, the course of hostilities led to an attempt to separate part of the Bosporus lands from the Pontic kingdom. Probably, a certain role in these events was played by the actions of the barbarian elite of power, which still could not come to terms with the loss of their positions in the politics of the Bosporus lands and tried in every possible way to restore them.

To suppress the uprising and restore power in a key direction for himself, Mithridates VI Eupator gathered an impressive fleet and a huge army. The scope of the preparations was so great that the Romans even began to suspect that all these forces were being assembled not for a campaign on the Northern Black Sea region, but against Rome. This circumstance, by the way, was the reason for the start of the Second Mithridates War. The punitive operation had to be postponed, and it resumed after the hostilities.

Very little is known about the fighting of the punitive corps. The ancient Roman historian Appian reports only that at that time a campaign was undertaken against the Achaeans in the Asian direction. Due to the heavy losses of the expeditionary corps and unfavorable weather, Mithridates was even forced to retreat, regroup and regain power in the second campaign.

There is also information that in parallel to the Achaean tribes Mithridates in the European part of the Bosporus was opposed by another force. Whether these were Scythian associations or Sarmatian associations is not known for certain. Scientists differ on this issue. However, given that the events took place in the Crimean part of the Bosporus, it is very likely that the initiators of the confrontation were still the Scythians.

Be that as it may, Mithridates VI Eupator managed to restore his position in the northern lands. Having united them under the rule of the capital of the Bosporus kingdom - Panticapaeum, he appointed his son Mahar the ruler of the region, thereby finally throwing off the image of the defender of the Hellenes and their freedoms. The fight against Rome was now the only goal of the Pontic king, and as history has shown, he followed it to the very end.

The decline of the era of the great king of Pontus


The third war unleashed by Mithridates and a crushing defeat in their own lands dealt a heavy blow to the state of the state and the loyalty of the people close to the king. Realizing all the lamentability and futility of attempts to resist Rome, Mahar, being the governor of Pontus in the lands of the Northern Black Sea region, decided on treason. He sent a golden wreath for the Roman commander Lucullus, and the army supplies of food, thereby concluding a friendship with them.

Mahar's betrayal dealt a heavy blow to Mithridates. However, despite the seemingly hopeless situation, the Pontic king did not even think to surrender. Even completely defeated in Asia Minor, he did not give up the fight. Moreover, he had a new plan for the transfer of hostilities to the territory of Rome and the organization of an invasion from the east through the northern lands of Europe.

The first stage in the implementation of the plan was the return of power over the Bosporus, where the son who betrayed him still ruled. The way to the Northern Black Sea region lay through the Caucasus, inhabited by many warlike tribes. Having made a risky transition, in which some of the barbarians who lived in those lands were subdued by force, and some entered into friendly alliances with the passing army, the Pontic king went to the Kuban region. Local tribes received him very cordially, let him into their territory and exchanged all kinds of gifts. For additional support, the king even married some of his daughters to the most powerful leaders of the local tribes.

By this time, according to the testimony of the Roman historian Appian, Mithridates had a final plan for the invasion of Rome from the east through the Alps.

It is interesting to note that the Roman commander Pompey, who defeated the king in the Third Mithridates War, did not dare to pursue him through the Caucasus, because he considered that many dangerous tribes lived in those lands, with which the Roman troops should not enter into conflicts. Instead, he gave the order to start a naval blockade of the Cimmerian Bosporus.

Makhar, who learned that his father had come such a long way in such a short time, and did not expect it at all, was unable to offer any resistance. They even made an attempt to apologize to the king, but this action did not bring any results. In the end, Makhar was forced to flee to Chersonesos, where, finding himself in an absolutely hopeless situation, he decided to commit suicide. The loss of his son, on whom great hopes were pinned, dealt another blow to Mithridates VI Yevpator, but did not stop him on the way to implementing the plan.

Nevertheless, the position of the Pontic ruler became almost hopeless. The dense naval blockade of the Bosporus and the loss of almost the entire state forced him to enter into negotiations with Pompey. The requirements of the Roman commander were simple: complete surrender, as well as his personal appearance in Rome. Mithridates could not take such steps, but in order to soften the situation and gain time, he promised to send one of his sons to Pompey.

Despite the hardest conditions, the Pontic king still hatched plans for a new war. Hastily gathering an army and preparing weapon, Mithridates tried to collect everything necessary for the campaign in the shortest possible time. The population of the Bosporus was en masse taxed, new settlements were hastily erected on agricultural land, soldiers were recruited from both free and slaves. Parallel to this, the defensive systems of Panticapaeum were also improved.


Acropolis of Panticapaeum. Curtain designed for the installation of catapults. Source: http://www.krimoved-library.ru

All these extraordinary measures, aggravated by the abuse of the tsarist administration, coupled with the Roman blockade, caused great discontent among the inhabitants of the Hellenic cities. The resulting explosive situation eventually turned into an uprising. The first city in which a coup broke out was Phanagoria. The rebels laid firewood on the part of the city where the daughters of Mithridates were, and set it on fire. Almost all of the royal children surrendered, with the exception of Princess Cleopatra, who resisted, and her father was able to save her on a specially sent ship.

After the riot in Phanagoria, Chersonesos, Theodosia, Nympheus and all other cities along the coast of Pontus (Black Sea) broke away from Mithridates. In such a situation, the king turned to the Scythians with a request to come to him with an army as soon as possible. The daughters of Mithridates were sent to the Scythian rulers, but the detachment accompanying the girls rebelled and went over to the side of Pompey.

Having finally lost the kingdom and no longer counting on Scythian support, Mithridates VI Eupator still hoped to continue the struggle with Rome. Relying on a long-standing friendship with the Celts, he stubbornly prepared for the campaign. But by that time even the tsarist army began to hesitate, with apprehension and excitement regarding the upcoming long-distance expedition.

In the end, in a series of betrayals and failures, Mithridates was betrayed by his son Pharnaces, on whom he had high hopes and hoped to make him his successor. History decreed that the king's son stood at the head of the conspiracy, which, however, was revealed. This did not save the former lord of Pontus, but only hastened his inevitable end. Pharnaces first came to the camp of the Roman defectors and persuaded them to march against his father. After that, the prince sent out his envoys to the nearest camp sites and agreed with them on joint actions. On the morning of the next day, in accordance with the agreement, the defectors were the first to throw a war cry, which was supported by many wars of the army of Mithridates, as well as the fleet.

Unable to come to an agreement with his son, Mithridates nevertheless realized the failure of his hopes and, fearing that the traitors would betray him to the Romans, decided to commit suicide. The great Pontic ruler decided to take the poison that he always carried with him in the hilt of his sword. However, this time fate played a cruel joke on him. He and his two daughters drank the poison, wishing to share the fate with their father. Both girls died immediately, but the potion did not work on the king himself. The fact is that Mithridates had a habit of constantly using poisons in small doses in order to protect himself from poisoning. The adapted organism did not want to die.

This truly great tragedy ended with Mithridates VI Eupator being stabbed with a sword. Who exactly delivered the decisive blow is not known for certain, but this is not so important. At the end of his life, through his own fault, the great king was deprived of the right to an easy death.

Results


Trying to analyze the actions of Mithridates VI Eupator through the prism of the Bosporus kingdom, the conclusion involuntarily suggests itself that the great king placed too much hopes on the tribes from which he was going to form troops. Guided by thoughts about the invincibility of the Scythian tribes, as well as the power of numerous barbarians of the Great Steppe, fueling it with his own propaganda, it seems that he himself believed in the invincibility of the armies that he had repeatedly collected.

It seems obvious that the Pontic king was unable to create a reliable base in the lands of the Northern Black Sea region for a clash with such a powerful enemy as Rome. The fragile Greco-barbarian union under the auspices of Pontus lasted until the first major defeats of Mithridates, breaking up into several pieces, thereby further exacerbating the contradictions between the Hellenes and the barbarians. Of course, for some time Mithridates managed to smooth them out and level them, but by no means eradicate them. Victories over the Scythian and Sarmatian tribes did not mean superiority over Rome at all.

One thing was clear: by his actions, the Pontic king tore the lands of the Northern Black Sea region from a certain autonomy and originality, throwing them into the orbit of the influence of the Roman state. Having taken over the baton of government, the Romans coped with this task much better than Mithridates, for many years determining the development and political vector of the Bosporus kingdom.

Sources:

1. VF Gaidukevich "Bosporus Kingdom" Moscow. Leningrad. 1949
2. Yu. A. Vinogradov, V. A. Goroncharovsky "Military history of the Bosporus kingdom" Publishing house "Lomonosov". 2017
3. VM Zubar, AS Rusyaeva "On the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus" Publishing house "Stilos". 2004
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 04: 42
    +10
    Thank you Egor!
    It should be noted that each new work is better in style and presentation. Keep it up!
    Regards, Kote!
    1. PhilipKDick
      4 March 2021 07: 10
      +12
      Hello. Thank you for your feedback.
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 4 March 2021 08: 56
        +7
        Egor! Good job. At one time he wrote something similar for the British publishing house Montvert, but it went bankrupt. So the book was there and covered with all the materials. But ... why don't you try making a book for Osprey? I cannot after the release of your articles. But God himself told you to suggest this topic ... For the Men-at-Arms series. I will tell you where to get photographs of artifacts, and I will even share what I have, if you cannot agree on it yourself.
      2. Reklastik
        Reklastik 18 March 2021 01: 12
        0
        Bosporus or Bosphorus ???
        1. PhilipKDick
          18 March 2021 09: 43
          +2
          Bosporus.
          This is how the region around the Kerch Strait was previously called, and the strait itself was called the Cimmerian Bosporus.
  2. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 4 March 2021 05: 23
    +6
    I read thanks! I also like to read history.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 05: 30
      +10
      Quote: Pessimist22
      I read thanks! I also like to read history.

      Good morning!
      What he especially likes in Yegor's works is he prescribes the sources he relies on. Even if they are secondary, they are worth reading, especially Vinogradov and Goncharovsky with their "Military history of the Bosporus kingdom."
      1. Richard
        Richard 4 March 2021 08: 10
        +8
        the so-called Hellenistic "tower houses"

        Tower houses have been discovered and investigated on the territory of both the Asian and European parts of the Bosporus. Most of them were found and excavated near the North Caucasian coast of the Black Sea, which in ancient times was the eastern outskirts of the Bosporus kingdom. They are mainly concentrated in the area between Novorossiysk and Anapa (Baty and Gorgippia, respectively).
        These are settlements near the farm Rassvet, the villages of Natukhaevskaya, Anapskaya4, villages
        Vladimirovsky, Tsemdolina and Shirokaya Balka near Novorossiysk. The list I have given does not claim to be complete - there were probably much more towers in this region. According to archaeological reconnaissance, which identified new points of the signaling system, their number was at least twenty-one.
        To the east of the Abrau Peninsula, as it was believed until recently, there were no watchtowers, and indeed there were no ancient settlements. However, in the early 2000s. a tower house was opened in the Arkhipo-Osipovka area. The excavated tower (it is possible that it is not the only one in this region) significantly expands the geography of the distribution of monuments of this type.
        a photo Naples Scythian Simferopol

        a photoTanais Museum Reserve. Rostov region

        link to photo and material: A.V. Bonin "Settlements of the Bosporus I century BC - early II century AD. Published by the Institute of Archeology RAS, Moscow, Russia, 2017.
    2. WHAT IS
      WHAT IS 4 March 2021 05: 35
      +13
      Quote: Pessimist22
      I read thanks!

      Briefly and clearly, I join!
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 4 March 2021 05: 28
    +10
    Swallowed in one spirit, an interesting story and is very easy to read. good

    Many thanks to Egor and wish to continue further. smile
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 4 March 2021 05: 43
      +13
      I decided to add some illustrations.
      Coin with the profile of Mithridates (obverse - reverse).

      His head is in an interesting "helmet".

      Death of the king and his daughters. (In the background, a clear Roman commands the scene)


      It was especially interesting for me to read all this, because I was in Phanagoria, and in Evpatoria, and in the ancient Chersonesos in general I "registered" for many years. smile
      1. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 4 March 2021 07: 26
        +5
        Good morning Comrades hi ! An excellent, easy-to-read article, a well-deserved plus for the Author!
        Constantine, the "animal" theme in helmets, as well as the use of skulls and animal skins - in fact, created this attribute of a warrior. The first helmets, in fact, were an animal skull worn on the head. Since the time of the appearance of man, such helmets have appeared on all continents, practically in all human communities. Protective equipment of this kind has survived to modern times among some peoples of America and Africa.
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 4 March 2021 07: 39
          +6
          What were the aborigines of Australia to do? How dangerous was it to turn into a kangaroo skin?
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 4 March 2021 07: 53
            +6
            Quote: Korsar4
            What were the aborigines of Australia to do? How dangerous was it to turn into a kangaroo skin?

            Hmm ... in a kangaroo - Definitely not solid somehow No. In Australia, until recently, there were quite large marsupial lions and marsupial wolves - apparently they were worn out on helmets and everyone!
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 4 March 2021 07: 57
              +6
              When at school they wrote some work on the types of the Red Book, in order to sympathize with it, I chose the marsupial wolf.
            2. Undecim
              Undecim 4 March 2021 12: 28
              +7
              Quite large marsupial lions existed in Australia until recently.
              45 years - not to say that recently. Although in comparison with the age of the Earth - indeed recently. Judging by the rock carvings, they crossed paths with the natives with fatal consequences for marsupial lions.
              Although, as for me, the only thing that can be said with certainty about the images found is that they are males. But whether it is a lion or not is a debatable question.
      2. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 4 March 2021 08: 19
        +6
        And in terms of coins ... as a "little numismatist", Coins of the Bosporus Kingdom are probably the most common coins on the territory of Russia of the "ancient" states. Most of all, of course, in the Crimea, but ... they even found it in Yakutia! Due to the massiveness, quite reasonable prices, you can touch the history, for five hundred rubles - it is possible to buy a coin of Mithridates (copper), for five - ten thousand (silver), well, and Gold coins are certainly more expensive,
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 4 March 2021 08: 40
          +2
          In Chersonesos, after each storm, a wave washed away, the locals even had their own business in search and sale.
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 4 March 2021 08: 46
            +4
            He, this "business" - now generally flourishes from the appearance of serious metal detectors ... every year they find "serious" treasures both on the ground and underwater. It is very interesting to observe the geography of ancient trade from the finds ... that's what they could supposedly buy in Yakutia for Bosporan coins recourse ??
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 4 March 2021 09: 20
              +4
              ... that's what they could supposedly buy in Yakutia for the Bosporus coins recourse ???

              It depends on what coins and how many of them, otherwise all of Yakutia at once ... laughing
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 4 March 2021 09: 28
                +9
                laughing They were going to develop a "mountain ski" there ... in the Crimea with snow "byada" sad
                Eureka!!! I finally understood why one of the largest hoards of Chinese coins (12-14 centuries) was found in the south of the Tyumen region laughing The Chinese planned investments in the oil and gas sector and the construction of a gas pipeline bully
            2. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 4 March 2021 11: 27
              +6
              Quote: Hunter 2
              what could presumably have been bought in Yakutia for Bosporan coins

              It is unlikely to buy. But to use it as an expensive elite jewelry or talisman - please.
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 4 March 2021 11: 38
                +5
                Quote: Trilobite Master

                It is unlikely to buy. But to use it as an expensive elite jewelry or talisman - please.

                Well, somehow a bit too much for talismans, and the coins used in "monisto" have one important feature - a hole for attaching and wearing. I quite imagine that there were trade routes, the bone (tusks) of the Mammoth (which Yakutia is rich in) was known to the ancient world. In general, knowledge about the "ancient" trade is constantly changing with the emergence of new finds.
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 4 March 2021 11: 53
                  +5
                  Quote: Hunter 2
                  there were also trade routes,

                  This is definitely yes. If there is a find, then there was an exchange, hence trade, and hence routes.
                  I dare to suggest that in a region like Yakutia, money could hardly be money itself. Otherwise, the finds of coins would have been regular, including in numerous hoards, and I have not heard of this.
                  The coins themselves are beautiful and mysterious. They depict wonderful people in wonderful clothes, with some wonderful symbols ... For a representative of some wild tribe, such a curiosity could also have a sacred meaning.
                  To make a more informed assumption about the essence of such a find, more information is needed - the number of finds, their localization, archaeological context, etc., and I do not have that now. But if the finds are single, then, most likely, these are really not money in the full sense, but objects of worship or luxury.
          2. depressant
            depressant 4 March 2021 10: 01
            +5
            In Chersonesos, after each storm, a wave washed away, the locals even had their own business in search and sale.


            Good morning, Constantine!
            Health to everyone, colleagues! Nowadays it is necessary to actualize the meaning of the greeting "Hello!", Leaving from "Hello!" and hi!".
            In Sochi, collecting gold after a storm is not exactly a profession, but they found a lot before. I don’t know how it is now. But - modern jewelry! "Mithridates" did not wash ashore.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 4 March 2021 16: 22
              +4
              The sea sometimes gives, but more often it takes.
              1. depressant
                depressant 4 March 2021 16: 38
                +5
                Oh, okay - with a ring that slipped off your finger, with a chain that went down to the bottom. Someone is sure to drown during the season. And I don't quite understand the story of the sailors who cannot swim. I would have introduced such a discipline. If you want to be a sailor, pass the breaststroke or crawl standard.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 4 March 2021 18: 35
                  +3
                  What I'm talking about. But even among the pirates there were many who could not swim. Such paradoxes.
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 5 March 2021 01: 01
              +1
              Good night, Lyudmila. love
              On all beaches, both sea and river, the gold of modern jewelry is a source of more regular income for local comrades, during the season, of course.
              At sea, fools-women came running to us with screams: "You have scuba gear, please look ..."
              How, to gobble up the air, and then, a couple of kilometers away, trudge on foot with your iron in the heat to the military men to fill the cylinders with a new one. Stupidity, it is, of course, contagious, but not so much. laughing
      3. Richard
        Richard 4 March 2021 08: 24
        +7
        ... Panticapaeum capital of Mithridates

        Panticapaeum (ancient Greek Παντικάπαιον, Latin Panticapaeon) is an ancient Greek city founded at the end of the 100th century BC. e. immigrants from Miletus in the place of modern Kerch; during its heyday it occupied about XNUMX hectares. The Acropolis was located on a mountain called Mithridates today. The main patron deity of Panticapaeum from the foundation of the settlement was Apollo, the main temple of the acropolis was dedicated to him. The construction of the most ancient and grandiose by the standards of the Northern Black Sea region, the building of the temple of Apollo Ietra was completed by the end of the XNUMXth century. BC e. In addition, later, next to the palace of the Spartokids, there was a temple in honor of Aphrodite and Dionysus.
        Over time, the city was surrounded by a powerful system of stone fortifications, superior to the Athenian
        Having suppressed the rebellion of Sapmak, Mithridates began to rule the Bosporus kingdom, which entered the Pontic kingdom. During the three Mithridates wars, Panticapaeum and the entire Bosporan kingdom worked for the Pontic king, who was at war with the Roman republic, and became its capital.
        In 65 BC. e. defeated Mithridates takes refuge in Panticapaeum and, having learned in 63 BC. e. about the betrayal of the son of Pharnaces II, he is stabbed at his request by the head of his bodyguard detachment when he is surrounded in the Panticapaean citadel by the troops who rebelled against him and incited by his son.
        Today it is a federal cultural heritage site of Russia
        reg. No. 911540360150006 (EGROKN)
        object number 823203100
        1. Richard
          Richard 4 March 2021 08: 25
          +7
          a photo Ruins of Panticapaeum. Kerch




          1. Richard
            Richard 4 March 2021 08: 27
            +6
            photo Ruins of Panticapaeum. Kerch (continued)


        2. Richard
          Richard 4 March 2021 08: 33
          +6
          The etymology of the toponym Panticapaeum remains a subject of debate. Usually, its relationship with the name of the Panticapa river (ancient Greek Παντικάπης) is recognized, according to Herodotus, flowing in Scythia.
          According to the most widespread version, proposed by V. I. Abaev, the name of the city comes from the ancient Iranian * panti-kapa- “fish way”. In his opinion, this word originally denoted the Kerch Strait, which was the path of the mass movement of fish
          According to the hypothesis of O.N. Trubachev about the Indo-Aryan substratum in the Northern Black Sea region, the toponym may come from the Taurus * panti-kapa- “hill near the strait (path?)”, While the meaning of “hill” in the word * kapa is absent in the Indo-Aryan languages only reconstructed by Trubachev from Old Ind. kapāla "skull". V. P. Yaylenko corrects the Indo-Aryan version, suggesting an etymology * pañkti-kapa "five mountains"
          Earlier, V.P. Yaylenko and A.K.Shaposhnikov proposed a Thracian etymology of the toponym, drawing on Baltic parallels: they compared the first part of the word with Prussian. pintis, pentes "road, path", the second - with lit. kãpas, kãpai "hill, grave".
          Yu. V. Otkupshchikov drew attention to the fact that in the Iranian and Indo-Aryan toponymy there are no names in -καπας, while in the Thracian there is in -απα поэтому, therefore the toponym should be divided differently: as the Thracian Παντικο-απα "sea water"
          Fig. Panticapaeum and other Greek colonies on the northern Black Sea coast
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 10: 51
            +1
            Quote: Richard
            The etymology of the toponym Panticapaeum remains a subject of debate. Usually, its relationship with the name of the Panticapa river (ancient Greek Παντικάπης) is recognized, according to Herodotus, flowing in Scythia.

            It must be admitted that the associates of Catherine the Great were weak in ancient geography. laughing
          2. ccsr
            ccsr 4 March 2021 17: 03
            +1
            Quote: Richard
            The etymology of the toponym Panticapaeum remains a subject of debate. Usually, its relationship with the name of the Panticapa river (ancient Greek Παντικάπης) is recognized, according to Herodotus, flowing in Scythia.

            There are no large rivers on the Kerch Peninsula, so this version does not stand up to criticism.
            Quote: Richard
            According to the most widespread version, proposed by V. I. Abaev, the name of the city comes from the ancient Iranian * panti-kapa- “fish way”.

            But this version is the most reliable, because twice a year there is a huge amount of fish through the Kerch Strait from the Sea of ​​Azov and back, and its catch was carried out even before the colonization by the Greeks. That is why, along the Kerch Strait, several settlements with a developed economy arose at once, because it was difficult to find such a food base anywhere in the Black and Azov Seas. Taman Bay was also a spawning ground for sturgeon even in the sixties of the last century, not to mention mullet, flounder, horse mackerel and anchovy, which are still caught.
      4. Flooding
        Flooding 4 March 2021 09: 49
        +6
        Quote: Sea Cat
        His head is in an interesting "helmet".

        a reference to Hercules, who wore a Nemean lion skin cape

        the image of Alexander the Great on the 336-323 coin. BC
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 4 March 2021 06: 24
    +8
    An excellent cycle of articles. I will draw the attention of members of the forum. The author skillfully uses sources.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 March 2021 06: 59
      +5
      Quote: parusnik
      An excellent cycle of articles. I will draw the attention of members of the forum. The author skillfully uses sources.

      Again, I note that the author is progressing from work to work. Chileyk may not please.
      1. Richard
        Richard 4 March 2021 08: 38
        +7
        Kote Pan Kokhanka: note that the author is progressing from work to work

        I subscribe to Vlad's opinion. Great article. The author is great
        It is a pity that the illustrations are few. But commentators are already correcting this "flaw"
  5. Korsar4
    Korsar4 4 March 2021 06: 34
    +7
    For some reason, one cannot take one's eyes off the plans of the tower houses.
    The scheme is there, but the imagination will draw the details.
  6. TerraSandera
    TerraSandera 4 March 2021 07: 06
    +4
    Plus, good article. Last year I was on the ruins of Chersonesos, I did not think that it was one of the bricklayers of the kingdom, which several times challenged Rome.
  7. Olgovich
    Olgovich 4 March 2021 08: 26
    +3
    Fertile lands and ... endless wars for them.

    Mithridates still commands respect for his unyielding will and courage.

    It didn't work out .. ..Rome was stronger, but he turned out to be generally stronger than everyone else. ... And Mithridates did everything he could.

    And now we remember him from Mount Mithridates in Kerch ...
    1. depressant
      depressant 4 March 2021 10: 11
      +3
      Historians say that Mithridates the Sixth was not only physically strong, but clever and diplomatic. Probably, in order to conduct negotiations, he needed to learn 22 languages.
  8. Richard
    Richard 4 March 2021 09: 26
    +7
    It is not clear why the author in his cycle did not mention Hypsycratia - the concubine and wife of Mithridates VI Eupator, and she at least deserves a separate article in this cycle

    I will cite the ancient authors:
    Strabo:"Gypsikratia perfectly mastered the art of war, accompanying her husband on military campaigns. She, like all the Amazons, was excellent with a spear, ax and sword, and was also an unsurpassed archer.

    Appian: "This love story began after the return of Mithridates VI Eupator from another campaign against the Sinds and Meots to his residence, which was in Phanagoria. The king was depressed, because the campaign did not end quite the way he wanted it. The only joy was that that a girl was captured by him - according to rumors, either one of the daughters, or one of the granddaughters of the famous queen of the Amazons, Amagi.
    It happened quite by accident. The girl, fighting on a par with the men, was forced to retreat, but not far from one of the tributaries of the Tanais (Don) River, a horse fell under her, struck by an arrow. Hearing the stomp of the overtaking pursuit, she took out a reed from behind her back and boldly entered the water, but water began to seep through the reed, cracked during the fall. Coughing, the girl emerged, and the Mithridat warriors, twisting the wriggling beauty, dragged her to the chief. He, amazed at the extraordinary beauty of the steppe Amazon, reported to his superiors. This is how the warlike Amazon, in the end, appeared before the gaze of the great king and commander.
    The love of Mithridates and the Amazon was passionate and lasted for a long time. She loved her master loyally and in her own way: her soul yearned for family and friends, countless herds of horses, green meadows and rivers. Several times the beauty tried to escape, but she was caught and brought to the king. Contemporaries nicknamed her "Invincible" ... She gave birth to three daughters to the king.

    Plutarch ("Life of Pompey"): from the words of eyewitnesses, it is known that the indomitable Hypsycracy did not leave Mithridates for a minute, sharing with him in military campaigns both the joy of victories and the bitterness of defeat. She was one of the few who did not leave him after being defeated by the troops of Pompey. Her name was Hypsycratia. The king himself called her for her bravery and courage "Gipsikrat". “The concubine was dressed in men's Persian clothes and rode on horseback; she did not feel tired from the long journey and did not tire of caring for the king and his horse. Her fate is unknown. Some argue that she, at the head of a detachment of Amazons sent by Mithridates to Spain, successfully helped the pirates of Quintus Sertorius in the fight against the Romans. Others said that they saw her in the camp of Spartacus, who served during the First Mithridates War in his mercenary Thracian troops. Apparently, in this battle with the Romans, the leader of the steppe Amazons died the death of the brave, after which her body was delivered by order of King Mithridates to Phanagoria, where she was buried with great honors. "

    Plutarch (in Comparative Biographies):There is an assumption that, being pregnant, Hypsicratia was strangled by the sons of Mithridates VI, in particular Pharnacs, who was afraid of the heirs. Mithridates VI did not survive his love for long. Death of King of Kings in 63 BC was the result of the betrayal of his son-in-law Tigran II and his son Pharnak, as well as the infidelity of the mercenary army. In memory of the great king, who fought against Rome for many years, Mithridat's mountain rises above Panticapaeum, in one of the caves of which, according to legend, the faithful horse Arjun, made of pure gold, was buried in full height, presented to him by the Scythian Amazon Hipsikratia. "
    1. Richard
      Richard 4 March 2021 09: 34
      +7
      In August 2013, during excavations carried out by Russian archaeologists, in Phanagoria, at the site of the acropolis, traces of a fire and a marble tombstone dedicated to Hypsicratia, the concubine and wife of Mithridates VI Eupator, the ruler of the Pontine kingdom, were found, who, apparently, died during the popular unrest that took place in 63 BC.

      According to Appian, there was a rebellion in Phanagoria in 63 BC. According to the doctor of historical sciences, the head of the Phanagoria expedition, Vladimir Dmitrievich Kuznetsov, the inhabitants of the city laid siege to the acropolis and set it on fire in order to capture the royal garrison and the children of Mithridates. Mithridates, while Pompey was still in Syria, sent part of the army to Phanagoria, but events took a different turn when the Phanagorian Castor, once offended by the royal eunuch Tryphon, attacked him when he entered the city and killed, calling the people to freedom. Despite the fact that Artaphernes and the other sons of Mithridates already owned the acropolis, the inhabitants surrounded it with a tree and set it on fire. The children of Mithridates were forced to surrender, frightened by the fire. Of these, only Artaphern was about forty years old, the rest were still adolescents ... In the course of the ensuing battle with the royal children, there was also Hypsikratia, who, saving the children of her beloved person, died in this battle.
      As the archaeologist notes, during excavations on the Phanagoria acropolis, the expedition discovered traces of this fire: coal, ash and a burnt tree. But the most interesting thing was that during the underwater excavations carried out in 1999 by the Voronezh detachment, headed by Vitaly Latartsev, the general director of the enterprise for underwater technical works "Peter", fragments of buildings, columns, sculptures, griffins and sphinxes, as well as fragments of amphorae and many other artifacts related to the life of ancient Phanagoria, among which a truly priceless gift of fate was the discovery of a stele made of grayish-blue marble with the inscription:

      [Ύ] ψίκρατες γύναι

      βασιλέως Μιθραδάτο [υ]

      Εὐπάτορος Διονύσου,

      χαῖρε

      Translation: "Gipsikrates is the beloved wife of King Mithridates Eupator Dionysus, goodbye."

      Thus, the words of Plutarch and Appian were confirmed word for word. It is worth noting here that in 2009 the American Archaeological Institute included this discovery among the 10 outstanding discoveries made by archaeologists in the world.
      1. Richard
        Richard 4 March 2021 09: 35
        +7
        The ancients believed that Phanagoria was founded on the island of the now defunct Korokondamite archipelago approx. 543 BC e. Theians (Τέος - an ancient Ionian city on the western coast of Asia Minor), driven out of their homes by the invasion of the Persian king Cyrus.
        The city got its name after one of the leaders of the settlers - Phanagora. At the time of Pericles, the city occupied at least 75 hectares, while a third of this territory is now under water. The economic prosperity of Phanagoria was based on trade (mainly in grain) with the Scythians and Sinds.
        At the beginning of the IV century. BC e. the lands of the Sindi, not excluding Phanagoria, became part of the Bosporus kingdom. At first, Panticapaeum was chosen as the capital of the kingdom on the western coast of the Bosporus of the Cimmerian (Kerchenk Strait), but over time, Phanagoria received the status of the second ("Asian") capital of the kingdom, and by the beginning of our era it had become the most significant city of the kingdom, both politically and economically. plan.
        1. PhilipKDick
          4 March 2021 09: 44
          +9
          Hello. Thank you for the addition to the article.
          1. Richard
            Richard 4 March 2021 09: 57
            +8
            Hello. Thank you for the addition to the article.

            Hello, Yegor. hi
            You have such a wonderful article that there is practically nothing to comment on. And this is very rare on the site today.
            A few photos and brief information about Gypsycratia - are these additions?
            Best regards
            Dmitriy
            1. depressant
              depressant 4 March 2021 10: 25
              +4
              I'll bring my own five kopecks)))
              Until now, there are legends about the untold riches of the king. The main treasure was a full-length golden statue of a horse, whose eyes were large sapphires. Legend has it that the horse was made in the likeness of his beloved horse and presented to him by his sixth and most beloved wife, Gypsikratia. It is believed that before his death, Mithridates hid the statue from his enemies in the dungeons of the hill (Mount Mithridates). However, you can hear the story that not one golden horse was hidden, but four at once, harnessed to a golden chariot. The path to the treasure, according to legend, passes through an ancient necropolis.

              Didn't know that Mithridates had six wives. This is where harems come from. Or is it already a general custom of that time? Or even earlier. How annoying it is! )))
              There is strength, so there are six wives! wassat
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 4 March 2021 16: 24
                +4
                “The cave and hearth have not been removed.
                You have spoiled yourself in matriarchy ”(c).
                1. depressant
                  depressant 4 March 2021 16: 32
                  +5
                  ... Here, read, for more than a century,
                  As a woman twists her mouth with a laugh:
                  “Whoo-oo is the best friend of the cholovek?
                  Muzhiiik, pinned by his heel! "
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 4 March 2021 18: 33
                    +3
                    We tried it at New Amazons. It didn't end well.
        2. Anton Yu
          Anton Yu 16 May 2021 15: 24
          +1
          Phanagoria was located in a swampy area and was not very suitable for the capital.
      2. The comment was deleted.
    2. the finish
      the finish 4 March 2021 10: 23
      +4
      Tigranes eventually lost his conquests thanks to Mithridates, who was drawn into wars with Rome.
  9. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 4 March 2021 11: 04
    +5
    For a long time, as a child, I read the book "Mithridates", I no longer remember the author. The heroes were the slaves Hieron and Eupluator, their master Asander, or the priestess, or the hetera Evpatoria (or something like that), and also Mithridates, Mahar, Pharnacs ...
  10. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 4 March 2021 12: 02
    +7
    Some time ago, the author wrote literally the following in the comments:
    I consider the development of writing skills and the structuring of the materials with which I work as a priority of publications.

    Well, well ...
    You are going the right way, comrade.
    yes smile (c) V.I. Lenin
    It turns out not only to present interesting material, but also to present it in an interesting way, and more and more interesting and more interesting. smile
    A well-deserved plus in karma. smile
  11. depressant
    depressant 4 March 2021 12: 46
    +7
    Yes, Mithridates did a good job of modern archeology)))
    For example, off the coast of Phanagoria in 2012, an antique ship-berema was discovered, that is, a military rowing ship with two types of oars. Further, it was identified as taking Mithridates Eupator - the oldest vessel of this type found on the territory of Russia. It was determined that the ship did not sink, but burned down. Rather, its upper part burned down, and losing stability, the ship sank. I hope the sailors knew how to swim)))
    At first, archaeologists determined the date of the sinking and the ownership of the ship very approximately - from the XNUMXnd century BC. and until the first centuries A.D. And only recently, during the additional investigation of the ship, a battle ram was found. Such a ram was usually attached to the bow of the ship and, with a successful maneuver, pierced the side of an enemy ship, it sank.
    The ram, according to archaeologists, is an extremely rare find, and this one bore the royal sign of Mithridates in the form of a crescent and a star. So the ship belonged to his fleet.
  12. ccsr
    ccsr 4 March 2021 13: 30
    +1
    Very interesting materials, especially useful for those who know little about the history of the Bosporus state, and for those who once studied it, an excellent reason to refresh their memory. The author has clearly succeeded and many thanks to him for this cycle.
    But in this place, in my opinion, an error crept in:
    After the riot in Phanagoria, Chersonesus, Theodosia broke away from Mithridates, Nymph and all other cities along the coast of Pontus (Black Sea).

    I can hardly imagine how this settlement could break away from Mithridates, because from Panticapaeum to Nympheus it is only 13-14 km, that even teenagers in my time walked on foot when they went to Heroevka (Eltigen) while in pioneer camps. Nymphaeus is not such a large city that it could withstand the expedition of Mithridates of a couple of hundred soldiers or more, especially since they could arrive there in 2-4 hours by sea in a fresh wind. I think that this is some kind of misunderstanding, and either the author's text was mistaken, or there was an incorrect translation. I would like to clarify the source of this information with the author.
    1. PhilipKDick
      4 March 2021 14: 28
      +4
      Hello.
      Information on the insurgent cities appears in the works of both Vinogradov and Zubar.
      The original source is Appian. Roman Wars (Book XII).

      Given that the events of that time were covered through the prism of Roman historical chronology, doubts about some of the events of course creep in. However, for ignorance of other sources, I took this one in the article.

      Thank you for your feedback.
      1. Anton Yu
        Anton Yu 16 May 2021 15: 33
        0
        Confused by the phrase "and all other cities along the coast of Pontus (Black Sea)." Near Bosor, almost all the cities were by the sea.
        1. PhilipKDick
          16 May 2021 18: 22
          0
          Good day. On the coast, maybe (and that is not a fact), but not all cities were near the Black Sea: the same capital - Panticapaeum or Phanagoria
          1. Anton Yu
            Anton Yu 16 May 2021 18: 42
            +1
            Good evening already. Well I will not argue, but then the Nympheus is also in the strait.
  13. andrew42
    andrew42 4 March 2021 14: 59
    +5
    Great article! It turns out that Mithridates did not cope with the Roman agents of influence, who recruited the elite of the Bosporus policies and Armenia. Nothing is eternal under the Moon.
    1. depressant
      depressant 4 March 2021 19: 23
      +5
      But it turns out that the crescent and the star are eternal. In the 5th century AD, to the north of Asia Minor, where the kingdom of Mithridates the Sixth was once located, the Turks appeared, began to take root and appropriated the crescent and the star. And now these symbols, which previously belonged to Mithridates, are on the flag of Turkey.
  14. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 4 March 2021 19: 13
    +3
    My compliments to the whole honest company! hi
    Egor, my thanks for the article! hi
    1. depressant
      depressant 5 March 2021 00: 05
      +4
      Anton, and the article forced me to think about where the Turks came from, who inherited the star and the crescent from Mithridates as state symbols. Given that the mention of the settlement of Asia Minor by new tribes dates back to the 5th century AD, or rather, to its end and the beginning of the 6th century, I dug into the sources and discovered amazing information.
      And so it was.
      On one bad day in 536, it began to darken very early all over the Earth. On the next day, the sun appeared only for a few hours, and a climatic catastrophe in the form of the Great Midnight set in, which lasted 10 long years. And she was such that snow regularly fell even in Syria. And all these 10 years there was almost no sun - it showed, it was dark and quickly disappeared. Allegedly, 70% of the world's population died out. Today's scientists, investigating this catastrophe, noted in all sources of that time, made the only possible conclusion that the Earth fell into the tail of a huge comet, which it almost collided with, and the smallest particles of the cometary tail took 10 years to finally settle on the earth's surface and the air cleared.
      This event is akin to a nuclear winter, and dozens of tribes from Altai and Central Asia, leaving their homes, moved to the southern seas, which better retained the accumulated heat. Rather, it was not so quickly released into space, taking into account the shielding effect of dust, which played the role of a greenhouse film. The great migration of peoples from the depths of Asia led in Asia Minor to the replacement of the highly developed civilization of the Hellenistic type, one might say, by savages who, mixing with the locals, by the 12th century began to manifest themselves as an emerging empire.
      That was such a horror, but now we need to cleanse Erdogan ((((( wassat )))))
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 5 March 2021 00: 50
        +1
        Good night, Lyudmila love ... I have never heard of such a disaster. This is the XNUMXth century AD ?! Where does this information come from?
        1. depressant
          depressant 5 March 2021 01: 14
          +2
          Yes, I was just typing questions in Yandex one by one and came across an article

          Lukinsky / living history
          "The Mysterious Catastrophe of 536 AD: What Caused the Climatic Apocalypse on Earth?"

          Good night to you, Konstantin! )))
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 5 March 2021 01: 16
            0
            So it did happen before, or after the Nativity of Christ? Somehow I had never heard of such a significant event before.
            1. depressant
              depressant 5 March 2021 01: 19
              +2
              Well, judging by the fact that the new era is counted from the birth of Jesus, then after.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 5 March 2021 01: 23
                +1
                Then it is all the more strange that practically nowhere is there any mention of this catastrophe. Silence in all the annals, and this could not pass unnoticed. request

                Do you have insomnia too? smile

                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 5 March 2021 03: 14
                  +2
                  almost nowhere is there any mention of this disaster
                  There are, for example, Gregory of Tours in and Procopius of Caesarea.
                  Good night, Uncle Kostya!
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 5 March 2021 04: 23
                    +1
                    Anyone else, but my night is interesting, but without dreams. smile
                    There are, for example, Gregory of Tours in and Procopius of Caesarea.

                    So when did this happen, if at all?

                    Good morning Nephew! drinks
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 5 March 2021 04: 43
                      +3
                      It happened in the first half of the XNUMXth century A.D. The phenomenon was named "Late Antique Little Ice Age". The consequences of a cold snap (the so-called early medieval climatic pessimum) were: "dark ages" in Europe, the emergence of Islamic culture, another wave of migration, the extinction of some Mesoamerican cultures, the decline of antiquity.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 5 March 2021 05: 33
                        +1
                        Understood thanks. For me all these times are "a dark forest and a muddy swamp", and I have never hidden it. smile drinks
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 5 March 2021 03: 50
        +4
        Bravo, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! good
        As I have already noted many times, I "breathe unevenly" towards smart women. love
        If you are interested, I can make some corrective notes to your macrohistorical research.
        PS Perhaps you will get the impression that I, within the framework of my buffoonery role, make a mockery, but this is not so.
        1. depressant
          depressant 5 March 2021 07: 33
          +2
          Good morning! )))
          To my "micro" - research you have already added a lot of precise generalizing words above. But if you have something to say in addition, don't be silent. After all, such a cold snap took place in the Middle Ages and boldly from the throne of Godunov. The frequency of the phenomenon?
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 5 March 2021 07: 52
            +3
            Macrohistory explores the cause-and-effect relationships of historical phenomena and processes, which you have successfully done in this particular case.
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 5 March 2021 08: 08
            +3
            On your first comment I will add:
            1. "Star with a crescent" has been popular in the Middle East since the end of the 2nd millennium BC, archaeological finds with this symbolism belong to the Sumerian culture
            2. Mithridates considered an eight-pointed star with a crescent as his own symbol.
            3. Turks appear in Asia Minor in the XNUMXth century.
            4. The cosmological genesis of the Late Antique Little Ice Age has the same degree of probability as the death of Atlantis as a result of the invasion of predatory tomatoes.
            I will answer your second comment a little later, I have to go to work, sorry.
            1. depressant
              depressant 5 March 2021 10: 21
              +3
              Yes, of course, we'll meet in the evening))))
              And ... Anton, a big request for you. Never call women smart. Do you know how it sounds? "People, look, but it talks!" As for me, this is a serious test for my modesty and self-criticism, it is oppressive. Moreover, stupid people do not come to VO, they come with different convictions, an unequal level of morality, anger at life, or complacency. I earnestly ask you not to be offended by my request love )))) drinks
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 5 March 2021 19: 31
                +1
                Good evening, Lyudmila Yakovlevna!
                As promised, I am answering your second comment.
                Yes, indeed, a similar climatic cataclysm happened in the Middle Ages. Unlike the late antique cold snap, here you can name the exact date of the beginning of the crisis, it is 1314. The reason for the phenomenon called the Small Ice Age and lasting until the beginning of the 19th century, most likely, was a sharp change in the course of the Gulf Stream, because in the chronicles there is no evidence of atmospheric phenomena similar to the first cold snap. Also, traces of increased volcanic activity were not noted in the second case, in contrast to the first, this is the result of glaciological studies.
                Reasoning about disasters simultaneously with both cold snaps: the strongest earthquakes and plague pandemics, as concomitant ones, are meaningless due to the lack of a scientific evidence base.
                Bottom line: talking about the cyclical nature of climatic catastrophes is still meaningless, because: 1. in both cases, phenomena of different genesis, 2. two cases are not yet a system.
                1. depressant
                  depressant 5 March 2021 20: 13
                  +2
                  Anton, it turns out, already from the 14th century to the 19th? Isn't that why the 1st millennium looks like a failure in civilizational development? It was only in the 19th and 20th centuries that a sharp technological and corresponding social breakthrough was inconceivable.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 5 March 2021 20: 41
                    +1
                    You see, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, in order to talk about a failure or a breakthrough in the civilizational development of mankind, you need to take into account a lot of factors, this is called macrohistory. For example, at the end of the Late Antique MLP, against the background of a general European decline, the heyday of the Wendel culture in Scandinavia, which gave impetus to the subsequent Norman expansion, which, in turn, determined the appearance, history and culture of Europe for half a millennium ahead.
                    Or, returning to the gender issue (excuse me), I may surprise you, but the Late Middle Ages was one of the most comfortable eras for women.
          3. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 5 March 2021 10: 15
            +3
            Quote: depressant
            After all, such a cold snap took place in the Middle Ages and swept away from the throne of Godunov.

            Good afternoon, volcanic eruption in South America in 1600. (with an unpronounceable name, but Wikipedia probably has it), after which there was a 3-year famine in 1601-1604, the consequences of the "nuclear winter". hi
            1. depressant
              depressant 5 March 2021 10: 36
              +4
              Huaynaputina (Spanish Huaynaputina [wainapuˈtina], from Quechua Wayna - "young", Putina - "volcano") is a large volcano located in the volcanic highlands in southern Peru.

              As you can see, dear colleague, I also could not remember the name of the volcano, I just copied the information)))
              Such is the fragility of the social order! In 536 - a comet, and tribes appeared, who in the 11-12 centuries identified themselves as Turks; in 1600, a volcano with an unpronounceable name erupted and Godunov's progressive plans were swept away.
              1. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 5 March 2021 10: 42
                +2
                Quote: depressant
                I also could not remember the name of the volcano,

                I didn't even try.
                and the tribes appeared, which in the 11-12 centuries identified themselves as Turks

                The Turkic Khaganate - the middle of the XNUMXth century, occupied a huge territory: from the steppes of Mongolia to our Black Sea region.
                One of its fragments is well known to us - the Khazar Kaganate.
      3. Konnick
        Konnick 5 March 2021 11: 06
        +4
        Confirmation of this disaster and the history of the city of Kitey, in the area of ​​the southern coast of the Kerch Peninsula, near the village of Yakovenkovo, formerly Kyzyl Aul. This is from wikipedia -

        Kitay was founded in the XNUMXth century BC. e. and existed up to the end of the VI century A.D. eh... exactly as a city, as evidenced by the inscription of 234 AD. e. on the cult table and all known references in written sources. For centuries, Kitai was involved in the most important political events of that era. The fortress repulsed the raids of the pirate tribes of the Caucasian coast, stood in the way of the armies of Mithridates Eupator and the Roman legions, and later gave shelter to the Byzantine garrison. Not far from Kitay, at the entrance to the Kerch Strait, a naval battle took place in 275, which put an end to pirate raids from the Bosporus on the Asia Minor provinces of the Roman Empire. The city survived relatively well through all the difficult times of the Great Migration of Nations (IV-VI centuries). How the history of the city ended is not entirely clear. Probably, the dehydration of the area led to its gradual desolation not earlier than the end of the XNUMXth - beginning of the XNUMXth centuries.


        The city was trading, they traded in wheat with Greece, then with Rome. And then the climate changed.

        I photographed this in the fall of 2019, the excavation of another necropolis, it has already been mothballed and in 2020 there was no excavation, a pandemic. Behind the mountain is the Kerch Strait and the sunken city of Akra. And in the vicinity there are Scythian burial mounds, a lot. The coast is prone to erosion and nature itself reveals artifacts on the cliffs.
        1. depressant
          depressant 6 March 2021 05: 04
          +4
          I stared at this photo all day. And an unknown, long-gone life floated in vague color spots, leaving behind the sadness of an abandoned putosha and a foundation on which nothing would ever be erected. Time from the past blows with sorrow, time from the future is a signal of alarm.
          1. Sling cutter
            Sling cutter 6 March 2021 05: 07
            +10
            Quote: depressant
            I stared at this photo all day.

            Greetings, Colleague! hi I see you finally left for the historical branches, the historical "diaspora" pulled you in. fellow drinks
            1. depressant
              depressant 6 March 2021 05: 22
              +4
              Good morning! hi ))))
              This is not entirely true. Health was greatly shaken, but the spirit did not fall. There will be more sun, I will start up - I have to! Indeed, an unpleasant situation has emerged during the discussions. Any phenomenon has two sides. And each took on the role of a lawyer for one of the parties and at the same time a prosecutor in relation to the other. Almost all utterances acquire an accusatory color and often rallying non-binding in argumentation. This is a split, people stopped hearing each other, everyone begins to see an enemy in everyone, it ought to be corrected)))
              1. Sling cutter
                Sling cutter 6 March 2021 06: 48
                +10
                Quote: depressant
                Health was badly shaken,

                On the eve of March 8, I want to wish you a speedy recovery!
                Quote: depressant
                This is a split, people stopped hearing each other, everyone begins to see an enemy in everyone, it ought to be corrected)))

                I agree., We will correct it.))
                1. depressant
                  depressant 6 March 2021 09: 13
                  +3
                  Thank you, dear colleague, for the wishes of health! hi )))