Military Review

Bosporan Kingdom. South wind Ponta

75
Bosporan Kingdom. South wind Ponta
Pontic Troops (turningpointsoftheancientworld.com). Angel Garcia Pinto artist


In the II century BC, the echoes of the Scythian-Sarmatian battles still made themselves felt. The loss of a single dominant force in the region, combined with a multitude of nomadic peoples who came from the Great Steppe, created a very difficult destabilizing situation that threatened the collapse of the Hellenic states of the Northern Black Sea region.

The most difficult thing was for the Chersonesos kingdom. Shaking under the endless blows of the Scythians, it lost territory one after another, in the end, shrinking almost to the size of the capital. The inhabitants of Chersonesos had no choice but to ask for help from their neighbors across the sea.

Their call was heard. The Pontic king Mithridates VI Eupator saw in the current situation an excellent chance to expand his influence and did not hesitate to take advantage of it. To the shores of the Crimean peninsula from the side of Pontus, an army headed by the commander Diophantus went to help the Greeks.

Submission of the Bosporus to the Pontic kingdom


The details of these dramatic events have come down to us mainly thanks to the "Honorary decree in honor of Diophantus" found during the excavations of Chersonesos in 1878. The surprisingly well-preserved pedestal of the statue, on which the notes were made, has brought to this day information that has played an important role in the life of the Northern Black Sea region.


Decree of honor in honor of Diophantus. General form. Source: https://iospe.kcl.ac.uk/3.8-ru.html

According to the decree, Diophantus, upon his arrival at the place, led the struggle against the Scythians and managed to win several major victories. After that, he went to the Bosporan kingdom, in order, most likely, to prevent their possible military alliance with Scythia Minor.

Such actions seem to be quite reasonable, since at that time there were very close economic and family ties between the Bosporus and Scythian rulers.

“… Since Diophantus, the son of Asclepiodorus, a Sinopean, being our friend and… using, like no one else, the trust and… from the side of the king Mithridates Eupator, constantly turns out to be for our… the culprit of good, inclining the king to the most beautiful and glorious deeds; being called by him and taking upon himself the war against the Scythians, he arrived in our city and bravely made the crossing with the whole army to the other side; and when the Scythian king Palak suddenly attacked him with a large horde, he, if necessary, joined the battle, put to flight the Scythians, who were considered invincible until then, and made King Mithridates Eupator the first to erect a trophy as a sign of victory over them ... "

Having covered the rear from a possible attack, Diophantus replenished his reserves in Chersonesos and went deep into Scythia, where during the battles he managed to conquer the fortresses of Naples, Habei, Kerkinitida and begin the siege of the Beautiful Harbor (Kalos Limen).

The Scythian king Palak, who opposed Diophantus, united with the Roxolans (in the text they are called "revxinals"), tried to take revenge, but the Pontic commander again managed to win a major victory over the barbarians.

Having finally dealt with the threat of a military invasion of Chersonesos, he again went to the Bosporus kingdom, where “arranges business there perfectly and is useful for Mithridates Eupator". Most likely, this line of the decree, together with the previously mentioned visit of the commander to Panticapaeum, suggests that the second visit to the Bosporus kingdom was aimed at finally resolving the issue of transferring power from the current ruler to the Pontic king. Apparently, the last Spartokides Perisad V was well aware of the successes of Diophantus and, having no children, being unable to withstand Pontus and the constant threat of a barbarian invasion, voluntarily agreed to surrender the reins of government to Mithridates VI Eupator.

The appearance of such an impressive force in the Crimea, as well as the defeat of the Scythians, seemed to have put an end to a series of conflicts and brought peace to the region. but история captures slightly different events. The defeated, but not surrendered Scythians did not want to put up with the loss of influence in the Bosporus kingdom. Led by a certain Savmak, they managed to carry out a military coup, killing Perisades V and forcing Diophantus to flee from Panticapaeum on a Chersonese ship.

The reign of Savmak on the Bosporus lasted about a year and ended with the fact that Diophantus, who had gathered new forces, launched a punitive operation, during which he captured the cities that supported the coup, punished the instigators, and sent Savmak directly to the Pontine kingdom.

“When the Scythians, led by Savmak, staged a coup d'etat and killed the Bosporus king, who raised him, Perisad, and they made a conspiracy against him, he, avoiding danger, boarded a ship sent ... by citizens; visiting ... and calling for help from the citizens, he, having the zealous assistance of the king Mithridates Eupator who sent him, arrived at the beginning of spring with a land and sea army; Having also received selected citizens on three ships and moving out of our city, he captured Theodosia and Panticapaeum and, having found the perpetrators of the uprising, - moreover, he captured Savmak, the murderer of King Perisad, and sent him into the kingdom - restored the possession of King Mithridates Eupator. "


Decree in honor of Diophantus. Text. Source: https://iospe.kcl.ac.uk/3.8-ru.html

It is important to mention that among scientists there are still controversies regarding Savmak's personality. In the text of the decree, the phrase “... the Scythians, led by Savmak, staged a coup d'etat and killed Perisad, the king of the Bosporus, who raised him, and conspired against him"Causes a lively debate among them. Until now, it remains unclear who exactly was nursed by the Bosporus king.

To date, there are several versions of its origin.

First: a number of historians saw in the personality of Savmak a palace slave and, accordingly, perceived the events that took place as an uprising against the oppressors.

The second the version says that Savmak was a member of the semi-barbarian elite of the Bosporus kingdom, which relied on the support of the Scythian rulers, with whose help the coup was made.

The third the same version says that this man had nothing to do with either the reign of Panticapaeum or the slaves, but was the prince of Scythia Minor and, in fact, invaded the Bosporan kingdom from the outside.

Be that as it may, the reign of Savmak did not last long, and as a result of these cruel events, from about 107 BC, Mithridates VI Eupator strengthened his power over the Bosporus kingdom, and in fact, the entire Northern Black Sea region for fifty years.


Map of the territory of the Pontic kingdom at the beginning of the XNUMXst century BC

“Also, assisting the embassies sent by the people in everything useful, he shows himself benevolent and generous in relation to the Chersonesites; So, in order to make it obvious that the people also give due thanks to their benefactors, let the Council and the National Assembly decide: to crown Diophantus, son of Asclepiodorus, with a gold wreath on Parthenia during the procession, while the Simmons should proclaim: “The people shall award a wreath to Diophantus, son of Asklepiodorus, a Sinopean, for his valor and benevolence towards himself ”; put also his copper statue in armor on the acropolis next to the altar of the Virgin and Chersonas, and let the above officials take care that this is done as soon as possible and in the best way; write this decree on the pedestal of the statue, and let the treasurers of the sacred sums give the funds for this. "

It should be said that, in addition to Diophantus, in the battles on the Northern Black Sea coast, history remembers another Pontic commander - Neoptolemus. Brief information about him is recorded in several lines of "Geography" by Strabo, who mentions major victories over the barbarians at the mouth of Lake Meotius (that is, in the Kerch Strait). Moreover, the ancient historian writes that “... the commander of Mithridates Neoptolem in the same strait in the summer defeated the barbarians in a sea battle, and in the winter - in a horse". These scanty data are extremely interesting and important for researchers, since Strabo's information indirectly suggests that, in addition to the Crimean conquests, the king of Pontus led an active campaign to seize the Asian part of the Bosporus kingdom (Taman Peninsula). However, reliable information on this issue has not yet been found, and there are only assumptions about who Neoptolemus fought with.

In particular, Yu.V. Vinogradov, in his research, assumed that in the Kerch Strait the Pontic commander encountered the tribes of Achaeans, Zig and Geniochs, which were mentioned by the same Strabo. The fact that these tribes hunted for robbery and very successfully carried out sea raids on trade caravans was briefly mentioned in the previous article.

This theory seems very likely, since there is evidence that during the crisis of the Bosporus kingdom, pirates were very successful in trading in the Bosporus ports, exchanging loot for food and goods. Obviously, they were not interested in changing the usual order and losing points of sale, resisting this in every possible way.

The role of the Bosporus in the big game


The commanders conquered for Mithridates not only the Scythians and Taurus. The Bosporus, Chersonesos, Olbia and Tyra were part of the Pontic kingdom. Later, the Bastars and Sarmatians joined them.

The capital of the Bosporus kingdom, Panticapaeum, became the single control center for these lands. Here were the governors of Mithridates, and from here were sent help and the necessary resources for the needs of Pontus.

The inclusion of the ancient states of the Northern Black Sea region into a single power at first seemed beneficial to all parties and, of course, found the support of the Hellenic cities. However, the actions of Mithridates were by no means an act of pure altruism. His ambitions extended far beyond the shores of the Black Sea, and a collision with mighty Rome in this situation was inevitable. The Pontic Empire was created by the beginning of the First Mithridates War - in this and subsequent campaigns, the northern Greek lands were assigned the role of a supplier of provisions, equipment and, most importantly, military contingents. At the same time, the bulk of the troops were recruited from the barbarian tribes and, to a lesser extent, by the detachments of the Hellenic states.


Bust of Mithridates VI Eupator. Louvre, Paris

Forming his state, Mithridates VI Eupator faced resistance from a number of barbarian tribes, the subsequent control over which seems to be a more difficult task than conquering them. In the beginning of the struggle with Rome, the Pontic Tsar undoubtedly attached the utmost importance to his Crimean victories. Moreover, these conquests had not only practical weight, expressed in human and material resources, but also moral and psychological. Official propaganda made Mithridates VI the winner of the Scythians, who did not know defeat before, placing the king of Pontus above Cyrus, Darius and Zopirion, who could not cope with the great nomads. The army assembled for the most part of these barbarians should have been beyond the strength of the Roman armies.

However, if you look closely, the situation was not as rosy for Mithridates as it seemed. The ties established with the barbarian tribes were not as strong and reliable as the Pontic rulers would like. Perhaps, in part, this played a role in the subsequent drama played out in the lands of the Bosporus.

But more on that in the next article ...

Sources:

1. VF Gaidukevich "Bosporus Kingdom" Moscow. Leningrad. 1949
2. Yu. A. Vinogradov, V. A. Goroncharovsky "Military history of the Bosporus kingdom" Publishing house "Lomonosov". 2017
3. VM Zubar, AS Rusyaeva "On the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus" Publishing house "Stilos". 2004
4. "Decree in honor of Diophantus." https://iospe.kcl.ac.uk/3.8-ru.html
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  1. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 28 February 2021 06: 07
    +6
    I realized myself to be a complete ignoramus, thanks to the Author. learned what "show-off" is ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 28 February 2021 06: 57
      +10
      Thank you Egor!
      Well, they finally came out in a time period about which I have at least some idea!
      I have a traditional illustration question.

      Scutum and Pillum at the Pontine Wars?
      Moreover, both are of the types that were adopted for Armament after Maria's reforms (the pillum tip on two rivets - one of them is wooden and should break when hitting the enemy's shield, while the shaft began to drag on the ground and interfere with the use of the shield).
      1. Richard
        Richard 28 February 2021 07: 46
        +13
        Scutum and Pillum at the Pontine Wars?

        Glory hi
        Yes, in principle, nothing strange.
        Initially, Mithridates uses a typically Hellenistic army, similar to the Seleucids, with a phalanx and serpentine chariots, which fought in Greece against Sulla at the Battle of Chaeronea. Convinced of the low effectiveness of such an army against the Romans, Mithridates tried to rebuild it according to the Roman model and with Roman weapons. The Romans sent to Mithridates by Sertorius are used as commanders and instructors. However, Roman weapons and Roman tactics, and the help of his son-in-law, the king of Armenia Tigran, did not help to create an efficient army.
        1. Richard
          Richard 28 February 2021 07: 57
          +9
          In the "Miithridates Wars" Appian of Alexandria writes that the Pontic army could deploy up to 250 thousand hoplite infantry with shields, iron shells, swords, helmets and spears, 40 thousand horsemen and 130 sickle chariots (with blades on wheels). The infantry practiced the Macedonian phalanx tactics. There were detachments of archers and a powerful fleet in the manner of the Greek (300 triremes and triremes). The militias of the conquered cities, as well as the Scythians and Medes, stood out in the Pontic army.
          Plutarch names the Pontic commanders: Archelaus, Taxil, Dorilai.
          And his allies:
          The Khalibs, Armenians, Scythians, Taurus, Achaeans, Geniokhs, Levkosurs and those who live on the lands near the Termodonte River joined Mithridates as allies. Such forces joined his former armies from Asia, and when he moved to Europe, the tsarist Savromats, Yazigi, corals joined, and from the Thracians those tribes that live along Istra, along the Rodon and Gem mountains, as well as Bastarna, the most powerful of them a tribe. Such forces were received then by Mithridates from Europe. And he gathered all the fighting forces, about 140 infantry, and up to 000 horsemen.
          1. Richard
            Richard 28 February 2021 08: 01
            +12
            Paradoxical as it may sound, we know too much and too little about Mithridates. A lot is when his activity is viewed through the prism of wars with Rome, and since he fought with this people for most of his life, it is well covered in the ancient tradition. Little - this is because information about his early years of life and the beginning of the reign is fragmentary and legendary, and there is no coherent narrative about them. We learn most of the information about the beginning of the reign of King Pontus from the "Geography" of Strabo, where in the sections devoted to the Black Sea region, he also concerns the political activities of Mithridates, as well as the campaigns of his commanders.
            A native of the city of Amasya, Strabo (64–24 BC) was not only a geographer, but also a historian. Unfortunately, only his "Geography" in 17 books has come down to us, and another work - "History" - has not survived, and this can only be regretted, because the scientist's maternal grandfather at one time was a member of the inner circle of Mithridates, and Strabo probably knew many details from the life of the famous king. Nevertheless, in books VII (Istres, Germany, Taurica, Scythia) and XI (Caucasus, Hyrcania, Parthia, Bactria, Media, Armenia) we find some information about the life and work of Eupator. This is, first of all, data about his war with the Scythians in Taurida and the subordination of the Bosporus kingdom, as well as about the military operations in the Caucasus - as I wrote above, this period of his life is the least illuminated.
            And we see a completely different picture in the study of the tsar's wars with Rome - Appian devoted a whole chapter to him, and Plutarch described them in the biographies of Sulla, Lucullus and Pompey.
      2. Flooding
        Flooding 28 February 2021 07: 49
        +2
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Scutum and Pillum at the Pontine Wars?

        a really strange drawing to illustrate the equipment of a warrior of the Hellenistic army.
      3. Bradley
        Bradley 28 February 2021 08: 45
        +7
        Legionnaires of Mithridates after the Roman model. Not uncommon, even the Libyans used scutum, even Carthage.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 28 February 2021 09: 04
          +5
          Quote: Bradley
          Legionnaires of Mithridates after the Roman model. Not uncommon, even the Libyans used scutum, even Carthage.

          The Seleucids also had divisions of "ligionaries - according to the Roman model." In the Pontic kingdom - why not, but then the sukutum podine should be rectangular, not oval.
          There is also a detailed illustration - an oval scutum with a longitudinal stiffener and metal edging from the top and bottom. Definitely an archaeological find, but where? If it is, why is it believed that scutum is Pontic!
          The Iberians and Libyans had a different form of scutums than the Romans and Italians (allies).
          Carthage hoplites, including the Sacred Unit, were equipped according to the Macedonian model.
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 28 February 2021 16: 30
            +4
            I found samples of such shields just from Panticapaeum and even 3-1 BC.

            Most likely used by Gallic mercenaries in the service of the kings of the Bosporus. I have already written about the differences from shields in the Bosporan images
            The very shape of a shield of this type dates back to the Gallic shields.
            Source
            http://annales.info/greece/bospterr.rar.htm
        2. Flooding
          Flooding 28 February 2021 11: 16
          +4
          Quote: Bradley
          Legionnaires of Mithridates after the Roman model. Not uncommon, even the Libyans used scutum, even Carthage.

          but this is clearly not about the period described in the article.
          but rather about the height of the Mithridates wars.
      4. Egoza
        Egoza 28 February 2021 11: 03
        +4
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Thank you Egor!

        I join! Great article! THANK! you rest your soul when you read a non-distorted story
        I have a traditional illustration question.
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        I have a traditional illustration question.

        Me too! Who is the author of the painting?
        1. Fat
          Fat 28 February 2021 13: 18
          +5
          The author is a certain Angel Garcia Pinta.
          There is a caption and a link under the illustration.
          Passed over. Flipped through. Not appreciated.
          Try it, maybe you can get something useful from this resource.
          With respect. hi
      5. Engineer
        Engineer 28 February 2021 14: 15
        +7
        The artist painted a "generalized" Hellenistic shield. There are no finds of the shields themselves. Only reliefs and ceramics.
        Parsing the book Seleucid Army Seconds
        Terracotta figurine from Asia Minor. 130-60 BC

        There is a similar figurine of a foot Galatian from the same region.
        Fragment of the sculptural composition. Rider. The era of late Hellenism.

        The same shield at the rider from the relief in Pergamum

        The actual Bosporan shields can be judged by the paintings of the Panticapaeum crypts
        Stasovsky crypt, first half of the 2nd century AD
        Shields look smaller. The central rib is not visible


        The helmets were drawn from this magnificent specimen. The artist painted the crests based on the images in the reliefs
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 28 February 2021 17: 35
          +3
          I agree that the Gallic-type shield could have got into the Black Sea region with the Gallic mercenaries, the helmet - the author embellished it a little, but what do we wake up to do with the pilum (dart) - the era of reforms Maria?
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 28 February 2021 17: 44
            +3
            Understand and forgive)
            Or look for the artist's reasons in this book. Alas, I don't have it
            https://www.amazon.com/Army-Bosporan-Kingdom-Mariusz-Mielczarek/dp/8385874038
      6. Sergey Sfiedu
        Sergey Sfiedu 28 February 2021 20: 03
        +4
        "Skutum" is more likely a phireos (thyros), very popular among the Greeks in the Hellenistic era, including in the Crimea. It is such a shield that is depicted on the gravestone stele from the Akhtanizovsky estuary, and on the stele of Dionisy and Aristides from the Kerch Historical and Archaeological Museum (the latter, however, without a vertical rib).
      7. hohol95
        hohol95 28 February 2021 21: 12
        +3
        In the book "Mithridates" (I do not remember the author, but the times were still Soviet), it was pointed out that the army of Mithridates had been reformed to give it a "Roman look"! The picture shows a mixture of styles - Roman pillums and Macedonian linen LINOTORAX. And the helmets are more like the Macedonian helmets.
  2. Destiny
    Destiny 28 February 2021 06: 08
    +12
    Thanks to the author for an interesting series of articles, we look forward to continuing!
    1. Richard
      Richard 28 February 2021 08: 12
      +11
      The cycle of articles is very interesting, good illustrations, sources are indicated. Well done author!
  3. The comment was deleted.
    1. [comment-show]
      Richard
      Richard 28 February 2021 06: 25
      +8
      The marble pedestal from the statue, split into two parts, was found in 1878, and in 1898 it was transported to the Hermitage, where it is kept now. Dated to the end of the XNUMXnd century. BC. Judging by the position of the statue's legs, the decree was not carved on the front (as it was still believed), but on the back of the pedestal; on the face, the broken part of the slab, there was probably an honorary inscription of the type: Council and People to the commander Diophantus.
      Inscription text:

      “(...), the son of Zeta, they suggested: since Diophantus, the son of Asclepiodorus, a synoptic, being our friend and benefactor, and from the side of King Mithridates Eupator, enjoying the trust and honor no less than any other, is constantly the culprit of the good for each of us , inciting the king to the finest and most glorious deeds; being invited by him and taking upon himself (waging) the war with the Scythians, arriving in our city, he bravely made the crossing to the other side with the whole army; when the Scythian king Palak suddenly attacked him with a large horde, he, involuntarily accepting the battle, put to flight the Scythians, who were considered invincible, and (thus) did what King Mithridates Eupator was the first to place a trophy over them; Subjugating the surrounding Taurus and founding a city on (that) place, he went to the Bosporus regions and, having completed many important feats in a short time, returned to our places and, taking with him citizens of a flourishing age, penetrated into the middle of Scythia. When the Scythians surrendered to him the royal fortresses of Khabei and Naples, it turned out that almost all became subject to the king Mithridates Yevpator; for which the grateful people honored him with decent honors, as already freed from the rule of the barbarians.
      When the Scythians discovered their innate treachery. separated from the king and changed the state of affairs, and when the king Mithridates Eupator for this reason again expelled Diophantus with the army, although time was leaning towards winter, Diophantus with his soldiers and the strongest of the citizens moved against the very fortresses of the Scythians, but, being delayed by bad weather and turning to the seaside the area, took possession of Kerkinitis and the Walls and began to siege the inhabitants of the Beautiful Port; when Palak, believing that the time was favorable to him, gathered all his own and, in addition, attracted to his side the people of the Revksinals, the constant patroness of the Chersonesians, the Virgin, and then, helping Diophantus, through the signs that happened in the temple, foreshadowed the deed that would take place and breathed in courage and courage the whole army; when Diophantus made a reasonable disposition, a glorious and memorable victory for all time followed for the king Mithridates Eupator: for almost no one escaped from the infantry, and (only) a few escaped from the horsemen. Without wasting (then) not a minute in inaction, (Diophantus), taking an army, going at the beginning of spring to Khabei and Naples with all the weight (...) to flee, and the rest of the Scythians to confer about (...)
      Going to the Bosporan areas, he arranged the affairs there beautifully and useful for the king Mithridates Eupator;

      When the Scythians, with Savmak at their head, raised an uprising and killed the Bosporan king Perisad, who raised him (Savmak?). and a conspiracy was drawn up against Diophantus, he, avoiding danger, boarded a ship sent for him by the citizens and, having arrived (to us) and begged the citizens, and (also) with the zealous assistance (from) the king Mithridates Eupator who sent him, at the beginning of spring appeared with a land and sea army, and, in addition, he took selected citizens from three ships and, leaving from our city, took Theodosia and Panticapaeum, punished the perpetrators of the uprising, and seized Savmak, the murderer of King Perisad, into his own hands, sent to the kingdom (Mithridates) and (thus) restored the power of King Mithridates Eupator. In addition, he, assisting the embassies sent by the people, in everything useful to the Chersonesos, is supportive and zealous.

      So that the people may turn out to give worthy gratitude to their benefactors, may the council and the people decide to crown Diophantus, (son of) Asclepiodorus, with a golden wreath on the feast of Parthenius during the procession, and the Simmons will make (the following) proclamation: sinopean, for his valor and self-respect ”; put also his copper statue in full armor on the acropolis near the altars of the Virgin and Chersonas. The above-mentioned officials will take care of this so that it is done as soon as possible and better; to inscribe the decree on the pedestal of the statue, and give the required expenses to the treasurers of the sacred sums.

      So the council and the people of the month of Dionysius, the nineteenth (day), under King Agel, the son of Lagorin, under the chairman of the esymnet, Minia, the son of Heraclius, under the secretary Damasicles, the son of Athenaeus, decreed this.
      [/ comment-show] [comment-deleted]
      The comment was deleted.
      [/ comment-deleted]
  1. Richard
    Richard 28 February 2021 06: 26
    +8
    Decree in honor of Diophantus. is the largest inscription covering the events of the end of the XNUMXnd century. BC e. in Chersonesos, the Scythian kingdom and the Bosporus. He is involved in all works on the history of the Northern Black Sea region and still causes controversy and different interpretations, especially on the issue of the Scythian Savmak's performance in the Bosporus (his origin, social status, goals and objectives of the movement).
    The inscription details the stages of the war between Diophantus and the Scythians, as a result of which Chersonesus regained the captured by the Scythians in the period of the III-II centuries. BC. Kerkinitida and other fortifications and lands on the western coast of Crimea.
    The king in Chersonesus mentioned in the inscription is an elective position associated with the administration of state religious ceremonies (in contrast to the kings of the Bosporus, the Pontic and Scythian states named in the same place with a monarchical power). The king was the eponym of the year, i.e. the year in which he performed his duties was named after him.
    1. Richard
      Richard 28 February 2021 06: 31
      +6

      The marble pedestal from the statue, split into two parts, was found in 1878, and in 1898 it was transported to the Hermitage, where it is kept now. Dated to the end of the XNUMXnd century. BC. Judging by the position of the statue's legs, the decree was not carved on the front (as it was still believed), but on the back of the pedestal; on the face, the broken part of the slab, there was probably an honorary inscription of the type: Council and People to the commander Diophantus.
      Inscription text:
      “(...), the son of Zeta, they suggested: since Diophantus, the son of Asclepiodorus, a synoptic, being our friend and benefactor, and from the side of King Mithridates Eupator, enjoying the trust and honor no less than any other, is constantly the culprit of the good for each of us , inciting the king to the finest and most glorious deeds; being invited by him and taking upon himself (waging) the war with the Scythians, arriving in our city, he bravely made the crossing to the other side with the whole army; when the Scythian king Palak suddenly attacked him with a large horde, he, involuntarily accepting the battle, put to flight the Scythians, who were considered invincible, and (thus) did what King Mithridates Eupator was the first to place a trophy over them; Subjugating the surrounding Taurus and founding a city on (that) place, he went to the Bosporus regions and, having completed many important feats in a short time, returned to our places and, taking with him citizens of a flourishing age, penetrated into the middle of Scythia. When the Scythians surrendered to him the royal fortresses of Khabei and Naples, it turned out that almost all became subject to the king Mithridates Yevpator; for which the grateful people honored him with decent honors, as already freed from the rule of the barbarians.

      When the Scythians discovered their innate treachery. separated from the king and changed the state of affairs, and when the king Mithridates Eupator for this reason again expelled Diophantus with the army, although time was leaning towards winter, Diophantus with his soldiers and the strongest of the citizens moved against the very fortresses of the Scythians, but, being delayed by bad weather and turning to the seaside the area, took possession of Kerkinitis and the Walls and began to siege the inhabitants of the Beautiful Port; when Palak, believing that the time was favorable to him, gathered all his own and, in addition, attracted to his side the people of the Revksinals, the constant patroness of the Chersonesians, the Virgin, and then, helping Diophantus, through the signs that happened in the temple, foreshadowed the deed that would take place and breathed in courage and courage the whole army; when Diophantus made a reasonable disposition, a glorious and memorable victory for all time followed for the king Mithridates Eupator: for almost no one escaped from the infantry, and (only) a few escaped from the horsemen. Without wasting (then) not a minute in inaction, (Diophantus), taking an army, going at the beginning of spring to Khabei and Naples with all the weight (...) to flee, and the rest of the Scythians to confer about (...)

      Going to the Bosporan areas, he arranged the affairs there beautifully and useful for the king Mithridates Eupator;

      When the Scythians, with Savmak at their head, raised an uprising and killed the Bosporan king Perisad, who raised him (Savmak?). and a conspiracy was drawn up against Diophantus, he, avoiding danger, boarded a ship sent for him by the citizens and, having arrived (to us) and begged the citizens, and (also) with the zealous assistance (from) the king Mithridates Eupator who sent him, at the beginning of spring appeared with a land and sea army, and, in addition, he took selected citizens from three ships and, leaving from our city, took Theodosia and Panticapaeum, punished the perpetrators of the uprising, and seized Savmak, the murderer of King Perisad, into his own hands, sent to the kingdom (Mithridates) and (thus) restored the power of King Mithridates Eupator. In addition, he, assisting the embassies sent by the people, in everything useful to the Chersonesos, is supportive and zealous.

      So that the people may turn out to give worthy gratitude to their benefactors, may the council and the people decide to crown Diophantus, (son of) Asclepiodorus, with a golden wreath on the feast of Parthenius during the procession, and the Simmons will make (the following) proclamation: sinopean, for his valor and self-respect ”; put also his copper statue in full armor on the acropolis near the altars of the Virgin and Chersonas. The above-mentioned officials will take care of this so that it is done as soon as possible and better; to inscribe the decree on the pedestal of the statue, and give the required expenses to the treasurers of the sacred sums.

      So the council and the people of the month of Dionysius, the nineteenth (day), under King Agel, the son of Lagorin, under the chairman of the esymnet, Minia, the son of Heraclius, under the secretary Damasicles, the son of Athenaeus, decreed this.


      1. Richard
        Richard 28 February 2021 06: 39
        +4
        What the hell is going on with the site? Yesterday people complained about this, Today I encountered this "dubbing"
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 28 February 2021 12: 27
          +4
          Two options: 1) someone thumped well that there was a fog in the head.
          2) young specialists came to work
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 28 February 2021 06: 46
        +5
        Thanks to the author for the article, Dmitry for the detailed comments!
      3. Richard
        Richard 28 February 2021 08: 08
        +4
        Bust of presumably Diophantus of Pontus

        Historians still do not come to a consensus - he is it, or not he
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 28 February 2021 07: 08
      +7
      This decree made the strongest impression. But now not stone carvers are the main chronologists.
  • GTYCBJYTH2021
    GTYCBJYTH2021 28 February 2021 09: 12
    0
    An author from that time, or something .... so many people do not live ..... From school history a topic ...
  • The comment was deleted.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 28 February 2021 09: 49
    +7
    I'll add an illustration


    Thank you, Egor!
  • Konnick
    Konnick 28 February 2021 10: 07
    +9
    For work I visit the Kerch and Taman Peninsulas and often come across archaeological excavations, but this is how these excavations are carried out in the summer, while I, on the contrary, go there in the fall and spring, I see the excavations conserved during the off-season, i.e. covered with soil. After the return of Crimea, archeology came to these places for a long time, dispersed the black diggers first of all. Discovery after discovery, the ancient settlements of Kitay, Akra and, of course, excavations in the Artezian area will help to look at the history of Crimea in a different way.
    1. ccsr
      ccsr 28 February 2021 12: 36
      +6
      Quote: Konnick
      After the return of Crimea, archeology came to these places for a long time, they dispersed the black diggers first of all.

      For the sake of objectivity, nevertheless, I must say that during the period when Crimea was part of Ukraine, excavations were also constantly carried out, including at the expense of the Russian budget, when our expeditions worked on the territory of the Kerch Peninsula. In addition, some Western foundations also gave grants, thanks to which the local staff of the reserve worked, including the publication of popular science literature in Russian, and it was sold in local stores and in souvenir kiosks. So there was always interest in Panticapaeum and the Bosporus kingdom, even during its stay in Ukraine, when many scientific conferences were held in Kerch with the participation of foreign scientists.
      As for the "black diggers", there were not many of them on the territory of the Bosporan settlements, because the local authorities monitored this and prevented such activities. There was a period in the sixties when the remains of the history museum, built in the 19th century on Mount Mithridates, were demolished and the foundation was prepared for the construction of a restaurant, and then it was allowed to dig into the removed soil. Some people were lucky, and they found coins of the Bosporus kingdom, which later appeared among collectors, because even then there was a numismatic market, and it worked openly in the courtyard of the museum on weekends, where collectors gathered. If memory serves, even then the cost of some coins reached 100 - 200 rubles, which at that time was a huge amount. This is what the historical museum looked like, which was destroyed during the Great Patriotic War:




      Thank you very much to the author of the article for the interesting material that opens another page in the ancient history of our country.
      1. Operator
        Operator 28 February 2021 14: 55
        -3
        This is not our country, but our territory.

        Asia Minor, the Middle East, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan and Central Asia were conquered by Alexander the Great and for several hundred years came under the rule of the Greek elite, which ruled the local population.

        In the first century AD, the Asian Minor Greek state wanted to expand its territory at the expense of the Northern Black Sea region, relying on Greek trading post cities according to the standard scheme: the Greek top - the Scythian-Sarmatian population. But it did not grow together - the Roman Empire had already laid eyes on Asia Minor itself.

        And there is so much noise around the Mithridat steam, which all went out to the whistle laughing

        PS Domestic archaeologists, who spend their summer seasons in Crimea perfectly, digging up our history, must be urgently transported to the central regions of the European part of Russia, so that they finally do a useful business - excavating the history of the Slavs and Proto-Slavs.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 28 February 2021 10: 46
    +5
    Map of the territory of the Kingdom of Pontus at the beginning of the XNUMXst century BC


    And -no Turks in Asia Minor right up to the 11th century ...

    Interesting article plus
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 28 February 2021 14: 12
      +1
      if you send the Turks to the lands of the Kurds? that would be healthy competition ... for friendship with amers and Moscow. and Athens? and ERRiad?
    2. depressant
      depressant 1 March 2021 00: 03
      +3
      And - no Turks in Asia Minor right up to the 11th century ...

      The recent uproar with the Turks arose immediately after a map of the distribution of fossil genetic materials across Europe and parts of Asia was published on Reddit. The map is dynamic, it shows waves of resettlement, replacing one another, and it turned out that the Turks left their mark on the territory of the entire Black Sea region, the Caucasus and the present Astrakhan province. And it was shown in red - the same picture that everyone saw on VO. The origin of the passage of the Turks is the 5th century of the new era. Well, they went and squeezed into their current habitats, in latitude and further south. In the following centuries, they were no longer on our present territory. But no! We grabbed onto this card and immediately began to present property rights to all ours indicated on it. It is as if a person walked past someone's house on the road and, on this basis, declared that the house is his.
      1. Fat
        Fat 1 March 2021 12: 05
        +2
        It is as if a person walked past someone's house on the road and, on this basis, declared that the house is his.
        Squatters are not the best, this cluster does not need any arguments to justify the capture. ((((
        The person becomes compelled to guard his property roughly.
        Circumstances do not always help him.
        The state sometimes comes to the defense, well, according to ideology, of course, and power capabilities.
        I would be extremely grateful for the link to the info.
        With respect hi
        1. depressant
          depressant 1 March 2021 12: 51
          +3
          Andrey Borisovich, that was a month ago! I just leafed through, and that's it. I do not save such information. And now, even more so, I won't, I'm not interested. So, sorry, I don't remember. I smiled when I saw this big red map and a Turk standing next to it with a proud look on the headband to the news on VO. Ask a question on reddit, they save, there is. The map is good.
          1. Fat
            Fat 1 March 2021 13: 35
            +2
            Thank you anyway. Lyudmila Yakovlevna.
            I rummage. I apologize again
  • parusnik
    parusnik 28 February 2021 10: 50
    +5
    Yes, the versions are interesting about Savmak, but he managed to mint coins, two, if I'm not mistaken, have survived to our time, it seems copper ones. They seem to be in the Hermitage. And they were circulating on the territory of the Pontine kingdom. Thanks to the author for the article.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 28 February 2021 11: 18
      +9
      I can't say anything about Savmak's coins, but those minted by Perisad V, here you go:

      1. Anton Yu
        Anton Yu 28 February 2021 13: 25
        +3
        Allegedly, only three Savmak coins have survived to this day. True, they were produced back in the period 109 - 100 BC. panticapaean drachmas, chalki and obols. And staters began to be produced again from about 51 BC.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 28 February 2021 13: 39
          +1
          And staters began to be produced again from about 51 BC.
          Unfortunately, I cannot give you a photo of the stater Asander. The image size is too large.
          1. Anton Yu
            Anton Yu 28 February 2021 13: 44
            +1
            Of course you can't. Since Asander ruled in the period 47 BC. BC - 17 BC e. intermittently.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 28 February 2021 13: 48
              +1
              Sorry, I didn't get the meaning of your remark.
              1. Anton Yu
                Anton Yu 28 February 2021 14: 04
                +2
                Asander ruled after 51 BC. therefore, it is logical that he issued a gold coin. This is the point.
                In general, several hundred types of coins have been issued in the Bosporus during its history. Although the first coins on the coast of Pontus Euxine appeared in Olbia.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 28 February 2021 14: 22
                  +2
                  In turn, I meant that I have a photo of the stater Asandr, but I cannot post it in the commentary, due to the limitation of the size of the illustrations dictated by the rules of the resource.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 28 February 2021 12: 03
    +2
    "who exactly was the Bosporan tsar nursing" - without much difference what kind of snake, "the Bosporan tsar warmed on his chest". The bottom line is: podlyanka
    1. Anton Yu
      Anton Yu 28 February 2021 13: 29
      +6
      A slave revolt takes place in the Bosporus. It was 107 BC. The rebels stabbed Perisade. Diophantus barely managed to escape by flight on a ship sent for him by the Chersonesites. The kingdom was in the hands of the rebels. The uprising is led by Savmak.
      Who is he? A Scythian prince, heir to the throne, as Western European scholars have argued? So, perhaps, not an uprising, but a palace turmoil?
      In the text of the honorary decree in honor of Diophantus, in one place there really is the Greek word "ektrapsant" - the one who nurtured: "Savmak killed Perisad, his ectrepsant." But how did the prince find himself at the head of the slave revolt?
      The Soviet scientist, Academician S. A. Zhebelev, purely linguistically, showed all the incorrectness of the previous, in essence, interpretations of the text. Having studied a huge number of Greek inscriptions, having checked the word usage of the best Greek classical writers, Zhebelev came to the conclusion: the word "ectrepsanta" is used only in relation to slaves, moreover, slaves born of slave parents, and not captured from among the free, to slaves, already in captivity by a "fed" master. Savmak is the palace slave of Perisad.
      Hence, not a palace, not a dynastic coup. And the entire text of the decree speaks, in fact, of a great uprising of Scythian slaves.
      On the three coins that have come down to us, issued by the slaves who seized power, Savmak is called the king. Hence, the slaves organized their kingdom. They minted their own coin.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 28 February 2021 17: 59
        +1
        Savmak is the palace slave of Perisade.

        It is, of course, very likely, but why then did he get off with only deportation, and not execution? Some kind of overly respectful attitude towards the slave. Spartak was so unlucky, although, it seems, he was one of the noble ones.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 28 February 2021 19: 29
          +3
          ... Spartak was so unlucky
          Kirk Douglas was "out of luck." Spartacus's body was not found.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 28 February 2021 19: 31
            0
            The body of Spartacus was not found.

            You might seriously think that someone was looking for him. But what about Savmak, is he a former slave or not?
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 28 February 2021 19: 37
              +1
              Fair? FIG knows! I only learned from this article about the existence of this historical character.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 28 February 2021 20: 53
                +2
                As a child, I read the adventure story "Following the Wind" by Gleb Golubev. There, about the work of underwater archaeologists in the Crimea, from there I learned about Savmak, the leader of the oppressed strata of society, a tireless fighter against the autocracy of Mithridates (?). I read this book much earlier than "Spartacus" Giovagnoli.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 28 February 2021 21: 14
                  +4
                  There about the work of underwater archaeologists in the Crimea
                  One of these people is hiding under the nickname "Sea Cat"
      2. andrew42
        andrew42 1 March 2021 16: 07
        +1
        There is a historical novel by Vitaly Polupudnev "Pontus Euxinsky". There, the plot is based on the author's interpretation of Savmak's personal history, as chipped (from the sedentary Scythians), taken from a young age to military auxiliary service in Panticapaeum to the court of Perisad IV, and enslaved for disobedience at Perisad V. A beautiful story. I remember well, because it was from this fat book at the age of 10 that I finally developed an interest in reading.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 28 February 2021 12: 10
    +7
    during the battles he managed to conquer the fortresses of Naples, Khabei, Kerkinitida and begin the siege of the Beautiful Harbor (Kalos Limena)

    This is the first time I've heard such names. I had to google to understand what it was about. It turns out that all these settlements were identified and were in Crimea: Scythian Naples on the territory of modern Simferopol, Kerkinitida - on the site of Yevpatoria, Khabei, or Bulganak settlement - 15 km from Simferopol, and Beautiful Harbor - on the site of the village. Black Sea. On the presented map, this, theoretically, can be seen, but only theoretically. smile
    I think it would be right for the author, mentioning some settlements with ancient names, to tie them to a place. According to the text, at first it seemed to me that Diophantus generally whistled somewhere in the Black Sea steppes, but he, it turns out, did not leave Crimea.
    And one more question.
    Diophantus arrived in the Crimea with a rather large army. I wonder where and how. The Pontic tsar had a fleet sufficient to transport a large contingent across the Black Sea, or the army went on dry land - then exactly, bypassing the sea from the west or from the east ...
    And so - yes, interesting. Thanks to the author. smile
    Regarding the picture, I was also surprised by the similarity of the equipment of the soldiers depicted on it with the equipment of the Roman legionnaires. For some reason I thought that such a similarity could appear only during the Mithridates wars, but here, as far as I understand, we are talking about the II century. BC.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 28 February 2021 12: 24
      +5
      I think it would be right for the author, mentioning some settlements with ancient names, to tie them to a place.
      I remember six months ago, I also blamed one author, who writes very good historical prose, that some readers may not be familiar with the geography and toponyms of the North-West ... wink
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 28 February 2021 13: 50
      +2
      Everything is just like that. I arrived in Simferopol - and look where the Scythian Naples will look out.
    3. antivirus
      antivirus 28 February 2021 14: 16
      +1
      read Vitaly Polupudnev "Pont Evksinsky" 1956 (?) on the basis of what the text was compiled I do not know
      1. Anton Yu
        Anton Yu 28 February 2021 15: 30
        +1
        There is an Uprising in the Bosporus and Mithridates, but there is no Great Scythia
    4. vladcub
      vladcub 28 February 2021 15: 38
      +3
      Mikhail, about the similarity of the equipment. I see two options: 1) at that time there was no photographer to accurately record the equipment and the image could wander through the eras.
      2) it is possible that the equipment designers used the same base for the equipment.
      Actually, we don't know what and how it was at that time.
    5. Anton Yu
      Anton Yu 28 February 2021 16: 05
      +3
      Naples 44 ° 56'34 ″ N sh. 34 ° 07'14 ″ east The village is located on the territory of present-day Simferopol.
      Khabei 44 ° 55'12 ″ s. sh. 33 ° 52'44 ″ in. d 15 kilometers west of the ancient city of Scythian Naples, within the village of Pozharskoye.
      Kerkinitida 45 ° 11′16 ″ N sh. 33 ° 22'24 ″ in. d. on the site of the present Evpatoria.
      Kalos Limen 45 ° 30'11 ″ N sh. 32 ° 42′18 ″ in. e. Urban-type settlement Chernomorskoe.
      The author could still indicate the strategic fortress city of Tafra on the Perekop Isthmus, although there were many such cities.
      Diophantus arrived in the Bosporus by sea. In the second century BC. sailors have already begun to cross the Black Sea, before that the voyage was coastal.
    6. andrew42
      andrew42 1 March 2021 16: 14
      +1
      Indeed, thanks for the link to modern objects. As for the method of transferring Diophantus' troops to the Crimea, I suppose. no need to strain. Definitely by sea, straight from Sinop. First, through Meotida, one would have to fight through the mass of tribal possessions. Secondly, the terms of departure and return of Diophantus with the troops are very short, the option on dry land does not fit into the time frame in any way. And Diophantus himself, judging by the texts that have come down to us, was a great lover of movement on ships.
  • Engineer
    Engineer 28 February 2021 15: 19
    +2
    The Scythian king Palak opposed to Diophantus, united with the Roxolans

    Almost the first mention of the Alans in Europe.
    The Pontic kingdom included the Bosporus, Chersonesos, Olbia and Tyra. Later they were joined by Bastars and Sarmatians.

    The Bastars were definitely not part of the Pontic kingdom - just look at the map. They could only supply warriors.
  • PhilipKDick
    28 February 2021 18: 33
    +3
    I welcome everyone. As the author of the article, I agree that the illustrations are in trouble.

    The problem is in two bases: 1. you need to observe copyright (and not all images can be used in an article) 2. If there are necessary drawings, you can't even buy them. Those. Stalemate situation.

    So for the illustrations (capitals) I apologize. For possible inaccuracy.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 28 February 2021 18: 40
      +1
      Hello Egor!
      I can throw some photos of the Bosporan coins. My photos, personal. The list of coins in my comment is above.
      1. PhilipKDick
        28 February 2021 19: 10
        +4
        Thanks for assistance. I will prepare the material, I will definitely write.
        1. Anton Yu
          Anton Yu 1 March 2021 15: 53
          0
          We are waiting for material about the coinage of the northern Black Sea region, consisting of the chapters: The coinage of the cities of the Bosporus kingdom, the MD of the city of Olvia and the MD of Chersonesos.


    2. kalibr
      kalibr 28 February 2021 19: 50
      +3
      Egor! This problem is being solved. Find authors, write to them and ask permission. In Italy, there is a very responsive artist Giuseppe Rava, for example, he has many works on antiquity. Then - look at Osprey. The book that suits you = artist = contact the publisher = address = letter to the artist ... This is such a chain and it can be successful ...
      1. Richard
        Richard 28 February 2021 23: 33
        +3
        In Italy there is a very sympathetic artist Giuseppe Rava, for example, he has many works on antiquity

        And very meticulous even in the smallest details. Moreover, the range of his interests in eras, battles and countries is very diverse.
        Here are just a few of Giuseppe Rava's works.



        1. Richard
          Richard 28 February 2021 23: 37
          +3
          Giuseppe Rava




          1. kalibr
            kalibr 1 March 2021 07: 03
            +3
            Yes, he is a versatile artist ... By the way, he communicated with him and he is not greedy for permission to give something for free! Even he will send ...
            1. Richard
              Richard 1 March 2021 08: 29
              +3
              Vyacheslav Olegovich, don't you think that he deserves a separate article? A well-known battle artist, but with exclusive illustrations provided to you. Yes with your text! Such an article is simply doomed to success.
              1. kalibr
                kalibr 1 March 2021 15: 16
                +2
                Actually, your idea is very interesting. But here it should be like this: about artists, illustrators in general. In particular, the English, those who work for Osprey. Because I know how they work, and I even communicated with someone, albeit in absentia. We need to think about how best to do this.
      2. The comment was deleted.
  • kalibr
    kalibr 28 February 2021 19: 46
    +3
    Egor! Very good stuff!
    1. PhilipKDick
      28 February 2021 21: 17
      +3
      Thank you very much for your feedback.
  • Cure72
    Cure72 1 March 2021 11: 37
    +1
    Thank you Egor for the continuation!
    For me personally - absolutely new information. The comments are great too.