Military Review

Artillery in the pre-war period: a Stalinist assessment

50
Artillery in the pre-war period: a Stalinist assessment

End of the 1930s. The presentiment of an imminent war grew. When the Nazis, together with Polish troops, began the actual partition of Czechoslovakia, it became clear that a major war was inevitable. And the first after Czechoslovakia, Poland itself felt its blow, which considered itself protected from the German invasion. The security was far-fetched.


In the pre-war period, the Soviet Union understood that a strategy for the further development of the military-technical component was needed.

In 1940, the then People's Commissar of Defense Semyon Timoshenko, reporting to Stalin, reported that he considered the most active force for breaking through the defense Tanks... The head of the Soviet state had a different opinion on this matter. In this opinion, tanks and aviation are a formidable force, but their effectiveness may be minimal if they operate without artillery. This Stalinist assessment of the importance of artillery in many ways became the basis for the formation of the military-technical potential of the USSR in the pre-war period in the chosen direction.

The development of the industry, which then produced artillery installations, proceeded at an impressive pace. What we managed to produce in 2-3 years, under different conditions, cannot be produced in 10 years. The Soviet Union managed to form a real artillery fist, with the help of which combat missions were largely solved on all fronts of the Great Patriotic War without exception.

Of stories Russian artillery:

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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 23 February 2021 14: 06
    +6
    End of the 1930s. The presentiment of an imminent war grew.
    Learn history. Stalin said in 1930: "In 10 years we must pass the path that the West has covered in 200 years, otherwise we will be crushed."
    1. Svarog
      Svarog 23 February 2021 14: 23
      +10
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      End of the 1930s. The presentiment of an imminent war grew.
      Learn history. Stalin said in 1930: "In 10 years we must pass the path that the West has covered in 200 years, otherwise we will be crushed."

      And they passed .. Stalin said, Stalin did.
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 25 February 2021 22: 44
        -1
        Yes, a specific kid
    2. nnm
      nnm 23 February 2021 14: 26
      +3
      Again fragmentary information! It's okay that Stalin ruled Timoshenko's report and devoted a huge role in it to artillery, the possibility of transferring fire to tank-hazardous areas ?! Why are we again portraying ourselves as some kind of half-idiots ?! Why is it not written that we knew our weaknesses and tried to overcome them !!!
      And I will not get tired of repeating, IN, CONGRATULATE US TODAY ON OUR PROFESSIONAL HOLIDAY!
      1. nnm
        nnm 23 February 2021 14: 54
        +6
        "minusers", have you ever tried to understand what I am writing about? ? The fact that Stalin edited the materials of the report of the USSR People's Commissar S.K. Tymoshenko in the Politburo of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) on the holding of a meeting of the highest command staff of the Red Army October 28, 1940, that he foresaw the importance of artillery in a combined arms battle, that we were able to come to this only in 44? That he anticipated the meaning of the "god of war" years before we implemented it? And the same was true in that report and URs, and tanks, etc. ...
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 23 February 2021 15: 01
          0
          Quote: nnm
          "minusers", have you ever tried to understand what I am writing about?

          Faith does not allow. And the main thing is not the search for truth. The main thing ... (we are people, because the language does not turn. And they have it) request
          1. nnm
            nnm 23 February 2021 15: 02
            +3
            Yes, I understand that, colleague ... To be honest, the "cons" are not particularly annoying. I just want to see, at least on this site, thinking people, reading different sources, and not stubborn commentators from either side.
            1. Mavrikiy
              Mavrikiy 23 February 2021 15: 05
              0
              Quote: nnm
              not stubborn commentators from either side.

              My dear, civil war does not require thought, but faith in victory, perseverance, if you will. hi
              1. nnm
                nnm 23 February 2021 15: 15
                +2
                Colleague, thank God, we are not currently in a similar situation and therefore we must do everything to prevent it - speak frankly about past mistakes and victories, honestly analyze what happened, etc. on a friend.
            2. illuminat
              illuminat 24 February 2021 15: 01
              +1
              Quote: nnm
              Yes, I understand that, colleague ... To be honest, the "cons" are not particularly annoying. I just want to see, at least on this site, thinking people, reading different sources, and not stubborn commentators from either side.

              Unfortunately, it is the organization of the site that assumes the absence of normal comments. The maximum likes are collected by those who were the first to crow (often with the shoulder straps of field marshalissimos), and a competent comment that appeared even a day later, no one will see or appreciate.
          2. nnm
            nnm 23 February 2021 15: 23
            +1
            Colleague, plus the fact that such an analysis should be in our country, despite the negative opinion leaders of one of the parties. This, alas, is our cross, no matter how we want it. You have to think about debt, country, and not about "likes".
        2. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 23 February 2021 15: 23
          +3
          Quote: nnm
          IN, CONGRATULATE US TODAY ON OUR PROFESSIONAL HOLIDAY!

          Congratulated for a long time already. Maybe that's why
          Quote: nnm
          "minusers"
          ?
        3. Serg65
          Serg65 24 February 2021 07: 20
          +5
          Quote: nnm
          October 28, 1940, that he foresaw the importance of artillery in combined arms combat

          This is of course interesting, but how much artillery did we lose in the first months of the war and what are the reasons for these losses? "He foresaw," "organized," "powerful fist" .... and then on June 22 ... anti-tank shells do not penetrate the bulletproof armor, artillery does not have time to occupy combat lines and is killed on the march, there is a complete lack of interaction between artillery and other types of troops! It is not enough to foresee, it is necessary to create a mechanism that works like a clock!
          1. DrEng527
            DrEng527 25 February 2021 15: 42
            +1
            Quote: Serg65
            but how much artillery did we lose in the first months of the war and what are the reasons for these losses

            1) The lack of artillery tractors in the required quantity, which indicates a lack of understanding of their role, the absolutization of the guns themselves, which speaks of the dilettantism of the leadership ...
            2) The absence of an ACS, although there was a sane ACS based on the T-26, but tanks were considered more important - Pavlov's well-known opinion.
            3) The bet is on guns, not howitzers, etc., etc. - this is well described by Shirokorad ...
      2. Proton
        Proton 23 February 2021 18: 03
        +3
        I agree with your words.
        But there is a complaint about the video. Whatever the people's artist (indisputably respected), but wearing the uniform of a colonel-general with two Hero medals is a cheap PR for managers. First you need to reach this rank and up to two Heroes.
        How much I respect this film (Officers), but I don't approve of such a "director's" move.
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 23 February 2021 14: 35
    +7
    Stalin's industrialization, a tough but great period in the history of the Land of the Soviets!
    Without her, it really was impossible to cope with the external enemy!
  3. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 23 February 2021 14: 35
    +12
    To my father an artilleryman of the Finnish, WWII and Japanese wars

    Gunners, Stalin gave the order!
    Artillerymen, calling the Motherland of us!
    Out of many thousands of batteries
    For the tears of our mothers,
    For our Motherland - fire! Fire!
    1. Destiny
      Destiny 23 February 2021 14: 39
      +12
      All gunners with a holiday!
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 23 February 2021 14: 55
        +5
        Dad watching this film, the forty-five always laughed, and the breaks were like a howitzer. They will seize the trap machine, but there are no replacement shops, they make 40 shots from the pestle, the devil of changing the clip, well, then he left to smoke. However, the movie is the same. request
        1. Outsider V.
          Outsider V. 25 February 2021 11: 19
          0
          If you already strive for accuracy, then the magazine in the pistol is still replaced, and not the clip :).
          1. Centurion70
            Centurion70 31 March 2021 14: 57
            0
            To be precise, the built-in magazines of some pistol models are loaded from the clip ...
  4. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 23 February 2021 14: 48
    0
    The film is not bad, sorry the liberal rainbow spoils the impression. angry
  5. nonsense
    nonsense 23 February 2021 16: 04
    +9
    :) The "artillery fist" was so-so ... It must be admitted frankly!
    Firstly, this "fist" relied on a frail dystrophic "hand" - the production of gunpowder and explosives lagged very far behind. Antediluvian pyroxylin powder required up to several months of drying (for large-caliber guns). Mastering nitro powder it was late - the newborn Soviet chemistry did not pull. This in turn slowed down the introduction of mass mortars and MLRS. EMPIP finally solved the problem in the 40s with the help of Lend-Lease ... The same situation with explosives - RDX was delayed in mass production. And along with it, cumulative ammunition and small-caliber anti-aircraft and aviation artillery were late (and late for the war!). The problem was also solved mainly with the help of Lend-Lease ...
    Secondly, this "kulak" had nothing to pull after the maneuvering troops. The means of propulsion for heavy (starting from about 152mm caliber) artillery systems were sorely lacking. And amateurs-designers of artillery of the USSR of the 30s all strove to close up the 20-ton fool, and even on a tracked carriage! - The question "how to transport them?" these designers did not care at all! Yes, and the divisional artillery all strove to make it harder (and more distant) and so that it was not separable and could not be transported by horses ...
    Thirdly, there was a "fist", but the "eyes" of the artillery were bad. Communication is poor, radio communication is super-rich, maps are disgusting, AIR devices are inaccurate, aviation adjustments are worse than in World War I. such artillery required echelons of ammunition for the planned impact on the enemy.
    So draw your own conclusions, but was there a real "artillery fist"? Did you manage to cover the required level of development in 10 years?
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 23 February 2021 16: 07
      -1
      Quote: nespich
      Did you manage to cover the required level of development in 10 years?

      It was planned to completely rebuild the army only in the third five-year plan.
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 24 February 2021 07: 53
        +2
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        It was planned to completely rebuild the army only in the third five-year plan.

        This is not about what was planned .... The Finnish war, unfortunately, is not the top commanding staff, not the leaders of the country have not taught! A huge number of tanks, artillery, aircraft were lost only due to incompetent leadership and planning .... unfortunately.
        1. paul3390
          paul3390 25 February 2021 08: 41
          +2
          Hmm ... But the defeat of France, the flight of England in Dunkirk, the rapid fall of Poland, Pearl Harbor, Singapore - this also fits your definition of "mediocre leadership and planning"? Or does it only refer to the Soviet leadership?
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 25 February 2021 08: 48
            +2
            Quote: paul3390
            does this also fit your definition of "talentless leadership and planning"?

            Yes, the same! Both the leadership of France and the leadership of England, like America, rested on their laurels of old victories and did not take the enemy seriously ... besides, the French, who had lost more than half of the gene pool in WWI, were afraid to fight as passion!
            Quote: paul3390
            Or does it only refer to the Soviet leadership?

            what And who do you think is to blame for the defeat of the Red Army in the summer of 41?
        2. nonsense
          nonsense 25 February 2021 16: 43
          0
          wrong. The Finnish war taught a lot to the top military and state leadership! For example, how to arrange heating of troops in the winter, what uniform should the soldiers wear in the trenches in winter. According to this indicator, Germany was very far from us during the whole war ... We learned. Well, the Finnish war taught me not to trust intelligence! Recheck all the information many times. In the Finnish war, the Soviet intelligence was exactly like that - according to its intelligence, they went straight to the pillboxes through the Finnish support strip ...
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 26 February 2021 09: 20
            +3
            Quote: nespich
            The Finnish war has taught the top military and state leadership a lot!

            As was the mess in operational and strategic terms, so it remained!
    2. Darkesstcat
      Darkesstcat 23 February 2021 16: 11
      +3
      And what did RI get from after civilian life?
    3. starpur
      starpur 23 February 2021 18: 34
      +1
      Test, Dima! To say so briefly and clearly about many things - you need to be able to. I was always interested in the question: Why was the ZiS-3 blinded under the three-inch cartridge? Is it really just because the toad was choking for the accumulated ammunition? The KV and T-34 were equipped with barrels chambered for this cartridge .... Which Zis-3 is an anti-tank gun? But reading Grabin, I understand that he was not free in the choice of ammunition ... But just who determined this? Really "Himself"?
      1. nonsense
        nonsense 23 February 2021 20: 46
        +3
        :) but frankly determined what to do for designers sabotage organization called GAU (main art. Directorate of the General Staff of the Red Army). It was she who developed the art. weapons for the Red Army. A system that has NEVER been put into practice! Not to mention the heap of frankly unnecessary and withdrawn from service during the war, the weapons provided by this system.Based on what pests from this organization imposed this system on the Red Army, they do not clearly explain ... Contra is there! Still!
        About ZiS-3 and other three-inch divisions. With the pyroxylin powder of the 30s, something larger-caliber and howitzer (like the Germans) simply did not shine for us - the necessary mass production of ammunition for them was not ensured! The 76mm gun itself is another matter. The 76mm cannon of 1902 fired at 8.5km. Shoot further did not allow vertical guidance ... The same was the maximum range in the tube of the shrapnel projectile. When they began to modernize it in the 30s, the first thing to do was to increase this range (lengthened the barrel by 10 calibers, increased the powder charge to the maximum, and increased the vertical guidance angle to 37 degrees). But was it all necessary? - On those same 13 km, where the 1902 / 30gr gun began to reach now, the gap of the weak OFS 76 is simply not visible (to the spotter)! Those. a smart decision would be to produce not the 76mm cannon-battalion 1902 / 30g and their new versions up to the ZiS-3, the 76mm regimental cannon with the ballistics of the 76mm short cannon mod. 1913 or (=) a mountain cannon of 1909. They hit exactly this 8.5 km ... With a good elevation angle. And weighed 600 kg each - half the size of the division. But in GAU someone came up with the idea to increase the range and give more anti-tank capabilities to the divisional gun ... We need an anti-tank gun - release an anti-tank gun!
        1. Darkesstcat
          Darkesstcat 24 February 2021 09: 43
          +2
          This is already at the level of afterthought or there were similar systems from which it was possible to spy on the decision.
          1. nonsense
            nonsense 24 February 2021 11: 46
            -1
            what does the afterthought have to do with it? In your opinion, to understand that the burst of a 76mm projectile at 13 km is simply not visible to the spotter of fire, these same specialists (tsarist artillerymen!) From GAU were not able to understand?
            PS: or here's another "story". In 1930, among others, the 107mm cannon model 1910 was also modernized. The firing range has increased from 12.5 to 16.5 km. And then in 1940, and this seemed not enough - the new 1940 cannon began to thrash as much as 18 km! At the same time, the weight of the artillery system was constantly increasing! First, from 2.2 tons to 2.5 tons, then generally up to 4 tons. And the same story. The -107mm projectile is too weak to successfully adjust fire at 18km ... Not to mention the wild scattering at such a range! And they could have an excellent 2-ton howitzer (howitzer-gun) with a firing range at the same initial 12.5 km (or slightly higher considering the increased vertical guidance angle), which would be great for crushing the German divisional artillery, while remaining maneuverable and suitable for towing by horses. But no, GAU (and the counter entrenched there) did not need it. It was necessary to waste the resources of the USSR on the production of weapons of little use for the real conditions of combat use ... mortars ... MLRS ... And then we wonder where the Red Army had such wild losses ...
            1. Darkesstcat
              Darkesstcat 24 February 2021 11: 51
              0
              Got it, thanks. And based on the results of the WWII, conclusions were drawn and raster shots were carried out?
              1. nonsense
                nonsense 24 February 2021 12: 07
                -2
                :) Well, someone was shot ... following WWII ... The most stupid! - Like the same Kulik ... But the true "creators" of this mess, it seems to me, they simply did not notice ... Otherwise, where did such artillery hills come from after the war and then in service with the Soviet Army? Now their grandchildren rule in that very GRAU, ordering all kinds of indecency and struggling with something useful.
                1. Darkesstcat
                  Darkesstcat 24 February 2021 12: 20
                  0
                  We live in a funny time.) Thanks for the clarification.
            2. Glory1974
              Glory1974 25 February 2021 10: 03
              +3
              to understand that the burst of a 76mm projectile at 13 km is simply not visible to the spotter of fire, these same specialists (tsarist artillerymen!) from GAU were not able to understand?

              do you think that the artillery spotter is sitting near the gun and adjusting the shooting? No, it’s not.
              The firing range is one of the main parameters of the artillery piece. If the range is small, the enemy will shoot you from a safe distance. Therefore, they are still trying to increase the firing range of guns and have brought it to 50-60 km. At this distance, no breaks are visible. Probably still fools serve in all the armies of the world. wassat
              And then we wonder where the Red Army has such wild losses ..

              heard this in the late 80s ........ Liberals still say that they filled up with corpses. Only this is far from reality.
              1. nonsense
                nonsense 25 February 2021 11: 14
                0
                yes, the artillery spotter (battery / battalion commander) is on the front line. Those. 2-4km closer to the enemy than the guns themselves. But this fact does not change the matter ... He does not see the explosions of weak 76mm shells.
                And if you haven't noticed, then since the Second World War, the AIR has stepped forward a lot. That allows you to adjust the fire at such ranges. But to defeat enemy artillery at long ranges (including) a regiment or even a division does not need its own artillery of enormous power - for this there is senior management funds! Let them work ... For the times of World War II, the main tasks: regimental artillery - defeat observed targets (machine guns, guns, tanks), divisional artillery - defeat mortar positions, regimental and divisional artillery in the enemy's near rear. No one demanded any counter-battery combat against long-range enemy artillery from divisional artillery!
                PS: the firing range of course has now increased to 50 km, but only dispersion at this range is several kilometers - without an adjustable / guided projectile, you can't hit anything ... The real firing ranges of conventional OFS have remained within 20 km ...
                1. Glory1974
                  Glory1974 2 March 2021 16: 10
                  0
                  even for weak 76 mm shells, there is shooting from open and closed positions. Everything that you write is essentially direct fire and from open positions.
                  From closed positions, you can and should shoot and hit targets. It doesn't matter if it's infantry or the enemy's weapons. And so they did. The lack of accuracy was compensated for by the quantity. The enemy's battery could be destroyed, it could be suppressed. Divisional and, in general, any artillery strikes targets within its reach. The division is 15-20 km deep, add to this the depth of the enemy's positions. Everything that is included here, everything is subject to destruction.
                  Of course, there is a division into goals, which are destroyed by the forces and means of the senior chief, if any.
    4. your1970
      your1970 25 February 2021 14: 51
      0
      Quote: nespich
      the cards are disgusting,

      The maps were quite reliable, better than the German ones, they had maps based on earlier surveys - ours were fresh ...
      It's just that the problem was that significant volumes of cards of the battalion-level were lost at the beginning of the war .... And cards of this level are consumables in such a war - 2 marches and you are already through a sheet or even two ...
  6. fa2998
    fa2998 23 February 2021 18: 26
    +2
    Quote: Darkesstcat
    And what did RI get from after civilian life?

    The RI of the USSR got huge stocks of shells, or equipment for their production. Therefore, the rear operators tried to use them to the maximum. They forced the designers to use old-style shells. crying hi
    1. Darkesstcat
      Darkesstcat 24 February 2021 09: 43
      0
      And after the citizen?
  7. Alexander Manakov
    Alexander Manakov 23 February 2021 20: 56
    -3
    great documentary series !!!!
  8. nikvic46
    nikvic46 24 February 2021 06: 52
    +2
    From this video it is clear that offensive artillery took part only in 1943. The first years of the war need to be studied by military specialists. And here euphoria is unacceptable. The pre-war hats got too dear to our country. “If there is a war, we will fight on foreign territory. " Because of this, during the retreat there was a legitimate dissatisfaction. All these mechanized guns were extremely unmaneuverable. And in 1942 they had a problem with fuel. We can shout "hurray", we can walk an immortal regiment, but it is better to carefully study it all.
  9. yehat2
    yehat2 24 February 2021 09: 16
    0
    Quote: Mavrikiy
    Learn the story

    2 skirmishes with the Japanese, Bessarabia, Poland's build-up of troops along with Great Britain, Spain, Persia, constant incidents on the Finnish border, Turkish activity in the Caucasus. At that time, very few people wanted to touch the USSR because the TB-3 fleet was being built, light tanks were being produced at full speed and very few people wanted to check what it was.
    Should I teach you history?
  10. storm
    storm 24 February 2021 19: 24
    -2
    Such a "fist" was formed that for two years they rushed to the tanks with three lines and bottles ...
    1. Glory1974
      Glory1974 25 February 2021 09: 57
      +2
      Such a "fist" was formed that for two years they rushed to tanks with three lines and bottles.

      read less liberal newspapers.
      1. storm
        storm April 4 2021 21: 05
        0
        Glory, I found real veterans who beat the fascists in 41 and 42, what reason was there for them to lie!
        I have one grandfather who spent the whole war on the T-34, and the second one and a half years fought as a machine gunner, died in October 42 ...
  11. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 25 February 2021 17: 20
    0
    The main weapon of victory is the Zis-3, 82 mm and 120 mm mortars.