Military Review

Cossacks write to the Sultan


"Cossacks". I. Repin

The transition to tsarist rule of most of the right-bank Cossack regiments

Throughout Ukraine, the name of Doroshenko, who visited the Turks, caused a general curse.

The Turkish occupation led to massive violence, plunder and the capture of people for sale into slavery. Turkish colonization turned out to be even worse than the Polish one. Russians from the Right Bank Ukraine fled en masse to the Left Bank or to the lands subject to the Polish crown.

Rzeczpospolita in 1673 waged successful military operations against Turkey. This allowed the Russian high command to begin an active campaign on the Right Bank.

In winter, the Turks, as usual, took the army across the Danube to winter quarters. There were no large Crimean-Turkish forces on the Right Bank. The main forces of Doroshenko (up to 6 thousand) were in Chigirin.

At the beginning of 1674, the army of the boyar Romodanovsky and the Cossack army of Samoilovich crossed the Dnieper. The advance detachment of the roundabout Skuratov made a raid on Chigirin. The Cossack detachment of the "Turkish hetman" who had come out to meet them was dispersed. Chigirin was a strong fortress, on the walls and towers of which there were up to 100 guns. They did not attack him, but the city suburbs were burned out.

Meanwhile, the main forces of Romodanovsky marched along the Dnieper to the north. They passed Chigirin without a fight and in early February 1674 also occupied Cherkassy without a fight. The rains began, the roads got wet, then the army moved on the ice of the Dnieper.

The tsar's troops reached the town of Moshny near Kanev.

General Esaul Lizogub, who was with a small detachment in Kanev, with representatives of 10 right-bank regiments appeared in the camp of Romodanovsky and Samoilovich and took the oath to the tsar. Then Boguslav, Medvin, Kamenny Brod, Rzhishchev, Terekhtemirov, Tripolye, Stayki and Belogorodka took the oath to the tsar. The power of the Russian tsar was recognized by the hetman Khanenko, who had previously obeyed the Polish crown. He became convinced that there was little sense from the Polish king, the inhabitants of Western Russia did not receive any help or protection from him, and announced that he was becoming a subject of Moscow.

Meanwhile, heavy rains continued until mid-February. Snow melted on both sides of the Dnieper and greatly weakened the ice on the Dnieper. In order not to be left without a crossing, the Russian-Cossack regiments withdrew to the left bank of the great river, and stopped at Pereyaslavl. In Kanev, 4 thousand garrison of Cossacks of different regiments, headed by Lizogub, was left. Also in Kanev was appointed the son of the great governor of Romodanovsky Mikhail with a detachment of infantry in 2,5-3 thousand people (then he was replaced by the governor Koltovsky). The same garrison under the command of the governor Verderevsky was placed in Cherkassy.

Doroshenko, having received reinforcements from the Crimean horde, sent his brothers Grigory and Andrei with a Cossack-Tatar detachment against the cities that had sworn allegiance to Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich.

But the detachment of Colonel Tseev and General Esaul Lyseneko, left on the right bank, defeated the enemy near Boguslav and Lisyanka. Grigory Doroshenko was captured.

This victory of the sovereign's troops led to the transfer of the cities of the Belotserkovsky regiment, headed by Colonel Butenko, to the tsarist citizenship. In addition, the chief chieftain Gamaley and Andrei Doroshenko fled from Korsun to Chigirin. After that, the five Cossack colonels who were there swore allegiance to Alexei Mikhailovich.

On March 17, 1674 in Pereyaslavl, a council was held on the election of the hetman of both sides of Ukraine. Khanenko solemnly laid down the signs of hetman's dignity received from the Polish king and resigned from power. The foreman and the Cossacks of the left and right bank regiments elected Ivan Samoilovich as hetman of the Zaporizhzhya Army on both sides of the Dnieper under the rule of the Russian sovereign. The sergeant major retained her rank. The register was established in 20 thousand Cossacks. The Hetman could not have an independent foreign policy.

Thus, during the winter campaign of 1674, most of the foremen, Cossacks and cities on the Right Bank voluntarily went over to the side of Moscow. Samoilovich was recognized as the only hetman. The tsar's garrisons occupied such important centers of Ukraine as Cherkassy, ​​Kanev and Korsun.

Siege of Chigirin

Doroshenko kept Chigirin behind him and waited for help from the Tatars and Turks to resume the struggle for Ukraine.

Chigirinsky hetman sent Mazepa to Istanbul to ask for help.

But he did not reach, Ivan Serko's Cossacks intercepted him in the steppes and handed him over to the tsarist governors. The general clerk was recruited. Mazepa, as one of the most educated people of his time, became the educator of the children of Hetman Samoilovich. A few years later, he again became clerk general, and later played an important role in his overthrow.

Doroshenko's second embassy nevertheless slipped through the cordons and arrived at the grand vizier, who promised to help out the vassal.

Doroshenko was not worried in vain. The Russian command planned to take the last strongholds of the "Turkish hetman" in the summer of 1674. They planned to build a large flotillato threaten enemy shores and force Turkey to make peace.

In April 1674, with the arrival of the Crimean detachment led by Khan Dzhambet-Girey, Doroshenko sent his brother Andrey to conduct reconnaissance in force.

Right-bank Cossacks captured Balakleia and Orlovka. Then they approached Brave, but in early May they were defeated and fled to Chigirin. After that, most of the Crimeans left, taking away the full.

Nevertheless, mutual raids continued further. Cossacks from Moshna defeated Doroshenkovites. Then several hundred Cossacks and Tatars of Doroshenko made a raid near Mgliev near Korsun, but they were repelled by the Cossacks of Colonel Yaserinsky. At the same time, a Cossack-Tatar detachment approached Cherkassy, ​​but was repelled by the governor Verderevsky.

Upon learning of the loss of Balakliya and Orlovka, Romodanovsky and Samoilovich sent a detachment under the command of Pereyaslavl Colonel Dmitry Raichi (5 Cossack regiments) and a detachment of regular troops of Colonel Beklemishev (900 soldiers and reitar, Cossacks of the Sumy regiment) to the right bank. On the right bank, they joined the right bank shelves. Andrei Doroshenko with the Cossacks (1500 people) and the Tatars of Dzhambet-Girey and Telig-Girey (6 thousand people) attacked two Cossack regiments at Balakleya, but was repulsed. On June 9, Raichi's cavalry utterly defeated the enemy on the river. Tashlyk.

Meanwhile, the united army of Romodanovsky (27 thousand soldiers of the Belgorod and Sevsky categories) and Samoilovich (10 thousand Cossacks) set out from Pereyaslav. The army crossed the Dnieper at Cherkassy and joined up with the Raichi detachment at Smela.

On July 23, the tsarist troops defeated the emerging enemy cavalry and laid siege to Chigirin. With the arrival of the royal army, Zhabotin, Medvedovka, Krylov and a number of other towns surrendered. Also, the tsarist warriors on August 6 began the siege of Pavoloch. It was not possible to seize Chigirin on the move. Doroshenko knew that help would soon be available, prepared for the defense. Russian regiments and Cossacks quickly erected trenches, placed batteries, and began bombing. But this did not work, the besieged refused to surrender, fired back. And there was no time left to prepare the assault, the Ottomans were on the way.

Turkish invasion

In the summer, the Turks resumed their offensive.

The united Turkish-Tatar army, led by Sultan Mehmed IV himself, the vizier Kara-Mustafa and the Crimean khan Selim-Girey, crossed the Dniester in July 1674 and moved to Ukraine. The Turks took up the cities they had not yet conquered. The first was Ladyzhin, who repulsed several attacks, but then fell. Raichi's detachment planned to go to Ladyzhin's aid, but (upon news of the enemy's capture of Bar, Mezhibor and his enormous superiority in forces) retreated.

This time Poland could not bind the Ottomans. King Jan Sobieski's treasury was empty after the elections and coronation. The mercenaries had nothing to pay. The patriotic impulse of the gentry after the Khotyn victory has already died out, she again fled to the fortresses and estates. A weak crown army covered Poland itself. There was nothing to defend Ukraine with. The Ottomans destroyed 14 more towns, the men were massacred, women and children were sold into slavery. The Turkish army turns east.

Zaporozhye ataman Serko, who was near Uman, left Ukraine. He went to the Sich to strike at the Crimea. Uman surrendered to the Turks.

But when the main forces of the Ottomans left for Kiev, the Cossacks revolted and killed the Basurman garrison. The Ottoman army was forced to return to Uman. The fortress was captured by tunneling. However, this siege delayed the Turks until September. And they refused to march to Kiev. At the news of the invasion of a terrible enemy, the masses of the West Russian population fled to the left bank of the Dnieper in whole villages.

Part of the Tatar troops immediately moved from the Dniester to Chigirin, to the aid of Doroshenko.

Already on August 9, the Tatars appeared at the fortress. Prince Romodanovsky and Samoilovich, alarmed by the news of a possible peace between Turkey and Poland, lifted the siege and took the army to Cherkassy. On August 13, the tsar's army repulsed the attack of the Doroshenkovites and Tatars. But with rumors of the Sultan's attack on Cherkassy, ​​they burned the city and retreated to the left bank.

The siege of Pavoloch was also removed. The main forces of the Russian army were located at Kanev, the Cossacks covered the main crossings on the Dnieper. The Russians began to prepare to repel the enemy invasion.

However, having captured Uman, having achieved the release of Chigirin and the departure of the royal army to the left bank, the Turkish-Tatar army left Ukraine and began to return across the Dniester.

In the sieges of Ukrainian cities, the Ottomans used up ammunition, it was difficult to feed a large army in a devastated country. Winter was approaching. Selim-Girey then returned to the Dnieper with the aim of making a raid on the Left Bank, but soon abandoned this idea and returned to the Crimea. The khan went to defend his inheritance, as its outskirts were devastated by the Kalmyks, Donets and Cossacks.

Thus, the Turkish army prevented the tsarist governors from completing the conquest of the Right Bank. Doroshenko, besieged in Chigir, was rescued.

At the same time, it was obvious that success was on the side of the Russians. With the approach of autumn, the Turks and Tatars withdrew across the Dniester and into the Crimea. Russian troops held the main points beyond the Dnieper - Kiev, Kanev, Korsun, and some other fortifications.

Rzeczpospolita received an important respite this year. The army of Jan Sobieski in the fall and winter resumed the offensive against Doroshenko, Turks and Tatars in the Dniester region and other regions of Right-Bank Ukraine.

For the common population of the Right Bank, this time turned into new troubles. This region of Western Russia was turning into a "desert" - a deserted territory.

Fights in other directions

In the spring and summer of 1674, the situation on the Belgorod line was less tense than a year ago.

Most of the Crimean horde went with the khan to the Dniester under the banners of the sultan. The Tatars made several raids. The Kalmyks went over to their side and betrayed Moscow. In the summer they took part in raids on the Russian outskirts.

Russian border units (garrisons of towns and forts of the Belgorod line, suburban regiments) repulsed the attacks. Themselves pursued the enemy in the steppe, went to the approaches to Azov. As a result, the raids of the Crimeans and Azovites did not have any impact on the Ukrainian front.

The Russian command planned active operations in the Northern Black Sea region.

The Russians decided to abandon Azov's frontal attacks and go over to his naval blockade. To do this, they were going to use the Miussky town founded in 1673, build a powerful base there, build new ships and disrupt sea communications between Azov, Crimea and Turkey. In this case, it was possible to take Azov, diverting Turkish forces from Ukraine.

However, a number of troubles did not allow launching an offensive in the spring of 1674. In winter and spring, part of the Kalmyk leaders gave their oath to the tsar and attacked the Cossack villages up the Don (above Cherkassk). 61 towns were attacked, the Don people suffered heavy losses in people and property. However, in the summer the situation stabilized, the Kalmyks returned to Russian citizenship and opposed the Tatars. The tsar's reinforcements arrived on the Don only in the fall, and even then not in full force.

The Cossacks almost raised a confusion - an impostor, "Tsarevich Simeon Alekseevich", appeared at them. Relations with the Sich were settled only in the summer. Serko sent the impostor to Moscow, obeyed, and the conflict was settled.

Serko Zaporozhian Cossacks operated in western Ukraine, during the Ottoman invasion they retreated to the Sich. In September, Serko defeated part of the Crimean army during his return home. Then the Zaporozhye Cossacks took part in the defense of Sloboda Ukraine.

The Turkish command, concerned about the activity of the enemy near Azov, sent strong reinforcements to the fortress. The garrison numbered 5 thousand people. A strong Ottoman flotilla of 30 galleys and dozens of small ships also arrived. The Crimean Khan also sent several thousand horsemen to the Azov region. The Crimeans destroyed the Miussky town and destroyed the planes that were preparing there.

In June, a detachment of archers and Don Cossacks of stolnik Kosagov and atman Kaluzhanin went into the Sea of ​​Azov and headed to the mouth of the Mius. However, here the Russians encountered large forces of the Turkish fleet and returned to Cherkassk. Meanwhile, Turkish and Tatar reinforcements arrived in Azov. The Turkish-Tatar corps reached the number of 9 thousand people.

In July, the Ottomans tried to launch an offensive and go up the Don, but the tsarist governors Khitrovo and Kosagov met them at the mouth of the river. Aksai and smashed. The enemy retreated to Azov. In August, in connection with the termination of the offensive of the Sultan's army in Ukraine, most of the reinforcements left Azov. In late August, the Kalmyks, Donets and Streltsy of Kosagov and Ataman Yakovlev ravaged the outskirts of Azov.

In September, reinforcements finally arrived on the Don under the command of the governor Khovansky, but a new campaign to the mouth of the Mius and Azov did not take place. The weather conditions were unfavorable, and the Don people did not want to support the operation.

As a result, although the actions of our forces in the Black Sea region did not bring major successes, they were able to divert the attention and a significant part of the Crimean Turkish forces from the main theater of military operations in Ukraine. In addition, the constant threat to Azov reduced the threat of enemy raids on the Russian southern outskirts.

1675 Campaign

Moscow believed that a decisive battle with Turkey would take place this year. The tsarist troops were preparing. Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was going to lead the Tsar's army. Negotiations were conducted with the Poles. The army of Romodanovsky and Samoilovich was supposed to cross the Dnieper and go to join with the Poles.

However, the Cossack foreman sabotaged this plan. The hetman and the colonels were afraid that in the event of a Russian-Polish alliance, they would not be able to extend power to the entire Right Bank. In addition, the Poles seemed to be unreliable allies. The Russian government, fearing a new uprising in Ukraine, did not insist. As a result, they decided to confine themselves to defense, crush Doroshenko and organize raids on the enemy's rear.

Another attempt to occupy the Azov region failed, including because of the conflict with the Don Cossacks, who did not want the appearance of royal fortresses in this place (limiting their autonomy). At the same time, significant Turkish-Tatar forces diverted the attention of the Russians to Azov.

In 1675, the main actions took place on the Polish front - in Podolia and Galicia.

The army of the vizier Ibrahim Shishman and the Crimean horde invaded there. The enemy horde swept across Ukraine again. She swept away everything that had survived in previous invasions. However, in Ukraine the bassoons did not stay, they devastated it along the way. Their goal was to break Poland, to force a peace beneficial for the Ports. But the threat, in fact, to Poland and the patrimony of the gentry again stirred up the gentry. Polish gentry flowed under the banner of Sobieski. In Galicia, battles were in full swing. On August 24, Jan Sobessky defeated 20 thousand Shishman's army near Lvov. The Ottomans were thrown back.

The situation for the Turkish hetman Doroshenko continued to deteriorate. He held only the lands of the Chigirinsky and Cherkassky regiments. There was almost no help from the Tatars, since they were employed in Galicia. His power was hated by the people. He only held on by terror. The population of the Right Bank continued to flee to the lands subject to the Russian tsar. Even the most severe repressions did not help - the captured fugitives were sold into slavery.

The demand of the Sultan government to issue 500 girls and boys under 15 years old for harems caused a riot even in Chigirin, loyal to the hetman. Doroshenko, even through the ataman Serko, began to probe the possibility of subordination to Moscow, but with the preservation of the position of hetman. He sent to Moscow the signs of power received from the Sultan.

Ataman Serko with the Zaporozhian Cossacks, the Tsar's archers, the Donets of Ataman Minaev, Kalmyks and the people of Prince Cherkassky made a big raid on the Crimea in August-September. They went not along the well-known roads to Perekop, but secretly, in the steppes, made their way to the peninsula through the fords of the Sivash.

For several days they ravaged the peninsula and made a lot of noise. The khan's murzas gathered thousands of horsemen and rushed to intercept, but Serko set up an ambush. The Crimeans suffered a great defeat. They returned with rich trophies, liberated thousands of people from slavery.

Moreover, this raid improved Poland's position again. The Tatars turned their horses back to protect their ulus. And the Ottoman army was left without the Khan's cavalry.

This event caused the well-known correspondence of the Cossacks with the Sultan.

Muhammad was furious and sent a personal message to the Sich. He demanded that the Cossacks submit. Otherwise, he threatened to wipe him off the face of the earth.

The Zaporozhians were amused.

In response, they wrote

"To the Turkish shaitan, the damned devil brother and comrade",

used a lot of swear words.

Obviously, the letter did not reach the addressee.

The Sultan's officials simply would not dare to deliver such a message.

Cossacks write to the Sultan
Battle of the Turkish Banner, Jozef Brandt
Photos used:
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 24 February 2021 05: 28
    Muhammad was furious and sent a personal message to the Sich. He demanded that the Cossacks submit. Otherwise, he threatened to wipe him off the face of the earth.

    The Zaporozhians were amused.

    In response, they wrote
    without text lol -is shielding!
    1. Profiler
      Profiler 24 February 2021 05: 39
      Turkish geetman Doroshenko

      Eloquently yes
      And most importantly, there is a clear parallel with the present:

      Successful historical cycle of this author good
    2. Destiny
      Destiny 24 February 2021 06: 55
      Found on the Internet the "official" version of this letter? There is no convincing evidence of whether this letter was ever written. Sultan during the Russian-Turkish war of 1672-1681, before sending his army to the Zaporozhye Sich, allegedly sent the Cossacks a demand to submit to him as the ruler of the whole world and the governor of God on earth. In reality, this fact has not been documented - more precisely, there is no original letter, there are numerous interpretations of copies of the Cossacks allegedly answered, the legend thanks to Repin's painting is so rooted in the minds of many people that it is not clear where the thin the line between reality and fiction. Repin "helped" another myth to take root in history - remember his painting "Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan on November 16, 1581"? The letter that Repin learned about from the historian Dmitry Yavornitsky was so vivid that it inspired the artist to create his huge canvas, on which he had been working for more than ten years. True, many people miss the fact that Yavornitsky told about this curious letter at one of the parties. to amuse the listeners, and his story did not claim to be “true.” He himself never saw the document, but only got acquainted with a copy of the letter made in 1870. Nobody found the original, although it probably did not exist at all ...
      1. Aerodrome
        Aerodrome 24 February 2021 06: 55
        Quote: Destiny
        Did you find the "official" version of this letter on the Internet?

        what was ... wassat"Official History" is generally a relative thing.
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 24 February 2021 09: 11
          Quote: Aerodrome
          what was ... "official history" is generally a relative thing.

          "History is woven with lies that everyone believes." - Napoleon Bonaparte
      2. NDR-791
        NDR-791 24 February 2021 07: 11
        allegedly sent the Cossacks a demand to submit to him as the ruler of the whole world and the governor of God on earth.
        It is quite possible to believe looking at the modern Turkish Wishlist
        Nobody found the original, although it probably did not exist at all.
        If the original was delivered to the Sultan, then it is unlikely to be put on display someday.
      3. vladcub
        vladcub 24 February 2021 16: 51
        Actually, Yavornitsky, there is a variation - EVORNITSKY, was a knowledgeable historian. If he is not sure of what, then he did not claim that it was true.
        PS. Purely theoretically, it can be explained that there is no original: the Cossacks did not have the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the corresponding archives. Suppose they wrote some kind of letter, to the khan or the sultan, it doesn't matter. How many literate did they have? The very minuscule and the text of the letter can be known in the retelling, and this: "spoiled phone"
      4. Richard
        Richard 24 February 2021 20: 39
        Thank you dear Destiny, for the fact that they mentioned the name of Dmitry Ivanovich Yavornitsky, a remarkable Russian and Soviet historian and archaeologist, Corresponding Member of the Moscow Archaeological Society (since 1885), full member of the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society (since 1886), Academician of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences (since 1929), professor at Moscow State University of the USSR, one of the largest researchers of the history of the Zaporozhye Cossacks.

        I. E. Repin. "The Cossacks write a letter to the Turkish sultan."

        D. Yavornitsky posed for the clerk in the center of the picture, and V. Gilyarovsky for the Cossack Cossack standing to the left of the clerk with a bloody bandage on his head. All the historical Zaporozhye attributes for painting were provided by Dmitry Ivanovich Repin. These artifacts were collected by Yavornitsky during his scientific expeditions.
    3. Civil
      Civil 24 February 2021 09: 06

      Rajap's friend will be surprised.
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 24 February 2021 08: 25
    Russia slowly but surely put things in order in Little Russia, which ultimately led to an unprecedented prosperity and wealth of this region.
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 24 February 2021 08: 51
    I just do not understand why the author insistently calls the Zaporozhye Otaman Sirko through the letter "e"? I know that this is practiced in Russian Wikipedia, but in Ukraine ... I have never heard of it! Only through the "and"!
    1. Profiler
      Profiler 24 February 2021 09: 17
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      I just do not understand why the author insistently calls the Zaporozhye Otaman Sirko through the letter "e"? I know that this is practiced in Russian Wikipedia, but in Ukraine ... I have never heard of it! Only through the "and"!

      Undoubtedly, only it is not written through "AND"(ours) and after "i" (our I)

      On the cover of a children's fairy tale - the title in Russian ...

      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 24 February 2021 11: 01
        Sorry, but I'm Russian and I write in Russian. And you most likely not to this site.
        1. Profiler
          Profiler 24 February 2021 11: 09
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          Sorry, but I'm Russian and I write in Russian.

          Muslims become by truncation of the foreskin, you, Russian became a more painless way - simply by indicating in the USSR passport, in the column "nationality" instead of "Ukrainian" (by birth), nationality "Russian" ...

          Isn't it, Nazarius?

          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          And you most likely not to this site.

          Is that what you decided? "Gussky" you are our ...
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 24 February 2021 11: 14
            Not this way. I was born in the Arctic. Yamalo - Nenets district. But rudeness, in general, does not suit anyone.
            1. Profiler
              Profiler 24 February 2021 11: 20
              Quote: Leader of the Redskins
              Not this way. I was born in the Arctic. Yamalo - Nenets district.

              And who is your dad? What is his nationality?

              Or do you seriously believe that nationality is determined by place of birth?
              If so, then you are not Russian, but a representative of a small ethnic group - nenets yes ...

              Or is your dad a Ukrainian? And you, somehow - " Russian "? belay
              1. The leader of the Redskins
                The leader of the Redskins 24 February 2021 12: 42
                So you're interested in my dad? Ukrainian, and my mother is Russian. And I was born in the USSR, when you just come to the passport office at the age of 16, and YOU are personally asked what nationality to write.
                And why are you so concerned about the national question? Unpleasant topic? There were such, and more than once - they elevated their nation above the rest. In all cases they ended badly.
                1. Looking for
                  Looking for 24 February 2021 16: 25
                  e. brothers. why did you give up your "nation"?
                2. Profiler
                  Profiler 25 February 2021 06: 25
                  Quote: Leader of the Redskins
                  So you're interested in my dad? Ukrainian

                  I must admit that your case arouses a certain professional and applied interest in me.
                  Specifically yours, but not your parent - the psycho-type of a man who exists (hopefully, only fragmentarily) in a reality that he has imagined ...
          2. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter 24 February 2021 12: 44
            by trimming the foreskin
            It is enough to say the shahadah.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 24 February 2021 16: 22
      Samsonov can have everything
  4. pytar
    pytar 24 February 2021 09: 46
    I'm curious ... in Repin's painting there are 2 banners shown next to them, similar to the "yellow-blakytny" flag of Ukraine and the "St. George ribbon" of Russia ...! what

    It turns out that they stood together against the Turks, and they stood one opposite the other!
    1. Profiler
      Profiler 24 February 2021 10: 05
      Quote: pytar
      I wonder ... in Repin's painting there are 2 banners depicted next to them, similar to the "yellow-blakitny" flag of Ukraine and the "St. George ribbon" of Russia ...! what

      It turns out that they stood together against the Turks, and they stood one opposite the other!

      Nothing more than a coincidence, similar to the free presentation of the artist Repin.

      In reality, in that period of the XNUMXth century, the Zaporozhye Cossacks used banners of a wide variety of shapes and different colors, however, only starting from the XNUMXth century they began to use mainly yellow-blue ones.
      In addition, the order of Hetman Kiril Razumovsky dated September 18, 1755 introduced the obligatory image on one side of the regimental and centenary flags of a Cossack with a musket - the coat of arms of the Zaporozhye Army, while on the other side of it, the coat of arms of a hundred or a regiment was depicted.
    2. BAI
      BAI 24 February 2021 11: 43
      The blue-yellow flag appeared in 1848. Flags in the picture - the artist "sees this way".
      In the XNUMXth century, the Zaporozhye Cossacks also used the zhovtno-blakit gonfalon. Although the official flag of the Cossacks remained a red flag with a white cross, two crescents, a moon and a star.

      In general, the yellow-blue color combination was common in Germany, Poland and Sweden.
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 24 February 2021 12: 51
        And black and red - for the Sandinistas wassat
  5. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 24 February 2021 14: 00
    "torrential rains continued until mid-February" so the weather was odd then?
    1. mark1
      mark1 24 February 2021 16: 10
      Greta Thunberg is all lying - there have always been weather quirks (I apologize for not being in the subject)
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 24 February 2021 16: 18
        God forbid if Greta Thunberg hears. Fig knows what she will do
        1. mark1
          mark1 24 February 2021 17: 07
          This can ... She would not have had a price in the Middle Ages. Although he is coping now.
  6. vladcub
    vladcub 24 February 2021 19: 06
    Quote: mark1
    This can ... She would not have had a price in the Middle Ages. Although he is coping now.

    This would make a rustle: watering in my head, but ambition ... I'm seriously afraid that drug addicts, that people like Greta will kill and won't help with the eye
  7. EvilLion
    EvilLion 25 February 2021 08: 43
    issue 500 girls and boys under 15 for harems

    Well, I believe in this, boy butts in Islam are very fond of.
  8. akinak-f
    akinak-f 25 February 2021 13: 51
    "The army crossed the Dnieper at Cherkassy and united at the Brave ..." - at the Brave? There is such a town (Smila, not Brave) in the Cherkasy region. :))
    1. No name B
      No name B 25 February 2021 23: 17
      Yeah and Sirko, is the author again Serko or does he have an individual phobia to distort the surname of the Ukrainian hetman in order to emphasize the Russianness of the surname?
  9. akinak-f
    akinak-f 25 February 2021 13: 53
    "but (upon the news of the capture of Bar, Mezhibor by the enemy and his enormous superiority in forces) he retreated." - There is a fortress Medzhibozh, I have not heard about Mezhibor.