Military Review

Fire grenades. Harden's pomegranate

Fire grenades. Harden's pomegranate
Harden's fire grenades

Today, in the mind of any person, a pomegranate is weapon, a means of killing other people. However, such statements are not always true, there are grenades that are designed to save human lives. These are the predecessors of modern fire extinguishers. One of the most famous was Harden's hand grenade. Harden's grenade fought fire and was marketed in the US and Europe in the late XNUMXth century.

Devices widespread at the end of the 01th century, it would seem, should have disappeared after the appearance of numerous types of fire extinguishers. But this is not the case. Fire extinguishing grenades can still be found on the market today, such as the Rescuer 119 model (SATXNUMX). This model does not differ so much from its predecessors, which appeared many decades ago.

The first fire-fighting equipment in history

It is worth noting that even the first attempts to create a fire extinguisher were more like military developments than traditional fire extinguishing means for us. It is believed that the first specialized means for extinguishing fires was invented in 1715 by the German designer Zachary Greil. In this case, the proposed fire extinguishing agent was quite primitive.

The designer suggested placing a small container for gunpowder into an ordinary wooden barrel filled with water, into which a fuse was inserted. During the fire, the fuse was set on fire, and a wooden shell filled with water was thrown into the fire. The barrel exploded and flooded some area around it. Such a device coped with fires, not to say that well, but still at least some effect from such a device was, especially in comparison with manually pouring the flame with water.

20 liter barrel with powder charge

The design of such devices was improved only after a hundred years. So, the English inventor Captain George Manby in 1813 proposed to fill in containers not just water, but potash. So in those years they called potassium carbonate or potassium carbonate. The powder dissolved in water was placed in a copper vessel. As a result, the liquid under pressure, when turning the valve on the vessel, burst out and could extinguish the fires. This device was more like modern fire extinguishers.

The capacity of the copper vessel was 13 liters, it was transported on a special trolley. This device became one of the most famous inventions of Manby, who worked a lot on the creation of fire fighting equipment, as well as various devices for saving people in case of fire. Interest in this topic was not idle. George Manby witnessed the terrible fire in Edinburgh, which claimed a large number of human lives, so he was so actively interested in this topic.

Harden's pomegranate

In 1871, a new means of extinguishing fires appeared on the market - a fire grenade. The device was patented under his own name by the American inventor Henry Harden, who lived in Chicago. The patent was issued for the device "Harden's Garnet No. 1". The invention of the American designer was a glass flask filled with an aqueous solution of salts. This solution was effective for fighting fire, and the flask itself had to be thrown into the fire. The capacity of Harden's grenades and similar fire-fighting devices usually ranged from 700 ml to one liter.

Despite the limited use of such devices and insufficient efficiency, they existed in various forms for a long time. With minor changes, they were produced and used from the 1870s to the 50s of the XX century. Moreover, they were most widely used only until the 1910s. But even today, fire grenades or throwing fire extinguishers are still on the market, although their shape has changed over the years, and the chemical composition has become much more effective.

Harden's invention was actively sold on the American market, until in 1877 manufacturers in Great Britain were interested. So the device ended up in the Old World, where it was produced by many English companies, among which were HardenStar and Lewisand Sinclair Company Ltd. Later on, production only expanded and was transferred to other factories in the USA and Europe.

Advertisements and posters from the late XNUMXth century promised that:

Harden's Star Hand Grenade will save your life and property in case of fire. If broken, the liquid containing the chemical in the bottle will immediately extinguish the fire! The contents of the flask do not freeze or deteriorate over time. "

According to the handouts, Harden's grenades could be purchased for $ 45 for a dozen.

Harden's pomegranate attracted customers because it was as easy to use as possible. The grenade had to be thrown into the fire, the glass shattered, releasing the contents. Initially, a special liquid, carbon tetrachloride (tetrachloromethane), flowed out of the tank, which helps to extinguish an open flame.

Moreover, this substance is extremely toxic and dangerous to humans. Therefore, over time, the entire human-centered business switched to safer filling, replacing the truly hellish mixture with brine. True, in this case, most likely, the fire-fighting properties of the device itself suffered to some extent. On the other hand, the risk of dying not from a fire, but from the means of extinguishing it, was reduced by several times.

Harden's Star Hand Grenade

For many years the main producer of pomegranates was the Harden factory in Chicago. It was here that the most popular hand fire grenades were produced, which today are highly valued by collectors and antiques lovers around the world. At the same time, on special forums where such exhibits can be found, buyers are honestly warned that the multi-colored flasks contained a liquid that is very dangerous for humans.

Usually, Harden's grenades were plugged with a stopper, and some had a special loop attached to the neck, which allowed them to hang throw fire extinguishers on the wall. The pomegranates, which were produced in Chicago, were distinguished by a very bright appearance, resembling perfume bottles with a neck. Advertisements from those years said that real Harden grenades were made of blue glass and had a star-shaped embossing on the case. Hence, another name common in those years - Harden's hand grenade "Star".

Modern fire grenades

Despite the fact that today you will no longer surprise anyone with a fire extinguisher, which must be in any passenger car, fire grenades are still on the market. Fire grenades or throw extinguishers can be used to extinguish fires in apartments, offices, schools, hospitals, public transport, and crowded areas.

These products remain on the market due to a number of factors, the main one being ease of use. A person just needs to throw a fire grenade into the fire. Simplicity is very important, since in stressful situations people often get lost and start to get nervous; in such conditions, not everyone is able to properly use the most common fire extinguisher. Another benefit of fire grenades, resulting from their ease of use, is that they can be used by people of all ages. The advantage is the low weight of such devices.

An example of modern fire extinguishing grenades is the Rescuer-01 device (SAT119). This throwing fire extinguisher can be easily found on the internet, as well as videos showing its ability to fight open flames. This grenade is a tank filled with a special composition of water and chemicals that neutralize fire.

The user just needs to throw the device into the flame, the flask will break, and the liquid with the chemical will begin to act. The water from the pomegranate lowers the combustion temperature, and the emitted carbon dioxide and ammonia gases neutralize oxygen, depriving the fire of the nutrient medium. This fire grenade is especially effective in the early stages of a fire, whereby the chemicals neutralize combustion over a much larger area than spreading water.

Fire grenade, throw extinguisher SAT119

The device is able to extinguish a fire on an area of ​​8-15 square meters. This is enough to put out a starting fire in an apartment or office. Carbon dioxide blocks the access of oxygen to the fire site, and phosphate and ammonium bicarbonate stop the combustion reaction. At the same time, the Rescuer - 01 fire grenade (SAT119) is environmentally friendly, it does not harm the environment and humans. A side effect is the smell of ammonia, but although it is not pleasant for a person, it does not pose any harm.
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 21 February 2021 04: 12
    In Krasnoyarsk, three firefighters died recently, why were they not armed with similar grenades?
    1. Wolf 1
      Wolf 1 21 February 2021 06: 07
      These grenades are useless when fighting a fire over a large area.
    2. Quadro
      Quadro 21 February 2021 06: 30
      These grenades are like pissing into a huge fireplace.
      1. Destiny
        Destiny 21 February 2021 06: 55
        The device is able to extinguish a fire on an area of ​​8-15 square meters. This is enough to put out a starting fire in an apartment or office.

        Everything has its place and time. In the Krasnoyarsk fire, they would be ineffective, in other cases they will be more than useful if people in the same apartments or offices do not get confused and use them as intended.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 21 February 2021 10: 16
          Keyword: "if" does not get confused, and if he panics, then 10 grenades will not help
        2. Graz
          Graz 23 February 2021 12: 02
          well, you can keep a fire extinguisher in the office, if the toad chokes, then you can throw off with neighboring offices and buy one per floor

          and so back in the 90s I watched the program on TV, there they invented a fire-fighting checker with a hockey puck, I don’t remember whether it was necessary to pull it for something, or a push action, sort of like carbon dioxide, that is, it immediately creates a cloud in a certain volume , especially there they advertised it to motorists, like if your engine caught fire
      2. tovarich-andrey.62goncharov
        tovarich-andrey.62goncharov 21 February 2021 11: 21
        Connoisseur, I see ... 0,000%
  2. tasha
    tasha 21 February 2021 05: 19
    Interestingly, I have not heard of this.
    I will add that such grenades were replaced by self-firing powder fire extinguishers.
    Made in China (foam casing and pyrocords)

    Russian development, Epotos company, glass body, powder + gas generator.
    1. dauria
      dauria 21 February 2021 14: 43
      self-firing powder fire extinguishers

      Nothing more reliable than a sprinkler system has been invented. Steel pipe under the false ceiling, a couple of spricklers per room. Melting point to your taste, even from 60 degrees. There is no need for any pumps or automation - there is enough pressure in the city water supply system.
      Recently, a cleaning lady was drying clothes, shutting off the air flow in the dryer - it naturally caught fire, immediately a shower, the electrician turned off with an ordinary RCD immediately by a "wet" leak (differential automatic). Out of trouble, everything is wet, but believe me - after the melted powder, also throw everything into the trash. Moreover, it "extinguishes" only when it comes into direct contact with fire.
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 17 May 2021 14: 34
        A wonderful thing! Will destroy your property as reliably as fire! Flooded with water, this very property will still have to be disposed of expensively! And it will destroy the wiring, and your neighbors, if there are such, will get it in full) It is especially pleasant to shift computer networks. Computer scientists strive to shove their hubs away, where you can't really find them. And water, she will certainly find. And he will give life to the fullest!
        No automation is needed, that's true. That's just, if you are not super-rich, in order to use stainless steel for the pipes of your system, welded by a highly qualified welder without losing the properties of the weld (all this costs much more than, for example, the warehouse itself), then such a system must be checked at least once in year. Strength. It is filled with water, the pipes can disperse at any time, weaken due to corrosion, for example, and instead of extinguishing you will get a fountain outside the fire zone.
        Do you know how the system is tested? First you need to vacate your building. All as a whole. To the bare floor. Since during the test, water may gush, and where - you do not know. We take out everything, take out ... Then we need to unscrew all the sprinklers. Up to one. And replace each with a plug. Then we fill the system with water again (we already poured tons of water when the sprinkler was turned off) and apply a pressure that exceeds the working pressure according to the standard. We checked the pipes. Most likely, part of the building was doused, so they got to be repaired. A little bit. The property is on the street, and fortunately, it hasn't rained yet, right?
        Now we need to check the sprinklers to see if the composition of the blast cone has changed. We take some of the sprinklers, and use them, simulating a fire, at a special stand. All right? Well, that means we have lost somewhere 5% of the valves. Plus those that burst and crashed during disassembly. We screw the sprinkler back (we lose water again, we break some of the valves again, we change it), fill the system, give pressure ... we repair a little what has flooded again. For example, a replaceable valve turned out to be with a reed, outwardly in order, but screwed up - the staniol burst. Well, etc.
        If someone vtyuhad such a system to you, you are a sucker. And he is an illiterate bastard. You see, he does not understand fire automatics, so he grabbed the self-firing sprinklers, which "do not need" it. And the fact that every year you will be forced to lay out huge sums - it has nothing to do with it. You are a sucker, you are to blame)) Drive these "specialists" with a dirty rag ... Well, or you can not check the system. That's your business. ))
  3. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 21 February 2021 07: 58
    I remember how in the distant "Soviet times" I read in the "Soviet newspaper" an article about a simple Soviet engineer and remarkable inventor who proposed a "miracle novelty" for extinguishing fires - a fire-fighting grenade! So I think, how could he not be informed that such a grenade had already been invented ... in the 19th century ?! request
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 21 February 2021 08: 27
      And today I first learned about TOY and about the Soviet grenade. I wonder how for Sunday morning ...
    2. Mikhail3
      Mikhail3 17 May 2021 14: 56
      I suspect that the composition of the extinguishing agent of the Soviet engineer was better than in the 19th century, so the question with the invention is not so simple. And the principle of operation could have been ... Everything is far from being as simple as it is in the article. Put out the fire, these are not popular articles to write)
  4. crabkiller
    crabkiller 21 February 2021 10: 51
    This is not a bad fire extinguishing device.
    1. tovarich-andrey.62goncharov
      tovarich-andrey.62goncharov 21 February 2021 11: 24
      This is the most effective of the pomegranates. Moreover, not a powder, but fine dust - fog. Tested by firefighters. There are subtleties. But in general, I recommend it even at home. Or generators "SOT" in the boiler room.
      1. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 17 May 2021 15: 05
        At home - regular carbon dioxide in an accessible place, and sometimes exercise. So that the children and household members grabbed him and ran to extinguish the light as quickly as possible. It's not a pity to ditch one or two fire extinguishers for training.
        With this thing, children will tear off their fingers, poison someone, or even strangle them to death. In the boiler room there are self-activating fire extinguishers, but not HFO (are you nuts?
        And if there is a potentially dangerous place where (the controller of a wind generator, solar panels (they burn constantly, flash like a match), an autotransformer, a house shield inside the building, etc.) there is also a self-operating powder.
        Andrey, aerosol generators are used only where there are no people with a guarantee. In deserted server rooms, in warehouses with two-stage locks for presence, in half-pass channels, etc. The aerosol is opaque at all, or partially transparent, and for a person to lose consciousness, two breaths are enough. And the end. If you work in this area - do not try to design something! You will kill people with this level of knowledge. A grave sin ...
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 21 February 2021 11: 08
    The design of such devices was improved only after a hundred years.
    Here the author is greatly mistaken. In 1723, the famous British chemist Ambrose Godfrey patented the first automatic fire extinguishing system based on a similar principle.
    The system consisted of barrels of water placed in advance on the object, inside which there was a powder charge in a tin case. The barrels were connected by a system of wicks, which ignited in case of fire and initiating an explosion of charges and spraying of water.
    The system was in use, and Bradley's Weekly Messenger, November 1729, mentions its effective use.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 21 February 2021 14: 40
      So, at about the same time, a fire alarm system was proposed ... moreover, with variations! For example, under ... like a silk "stretch" ceiling, ropes were stretched ... in the event of a fire, the ropes burned out and "dropped" something "heavy and resonant" in the next room! It could be a small cannonball over a metal "gong" or a "sledgehammer" ... A trigger of a loaded pistol could be tied to a small cannonball (large bullet) ... By the way, according to something similar (rope, falling weight from "gong", a pistol ...) it was proposed to arrange a security (against thieves) alarm! So it is not necessary to consider our ancestors "uneducated fools"! stop They had everything that we have, only in a different "performance"! yes
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 21 February 2021 14: 49
        So, our ancestors should not be considered "uneducated fools"!
        And where did you see me about the "uneducated ancestors"?
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 21 February 2021 16: 10
          Quote: Undecim
          And where did you see me about the "uneducated ancestors"?

          Duc, this appeal is not for you! In no case ! No. This is ... to individual members of our society in half with rhetoric! yes
  6. Catfish
    Catfish 21 February 2021 11: 36
    Thanks to the author for the information. hi Now the question is where you can buy these grenades, a useful piece for the home.
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 21 February 2021 12: 55
    So, the English inventor Captain George Manby in 1813 proposed to fill in containers not just water, but potash. So in those years they called potassium carbonate or potassium carbonate. The powder dissolved in water was placed in a copper vessel.
    Extincteur fire extinguisher by George Manby.
  8. Jacket in stock
    Jacket in stock 21 February 2021 13: 41
    I remembered.
    The last topic that I had to work on at the Research Institute, when I was still an engineer, was a fire bomb for extinguishing forest fires.
    It was many years ago, the topics that our research institute also began at that time, have been carried around for a long time in parades, and fires are still "rolled" with a sprinkler from an aircraft. Apparently something was missing. (Maybe just me)
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 21 February 2021 14: 46
      You just are not interested in the question. The aerial fire bomb is successfully used.
      1. Jacket in stock
        Jacket in stock 21 February 2021 14: 57
        Quote: Undecim
        The aerial fire bomb is successfully used.

        Strange, but Rossiyskaya Gazeta writes that no.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 21 February 2021 15: 07
          Sorry, I misled you a little by not adding the word "on polygons", which completely changed the meaning.
          Somewhere I have come across material that experts consider this bomb for extinguishing forest fires ineffective.
          1. Jacket in stock
            Jacket in stock 21 February 2021 15: 14
            Quote: Undecim
            experts consider this bomb ineffective for extinguishing forest fires.

            Gazeta writes that it is just the same very effective. With an integrated approach.
            And what we were supposed to do was supposed to be very effective. Either they did not at all what was meant, or they simply did not manage to knock out money, but they did not go beyond the polygons. It's a pity.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 21 February 2021 15: 19
              "Gazeta" writes - not so much as an argument, there they just do not write. It's like studying the history of articles on the VO website.
              It would be better to read the experts. I'll have to look.
            2. Jacket in stock
              Jacket in stock 22 February 2021 08: 27
              Most likely, they just jammed the money for this bomb.
              In the nineties-zero forestry was derbanized in full. They cut the foresters, put the aviation security service on starvation rations. Until the forests near Moscow itself burst into flames, no one scratched, on the contrary, everything was cut and cut. What is the development of new technology here?
            3. Mikhail3
              Mikhail3 17 May 2021 15: 19
              Did you design the Big Bertha bomb version there?) In order to extinguish the fire, you need
              1. Shoot down the flame
              2. Lower the temperature in the hearth or deprive the combustible material of oxygen
              I suspect that after the use of effective bombs, round bald spots of felling appear instead of forests, which will burn down later. And also these bald spots were poisoned to death by the components of the fire-fighting charge.
              You know, fire is better.
    2. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 21 February 2021 16: 37
      In Israel, forest fires are extinguished by dropping packages of water (1 or 2 liters each) from the plane. This approach, in addition to accuracy, allows you to fly 4 times higher, increasing safety and allowing you to use it at night. Biodegradable bags.
      1. cat Rusich
        cat Rusich 21 February 2021 21: 38
        Quote: Bolt Cutter
        In Israel, forest fires are extinguished by dropping packages of water (1 or 2 liters each) from the plane. This approach, in addition to accuracy, allows you to fly 4 times higher, increasing safety and allowing you to use it at night. Biodegradable bags.
        The largest forest in Israel is Yatir 40 sq. km. More forests - Biria 21 sq. km., forest Eshtaol 12 sq. km., Amidav forest 7 sq. km. etc...
  9. alsoclean
    alsoclean 21 February 2021 17: 14
    The invention of the American designer was a glass flask filled with an aqueous solution of salts.

    In general, Harden's grenades, like the grenades of another Hayward manufacturer, were initially equipped with carbon tetrachloride or, more simply, carbon tetrachloride. Effective, but very dangerous because it is poisonous in itself. And when heated, it turns into Phosgene - a chemical warfare agent. I had to replace it with salts. As a rule, there are no gas masks at home, and what kind of gas masks they were at the end of the XNUMXth century.
  10. alsoclean
    alsoclean 21 February 2021 17: 23

    I would check such a bottle on my RCSB (or AtomFast). Such a nice color of uranium glass !! But I don't have extra $ 1,5-2K ...
  11. tasha
    tasha 21 February 2021 18: 52
    After reading the article, an idea appeared, which I propose for discussion to VO readers.
    Automatic fire extinguishing systems have been known for a long time and are actively used on armored vehicles. But all this is expensive. The mini-fire extinguisher I mentioned from Epotos costs less than a thousand rubles. How do you think the installation of such devices, for example, in the bodies of military trucks, will justify itself? Ordinary, tent ... Or in inflatable modules, in kungs and so on?
    It is especially important - in tents, with potbelly stoves ...
    I don’t know, maybe they’re already playing
    1. garri-lin
      garri-lin 21 February 2021 19: 29
      Car was held in hands in the late 90s or early 00s. Ball or washer with a diameter of 10 centimeters. For fixing under the hood in case of fire. There, it seems, at a high temperature, a powder pressure generator caught fire and powder was fired from the body in different directions. If the speedometer does not change, then there was an advertisement for such devices on TV.
  12. Sergey M. Karasev
    Sergey M. Karasev 21 February 2021 18: 55
    What makes these grenades great is their ease of use. He just grabbed it and threw it into the fire, a three-year-old child can handle it! There is no need to in a hurry to look for a check, to pull out, which in a hurry may not work out quickly, and the ring of a check in a hurry can simply come off. On the good, the use of fire extinguishers also needs to be trained, and who and when, besides professional firefighters, did this?
    1. psiho117
      psiho117 23 February 2021 01: 50
      Quote: Sergey Mikhailovich Karasev
      The use of fire extinguishers also needs to be trained, and who and when, besides professional firefighters, did this?

      On the good - it is believed that all this should be able to. Surely, after all, you, and most of those present here, at work regularly, without looking, sign in a safety log - that you have listened to a safety briefing?
      So, this is where all this should take place - and training in the use of fire extinguishers, including.
      How many of us have expired fire extinguishers at work / in the car?
      Well, if everyone is so disregarding about this, it means that they themselves are evil Pinocchio hi
      For example, I know how to use a fire extinguisher, and I had to use it.
      1. Sergey M. Karasev
        Sergey M. Karasev 23 February 2021 07: 10
        And I know how, and I had to apply in the case, even though the attempt to activate it almost ended in a fall. That's why I wrote. But people like us are an overwhelming minority, which is not at all happy.
  13. Sergey M. Karasev
    Sergey M. Karasev 21 February 2021 19: 05
    A side effect is the smell of ammonia, but although it is not pleasant for a person, it does not pose any harm.

    Is. MPC = 350 mg / m3.
    Gaseous ammonia in low concentration causes burning in the eyes and tearing, with increasing doses - a chemical burn of the cornea and even blindness. Inhalation of ammonia vapors can have a detrimental effect on the respiratory tract of the body: a sore throat, difficulty breathing, coughing are just the "first signs" of poisoning. This will be followed by dizziness, nausea, painful migraines, catarrh of the respiratory tract. Symptoms can disappear and come back with renewed vigor. In addition, this gas has a nerve effect in the form of behavioral changes and delusions, and also makes hearing organs hypersensitive: deafness or seizures and severe ear pains are possible. Therefore, first aid for ammonia poisoning should be provided immediately.

    And everything can end with toxic pulmonary edema with a fatal outcome.
    1. Jager
      Jager 13 March 2021 12: 33
      It is necessary to spill a bucket of ammonia in the room to get pulmonary edema from it.
  14. Avior
    Avior 21 February 2021 21: 22
    The grenade captivates with its ease of use, but there is also a problem - I made a wrong throw in panic, and the grenade was wasted
    For me, an ordinary dry powder fire extinguisher is more effective, you just need it in your house or apartment.
    How many fires that can be stopped at the beginning!
    Something burning overturned, the rug from the electric heater caught fire, the wiring shorted and the combustion began - if a person next to it turns out to be a simple person, they use a small fire extinguisher at hand, similar to a car, for example, how many problems could be eliminated in the bud. But a fire extinguisher in a home is a very rare thing, although it is quite possible to place it somewhere in the closet in the hallway, and it is inexpensive, and takes up little space.
    But somehow it did not work out or no one demanded. : (((
  15. Earnest
    Earnest 22 February 2021 12: 38
    Quote: Avior
    ... But a fire extinguisher in a dwelling is a very rare thing, although it is quite possible to place it somewhere in the closet in the hallway, and it is inexpensive and takes up little space.
    But somehow it did not work out or no one demanded. : (((

    Someone like. And for me it is exactly like this:

    And the pets are trained to use, did not regret the extinguisher for practical extinguishing)
    1. Avior
      Avior 22 February 2021 19: 33
      You are well done.
      And you need to start yourself, because buying a small fire extinguisher is not a problem, but you can use an old car for training, I still change it from time to time, they lie in the garage later ..
  16. Basarev
    Basarev 31 March 2021 21: 54
    Great trick. These pomegranates would be a great addition to the sleeves. You can even hang them right in the boards.