Military Review

From "Lynx" to "Hawk". Domestic radar counter-battery warfare

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Self-propelled counter-battery radar 1RL239 "Lynx". Photo Russianarms.ru


The artillery intelligence units of the Russian army are armed with several counter-battery radar systems. While on duty, they must detect flying projectiles and calculate the location of guns or launchers. The data on the location of the enemy are given out to the fire assets of their army, and they strike back.

The first "Lynx"


The development of radar technology and computing technology in the late sixties allowed the development of new counter-battery radar stations. The product 1RL239 / ARK-1 / "Lynx" was developed by the Tula Research Institute "Strela" (now NPO "Strela" as part of the Concern East Kazakhstan region "Almaz-Antey"). In 1975, the Arsenal plant manufactured a prototype of the station for carrying out the entire set of tests. After their completion, in 1977 "Lynx" was accepted for supply.

The ARK-1 complex was built on the MT-LBu chassis with the placement of most of the electronic equipment inside the armored body. Outside, a radiator was installed in a compact radio-transparent housing, a large receiving antenna and some other devices. Further modernization was carried out. The ARK-1M project provided for the installation of autonomous power supplies and a new communication system for transmitting data to artillery units.


Product 1L219 "Zoo-1" in working position. Photo of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation

The Lynx station could track the flight of shells in a sector 30 ° wide in azimuth. Provided the detection of firing positions of barreled artillery at distances of up to 9 km, mortars - up to 12 km, multiple launch rocket systems - up to 16 km. It took 30 seconds to calculate the coordinates of the enemy after targeting the projectile. Product 1RL239 was also able to monitor the results of firing. Explosions of artillery shells were recorded at a distance of 11 km, MLRS missiles - up to 20 km.

According to reports, the ARK-1 radar remained in service until recently, after which it began to give way to newer models. "Lynx" was regularly used as part of the exercises, and in addition, used during the war in Afghanistan. There it was found that ARK-1 has some technical and operational shortcomings. In addition, specific problems related to mountainous terrain have emerged.

Two "Zoos"


Soon after the Lynx was accepted for supply, in 1981, the Strela Research Institute began work on the next counter-battery radar with improved characteristics. This product received the designations 1L219 and Zoo-1. By the end of the eighties, the station was brought to testing, but further measures were delayed. The finished product 1L219 was accepted into service only in 2008; at the same time, the re-equipment of artillery reconnaissance units began.


Deeply modernized complex 1L260 "Zoo-1M". Photo Russianarms.ru

Like the Lynx, the Zoo-1 is built on a modified MT-LBu chassis. It houses a multifunctional three-dimensional radar 1L259 with a phased antenna array. With its help, monitoring of the air situation, spotting of flying projectiles and places and launching, as well as control of unmanned aerial vehicles is provided.

The 1L259 product operates in a sector with a width of 90 ° and detects the firing positions of howitzers at ranges up to 12 km, mortars - up to 17 km. MLRS are determined from 20-22 km, launch positions of tactical missile systems - from 45 km. The complex's automation is capable of simultaneously tracking 12 air targets. Zoo-1 processes up to 70 projectiles per minute, calculates their launch points and transmits data to fire weapons.

In 2013, a deeply modernized version of the complex, 1L260 Zoo-1M, was presented. It was built on the GM-5971 chassis and received a new 1L261 radar, equipped with an active phased array with increased characteristics. Due to this update, range characteristics, detection accuracy, noise immunity, etc. have been improved.


Station 1L271 "Aistenok" in position. Photo by Rosoboronexport

To date, the Zoo-1M station has been put into service, is being serially produced and is being supplied to the troops. As far as we know, two complexes of the Zoo line are produced and distributed between the parts in parallel.

Portable "Aistenok"


In 2008, NPO Strela presented a new development in the field of radar - a portable ground and artillery reconnaissance complex 1L271 Aistenok. Later, the complex passed all the necessary tests, after which it entered service. With the help of the Aistenok, scouts can track ground and air targets, detect enemy artillery positions and provide fire adjustments.

Radar 1L271 includes several compact means suitable for carrying by calculation or transportation by any transport. The main element of the complex is an antenna post with a phased array and a two-surface mirror. There is also a data processing unit with a control panel, a power supply system and communication facilities.


Model of complex 1K148 "Yastreb-AV". Photo Bmpd.livejournal.com

"Aistenok" can detect large ground objects from a distance of up to 20 km. Mortar positions are determined from a distance of 5 km. Adjustment of fire at ranges of up to 5 km is carried out by tracking the projectile along the trajectory. Tracking shell explosions triples the observation range.

Promising "Hawk"


In the foreseeable future, the existing means of counter-battery warfare will be supplemented by a new 1K148 Yastreb-AV radar. The development of this project is again carried out at the Strela Scientific and Production Association, the work started in accordance with the state contract of 2011. Subsequently, photographs of the layout appeared in the public domain, and in October 2019, a photograph of the Yastreb-AV experimental complex was published. It was reported that at that time the product was undergoing interdepartmental tests.

Yastreb-AV is being built on a four-axle special chassis BAZ-6910-025. The rear part of the chassis is given for the placement of an antenna post with a large-area canvas. AFAR is probably used. The performance characteristics of such a radar are unknown. It can be assumed that it surpasses the existing samples in terms of range and precision.

From "Lynx" to "Hawk". Domestic radar counter-battery warfare

Experienced "Yastreb-AV" before testing, 2019 Photo Bmpd.livejournal.com

It is not known how soon the Yastreb-AV will go into series production and enter the army. There is reason to believe that testing and fine-tuning of this complex is coming to an end, and soon it will go into supply. It is obvious that the appearance of serial products 1K148 will expand the possibilities for counter-battery fight. In foreign countries, measures are being taken to create new artillery and missile systems with increased range indicators, and Yastreb-AV may be the answer to this.

In the process of development


The development of modern counter-battery radar stations began more than half a century ago, and by now this process has led to the emergence of a number of samples with different characteristics and capabilities. Recent developments of this kind are distinguished by high detection range and accuracy, improved performance, etc. Apparently, the products being developed now will surpass them in their parameters, thereby increasing the potential of artillery reconnaissance.

In foreign countries, promising models of artillery and missile weapons with increased range and accuracy are being developed. In response to such threats, counter-battery radars with appropriate capabilities must be created. It is obvious that the parallel development of these two areas will continue in the future, and new complexes will appear at the disposal of artillery reconnaissance units.
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  1. polpot
    polpot 17 February 2021 18: 02
    +7
    Thank you, the topic is interesting.
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 17 February 2021 18: 18
      0
      I join. Like "zoos" and are produced in Ukroin? Flashed somewhere on their sites.
      1. svp67
        svp67 17 February 2021 18: 43
        +7
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        Like "zoos" and in Ukroin produced

        Yes, the first 1L220U "Zoo-2" is produced in Ukraine
        1. Dimide
          Dimide 17 February 2021 19: 31
          -4
          1L220UK "Zoo-2" has been produced since 19 by NPO Iskra on automobile platforms
      2. czes
        czes April 3 2021 12: 03
        0
        В̶ ̶У̶к̶р̶а̶и̶н̶е In Ukraine!
    2. Alien From
      Alien From 17 February 2021 23: 58
      0
      I join! AFAR help us.
  2. svoit
    svoit 17 February 2021 18: 22
    +1
    What is known about the Ukrainian zoo-2? And why are they building American stations?
    1. Artyom Karagodin
      Artyom Karagodin 17 February 2021 20: 16
      +2
      Well, why? The "zoo" is a totalitarian technique, not like an American one! What may be incomprehensible here, colleague request ?

      But if it's no joke, then their presence in "nenka" is precisely due to the common Soviet past. And to give the mind further - not enough ... time. Every drop goes to the fight in bloody sweat for the freedom to elect KVN workers for the presidency and with the legacy of the terrible communist slavery that turned free Ukraine into one of the world's main industrial centers ... Ugh, I was mistaken, in a concentration camp, of course, in a concentration camp. soldier

      It didn't work out without jokes. Here, after all, according to Beaumarchais - "I hasten to laugh at everything, otherwise I would have to cry."
    2. Holgerton
      Holgerton 18 February 2021 00: 19
      +3
      Zoo-2 remained in the joint Russian-Ukrainian lamp past, as it was designed on the chassis of the GM series and for cooperation with Russian enterprises.
      After the redesign and modernization of Zoo-2, in 2019 Zoo-3 appeared with the expectation of installing it on a semi-trailer, it seems like they began to order it, two or three stations are scheduled for commissioning this year.
      It seems like there was an option to place it on an 8 × 8 chassis, but KrAZ is going through bankruptcy proceedings, so the only option if they decide to do it on Tatra.
      American radars are being installed because, firstly, this is free assistance, and secondly, because there is no alternative, since theirs were only recently recognized as ready for production without components from the "aggressor country."
      1. Holgerton
        Holgerton 18 February 2021 00: 35
        +1
        Well, plus to everything, they bet the American ones, because even Soviet cash in the Russian army could not always be made to work. How many "Lynx" / SNAR is not
        Take care, it was rarely reliable, unless it was serviced by a whole platoon of radio engineers.
  3. Redsun
    Redsun 17 February 2021 18: 23
    +3
    Is this hawk a little big? A very tasty target will be for all sorts of loitering ammunition and other small things, the price of which is a penny. It seems to me that it makes sense to either seriously increase the range or reduce the size
    1. Ua3qhp
      Ua3qhp 17 February 2021 18: 44
      +4
      I am more impressed with the Stork family than multi-wheeled monsters.
    2. Garm
      Garm 17 February 2021 19: 08
      0
      Yeah, but both are very good wink
  4. dgonni
    dgonni 17 February 2021 19: 15
    +6
    Such! Soviet type Lynx in the Afghan mountains did not give exact coordinates in 90% of cases!
    Mountains unfortunately!
    On flat areas, 120mm mortars were caught in 65-85%.
    The spirits knew it and these machines were knocked out first of all!
    Soviet electronics. Don't have a couple of motherboard racks?
    Adieu! It is not a priori working.
    Who came across understands what it is about!
    P.S. Antenna component should be soldered only with a certain silver alloy! I'm for the exit!
    If not? Then it won't work!
    In principle, the workstation is in direct hands! But where were they to be found in terms of lieutenants and sergeants like that?
    1. DED_peer_DED
      DED_peer_DED 17 February 2021 21: 07
      +4
      Quote: dgonni
      In principle, the workstation is in direct hands! But where were they to be found in terms of lieutenants and sergeants like that?

      THEN it was still possible to find. I know not by hearsay. There were three normal categories: Specialists-radio amateurs, Normally unlearned and continuing to study, Just good performers who know their job and technique. Of course, this applies more to crickets, warrant officers and officers.
      I don’t want to talk about the crooked hands, there were more and more varied.
      1. dgonni
        dgonni 17 February 2021 22: 40
        0
        TA-dah! As the Navy said. Fear the sailor with the tassel. Will paint over everything! And be afraid of the leitenant with a screwdriver! Everything will break!
        For landlords, this must be multiplied by 10 for selection.
        1. DED_peer_DED
          DED_peer_DED 17 February 2021 23: 01
          +6
          Dad, commander of the communications company (former), UA6CR radio amateur.
          Beginning repair (I do not remember the position, ensign), radio amateur - shortwave.
          Beginning radio stations R-831, R-845, R-845m - 16 pieces, I am a junior sergeant of the SAV, radio amateur.
          And many honest and trusted persons in the OBS RTO.
          And this is just one example, live.
          And how many there were ...
          1. dgonni
            dgonni 17 February 2021 23: 11
            +1
            Respect! But a rare exception and excellent selection of personnel. Which was not in 90% of the divisions.
            Even specialized institutes did not guarantee that a sensible specialist would come across.
            An amateur dropout was an order of magnitude more adequate.
            Well, the priority road was opened for aviators to equip their teams!
            Although the air defense personnel always tried to intercept.
            Yes, you yourself know!
            1. DED_peer_DED
              DED_peer_DED 17 February 2021 23: 21
              +6
              But a rare exception and excellent selection of personnel

              It was anti-selection, as always. Dad spent two terms in the platoon commander and two in the commissary.
              Why promote up the person who does the best job HERE?
              Whom to promote upward?
              A fool to get rid of him (at that time it was impossible to do otherwise, before 20 years ...).
              It means up and only up.
              This system also worked in power structures. We all see the results well.
              The battalion commander hated my father. Dad was a specialist, and even the rank and file did not leave attention.
              I climbed all the holes, cables, flaws, until I got polyarthritis.
              But the army did not abandon him. The patient served 28 years, the service was necessary and he was kept.
              1. dgonni
                dgonni 17 February 2021 23: 30
                +3
                I'll write a proverb right now. No offense. Then I will decipher! Fools love work!
                I knew a company lump that never became a battalion commander for exactly the same reason as your father!
                For the battalion commander can put a fool who knows how to walk in personnel. And what about komrots that can be used in the landfill in any conditions? This is a valuable shot! Therefore, they did not move. But they forgave EVERYTHING! I understand you. But again. It was a rarity for milking the USSR Armed Forces.
                Unfortunately, because of their professionalism, the careers were broken for the specialists.
                It is good to have an eternal captain of iron comrades, on which you can pass any check of the general staff.
                1. DED_peer_DED
                  DED_peer_DED 17 February 2021 23: 40
                  +4
                  Quote: dgonni
                  I'll write a proverb right now. No offense

                  I'm not offended.
                  Yes, no (Russian phrase is incomprehensible to foreigners :))
                  It's not about my father's job.
                  It's about truth and justice.
                  I never dreamed of seeing my father as a colonel. I didn't need it then, and even more so now.
                  And the commander of him would not be ice, in different concepts of the word.
                  Sorry. It is a pity that not earlier and not now (especially) people were not appreciated according to their abilities.
                  I am very far from Bati. But, I also gave out "miracles".
                  Earlier, radio amateurs, it was a whole layer of people. Wherever you throw them, they will come in handy everywhere and get out!
                  And what about the popularization of electronics, radio engineering, etc.?
                  Exactly, etc. This is what is left to us.
                  Etc.
                  1. dgonni
                    dgonni 18 February 2021 00: 23
                    +1
                    Right now this is a cohort of powerful assembler programmers!
                    The same calico just in a different way!
                    1. DED_peer_DED
                      DED_peer_DED 18 February 2021 10: 58
                      0
                      Quote: dgonni
                      Right now this is a cohort of powerful assembler programmers!
                      The same calico just in a different way!

                      My first computer was in 1986 - RK86.
                      Then I worked as a civilian in the TEC on the Su-27.
                      At the moment, I have more than 2 thousand assembled system units.
                      How many served ...
                      Since the beginning of the 90s I have been a computer scientist.
                      So, that the "new way" did not pass by :)
                  2. Intruder
                    Intruder 18 February 2021 19: 38
                    0
                    Earlier, radio amateurs, it was a whole layer of people. Wherever you throw them, they will come in handy everywhere and get out!
                    And what about the popularization of electronics, radio engineering, etc.?
                    Well, what are you so, dejected, and now they (so far) exist in different countries .., only the threshold of entry is high due to the level of modern technologies used and their cost, just not everyone is now available, as in the Union already!
                    1. Andrey sh
                      Andrey sh 14 March 2021 00: 35
                      +1
                      Just NOW the entry threshold is outrageously low - the Chinese have filled up badly poorly working electronics for a penny. And such that in the USSR and never dreamed of. But practically no one wants to sit and poke around - it is futile in terms of future salaries. From the knowledge of the same computer scientists, the hair stands on end - they don’t know iron in principle.
                      1. Intruder
                        Intruder 14 March 2021 01: 39
                        0
                        From the knowledge of the same computer scientists, the hair stands on end - they don’t know iron in principle.
                        I agree, I faced this back in the 00s in the second University, related faculties were very quickly rebuilt to new educational standards, and our department retained the monopoly right to teach students with canonical stubbornness, especially in the field of microelectronics and semiconductor materials, although the rest were almost twiddling their fingers " at the temple ", and why does our head need all this" junk "! ???, and then he" left "and mustache, now the department is not the same and the students have lost a lot of things in their" brains ", in my personal opinion and in the knowledge of "hardware" and in understanding how it physically, and not "virtually" - works in life !!!
          2. mva
            mva 22 March 2021 13: 55
            0
            Have you mastered the frequency hopping on the R-845 or worked the old-fashioned way? Usually in the army, even 10% do not use opportunities.
      2. Intruder
        Intruder 18 February 2021 19: 31
        0
        Specialist radio amateurs
        in the Soviet past, this is our everything !!! Who understands what I mean now ... drinks
  5. Alt 22
    Alt 22 17 February 2021 20: 20
    +1
    I wonder if these complexes will not be an easy target for anti-radar missiles? After all, they are precisely against radars and are intended.
    1. MrFox
      MrFox April 20 2021 12: 22
      0
      There will be. This is tactfully silent
  6. svoit
    svoit 17 February 2021 21: 24
    0
    Quote: Alt22
    Interesting,

    There is nothing universal, the main thing is to systematically and competently apply what is
  7. Ratmir_Ryazan
    Ratmir_Ryazan 17 February 2021 22: 47
    +6
    Served as an operator at the Zoo radar, the machine is very unreliable, at startup and initial diagnostics, it gave constant failures. Until the specialists from the factory arrived, the entire reconnaissance battery could not prepare him for normal operation.

    Our prapor, the technician of this radar, during the entire training period, learned only that the boards must be wiped with alcohol and considered himself the best specialist in "Zoos", in his words the chief of the technicians' meeting told him this.

    At the end of the contractual service, the ensign and the lieutenant forgot to open the antenna clamps and the hydraulics tore them out when the antenna was raised. The radar was disabled.

    To be honest, in our reconnaissance battery, apart from beads and compasses, nothing worked, neither ARC nor SNAR-10 (although it only came from the capital, the "high" did not turn on) nor "Zoo", there was a PRP in the control battery, but it also did not work as intended.

    In general, the technique is complicated, in order to allow people to approach it, they must first be trained, and not as they were simply appointed in our 42 division.

    Once on the train I was on vacation and talked with the captain from the artillery division from Mulino, he boasted that they had a "Zoo" working.
    1. DED_peer_DED
      DED_peer_DED 17 February 2021 23: 07
      +2
      Our prapor, the technician of this radar, during the entire training period learned only that the boards must be wiped with alcohol and considered himself the best specialist

      It was different.
      Of course, more or less specialists were not enough for the land, they went to other "areas".
      This is understandable. In Soviet times, where they put it, it came in handy there (with certain assumptions).
      In "our time" everything is decided by money. Looking for "experts" - pay. Ideology.
      The truth is not the fact that they are "specialists" for work, maybe only for a salary?
  8. DED_peer_DED
    DED_peer_DED 18 February 2021 10: 50
    +2
    Here they are, my "miracles".

    With inst. them. Zhukovsky's friend asked for one of the "ratsuhs".
    Literally: "Our institutes are beating there, and you here - use the ready-made (yeah, I came up with it, and Daddy painted it, I did it ...)."
    Target formation block for Н001.
    1. DED_peer_DED
      DED_peer_DED 18 February 2021 11: 18
      +3
      I won't forget the sum for the ratsuhi. They are not the goal.
      It was laziness.
      I didn't want to measure a couple of dozen voltages from the power supply unit of the transmitter with a tester (by inserting the ends into the thick "mother" connector each time correctly). I made a test box with a mating connector + two switches + LED - "Norm".
      Checking the performance of the power supply unit of the transmitter of the N001 product decreased several times (failure of individual power supplies, this was at that time one of the main problems of the complex).
      1. Andrey sh
        Andrey sh 14 March 2021 00: 50
        0
        Laziness or anything else - it doesn't matter. Some do, and the second either boast of someone else's work or say that it is supposedly impossible to do it. And the fact that this is an experience that you need to acquire with your own hands and no other way, no one gu-gu. And nobody wants to pay a sane amount. Moreover, he cannot do elementary operations with his hands (even just ask how it is done). I wonder how much more accurate these systems are than the good old sound-measuring stations of artillery reconnaissance ... Especially when precipitation and fog. As it is not impressive detection at ranges of 5-10 km of mines and artillery shells, and even with unmasking radar.
  9. Sedoy
    Sedoy 18 March 2021 18: 23
    0
    who saw all this in the troops?
    how many are there per battalion?
    here the company went to the line, came under fire, does it have such equipment?
    the only thing that deserves practical attention at the unit level is "stork" ...
    and then "bulky" ...
    and all these monsters on tractors are of the bastion level, the base is to be guarded and only ...