Military Review

Problems of incomplete knowledge ...

153
The enemy did not know, you fool - the one to whom he entrusted everything,
He was a Chekist, intelligence major and a wonderful family man.

(Parody of a bad detective. V. Vysotsky)

Paradoxes stories. VO has already published material related to the complexity of historical knowledge... Today we return to this topic again and develop it. So, what is the difficulty in acquiring knowledge and what is the problem of incomplete knowledge? Let's start with the simplest.

Problems of incomplete knowledge ...
Participants of the "field tournament" in "Saxon tournament armor". They differed from all others in their simple polishing and lack of decorations, as well as the characteristic fastening of the salade helmet to the back of the cuirass. But without knowing all this, one can easily say that this is ... knightly combat armor! (Armory Dresden Chamber)

In the textbook of Agibalov and Donskoy on the history of the Middle Ages for the sixth grade, it was written that if a knight fell from a horse, he could not get up on his own. This was taught by the students. As a student majoring in history and English, I received more detailed information on this topic. The weight of the armor was already indicated - 80 kg. It is enough to imagine oneself in this "hardware" to understand - "it is all true"! However, I am personally very lucky. In 1975, the magazine "Vokrug Sveta" published a series of articles by M. Gorelik on the history of medieval armor and weapons, which began with the article "About Balmung, Durendal and their masters", where everything was written in detail about the armor and their weight was indicated - about 25 kg. But what about the 80th? So it was the weight ... of a knight's headset, which included, in addition to the armor for the rider, also the armor for his horse! It is unlikely that the person who wrote about this in the textbook had as his goal to "discredit chivalry" and show it worse than it is. No, most likely, he just ... never saw knightly armor "live", did not visit the Hermitage, the Hovburg Castle in Vienna, the Arsenal in Graz, the Army Museum in Paris, and he simply did not read the book of Vendalen Beheim, because in Russia, not in the USSR , it was published in 1995.

I remember that Gorelik's articles became a discovery for me. And when at the exam on the history of the Middle Ages I just got the ticket "about knights", I answered it for 40 minutes (everyone who wanted to write off the spurs was written off for a long time!), And the teacher kept interrupting me with the question: you took it all, and by whom and where is it written? " The only thing that saved me from being accused of being "unhistorical" was that at that time Gorelik was already a candidate for art history, and this reference to "a fellow in the shop" made my "teacher" sober a little.

And then, after 1991, I got the opportunity to read books “from there” and found out that it was all known there for a long time, moreover, I even found a book from where Gorelik copied it all. It was published in French and was in the funds ... of the All-Russian Library. Lenin in Moscow. For 90 rubles, a French teacher made a translation from it and for me, I added something to it from the books of the Osprey publishing house, and this is how my first history book was born, published by the Prosveshchenie publishing house in 1998. Then with a bottle of champagne I went to Gorelik as ... a grateful student to a mentor and teacher, and we talked for a long time about how much we lacked in terms of education and knowledge! Well, today I know about all this ten times more, and I touched a lot, say, a number of unique effigies with my own hands. What the same Gorelik at that time could only envy. Although the knights are, in general, a trifle, from which most people are neither hot nor cold.


Illustration by M. Gorelik from the article "About Balmung, Durendal and their masters"

Consider this illustration (bottom row, left to right).

Knight in heraldic attire of the late XIII - early XIV centuries. Armed with an early Gothic sword, spear. Protected by a "pot-shaped" helmet, "hauberk", chain mail stockings, a wooden triangular shield. Over the chain mail - a caftan-mantle with shoulder straps. The horse is wearing a cloth blanket. (Reconstruction based on German miniatures and material monuments).

The outfit of a knight of the middle of the XIII century, a member of the spiritual knightly order: it consists of a late Romanesque sword, a spear, a "pot-shaped" helmet, a "hauberk", over which a cloth caftan is worn with metal plates attached to the inside, chain mail stockings with leather knee pads on metal lining. The shield is wooden, small, triangular. The horse is protected by a chain mail blanket and a metal headband. (Reconstruction based on miniatures and sculptures).

Armament of a knight in the middle of the second half of the XIV century. Armor - helmet - "baskinet" with a movable visor and chain mail barmy, chain mail, cuirass, iron bracers and gloves, on the legs over chain mail stockings - leggings and knee pads made of large metal and leather parts. A collar and jacket are quilted over the aventail and chain mail. The shield is small, wooden or metal, rectangular in shape, with a cutout for a spear. A Gothic sword and dagger attached by chains to the hilt to the breastplate of the cuirass, their scabbard hanging from a luxuriously trimmed belt. (Reconstruction based on German and Swiss gravestones and material monuments).


It is interesting that one of the most worthy of his books "Warriors of Eurasia" was published in English in England by the publishing house "Montvert", and today it is used by English students of the relevant specialties in colleges and ... read in Sandhurst

But, as they say, without knights, especially Western ones, a Russian can live. It is somewhat more difficult to live without knowing the history of your own state.


Incidentally, I was very lucky that even as a child I could read the magazines "Science and Technology" for 1929 kept at home. And they contained, for example, and such articles on the history of weapons ... Who would have thought that they would be very useful to me today, in 2021!


Not so long ago, one of the readers of VO, in a commentary to one of my articles on the history of firearms, posted his drawings of some samples. And very high quality. But it is clear that he drew them from something. And there was this Volmer submachine gun there. That is, "knowledge" (including in pictures) wanders from one publication to another for many ... decades. No wonder it is said that books do not burn. However, the magazines, apparently, too!

But how did we study it, this very "native history", and then teach - ha-ha? The history of the USSR - in sufficient detail, up to the articles of "Russian Truth", but now further ... We open the famous "Short Course in the History of the CPSU (b)" from 1945, for one doubt about the truth of which it was quite possible to thunder on the bunk, and we read, for example - this is:


That is, it is written here in black and white that the tsar was in the Winter Palace on January 9, 1905.

However, it is well known that the priest Gapon gave the tsar a letter with which on the evening of January 8, Minister PD Svyatopolk-Mirsky and Director of the Police Department A. A. Lopukhin went to ... Tsarskoe Selo to see Nicholas II. And there the minister not only introduced the tsar to Gapon's letter and a petition from the workers, but also characterized him as a "socialist priest" and told the sovereign about the measures taken. And the king wrote about all this in his diary, that is, he was not in the Winter Palace either on the eve of the dramatic events of January 9, or on their very day.

And here is what Nicholas II wrote in his diary:

"Tough day! In St. Petersburg, there were serious riots as a result of the desire of the workers to reach the Winter Palace. The troops had to shoot in different parts of the city, there were many killed and wounded. Lord, how painful and hard it is! "


Here it is, this "handbook" of the citizens of the USSR for many years!

It turns out that the textbook of party history and ... ethics reported false information. And here's what to do if at that time there were people who already knew how everything was in reality, and they, of course, were and read Nikolai's diaries. Could they tell about it? Of course not! Their fate would have been obvious. But this is how Soviet society received inaccurate knowledge, and from the very “top”. And how did people feel when they learned that they had been deceived even in such trifles as the presence of the Tsar in the Winter Palace? That is, yes, the king was certainly to blame. But where? That at such a crucial moment, in fact, he removed himself from power and entrusted everything to his ministers. But he did not give the order to shoot the people!

And here's even cooler:


But then why kill Stalin? He was one of so many functionaries and did not play any special role. This is evidenced at least by the fact that it was not him, but Trotsky, who was sent to Brest-Litovsk for peace talks with the Germans. Whereas in April 1918, Stalin, together with Kh. G. Rakovsky and DZ Manuilsky, was sent to Kursk to negotiate with the Ukrainian Central Rada to conclude a peace treaty with it. Then, in May 1918, the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR seconded Stalin as an extraordinary authorized representative of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee to procure and export grain from the North Caucasus to the central regions of the country. That is, everyone could be in his place then. On June 6, 1918, he arrived in Tsaritsyn, took power in the city into his own hands and, after the betrayal of a number of military experts, arrested them there almost without exception and shot almost all of them. As a result, at the VIII Congress on March 21, 1919, Lenin sharply criticized Stalin for the mass executions of military experts in Tsaritsyn. On August 30, 1918, an attempt was made on Lenin's life, but again - why kill Stalin? Moreover, Trotsky, in whose hands, in fact, was, in fact, unlimited military power, as well as his own command propaganda train, which Stalin visited him repeatedly, and where he could easily be killed without any problems. But ... then he was too small a fry for Trotsky to get his hands dirty on him. Further, when the Southern Front was created on September 11, 1918, P.P. Sytin again became the commander, and Stalin was just a member of his Revolutionary Military Council. But we look at the "Short Course ..." There, the first name everywhere is the name of Lenin, then Stalin, then Sverdlov ... well, it was more convenient for our leader ...

Well, after 1956 "Short Course ..." was removed from the libraries. As before, they seized the memories of the defector Raskolnikov, or like John Reed's book "Ten Days That Shook the World." Why? After all, a communist also wrote an eyewitness ...


History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. B. N. Ponomarev, M. S. Volin, V. S. Zaitsev, I. I. Mints, V. I. Popov and others. M .: Gospolitizdat, 1982. From such books I first studied myself, then nine years he taught his students. Today I would not recommend anyone to read it. After all that we know today, its content is perceived ... not very well

I was lucky to read "10 Days" as a child, as it was in our family library. After that, I looked at the films "October" and "Lenin in October" with completely different eyes. And the book surprised me a lot. In it, Reed gave the floor not only to the Bolsheviks, but also to their opponents, that is, for "freedom of speech" he was engaged in journalism, and not ... propaganda. And there is practically nothing about Stalin in it. Well, John Reed did not notice him next to the figure of Ilyich ... did not notice! By the way, it was published in Soviet Russia back in 1919, and it even received a laudatory review from Lenin, who wrote:

“Having read with tremendous interest and unflagging attention the book of John Reed, Ten Days That Shook the Whole World, I heartily recommend this essay to the workers of all countries. I would like to see this book circulated in millions of copies and translated into all languages, since it gives a truthful and unusually vividly written account of events so important for understanding what the proletarian revolution is, what the dictatorship of the proletariat is. "

Stalin declared in 1924 that Reed allegedly overestimated the role of Leon Trotsky in the revolution, since he portrayed him as one of the main leaders of the revolution, along with Lenin. That is why the book was imprisoned in special custody and, although it was clearly not prohibited, it was not reprinted in the USSR while Stalin was alive. Its next major edition appeared only in 1957 in Politizdat, with prefaces written by Lenin and Krupskaya.


My book is a 1959 edition. Already at the age of 10 he became interested in the name, began to read and ... got carried away. Then I couldn't watch Lenin in October without laughing ...

In the same way, in none of the books of memoirs of Soviet military leaders, starting with the two-volume "Marshal of Victory" Zhukov "Memories and Reflections" and ending with "Soldiers' Duty" by Rokossovsky, did I find references to the "Message of the Soviet Government of June 11, 1944 on the supply of Lend-Lease ". Not a single word even where Zhukov mentioned Lend-Lease. Nor was it in the books of the aircraft designer Yakovlev "Stories of the Aircraft Designer" and "The Purpose of Life". And it was completely strange and incomprehensible why the head of the State Planning Committee Voznesensky, who was shot in the famous "Leningrad case", had not written a word about this. But he wrote a book more than a serious one: "The military economy of the USSR during the Patriotic War." However, there is not a single word about Lend-Lease. Well, at least banal numbers for tanks, aircraft and artillery would have mentioned - no. His book is generally something: numbers are compared with times, percentages and numbers, so that it is simply impossible to understand anything there. But, of course, you have to read everything yourself ...


This is what I still like, although similar passages in the "Short Course ..." are found at every step. The center headed by Stalin was chosen, and the head himself was in exile at that time. And how did he then "dominate"? And you can't write "except" if the person is really absent ... But they did. Just to prove with every word that "he is great, he is powerful, higher than the sun, more than a cloud!"

By the way, after his execution, this book was withdrawn from the libraries, like Raskolnikov's memoirs, and all of Trotsky's books were locked in the special storage of the same Leninka. And so, for example, with my second form of admission, I could not read them there in the special storage, since they were outside the topic of my scientific work, like, in fact, the books on tanks by the Squadron-Signal publishing house. But I was still able to get to know them at the request of the DOSAAF publishing house, since I wrote for them the book "The Tank Unfolding on the Table" (not published due to the events of 91). But no one would have given me a petition to read Trotsky's books ...


However, everyone loves to flatter themselves to power. For example, what is this? And this is "the last breath of Mr. Pezhe" ... A still from the film "Kin-dza-dza" ("I love Mr. Pezhe very much!", "And I am even more ku!")

So it turns out that our vaunted Soviet education was scanty to the point, neither Bernays's books, nor Lippmann's books, nor Orwell's books, nor Pareto's books we could read, not to mention Chayanov's books, and even such a seemingly harmless book by Bukharin, as "The ABC of Communism". But in the 1920s it was used as a teaching aid in party schools, so God himself told the teacher of the history of the CPSU to read it, but ... no - it was "no way"!

Even today, when all the books of these authors can be read freely on the Internet, and many have even been published by typographic method, the reluctance to look for information and be content with its "stubs" persists. Not long before I retire, I sit at an open lecture ... of one woman. The lecture is about advertising, and it broadcasts without hesitation about the terrible "25th frame". I came up after the lecture, I said: “Do you know that the author of this ... horror story has been in prison for a long time (if he hasn’t been released at the end of his term), that he invented all this, and that in the West, in PR and advertising magazines back in 2000 laughed at the fact that the Russians still believe in it. And now it's 2017 ... “How do you know this? - she answers me with a challenge, - I took it from this book ... "I open the necessary site ..." Here read! " And she told me with joy: "But I don't know English so well!" Well, what can you say to that ...

Recommended reading for self-study:

1. Bukharin N. The ABC of Communism. M .: Terra, 1994 ISBN: 5-85255-589-4 (can be read online)
2. Reed D. "Ten days that shook the world" (online edition) or M .: Politizdat, 1957
3. Trotsky L. Revolution Betrayed: What Is The USSR And Where Is It Going? M .: Direct-Media, 2015 ISBN: 978-5-4475-5613-6 (or online edition)
4. History of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Short course. Edited by the Commission of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). Approved by the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (b), 1938 M .: OGIZ-Gospolitizdat, 1945
5. Voznesensky N. The military economy of the USSR during the Patriotic War. Moscow: Gospolitizdat, 1948
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153 comments
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  1. Don karleone
    Don karleone 18 February 2021 15: 19
    +15
    And how many people who are not literate are running now? !!! It's scary that the same is on the way
    1. Vlad5307
      Vlad5307 18 February 2021 15: 36
      +8
      I am afraid that thanks to our allegedly liberal intellectuals, reflecting on the times of the EBN, new "struggles" will come to power, although there are still enough of them in the localities. To power and irresponsibility, tongue-tied mediocrities always strive. am
      1. AUL
        AUL 19 February 2021 07: 11
        +6
        Quote: Vlad5307
        For power and irresponsibility, tongue-tied mediocrities always strive.

        “We don't need literate people. We need devotees!” (C) It's hard to be a god.
    2. Destiny
      Destiny 18 February 2021 15: 55
      +12
      Quote: Don Karleone
      And how many people who are not literate are running now? !!!

      And don't tell me. The illiterate overcame it simply. I dare to believe that this is beginning to affect the abandonment of the Soviet education system in favor of the test education system (the notorious Unified State Exam), where it is important not to "know", but "to pass and memorize" so that it is easier to guess the correct answer is in the test, and not to orally reveal the amount of knowledge gained as on an exam in Soviet educational institutions ..
      1. A009
        A009 18 February 2021 16: 21
        -4
        Have you read the article ??? I look at your message and am horrified.
        I will quote from the article: "So it turns out that our vaunted Soviet education was scanty to the point" What kind of Soviet education are we talking about then ???
        And one more: "... when all the books of these authors can be read freely on the Internet, and many have even been published in a typographic way, the unwillingness to look for information and be content with its" stubs "remains"
        Maybe it's because of people like you? You have read (and have you read?) The article and seem to agree, and immediately contradict it. Education and mind are different matter! and are often very far from each other (although I admit that learning smart is more interesting, as a rule, and it turns out better). A stupid person with three "towers" is worse than a smart (savvy, if simple) ignoramus !!! For it can do many more troubles!
        1. Civil
          Civil 19 February 2021 07: 00
          0
          And I kept thinking what the author was leading to ... But it turns out that he defends modern Russian education ... but it is, in fact, a weak semblance of Soviet classical education ...
      2. paul3390
        paul3390 18 February 2021 16: 49
        +7
        Surprisingly, many "victims of the USE" graduated from school long before its introduction. what
      3. kig
        kig 18 February 2021 16: 55
        +1
        And none of the "literate" ones noticed that "illiterate" is written together, and "utterly" in this case too.
        1. Destiny
          Destiny 18 February 2021 18: 38
          +12
          Quote: kig
          And none of the "literate" paid attention

          We converted, just tactfully kept silent. We exchange opinions here, and not write a control dictation for the third quarter.
          1. aglet
            aglet 20 February 2021 09: 40
            +1
            "Converted, just tactfully kept silent"
            but do not be silent! you need to know and respect your native language, and not to emphasize your own illiteracy, which is now coming in waves
      4. Blacksmith 55
        Blacksmith 55 18 February 2021 17: 38
        +8
        It is necessary to separate the flies from the cutlets.
        Soviet education itself was not bad.
        Political education and other subjects are different things.
        In general, the phrase is very well known: No need to read Soviet newspapers before lunch.
        1. Blacksmith 55
          Blacksmith 55 18 February 2021 18: 29
          +10
          I would like to add a little.
          Millions of Soviet people have trained as engineers, doctors, biologists and microbiologists, military men, teachers, etc.
          Without Soviet education, there would be no various vaccines, car factories, light and heavy industries. And although some factories were purchased abroad (as an example of VAZ), Soviet specialists supervised and developed them.
          Soviet science also made a great contribution to the development of rocketry, created atomic weapons and made a great contribution to the development of the peaceful atom.
          Maybe the whole country was ruined by the leadership of "leading and directing".
          Therefore, I wrote in a previous commentary that political education with other sciences cannot be combined.
      5. Hagen
        Hagen 19 February 2021 12: 29
        -2
        Quote: Destiny
        where it is important not to "know", but "to pass and memorize", so that on the exam it would be easier to guess the correct answer in the test

        Sorry for the indiscreet question, when was the last time you saw KIM? I'm not even talking about trying to take a mock test in any subject. laughing By the way, if we talk about history (a school subject), then the textbooks on it were written by not at all those who had to take the exam, namely the veterans of the Soviet education system. To whom did you decide to make a claim? In general, it is strange to read some comments where people confuse the system of teaching the volume of knowledge with the system of quality control of its assimilation ...
      6. 1536
        1536 21 February 2021 10: 36
        0
        I am not a fan of the Unified State Exam and test education in general, but it is still a mystery to me how "the entire Soviet people," receiving the best education in the world, could believe that "genetics is a corrupt girl of imperialism," and "cybernetics is the science of obscurantists "that corn can grow beyond the Arctic Circle, and apple trees will bloom on Mars?" The apotheosis of all "the best" was the greatest book of the collective party mind "Perestroika and new thinking for our country and for the whole world", believing which people lost their own country overnight.
        Conclusion: I would venture to suggest that it is not experience that is a criterion of truth and not reading a heap of books, documents packed into statistical studies, knowingly ordered and paid for by someone, but COMMON SENSE, which, however, makes a person indistinguishable from other representatives of our flora and fauna planets, remembering that many of them have lived on earth for millions of years.
    3. 210ox
      210ox 18 February 2021 16: 05
      +17
      Why did Mr. Shpakovsky (a propagandist of the CPSU line at one time) dragged the knights and inaccuracies of the Short Course? About chivalry and their armor, I myself read this wonderful article. But how do we have some afftors like to change shoes. Lavra Mikhalkov-Konchalovsky do not give rest? Well, it does not pull, no matter how you try to them. In their attempts to constantly change shoes. By the way, but in fact, how is it now with the study of history in the same school? Is it all wrong? Mr. Liberal Communist?
      1. Hagen
        Hagen 19 February 2021 12: 34
        0
        Quote: 210ox
        To what did Mr. Shpakovsky (a propagandist of the CPSU line at one time) dragged the knights and inaccuracies of the Short Course?

        You were shown a system of cutting and interpreting inconvenient historical knowledge, which has practically not changed even today. True, for the sake of fairness, it should be noted that history was almost unknown under Soviet rule, and today it is not known to the same extent. With the exception of those who have this subject in the profile of a future university.
        1. 210ox
          210ox 19 February 2021 12: 51
          +3
          I am not idealizing Soviet history and its knowledge and teaching. But what is happening at the school now, in particular, is a complete trash. We have to work closely with our sons. For they have a complete confusion in their heads.
          1. Hagen
            Hagen 19 February 2021 16: 55
            0
            Quote: 210ox
            We have to work closely with our sons. For they have a complete confusion in their heads.

            He has already sent two of his on the way outside the school. Both through the Unified State Exam, both with medals, one is already a candidate, the other is a student on the "budget". There is also confusion in the heads, like all young people. But I would not call the situation "trash". And the school was ordinary. Of course, I had to take additional courses in the last grades. But I also went to courses before entering ... I think more and more from the family. If from the first grade you teach your child to do homework in a timely manner and understand that no one will help you in life except your own head, then the result will be decent. I think so....
            1. 210ox
              210ox 19 February 2021 17: 17
              +1
              I agree. I also have a senior on the budget in Ulyanovsk. But children are taught at school according to programs and textbooks. And I call their quality and content trash. This primarily applies to literature and the same untold story.
              1. Hagen
                Hagen 19 February 2021 17: 29
                0
                Quote: 210ox
                the same untold story

                With the second child, history (also social studies) was a specialized subject, i.e. taken into account when entering the university. Throughout the year, they additionally studied on Internet courses in group classes. We passed the exam 94 points (or something near. I don’t remember. Yet the year before last winked ) For myself, I noted that the child's understanding of the course of history appeared only after these courses. Although before that I was a five in the school course. This is yes. But, as experience has shown, everything can be fixed with goodwill and motivation. The same experience has shown that there is little chance of getting a good USE score without additional studies. Wish you luck.
    4. FIR FIR
      FIR FIR 18 February 2021 16: 16
      +11
      Quote: Don Karleone
      about the armor was written and indicated their weight - about 25 kg. But what about the 80th? So it was the weight ... of a knight's headset, which included, in addition to the armor for the rider, also the armor for his horse! It is unlikely that the person who wrote about this in the textbook had as his goal "to discredit chivalry" and show it worse than it is.

      My father, a very athletic man at 50, wears 40 kg. 10 km. He is very strong for his age, but 80 kg. - this is unrealistic physiologically. We are not ants or bees. repeat
      1. Doctor
        Doctor 18 February 2021 18: 14
        +5
        My father, a very athletic man at 50, wears 40 kg. 10 km. He is very strong for his age, but 80 kg. - this is unrealistic physiologically. We are not ants or bees feel

        Really. Matter of habit. There are people weighing 160.
      2. BAI
        BAI 18 February 2021 20: 19
        +3
        80 kg. - this is unrealistic physiologically.

        This is taught. And they train.
      3. Tank hard
        Tank hard 18 February 2021 21: 22
        0
        Quote: FIR FIR
        My father, a very athletic man at 50, wears 40 kg. 10 km. He is very strong for his age, but 80 kg. - this is unrealistic physiologically. We are not ants or bees.

        Here is a good video on this topic, removes most of the issues from the agenda. And I strongly recommend the channel. Watch the video in full.
    5. Ingvar 72
      Ingvar 72 18 February 2021 16: 22
      +9
      Quote: Don Karleone
      And how many people who are not literate are running now?

      I think that those who really manage are literate guys. But they surround themselves with those who are not literate, because they are easy to manage. That is why today education is degrading, this is precisely the goal, as Gref said.
    6. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 18 February 2021 16: 26
      +10
      Quote: Don Karleone
      And how many people who are not literate are running now? !!! It's scary that the same is on the way
      And how do we know whether these managers like Shpakovsky were instructing?
      1. Dym71
        Dym71 18 February 2021 17: 35
        +6
        Quote: Vladimir_2U
        And how do we know whether these managers like Shpakovsky were instructing?

        So after all, Shpakovsky, in his article, urges not to believe anyone indiscriminately at their word, but to check, analyze, compare, in general think, especially before starting to spit shit.
        This rule works naturally both for you and for him. hi
        1. 210ox
          210ox 18 February 2021 17: 52
          +6
          I can agree with your word. But when any article by this author comes down to the fact that then in the USSR it was false, illegal and disgusting. I worked with one person many years ago. So that any conversation on any topic was reduced to sex. This is already something paronoidal. Although I agree, Shpakovsky writes selflessly.
      2. Snail N9
        Snail N9 18 February 2021 17: 53
        +2
        Hehe. What kind of "knowledge" and "truth" do you want to find now, when, even in our Constitution, a paragraph was introduced on bringing to responsibility for "denying" and "distorting" something, there is "historical" and "generally accepted". repeat There are enough videos on Youtube in which the "alternativeists" drive the "traditionalists" into a stupor with facts and press them against the wall and, to the questions that: how to explain a fact or find, the usual mumble of "traditionalists" about what they say is not is embedded in the "accepted" theory, and therefore does not have the right to be considered and should simply be ignored. "Alternatives" are sincerely surprised what kind of "science" has now become such, when, instead of considering new facts and, on their basis, revising certain views and theories, they began to adhere only to previously accepted theories, rejecting those facts and archaeological finds that in these theories don't fit. This is no longer a science based on facts, but a real "religion" based on unshakable dogmas. request
        1. ANB
          ANB 18 February 2021 18: 34
          +3
          ... There are enough videos on Youtube

          Watching YouTube is even more harmful than reading Soviet newspapers. And trying to get reliable information from YouTube is generally beyond the bounds.
          1. Snail N9
            Snail N9 18 February 2021 18: 38
            +6
            Look "Star" - there is all the "truth" ....... yes
        2. samarin1969
          samarin1969 18 February 2021 19: 54
          +1
          Quote: Snail N9
          ... This is no longer a science based on facts, but a real "religion" based on unshakable dogmas.

          hi A wonderful comparison !! ... The modern "reading" of history is captivated by "concepts" and "standards". "Correct value judgments" are imposed and "outdated" ones are swept aside.
          1. Snail N9
            Snail N9 18 February 2021 21: 32
            +3
            In the "pseudo-patriotic frenzy" and "fighterism" for "unshakable moral foundations" they came to a ban on the symbolism of fascism .... and even (the last know-how) the publication of photos and images of "Nazi criminals." It's funny (but in fact, with bewilderment) you watch the "vaguely smeared" swastikas and other attributes of the Third Reich on old, still Soviet films, when they are shown on TV. Probably, the schiza of tolerance and multiculturalism, together with the "bans on history", reached their apogee in the propaganda film "Dunkirk", where the filmmakers managed to show the events of those times in such a way that on the screen it is not clear at all with whom the British and the French are fighting - with what something impersonal "enemy". In the place of which aliens could successfully apply - sometimes some
            "blurry", gray silhouettes, and even then - in one place - in the last frames of the capture of the English pilot, on the beach .. Signs on German planes are so shaded and shown in such a foreshortening and a few moments, so that they were not at all visible. .. Tell the story ... True ... Well, well ... negative
        3. kig
          kig 20 February 2021 01: 48
          +1
          That is why I say that history is not science, but art. The art of selection and interpretation of facts, in line with the general line.
    7. aglet
      aglet 20 February 2021 09: 36
      -1
      "How much not literate run now? !!! It's scary that the same is on the way "
      and how many illiterates are writing now? you have already come
    8. NEOZ
      NEOZ 24 February 2021 14: 22
      0
      Quote: Don Karleone
      And how many people who are not literate are running now? !!! It's scary that the same is on the way

      it's good that you are not like that! .... you are smart here !!!! you know everything! read everything! check everything!
      ps
      I'll run through your comments!
      you know, I am very interested in the thoughts of smart people!
  2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 18 February 2021 15: 23
    +23
    So it turns out that our vaunted Soviet education was scanty to the point

    In terms of history and politics - of course, but who can argue with that? :) We sigh for the quality of education in other natural sciences (geography, biology, etc., etc.) and, of course, exact sciences.
    Although ... I like Soviet history textbooks more than many of today's
    1. NEOZ
      NEOZ 24 February 2021 14: 33
      -2
      Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
      Although ... I like Soviet history textbooks more than many of today's

      these are the textbooks people who learned from them charged water in front of the TV?
      Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
      We sigh for the quality of education in other natural sciences (geography, biology, etc., etc.) and, of course, exact sciences.

      Is it because of these textbooks that the whole country was "not freeloaders, but partners"? ...
      1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 24 February 2021 14: 48
        +1
        Quote: NEOZ
        these are the textbooks people who learned from them charged water in front of the TV?

        And what confuses you in this process? Belief in miracles in humanity is ineradicable, and does not depend on the level of education.
        Quote: NEOZ
        Is it because of these textbooks that the whole country was "not freeloaders, but partners"? ...

        Does the Bernard Muff scam tell you anything? More than 3 million people were affected. worth over 17 billion dollars.The pyramid worked for 40 years :)))))
        And this is in the completely capitalist USA. Why is there Muff, here are the statistics for just one year
        According to a study by the Associated Press, in 2009, as a result of the collapse of financial pyramids, tens of thousands of American investors lost more than $ 16,5 billion. In total, following the results of the outgoing year, more than 150 so-called Ponzi schemes, which are a kind of financial pyramid, have ceased to operate.

        And then - people had no idea what a market was, but it was difficult to surprise anyone with hundreds of percent business returns in those years - they were reality then.
        1. NEOZ
          NEOZ 24 February 2021 15: 31
          0
          Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
          And what confuses you in this process? Belief in miracles in humanity is ineradicable, and does not depend on the level of education.

          I have a different opinion - belief in miracles is directly proportional to the level of education!
          I believe that the USSR suffered from excesses both in education and in the organization of state administration. namely: the underestimation of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Humanities, as well as the emphasis on ideological dogmas in public administration.
          in my opinion, the emphasis in state governance on human vices (fear and greed) is more stable than on ideals that are not innate instincts (vices) of a person.
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 24 February 2021 16: 14
            0
            Quote: NEOZ
            I have a different opinion - belief in miracles is directly proportional to the level of education!

            Your opinion is your right, but there is a fact - it is not supported by statistics. In the United States, for example, the percentage of believers exceeds 70, and in other developed countries it is very large. And I already wrote about financial pyramids above :)))
            Quote: NEOZ
            in my opinion, the emphasis in state governance on human vices (fear and greed) is more stable than on ideals that are not innate instincts (vices) of a person.

            I do apologize, but a person, as a social being, needs the recognition of others, and it is quite easy to write down ideals that are acceptable and useful for society into this scheme.
  3. Alien From
    Alien From 18 February 2021 15: 26
    0
    Great article! The author, as always, makes you think. Thanks for the hard work hi
    1. Alien From
      Alien From 18 February 2021 16: 05
      +1
      Save your friends! Small minusers attacked me and the Leader ... lol
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 18 February 2021 15: 28
    -1
    Thank you, Vyacheslva Olegovich. And now much is becoming detailed, eternal, understandable. Like the same Gastelo, there are many examples of Sailors. But if you are used to THAT formulation, then it is already so hard to get out of the habit .... I personally, if I tell children or friends that I am telling from a controversial one, then I always mention controversy.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 February 2021 17: 00
      +10
      Eh, is it really necessary to mold a minus for the author's thanks?
      Where were my years, when with youthful maximalism I could believe in all the "truths" at once. Or have I not yet lived to the age of senility (dementia), in order to again fall into a similar reality?
      Faith is good, but there is a rule "check the truth of another for a grudge" mistakes and inaccuracies are always there, both in memoirs and in documents without delay. Sometimes archives open the truth, if they open of course. Now the trend is video and audio fixation. Although it should be remembered that before the new Criminal Procedure Code, it was not evidence of the possibility of falsification.
      The last example of a journalist's emotion is that the "free-spirits" throw snowballs at police officers. Until such a "snowball" from a plastic cup with ice broke the camera lens.
      Now the tutorials. 80kg is the standard of 36kg of armor and the hoisting of the knight himself and 44kg of everything that is loaded on the horse! Where did I read it in "Animal World", Detizdat!
      Now about the myths! I am wary of them, as I happened to be in the pioneer squad “Im. Pavlik Morozov ". Throughout this "gimmick" I could not figure out what his feat was. However, I am not alone, but all my peers and possibly a pioneer leader! Although they once tried at a meeting of the detachment, for which, with his sidekick, he was expelled from drummers in disgrace and received a "three" for a year in natural history! These are the zigzags of educational work in the Soviet school of the late 80s.
      In essence, one should probably not believe in "feat", one must be ready to repeat it, but whether it is true or true is the second and even the third thing!
      What's the difference who is Alexander Matrosov by nationality, Bashkir or Russian, whether he was the first or the second, who are his parents and what was the name of his beloved cat? The main thing he took and did.
      My grandmother told about children from orphanages from besieged Leningrad who were taken to my hometown in the second year of the war. They are undoubtedly heroes, however, like my fellow countrymen who carried them to the "kitchen" in the orphanage, some the last jar of jam, some bread, potatoes, fresh milk and butter, tearing them away from their relatives and friends.
      Collecting information to the embraced, I was faced with multiple distortions of facts, from how many eggs the neighbor's base Katya brought to the fact that Baba Tonya was breaking that every other day she carried three-liter cans of milk, but in reality they were two-liter. In fact, the bedlam turned out to be a complete, but essentially a feat - the orphans scorched by the war and the feat of my fellow countrymen who shared the last remained. The first is that in spite of everything they survived, the second - they shared.
      Conclusion, the basis of being is a socio-cultural environment in which we can orient our behavior towards certain priorities. The choice is always ours to follow the example of the partly controversial and mythical epic hero Svyatogor or the real blogger tik-tok Vasya Pupkin!
      Well, somewhere like that!
      1. Alien From
        Alien From 18 February 2021 17: 20
        +3
        That's how comrade Kote! The era of tick current in the flesh. For the sake of "HYIP" so to speak (the word is so disgusting) bloggers mix their mother with shit ...
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 18 February 2021 17: 31
        +2
        This is not the author. This is for me))) You look - I have been on the site for four years, and only a "lieutenant general". And others a year and a half, and already almost "marshals". And why? because they have strayed into a flock and do not like very much when they step on their tail. I posted here one "early" fake. I pointed out to him. so instead of what to say in a simple way - oh, sorry, or contact the moderators, he quickly spread demagoguery, well, he pulled up his "homies")))
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 18 February 2021 18: 10
          +9
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          And others a year and a half, and already almost "marshals".

          And what do these "shoulder straps" affect? ​​The most that is not to eat "HYIP".
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 18 February 2021 18: 23
            -3
            Don't tell. Who does not care, he is still in captains or foremen. And whoever wants to shit on a large scale, to smack the rest, he needs the stars! For one minus, you can demote well!)
            1. mat-vey
              mat-vey 18 February 2021 18: 29
              +13
              Quote: Leader of the Redskins
              For one minus, you can degrade well!

              So what? Will they be removed from the allowance? Will they be sent to the regular garrison? HYIP he is HYIP ..
            2. BAI
              BAI 18 February 2021 20: 29
              +4
              Why are you so worried about the cons and titles? In "Novosti" I periodically throw a stone into the swamp on purpose in order to stir up the respectable audience, of course, for the disadvantages. And then a single "approvals" without trying to think gets enough, despite all the patience. There are people here, including moderators, on the site almost from the day of its foundation, but in very small ranks.
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 February 2021 20: 29
          +4
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          Look - I have been on the site for four years, and only "lieutenant general". And others a year and a half, and already almost "marshals". And why? because they have strayed into a flock and do not like very much when they step on their tail.

          Igor, well, in principle, you are not in the flock, but in our cat's pride there are fighters against false historians!
          Why are you not a marshal, the answer is simple, feed on the wrong branch. It is necessary to go to the news with hamsters, and you are with us on history and weapons, it is useless to catch the hype.
          If we develop the topic further, it’s even better to be a platter, clap your hands enthusiastically and completely agree!
          Considering that the first and second are not acceptable to you, and the fans of Fomenko-Nasonov are already too late to serve, rub everything "to the nose"!
          Seriously though, I was a lieutenant general three times, woke up twice as a slipway, and once as a major! In one day I managed to catch 6 bans and once "slammed the door" and left.
          I have been on the site since 2013. I have so many enemies that I suggest that you throw the slogan "down with Pan Kohan's cat" and you will be guaranteed a star !!!
          But I also believe you have friends who will not leave you in trouble, will appreciate not for dancing with a tambourine or having a cat on your avatar, but interesting articles and informative comments!
          Leader, don’t hang your nose, Russians don’t know, and the article about Moxicans hasn’t been written yet !!!
          Better to be a general for cats than a marshal for hamsters !!!
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 18 February 2021 20: 38
            +1
            Very well said. That's why I began to write articles about weapons, equipment and boots laughing
            Before that, over there he shared his impressions of Ukraine and Poland, and he made money on nuts. I know "their" fierce well-wishers in the avatar. But somehow he waved his hand - they will stink less. Although sometimes I still participate in the "pack of dogs")))
            PS Apparently I deceived you about "today". There are simply signs when it should be "born." So they happened, and the birth is delayed. By the way, I passed one more article. Probably the shortest)))
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 February 2021 14: 22
              +4
              By the way, I passed one more article. Probably the shortest)))

              Well, by the way, a good cycle about boots. I do not participate very much on the forum under them, but you get a well-deserved plus from me every time. yes
          2. Alien From
            Alien From 18 February 2021 22: 12
            +4
            You wrote it strongly. I will subscribe to every word, without any privileges. hi
          3. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 19 February 2021 10: 06
            +5
            I have been on the site since 2013. I have so many enemies that I suggest that you throw the slogan "down with Pan Kohan's cat" and you will be guaranteed a star !!!

            You know ... I'm more interested in discussing articles with you than with anyone who gets a "star" for that slogan.
            Leader, don’t hang your nose, Russians don’t know, and the article about Moxicans hasn’t been written yet !!!
            Better to be a general for cats than a marshal for hamsters !!!

            Well said, I will fully support.
        3. AUL
          AUL 19 February 2021 08: 46
          +3
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          And why? because they have strayed into a flock and do not like very much when they step on their tail.

          Well, you can see for yourself how the system of rank production and ratings works here. So what do you care about these cardboard shoulder straps? Neglect!
          I have already written many times about a deeply flawed rating system on VO, when the "weight" +/- depends on the shoulder straps. This pushes some participants to get lost in flocks, put plus signs to each other and crush opponents in chorus. It is my firm conviction: one vote - one +/- rating! And instead of the toy shoulder straps, which some are chasing so much, introduce ministatistics: the number of messages / the number of pluses / the number of minuses for a given individual. IMHO, this carries a lot more information about the respondent. Within the framework of this engine, doing this is not a problem.
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 19 February 2021 08: 54
            +5
            So it is so. But the vicious system works great. In the sense that to push people to the chicken coop system - to climb higher to shit on the lower ones.
            Here the score of the articles is gone. As for me, in vain - a lot of crazy news and bad humor. And the authors of the articles are not encouraged. And so it would be possible - if the article is "in the pros", then its rating will increase. And in the "minuses" - to lower. And then you see for yourself - he will write nonsense of any kind of paper, srach will divorce in the comments. Everybody reviles him, and from him like water off a duck's back!
  5. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 18 February 2021 15: 33
    +19
    So it turns out that our vaunted Soviet education was scanty to the point, neither Bernays's books, nor Lippmann's books, nor Orwell's books, nor Pareto's books we could read, not to mention Chayanov's books, and even such a seemingly harmless book by Bukharin, as "The ABC of Communism".
    The author undoubtedly has a "short Soviet education". But I have a "vaunted Soviet education". I have a different education with the author, let him specifically broadcast about HIS, but he does not touch OURS, otherwise such generalizers about OUR on "Echo of Moscow", for example, like this one with the letter G behind the bath.
    1. ANB
      ANB 18 February 2021 18: 42
      +10
      ... The author undoubtedly has a "scanty Soviet education". But I have a "vaunted Soviet education". I have a different education with the author,

      The humanities always have some problems. There were fewer problems in technical education in Soviet times. MLF and the history of the CPSU, I blatantly slept. And he taught the special ones conscientiously. True, not by lectures.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 19 February 2021 04: 12
        -1
        Quote: ANB
        Humanitarians always have some problems

        It is not necessary to belittle the humanities, it is simply advisable to remember that before the humanist was called an encyclopedist who owned the logic of philosophy and knew several languages, but now a person who has problems with logic and numbers and knowledge. hi
      2. AUL
        AUL 19 February 2021 09: 04
        +1
        Quote: ANB
        MLF and the history of the CPSU, I blatantly slept.

        What about scientific communism? And what about political economy? What about scientific atheism? And something else nauseous, I don’t remember what?
        But the core disciplines, I agree, were taught well!
        1. ANB
          ANB 19 February 2021 11: 30
          0
          ... What about scientific communism? And what about political economy? What about scientific atheism? And something else nauseous, I don’t remember what?

          And I don’t remember that.
          Maybe the restructuring influenced, maybe they decided that military programmers do not need it.
    2. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 18 February 2021 19: 07
      +11
      The author undoubtedly has a "scanty Soviet education".
      And he demonstrates this repeatedly. It was not enough for exact sciences, but for professional Marxist-Leninists - just right. And more than once in his previous notes, he pointed out that in 1991 no one began to defend the CPSU. So by this time she was more than half of the likes of him. The rest were old people. The guiding and directing has been reborn.
  6. smaug78
    smaug78 18 February 2021 15: 34
    +4
    I will add a picture
  7. Destiny
    Destiny 18 February 2021 15: 41
    +23
    So it turns out that our vaunted Soviet education was scanty to the point

    You might think that now it has become just great. I do not idealize the Soviet education system at all, but in general I must admit that it was much more effective and well thought out than what we have now, after 30 years of continuous reforms. Children in school really they studied, teachers taught, the level of bureaucratization and various extortions was lower, teaching in high school did not turn into a pre-examination bacchanalia, as in our time. 10 years at school was enough to get a high-quality secondary education, which now can hardly be done at 11, despite the fact that the daily workload has also increased, there were a huge number of free circles, studios, sections. Now it all comes down to one goal - to prepare a child for the exam. Everything. The level of education of the modern can be judged by the educational level index used by the UN, according to which we slipped to thirty-ninth place in the world. It was bad in the USSR with education, you say ..
  8. vvvjak
    vvvjak 18 February 2021 15: 49
    +16
    In the textbook of Agibalov and Donskoy on the history of the Middle Ages for the sixth grade, it was written that if a knight fell from a horse, he could not get up on his own.

    In pedagogy, there is such a technique called "reference points", i.e. some vivid information is spoken, which is firmly held in the head for many years and is associated with the topic of the lesson, lecture, etc. Example: "an apple fell on Newton's head", after many years few people will remember Newton's laws (especially the first one), but almost everyone remembers about the apple. In this case, it seems to me that a similar technique was used in the textbook.
  9. rocket757
    rocket757 18 February 2021 15: 58
    +12
    I remember that Gorelik's articles became a discovery for me

    I remember in Lviv, in a museum, at an exposition about knights, the guide explained very well that a knight is power, skills and .... he told very interestingly that among the knights there were such "acrobats" that in armor they could jump over a horse !! ! It was in the 70s! It was interesting.
    Those. it was possible to learn, if not everything, then a lot, there would be a desire, interest.
  10. DrEng527
    DrEng527 18 February 2021 16: 08
    -17%
    The author is all right! But I forgot to say that half-truths were the basis of the Bolsheviks policy in all areas of state life! As for education, how can we ask something from our humanitarians, if they not only do not know the ancient languages ​​in their mass (even Latin), but also modern European request
    1. aybolyt678
      aybolyt678 18 February 2021 18: 04
      +6
      Quote: DrEng527
      As for education, how can we ask something from our humanitarians, if they not only do not know the ancient languages ​​in their mass (even Latin), but also modern European

      de lingva stulta incomoda multa smile
    2. BAI
      BAI 18 February 2021 20: 33
      +1
      most of them do not know ancient languages

      When was the last time you had to speak Maya?
      1. DrEng527
        DrEng527 19 February 2021 12: 55
        -2
        Quote: BAI
        When was the last time you had to speak Maya?

        1) I'm a techie, but I spoke in English on tf yesterday ... bully
        2) not knowing Latin cuts off the humanities from the primary sources - and this is the path to the absence of one's own view with all that it implies ... hi
  11. for
    for 18 February 2021 16: 13
    +12
    if the knight fell from the horse, then he could not get up on his own.

    It's not about weight, it's about freedom of movement. I can imagine how he mounts a horse without help.
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 19 February 2021 08: 57
      0
      The knight's field armor was very different from the tournament ...
      By the way, this is typical for any "uniform" at all times.
    2. for
      for 19 February 2021 12: 14
      -1
      [quote = for] [quote] But here's a funny thing: he completely destroyed all five proofs, and then, as if in mockery of himself, built his own sixth proof! [/ quote]
      This is me about myself.
  12. ee2100
    ee2100 18 February 2021 16: 20
    +21
    The old song of the author - only professional historians should understand history, and everyone else should listen to them and humbly agree.
    It is difficult to say what the article is about, it began with medieval knightly armor, and ended with excerpts from Soviet-party textbooks and attacks on the memoirs of military leaders.
    The fact that the knight's vestments did not weigh 80 kg is not a secret to anyone.
    And to make the discovery that textbooks on the history of the CPSU and memoirs are not historical sources is somehow not solid anymore.
    Shpakovsky positions himself as a historian, but in reality he is a propagandist-opportunist, so he was brought up by the Soviet regime, he writes about this in all the articles where he concerns his biography.
    1. for
      for 19 February 2021 12: 21
      -1
      Quote: ee2100
      so he was brought up by the Soviet government

      She could not bring him up, for him the teachers were fools.
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 19 February 2021 12: 45
        -1
        Upbringing and education are different concepts. am
        1. for
          for 19 February 2021 13: 38
          0
          Quote: ee2100
          Upbringing and education are different concepts

          In upbringing, school takes a not small share, especially in the USSR.
          1. ee2100
            ee2100 19 February 2021 14: 43
            -1
            This is someone like. The street, friends and family had a big impact on me.
  13. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 18 February 2021 16: 22
    +5
    Incomplete knowledge is worse than complete ignorance.
    Just like a half-truth is worse than a lie.
    1. Richard
      Richard 18 February 2021 16: 47
      +11
      Quote: A. Privalov
      Incomplete knowledge is worse than complete ignorance.
      Just like a half-truth is worse than a lie.

      Why is it worse?
      Incomplete knowledge allows for the existence of alternative data and naturally stimulates further search (exploration). This is much more useful than complete ignorance.
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 18 February 2021 16: 57
        +1
        Quote: Richard
        Incomplete knowledge allows for the existence of alternative data and naturally stimulates further search (exploration).

        Absolutely .... The same example with the same armor ... I also didn't understand what 80 kg? When you need to be mobile and spend as little energy as possible in battle ... well, "it stimulates further search." such, well, not 80 kg, of course, somewhere in half, but the armor is not combat - Tournament ... There, without helpers, no matter how ...
      2. Jacket in stock
        Jacket in stock 18 February 2021 16: 57
        +1
        Quote: Richard
        Incomplete knowledge allows the existence of alternative data and naturally stimulates further search

        No.
        Incomplete knowledge allows for the existence of alternative data and belief in all sorts of miracles, religions and alternative theories. And it is also a fertile ground for deception and manipulation.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 18 February 2021 17: 03
          +6
          Quote: Jacket in stock
          Incomplete knowledge allows for the existence of alternative data and belief in all sorts of miracles

          Well, "complete knowledge" as such does not exist ... or what are the scientists hiding there? They are discovering something there, dissecting .. historians dig up some documents, and sometimes whole mammoths.
        2. Richard
          Richard 18 February 2021 17: 07
          +17
          A simple example. Let's think like the military. -I know that the enemy is presumably in square 42-60. But what forces he has I do not know, it can be anything that is, the information is incomplete. But this information compels me to search further in this square.
          So it is in ordinary life, in history and in science.
          Something like this
      3. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 18 February 2021 17: 13
        +10
        Quote: Richard

        Incomplete knowledge allows for the existence of alternative data and naturally stimulates further search (exploration).

        Not at all. The expression "incomplete knowledge" does not mean that a person is in the process of learning and continues to accumulate knowledge. Incomplete knowledge is satisfaction with the existing baggage of knowledge with an absolute certainty of their truth. This is superficiality, dogmatism and inertia. This is a commitment to mossy clichés and categorical judgments.
        1. Richard
          Richard 18 February 2021 17: 19
          +8
          If you have previously used this expression in a similar context, then I absolutely agree with you. It's much worse than not knowing completely
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 18 February 2021 17: 53
            +4
            If you have previously used this expression in a similar context, then I absolutely agree with you. It's much worse than not knowing completely

            Interesting details in the article. what
            Pay attention to the boxes from Science and Technology. There is no about the wheel lock. Decided not to mention?
            But the "three-line" is named historically correctly - a rifle of the 1891 model. She initially did not wear the name of Mosin! drinks
        2. Vasilenko Vladimir
          Vasilenko Vladimir 18 February 2021 17: 31
          +2
          Quote: A. Privalov
          Not at all. The expression "incomplete knowledge" does not mean that a person is in the process of learning and continues to accumulate knowledge.

          and where does this mean?
  14. Jacket in stock
    Jacket in stock 18 February 2021 16: 52
    +12
    And I still did not understand what the author wanted.
    What are the goals and objectives of this opus?
    Show that people are mostly lazy and not curious? And show off against the background of the "gray crowd"?
    1. Vasilenko Vladimir
      Vasilenko Vladimir 18 February 2021 17: 28
      +8
      Quote: Jacket in stock
      And I still did not understand what the author wanted.

      well thank god I'm not the only one dumb
      1. SaLaR
        SaLaR 18 February 2021 18: 05
        +11
        There is such a concept: Narcissistic peacock ....... that's the whole answer that the author wanted ...
  15. Vasilenko Vladimir
    Vasilenko Vladimir 18 February 2021 17: 28
    +5
    numbers are compared with times, percentages and numbers
    I was surprised to learn that "times" and "percent" are calculated in letters wassat
  16. Freeman
    Freeman 18 February 2021 17: 39
    +12
    Reconstruction from miniatures ...


    Like any reconstruction based on similar sources, it is a rather subjective thing.
    Someone may have such a look.
    And everything "from incomplete knowledge" - the bow has come down to our days, but the "suit" has not. wassat

  17. Krasnoyarsk
    Krasnoyarsk 18 February 2021 18: 38
    +11
    = In the textbook of Agibalov and Donskoy on the history of the Middle Ages for the sixth grade, it was written that if a knight fell from a horse, then he could not get up on his own. This was taught by the students. =
    I have a suggestion - put on knightly armor, fall off your horse and try to stand up yourself. And I will watch it with pleasure.

    = That is, it is written here in black and white that the tsar was in the Winter Palace on January 9, 1905. =
    Do you want to say that if the Tsar was the Winter one, then everything would be different on January 9? Wouldn't there have been a shooting?
    Would you like to say that if the textbook had said that the Tsar was not in the Winter Palace, then the Soviet schoolchildren would have treated him differently?

    "Tough day! In St. Petersburg, there were serious riots as a result of the desire of the workers to reach the Winter Palace. The troops had to shoot in different parts of the city, there were many killed and wounded. Lord, how painful and hard it is! "
    A tear came straight through me. Poor, poor king, this is how he is killed for his people.

    = But why then kill Stalin? He was one of so many functionaries and did not play any special role. =
    Of course not, just a member of the Central Committee along with Lenin and Trotsky.
    = This is evidenced at least by the fact that not him, but Trotsky, was sent to Brest-Litovsk to negotiate with the Germans about peace. =
    AND? What role did your favorite play in Brest? Whose signature is the peace (obscene) treaty? Is it really your favorite?
    = On June 6, 1918, he arrived in Tsaritsyn, took power in the city into his own hands and, after the betrayal of a number of military experts, arrested them there almost without exception and shot almost all of them. =
    Well, you certainly didn't shoot them. You would give them a ticket to a sanatorium. Tsaritsyn, really would have passed, but this is nonsense, isn't it?
    = Further, when the Southern Front was created on September 11, 1918, P.P.Sytin again became the commander, and Stalin was just a member of his Revolutionary Military Council. =
    This only suggests that Stalin, unlike Trotsky, did not climb into the Bonaparties and did not take on the functions of a commander. But, at the same time, he led the commander himself. Therefore, your "only" speaks of your misunderstanding of the role of the RVS under the military expert Sytin and the like.
    = But we look at the "Short Course ..." There, the name of Lenin is the first everywhere, then Stalin, then Sverdlov ... well, it was more convenient for our leader ... =
    And you wanted the "history of the party" to include the name of Sytin and others like him? A very strange desire.

    = So it turns out that our vaunted Soviet education was scanty to the point, neither Bernays's books, nor Lippmann's books, nor Orwell's books, nor Pareto's books, we could not read, not to mention Chayanov's books, =
    Yes, it's sad, I don't argue. It is only strange that you lament that you have not read the books of people who have created nothing but these books. And you are not at all worried that you have not read, I am sure, Stalin, who, in addition to his books, also created the STATE!
    And Lenin, I am sure of this, read only what is necessary to pass the exams. Yes, who are these Lenin and Stalin ..? Here is Trotsky, Orwell, etc., they are - yes, giants of thought.
  18. depressant
    depressant 18 February 2021 19: 45
    +11
    I read 45 comments available to date. Leaving aside another portion of comments about the Author's self-admiration as having no constructive application, I propose to consider the following situation.
    Let's say a modern historian (let's just call him the Historian) received an order for an article with the biography of Emperor Octavian Augustus. To the best of his strength, ability and access to sources of information, the Historian created an article and sent it for review to Mastitoma, and then he himself appeared impatiently. The venerable one, glancing through the text and taking off his glasses, glanced from under his brows at the Historian standing in front of him and growled: "Yes, you, my friend, were stunned! He turned out to be a heavenly angel for you, it does not happen! You at least know how many dirty deeds Octavian Augustus had ? I can not give a positive review of this opus! " And, disgustingly picking up the skinny folder with the article with his fingertips, Vestity threw it at the end of the table in the direction of the Historian ...
    After sitting in front of the monitor for a month and digging up some facts that stain the name of Octavian Augustus, the Historian brought the manuscript to another reviewer. “You're out of your mind!” He cried hysterically after reading the article. “Compared to the scoundrels who surrounded him, Octavian Augustus was a righteous man!”
    Several days have passed ...
    “Clio!” The Historian called out at last. - Cleo, help! "
    Having found the Historian in front of a bottle and a glass disheveled, with a swollen face, with blue bags under his eyes, Clea smiled, patted him on the shoulder and insinuatingly said: "My friend! People need myths that support their beliefs. Myths help to live, because they confirm correctness, legitimacy what is happening now, they help to accept it, it means they make life easier. Just think, what myth about your Octavian Augustus will help society accept the vile reality of your time, for reality cannot but be vile by definition ... By the way, what age are you outside the window ? Ah, clearly ... Do not listen to anyone! Create a myth pleasing to the powerful of your world, and at least it will be easier for you to live. And if the strong change, change the myth to the opposite. "
    Struck to the depths of his soul, the historian cried out: "And you - Cleo are telling me this?!? This is a fraud!"
    Clea smiled: "And you read the history - well, let's say, of Ancient Greece or Russia of the 19th century. Yes, I only do that with fraud, that is, I create myths! Tradition, you know ... Otherwise, you, historians, had nothing But what about me without adepts? Without you, I will perish. "
    The historian thought for a moment and asked: "Is the whole history really myths?" Clea replied: "Of course! Any fact, as a rule, has two sides, each of which is opposite to the other, which means two points of view on the fact. The consumer of the story is offered not the fact itself, but one of the points of view on it. So do this - look for a point of view that suits your time on the existence of Octavian Augustus, but it is not as easy as it seems. Compromising evidence on the figure, if dug up, or praise - that is, what is now unusable, do not throw it away, it may come in handy over time. "
    And Clea disappeared.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 18 February 2021 19: 55
      +4
      Bravo! Bravo Lyudmila Yakovlevna! Comment of the day! Excellent! love
      ++++++++++!
      * You, boss, write books ... *
      1. depressant
        depressant 18 February 2021 19: 58
        +2
        Hello Seryozha! )))
        If only one plus sign from his comment was thrown onto mine! )))
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 18 February 2021 20: 01
          +2
          So after all already. As I read, immediately * plusanul *. With great pleasure! How are you progressing with sending a photo? No change?
          1. depressant
            depressant 18 February 2021 20: 12
            +2
            Come on, these photos ... Seryozha, and someone put a minus for you. Probably for giving me a virtual rose)))
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 18 February 2021 20: 29
              +7
              Lyudmila Yakovlevna - I take off my hat !!!
              You need to write articles. It is not good to bury such intelligence and such talent.
            2. Phil77
              Phil77 18 February 2021 20: 32
              +3
              And let them. You can't please everyone, eh? Generally anonymous minuses, in my opinion an anachronism. Do you want to * minus *? Please explain why. Secret voting can be left for elections.
              1. depressant
                depressant 18 February 2021 21: 02
                +6
                Yeah, this is how to remove ads wassat
                You click on the cross, but the advertisement is not removed! Instead, a questionnaire appears. Ugh! ... By naivety you think, now I will click on one of the proposed answers, and the questionnaire will disappear. But it was not there! It used to be that the realama disappeared after you click "I'm not interested", and now a new questionnaire appears "And what of this might interest you?" You spit and leave altogether. Or put up with ads. At the regnum - this is how advertising goes in layers! Moreover, some kind of a looped site-mix with sores, worms and problems of men appeared, once you get to which you can only get out with titanic efforts, spending a lot of time and more often randomly wassat
                Here's how to do it! Set a minus? Immediately you have a questionnaire "What did not suit you, press the answer" - from the proposed two, or even three dozen options. Well, a person clicks something, and he still has a questionnaire - with the requirement to decrypt by category. And only after that the minus is cashed out.
                Well, that's about it. lol )))
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 18 February 2021 21: 14
                  +4
                  Oh! Again! Your proposal immediately flew * minus *. Instantly. Without announcing the verdict, immediately, bahhhh! laughing
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 18 February 2021 22: 06
                    +5
                    And someone really doesn't like me, Seryozha. He doesn't like it so much that he can't eat until he goes through the forums, finds me and gives me disadvantages. For this early morning, my karma for 1000 was removed - I need to be able to! And, probably, this is the person to whom I regularly put pluses. Amazing! Just by the fact of my existence.
                  2. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 19 February 2021 06: 40
                    +4
                    Because "Their professorship is ready for war."
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 19 February 2021 06: 46
                      +6
                      And they were given a prokhvesorsky ration, and they were given a separate living space, they squeezed the proletarian from their brother, and they took out the papers and put them down! laughing
                  3. Phil77
                    Phil77 19 February 2021 08: 24
                    +4
                    That's with what pleasure and self-satisfaction you, my dear, * minus * something! Here it is! In playful hands and a keyboard! Life is good, isn't it? Health to you, * minus from around the corner *! laughing
    2. Freeman
      Freeman 18 February 2021 21: 53
      +6
      depressant Today, 19:45
      Let's say a modern historian (let's just call him the Historian) received an order for an article with the biography of Emperor Octavian Augustus. To the best of his strength, ability and access to sources of information, the Historian created an article
      ..................

      Create a myth pleasing to the mighty of your world, and at least it will be easier for you to live


      Hooligan repeat
      Yes, it is not a "photo" asking for - but a "movie"!

      1. depressant
        depressant 18 February 2021 22: 34
        +6
        Thank you, colleague Volnoper, for the fragment with Melpomene! )))
        One of the most beloved Soviet cartoons - "Film, Film, Film!" I wanted to revise it - that's really a masterpiece)))
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 19 February 2021 08: 29
          +5
          Good morning, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! And the song from the cartoon is also good! The mood is very uplifting.
          * There are many professions, but.
          The most beautiful of all is cinema!
          Who got into this world
          Become happy forever! *
          1. depressant
            depressant 19 February 2021 09: 06
            +4
            Good morning to you, Seryozha, and good morning to all kind people! )))
            Vyacheslav Olegovich - special thanks for the article! hi
      2. kig
        kig 20 February 2021 05: 55
        0
        So what is next? There is a wonderful section about reviewers and holders of permissive press.
        1. Freeman
          Freeman 20 February 2021 12: 01
          +1
          Quote: kig
          So what is next? There is a wonderful section about reviewers and holders of permissive press.

          So you can post the whole cartoon.
          I think that the final shot of this whole mess is enough - where the final version of the "historical truth" is approved, in accordance with Article 67.3 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. wassat
    3. Alien From
      Alien From 18 February 2021 22: 28
      0
      Well, you damn it commented))) hi
    4. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 19 February 2021 10: 36
      +1
      Quote: depressant
      And Clea disappeared.

      Lyudmila Yakovlevna, your comment smacks of fatalism - don't read historians - everything is a lie (myth).
      But a syllable, what a syllable is !!! Did Kuprin inspire you for an hour? Taking off my hat. hi
      1. depressant
        depressant 19 February 2021 12: 39
        +4
        Quote: Krasnoyarsk
        Quote: depressant
        And Clea disappeared.

        Lyudmila Yakovlevna, your comment smacks of fatalism - don't read historians - everything is a lie (myth).
        But a syllable, what a syllable is !!! Did Kuprin inspire you for an hour? Taking off my hat. hi


        At one time I reread so many classics that now go figure out which of the greats inspires me. And as for your own assessment of my comments, you just have to send one to the forum, you reread it and make yourself crooked - here it would be to correct, replace there, and so on. In general, I am extremely self-critical, and it is even strange to me that my colleagues are condescending to my statements. However, not everything is condescending, which is normal)))
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 19 February 2021 13: 48
          +2
          Well, I don’t know. Personally, I am captivated by your goodwill.
          1. depressant
            depressant 19 February 2021 14: 30
            +2
            Seryozha, so after all, everyone who is on the VO forums are my compatriots! This deep sense of kinship with people is worth a lot. You know, something has changed. You walk down the street and children and teenagers greet you. This was not the case before. I talked to my neighbors about this, and they confirmed: "Yes, that's right, unfamiliar children say hello." Maybe due to the fact that now everyone is wearing masks, and you can be identified? They told me: "It is you in the mask, and we are not." I looked around. Indeed, it's just me in the mask. It's just that some kind of consolidation of society is taking place, children seem to cuddle up to adults, looking for protection, while adults are looking for their own kind in the so-called "short conversations". This is when a stranger, passing by you on the street, unexpectedly shares with you some of his thoughts. He shared, wished all the best and went on. And this is more and more often.
        2. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 19 February 2021 14: 26
          0
          Quote: depressant
          And as for your own assessment of my comments, you just have to send one to the forum, reread and curl up - here it would be to correct, replace there, and so

          If I say that you are not the only one, will this somehow calm you down?
          Respectfully yours love
          1. depressant
            depressant 19 February 2021 14: 47
            +2
            No, it will not reassure, colleague Krasnoyarsk, will not become the basis of indulgence towards yourself. It only responds in my mind with the thought that at least in some way I resemble a person better than me.
    5. Catfish
      Catfish 19 February 2021 14: 12
      +3
      Good afternoon, Lyudmila. love
      I profiled here for a couple of days, I was not up to the site, but now I leafed through the page and immediately remembered the ancient motto of historians, like the world:

      "The future is beyond our control, but the past depends on us." smile

      PS Lord, how tired of winter is.



      "In the summer, the luminary spit in the crown
      You can't go out in the sun.
      But in the bushes at a time like this
      Nice to drink - to have a snack! "(C) drinks

      Have a good mood! smile
      1. depressant
        depressant 19 February 2021 14: 58
        +2
        Lord, how tired of winter is.

        Constantine, I support you unconditionally! )))
        We are people, not canned food and inanimate vegetables, which need cold to survive)))
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 19 February 2021 15: 08
          +3
          We are not afraid of the sharks of "imperialism". laughing
          1. depressant
            depressant 19 February 2021 17: 17
            +2
            Last winters were much softer, and I thought: so here it is, holobal warming! Hurray! ... And now I am sitting in my western smoking room, pitching a cigarette and watching the faded evening sun entangled in unstable snow clouds trying to set in a dense black cloud lying on the horizon. Coldly! The cold is everywhere. I'll go to the kitchen, there the gas is burning, there is cheerful warm electricity, and not the deathly light of an icy sunset. And the street lights will soon be on.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 19 February 2021 18: 09
              +3
              And I, basically, measure winters by the level of snow, this year it was as if some sack had leaked out at the top, or, by running a planless economy, so much snow had been prepared ahead of time that there was nowhere to put it, so they dumped everything on our heads: "people all hawala ", hawala this. smile
              And here the weather is mockingly good, albeit fifteen in minus, but the sky is transparent-blue and the bright sun is burning in all, it's even hot on it, but the snow, bastard, does not melt.
              I went out of idleness and removed the snow from the garage, cleaned the quadric, but didn't even try to leave, half a meter of snow, we won't get through. I will wait a week, and, in any case, there will be snowfall, there will be no, I will call the guys with the bulldozer and ... goodbye the house, I will shake the guests. smile

              1. depressant
                depressant 19 February 2021 19: 10
                +2
                Nice picture, funny! ))))
                We also have a lot of snow, even too much. On the window outer slopes of 40 centimeters, it covered 5 days ago. I don't open windows or sweep away the snow: small drifts insulate the window cracks, keeping you warm. It seems as if spring will never come again.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 20
                  +1
                  No need to be sad, better remember from childhood:

                  "It was sunny in the morning
                  And it's very warm.
                  The lake is wide
                  It flowed through the yard.

                  It froze at noon,
                  Winter has come again
                  The lake has dragged on
                  A crust of glass.

                  I split the thin
                  Resonant glass
                  The lake is wide
                  It started flowing again.

                  Passersby say:
                  - Here comes spring! -
                  And this is me working
                  I'm breaking the ice. " smile love
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 19 February 2021 20: 50
                    +2
                    Thank you, Konstantin! )))
                    I love poetry, but I am by no means a poetic nature. Therefore, there is no sadness in me, it does not come. Sadness is such a mild state of temporary hopelessness that has come and gone. Sadness arises from relative well-being. For me, it’s different, as if I’m crushed by a cast-iron stove - eternal sadness, circumstances skillfully support it, and she told me: "Here you are, here!" But, surprisingly, I can laugh and joke at the same time, because - that's how it happened! - the same circumstances require it.
                    So, let's not talk about the sad and sad, because it will turn out "in the house of the hanged man on the rope")))
                    And spring ... Glory to the Almighty that although the inclination of the earth's axis has hardly changed, although it is subject to precession for 21000 years.
                    So, there will be spring! )))
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 19 February 2021 20: 59
                      +2
                      So, there will be spring! )))


                      Of course it will be! And cats feel it. smile

                      1. depressant
                        depressant 19 February 2021 21: 48
                        +2
                        In our 18-degree frost, the cats lost their sensitivity to spring. That will be minus 12, they will howl, calling her. There are cats, cats are not kept. One lives in the basement, is abundantly fed by compassionate inhabitants, and reproduces. Kittens are wild and strangely disappear over time. There are rats among the fauna of the basement. Apparently the cat is sharing food with them. Doesn't look like kittens. They grow up to adolescents, and then there were none. And so from year to year. Nothing changes. Frozen reality. Rather, walking in circles. Looping. If only someone changed the condition for exiting the loop. True, the exit happens - spontaneous, for natural reasons.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 19 February 2021 22: 18
                        +1
                        Every day a kitty comes to our house, sits near the house and looks out the window, and ours also plays at the bridegroom on the windowsill. We do not let him out, he had cystitis at one time, so he will stay at home until it gets warmer.
                        And the reality, it does not freeze, it just seems that way, I, at one time personally convinced of this, when suddenly the tanks were pushed through the streets.
                      3. depressant
                        depressant 19 February 2021 23: 44
                        +3
                        Ah, these are ... Tanks ... These are tanks in Russia - in 93, I think? And I have seen enough of the tanks placed in the center of my city since the 85th. And who remembers this? Who knows? And nothing "my" tanks have changed in the historical predestination. As a fact, they were immediately removed from the public eye, they were immediately sent to the storerooms of the helpful Clea. That's where "my" tanks are still, and the fact of their existence is to be assessed by historians of the distant future. And Yeltsin on a tank still has a stable consumer - both Putin and Navalny consume that tank in the same way. And Yeltsin to boot. Amazing, huh? )))
                        I'm much more curious about what is happening now. A lot of fun. For example, the already planned combination of Stalin's methods of a two-circuit economy in the form of a marked digital ruble (this so that it would be impossible to steal it) in the absence of industrialization of the Stalinist type and the presence of monarchical aspirations of the enriched stratum is such a staggering mess! And what is it, say political theorists, that monarchy and socialism are quite compatible. The need to accelerate the development of at least some kind of economy is surprisingly combined with an amazing slowness in decision-making at the government level, and so on.
                        All this is very interesting, but it passes by our attention, and therefore we consume the reality of yesterday's historic day, where Yeltsin is on a tank, Putin is so young, Crimea is becoming ours, a bridge is being erected, and therefore reality seems to be frozen, looped. And with a strange dissonance the American rover, which landed on Mars yesterday, bursts into it. As if from a completely different historical time. But this is my perception, I do not impose it)))
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 20 February 2021 00: 02
                        +1
                        Tanks in the 85th? And what city is it? I really saw them much earlier, all in the same Moscow, on Samotyok near the Board of Honor of the Collective Farms (it is no longer there, the boards, however, like the collective farms, but the boards were demolished earlier), this was in the 53rd year, if I am not mistaken , and it was T-34-85.
                        Oh, Luda, there is no desire to even talk about the current one, all the more so for the night looking, well, let them swarm in their garbage until the army says its word, all this will gurgle and multiply. We will not change anything here, the age is not the same, I have, at least.))
                      5. depressant
                        depressant 20 February 2021 00: 30
                        +2
                        Kostya, good night! )))))
                        I hope there will be time to talk)))
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 20 February 2021 00: 39
                        +1
                        And you are happy! smile love
  • Yun Klob
    Yun Klob 18 February 2021 19: 57
    +10
    I still remember these articles by M. Gorelik with love.
    They really gave me, as a schoolboy, a lot. Thanks to him.
  • BAI
    BAI 18 February 2021 20: 12
    +3
    1.
    In the same way, in none of the books of memoirs of Soviet military leaders, starting with the two-volume "Marshal of Victory" Zhukov "Memories and Reflections" and ending with "Soldiers' Duty" by Rokossovsky, did I find references to the "Message of the Soviet Government of June 11, 1944 on the supply of Lend-Lease ". Not a single word even where Zhukov mentioned Lend-Lease. Nor was it in the books of the aircraft designer Yakovlev "Stories of the Aircraft Designer" and "The Purpose of Life". And it was completely strange and incomprehensible why the head of the State Planning Committee Voznesensky, who was shot in the famous "Leningrad case", had not written a word about this.

    Well, this is already the second time. Why should military leaders write about Lend-Lease? How did lend-lease information affect the planning of operations? It is important how many tanks are, not where they are from. When it was needed, they remembered. Pokryshkin recalled Lend-Lease. Voznesensky? He just wrote:
    In the balance of the war economy of the USSR in During the war economy period, imported resources also played a role. Foreign trade of the USSR provides additional reserves for the national economy, allowing the Soviet state to increase the rate of reproduction. During the period During the Patriotic War, imports of goods to the USSR increased from 1 million rubles. in 446 to 1940 million rubles. in 1942 and up to 8460 million rubles. in 1943. At the same time, the export of goods from the USSR fell from 1 million rubles. in 412 up to 1940 million rubles. in 399 and 1942 million rubles. in 373.
    Increase import of goods (mainly raw materials and materials) was due to the supplies of the USSR allies in the war against Germany and Japan... However, if we compare the size of allied supplies of industrial goods to the USSR with the size of industrial output at the socialist enterprises of the USSR over the same period, it turns out that the share of these supplies in relation to domestic production during the war economy period will be only about 4%.

    Voznesensky N. Military economy of the USSR during the Patriotic War. - M.: Gospolitizdat, 1948.

    2.
    It turns out that the textbook of party history and ... ethics reported false information.

    And why be indignant about the tsar, when, since tsarist times, the version has been actively implanted that Dmitry Donskoy personally received the blessing of the tsar and the Battle of Kulikovo began with a duel between Peresvet and Chelubey? After all, none of this happened! Who was the first to set an example of the distortion of history, tsars or Bolsheviks?
    1. BAI
      BAI 18 February 2021 21: 16
      +5
      blessing of the king

      Sergius of Radonezh.
      Sorry.
    2. EvilLion
      EvilLion 19 February 2021 08: 37
      +2
      In the Middle Ages, they often took famous ancient texts and cooked their own on their basis.
  • depressant
    depressant 18 February 2021 20: 40
    +7
    Quote: Undecim
    You need to write articles.

    Victor Nikolaevich, I have no vocation to write articles)))
    In addition, it is easy to write an article only for a professional who has collected a huge amount of reference material by sections, and articles are his work, for which they pay. I don't even have a computer. And the phone does not really write. So that's it.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 18 February 2021 21: 50
      +5
      I have no calling to write articles
      Does Samsonov, Ryabov and Frolova have such a vocation?
      You don't have to be a professional. As for me, it is even better for a non-professional - nothing burdens and does not oblige. You write for your pleasure. I wrote about a dozen articles for the site in this way, until the desire was repulsed.
      But without a computer in any way. Is it really an insoluble problem?
      1. depressant
        depressant 18 February 2021 22: 10
        +5
        Undecidable)))
        Now, if it's not a secret, how did you get rid of your desire to write articles? Really comments "author, drink yadu!" )))
        1. depressant
          depressant 18 February 2021 22: 46
          +4
          I apologize hi
          Apparently, I asked a tactless question.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 18 February 2021 22: 55
            +7
            Normal question, I answered in a personal.
  • faterdom
    faterdom 18 February 2021 21: 49
    +5
    Unfortunately, there can be no complete (absolute) knowledge. But we must strive.
    Even eyewitnesses and participants in the same event saw everything from their belfry, and when telling others, or describing - some opportunistic, some forgetfulness, some in order to boast and exaggerate their role - adjust the versions as necessary, so much so that in the end and they themselves begin to believe and "remember" what they are telling. But they are eyewitnesses, and if you are not one of them, you cannot refute them.
    A classic example: Alexander Korzhakov in his memoirs "From Dusk Till Dawn" describes how Yeltsin was desperately cowardly and was afraid that he was about to be arrested, and what a lot of work it took him (Korzhakov) to persuade him to go out to the people under the protection of armored shields and speak out, to convince that nothing and no one threatens him.
    The palace chroniclers and "historians" of the Yeltsin Center will prove to anyone, like two or two, that he only saw a tank and always tried to saddle it and lead the masses. And the artists will draw, and the directors will do it in blue, with a strong-willed resolute face and a burning heart.
    But these are recent events, where most of us are eyewitnesses, and even participants.
    How much the times of Ivan the Terrible or Prince Vladimir differ from our ideas is even scary to imagine.
    Even a time machine (which is allegedly already being mastered in China - but where else?) Will not help, there will be an observer effect, which by its appearance will change something, moreover, strongly, or, which is more likely, will quickly fall into a stake or fire, and not will be able to share what he observed there.
  • Million
    Million 18 February 2021 23: 14
    +7
    Shpakovsky shits again ... It doesn't matter what kind of education is now, the main thing is that the Soviet one was scanty - the main message of the article ..
  • EvilLion
    EvilLion 19 February 2021 08: 19
    +2
    But then why kill Stalin? He was one of so many functionaries and did not play any special role. This is evidenced at least by the fact that it was not him, but Trotsky, who was sent to Brest-Litovsk for peace talks with the Germans.


    Yes, with incomplete knowledge it's hard, after all, Stalin was nobody in the state until the Second World War, and Kalinin was in charge. But reservations according to Freud are quite possible, that is, Stalin during the VOSR took some important position, but did not shine in public. Of course, Bukharin knew this.

    And so some people still believe in Perestroika Ogonyok.

    Well, in my garden there was a children's book about the storming of the Winter 1950 edition (most likely, it was started up for a long time), this is a direct action movie of some kind of WWII.

    So you need to read documents, not propaganda.

    As for knowledge of English, it would be good to read Russian. Moreover, I often remember Prudnikova, so here on topvar they ran into her that she does not sit in the archives. Why the hell should she sit in the archives, when someone has already gone to these archives, accumulated documents for a book, then this book "Collection of documents ..." from afar, it is good if 1000 copies, and it is in the libraries, but so that it became knowledge, it is necessary that someone, on the basis of these documents, build some kind of general picture and then convey to the broad masses.
  • Andrey Krasnoyarsky
    Andrey Krasnoyarsky 19 February 2021 13: 22
    +5
    Authors of textbooks are not harshly "pierced" where they are not specialists, especially in military affairs. For example, here is a passage from a modern history textbook for grade 8. In the paragraph on the Crimean War, among the reasons for the defeat of the Russian army, it is indicated that our soldiers were armed with obsolete (I quote) "
    smoothbore rifles
    ". The authors did not even realize that this is an obvious oxymoron.
    1. mister-red
      mister-red 21 February 2021 19: 49
      0
      In the paragraph on the Crimean War, among the reasons for the defeat of the Russian army, it is indicated that our soldiers were armed with obsolete (I quote) "
      smoothbore rifles
      "The authors did not even realize that this is an obvious oxymoron.

      Military terminology is well known to military historians. Ordinary historians are poorly versed in this, although they might be good historians. This is normal. You just had to give the book to the right specialists for analysis.
      1. Andrey Krasnoyarsky
        Andrey Krasnoyarsky 22 February 2021 15: 54
        0
        I don't think you have to be a military specialist to know the difference between a smoothbore gun and a rifle. Even teenagers know this.
  • mister-red
    mister-red 21 February 2021 19: 45
    0
    Ambiguous impression of the article Oh, how bad everything was with conscientious textbooks. And bang, a textbook from the 30s. Creatively. Now, too, all opponents and spiteful critics, when they want to write something crappy about the USSR, write about the 30s, but not about the 70s and 80s. Everything is developing, and the USSR was no exception. Yes, I also read in a school textbook that a knight, having fallen, cannot get up. True, this was already written about the end of the knightly era.
    But that the tsar was not in the Winter on January 9, 1905, there was no secret at school for me.
    Yes, now more books and information are available, after all, there is the Internet. But read the textbooks, is everything okay there?
    About the 25th frame. There are people who believe in a flat earth or that the Americans did not fly to the moon (but did they fly? :). I have never heard that this is a generally accepted correct theory. Well, it's like Kashpirovsky: many believed, but many understood that this was charlatanism.

    PS By the way, they also said about the knights that they were lifted onto a horse with winches. And the only film where I saw this is the French adaptation of Druon's book "The Cursed Kings". And the director and scriptwriter of this film certainly did not read Soviet textbooks. And as far as I remember, they were ridiculed for this episode.