Military Review

The use of captured German mortars and multiple launch rocket systems

78
The use of captured German mortars and multiple launch rocket systems

In the comments to the publication The use of German armored vehicles in the postwar period I recklessly announced that the last article in the series will deal with the use of captured German artillery.


However, after assessing the amount of information, I came to the conclusion that it was necessary to make a breakdown by mortars, field, anti-tank and anti-aircraft artillery. In this regard, at least three more articles devoted to captured German artillery systems will be presented to the readers' judgment.

Today we will look at German mortars and multiple launch rocket systems.

50 mm mortar 5 cm le.Gr.W. 36


During the initial period of the war, our troops often captured the German 50-mm mortars 5 cm le.Gr.W. 36 (German 5cm leichter Granatenwerfer 36). This mortar was created by the designers of Rheinmetall-Borsig AG in 1934, and entered service in 1936.
Mortar 5 cm le.Gr.W. 36 had a "dull" scheme - that is, all the elements are placed on a single gun carriage. The barrel is 460 mm long and other mechanisms are mounted on a base plate. A spindle adjustable in height and direction was used for guidance. The mass of the mortar in the firing position was 14 kg. The mortar was served by two people, who were given an ammunition carrier.


50 mm mortar 5 cm le.Gr.W. 36

The initial speed of a 50 mm mine weighing 910 g was 75 m / s. Maximum firing range - 575 m. Minimum - 25 m. Vertical guidance angles: 42 ° - 90 °. Horizontal: 4 °. Rough aiming was carried out by turning the base plate.

A well-trained crew could fire 20 rounds per minute. Combat rate of fire with aiming correction did not exceed 12 rds / min. A fragmentation mine, containing 115 g of cast TNT, had a radius of destruction of about 5 m.

The Wehrmacht command considered the 50-mm mortar as a means of fire support for the company-platoon level. And they pinned great hopes on him.

Each rifle company, according to the staffing table in 1941, was supposed to have three mortars. The infantry division was supposed to have 84 50-mm mortars.

On September 1, 1939, the troops had about 6000 company mortars. As of April 1, 1941, there were 14 913-mm mortars and 50 rounds for them.


However, the 50-mm mortar as a whole did not justify itself.

Its firing range approximately corresponded to the effective range of rifle and machine gun fire, which made mortar crews vulnerable and reduced their combat value. The fragmentation effect of the shells left much to be desired, and the high-explosive effect was not enough to destroy light field fortifications and barbed wire.

During the hostilities, it also became clear that mine fuses did not have the required level of reliability and safety. Cases were not uncommon when mines did not explode when hit in liquid mud and a deep snowdrift. Or vice versa - the detonation occurred immediately after the shot, which was fraught with the death of the crew. Due to the too high sensitivity of the fuse, shooting in the rain was prohibited.

Due to low efficiency and unsatisfactory safety, in 1943 the production of mortars 5 cm le.Gr.W. 36 has been rolled up.

The 50-mm mortars remaining in the troops were used to a limited extent until the end of hostilities.

However, in the second half of the war, the Red Army also abandoned company mortars. And the remaining 50 mm mines were converted into hand grenades.

This is not to say that captured 50-mm mortars were popular among the Red Army.

German company mortars were sometimes used as a freelance fire enhancement tool in long-term defense.

In the summer and autumn of 1944, there were cases of successful combat use of light mortars in street battles. Captured mortars were installed on the upper armor of the lungs tanks T-70 and were used to fight the enemy infantry, entrenched in attics and rooftops.

Based on this, the specialists of the BTU GBTU, who analyzed the combat experience, recommended continuing the use of captured 50-mm mortars in the units of the armored forces of the Red Army, participating in the battles for the cities.

The partisans used company mortars to shell German strongholds in the occupied territory. Relatively light 50mm mortars worked well for this. Having fired a dozen mines from the maximum distance, it was possible to quickly retreat.

81 mm mortar 8 cm sGW 34


Much more powerful (compared to the 50 mm) was the 81 mm 8 cm sGW 34 mortar (German 8 cm Granatwerfer 34).

The mortar was created in 1932 by Rheinmetall-Borsig AG. And in 1934 he entered service. In the period from 1937 to 1945. German industry produced more than 70 000-mm mortars, which were used on all fronts.

The 8 cm sGW 34 mortar had a classic design according to the scheme

"Imaginary triangle"

and consisted of a barrel with a breech, a base plate, a bipod and a sight.

A two-legged carriage of two support legs of the same design (due to the presence of a hinge joint) allows a rough setting of the vertical guidance angles. The exact same installation was carried out using a lifting mechanism.


81 mm mortar 8 cm sGW 34

In the firing position, the 8 cm sGW 34 mortar weighed 62 kg (57 kg using parts made of light alloys). And he could do up to 25 rounds / min.

Vertical guidance angles: from 45 ° to 87 °. Horizontal guidance: 10 °. A mine weighing 3,5 kg left a barrel 1143 mm long with an initial speed of 211 m / s, which made it possible to hit targets at a distance of up to 2400 m.

In the second half of the war, an enhanced propellant charge was introduced with a firing range of up to 3000 m.

The ammunition included fragmentation and smoke mines.

In 1939, a bouncing fragmentation mine was created, which, after falling, was thrown upward with a special powder charge and was detonated at a height of 1,5-2 m.

The air blast ensured a more effective defeat of manpower hidden in craters and trenches, and also made it possible to avoid the negative effect of snow cover on the formation of a fragmentation field.

Fragmentation 81 mm mines 8 cm Wgr. 34 and 8 cm Wgr. 38 contained 460 g of cast TNT or ammatol. Fragmentation bouncing mine 8 cm Wgr. 39 was equipped with cast TNT or cast ammatol and a powder charge in the warhead. Explosive weight - 390 g, gunpowder - 16 g. The radius of destruction by fragments is up to 25 m.


Each Wehrmacht infantry battalion was supposed to have six 81-mm mortars. On September 1, 1939, the troops had 4624 mortars. As of June 1, 1941, there were 11 mortars in the Wehrmacht's infantry divisions.

Production of the 8 cm sGW34 continued until the end of the war.

On January 1, 1945, 16 mortars were registered.

The first cases of the use of captured 81-mm mortars were recorded in July 1941. In 1942, infantry battalions appeared in the Red Army, which were attached to batteries equipped with German-made mortars. In the middle of 1942, instructions for use and manuals for combat use were published.

It is noteworthy that there was the possibility of firing German 81-mm mines from Soviet 82-mm battalion mortars. Since the ballistics of German and Soviet shots were different, firing tables were issued for the use of 81 mm mines.


Red Army soldiers inspect a German 81-mm mortar 8 cm sGW 34

The Red Army quite intensively used captured 81-mm 8 cm sGW34 mortars against the former owners. And (unlike the 50 mm 5 cm le.Gr.W. 36 mortars) after the surrender of Germany, for the most part, they were not sent for scrap.

A significant number of German-made 81-mm mortars in the first post-war decade were in the armed forces of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic and Romania.

In the second half of the 1940s, the Soviet Union donated several hundred captured German mortars to the Chinese Communists, who were waging an armed struggle against the Kuomintang. Subsequently, these mortars actively fought on the Korean Peninsula and were used against the French and Americans during the hostilities in Southeast Asia.

In the 1960s-1970s, there were cases when the Soviet government, not wanting to advertise cooperation with some national liberation movements, supplied them weapon foreign production, including the German 81-mm mortars 8 cm sGW 34.

120-mm mortar Gr.W. 42


In the initial period of the war, the Germans had a 105-mm mortar 10,5 cm Nebelwerfer 35, which structurally was an enlarged 81-mm mortar 8 cm sGW34 and was originally developed for firing chemical ammunition.

Given that the top of the Third Reich did not dare to use chemical weapons, only fragmentation and high-explosive mines weighing 7,26-7,35 kg were used for firing.

The mass of the 105-mm mortar in the firing position was 107 kg. And in terms of firing range, it slightly surpassed the 81-mm 8 cm sGW 34 mortar.

In 1941, due to the unsatisfactory range and excessive weight, the production of the 105 mm 10,5 cm Nebelwerfer 35 mortar was discontinued.

At the same time, the Germans were greatly impressed by the Soviet regimental 120-mm PM-38 mortar.

PM-38 in combat position weighed 282 kg. The firing range was 460-5700 m. The rate of fire without correcting the aiming was 15 rds / min. A high-explosive fragmentation mine weighing 15,7 kg contained up to 3 kg of TNT.

In 1941, the advancing German forces captured a large number of PM-38s. And they used trophies under the designation 12 cm Granatwerfer 378 (r). In the future, the Germans used the captured mortar very actively.

The Soviet PM-38 was so successful that the German command ordered to copy it.

A German mortar known as the Gr.W. 42 (German Granatwerfer 42) from January 1943 was produced at the Waffenwerke Brünn plant in Brno.

At the same time, the transport trolley received a more robust design, adapted for towing by mechanical traction.

120-mm mortar Gr.W. 42 differed from the PM-38 in production technology and sighting devices. The mass of the mortar in the combat position was 280 kg. Thanks to the use of a more powerful propellant charge and a mine lighter by 100 g, the maximum firing range was increased to 6050 m.

But otherwise, its combat characteristics corresponded to the Soviet prototype.


Wehrmacht servicemen next to the Gr.W. 120-mm mortar 42

From January 1943 to May to May 1945, 8461 120mm Gr.W. mortars were fired. 42.

During offensive operations, the Red Army captured several hundred clones of the Soviet PM-38 mortar produced in the Czech Republic. Considering that for shooting from the German Gr.W. 42 and the Soviet PM-38, the same mines could be used, there were no difficulties with the supply of 120-mm mortars with ammunition.

In the post-war period (until the mid-1960s) captured mortars Gr.W. 42 were used in Eastern Europe. And Czechoslovakia exported them to the Middle East.

150 mm rocket mortar 15 cm Nb.W. 41


Created before World War II in Germany, multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS) were originally intended for firing projectiles equipped with chemical warfare agents and a smoke-forming composition for setting up camouflage smoke screens. This is reflected in the name of the first German serial 150-mm MLRS - Nebelwerfer (German "Fog-thrower") or "Type D smoke mortar".

During World War II, Germany was inferior to the Allies in terms of the total stocks of accumulated chemical warfare agents.

At the same time, the high level of development of the German chemical industry and the presence of an excellent theoretical base allowed German chemists to make a breakthrough in the field of chemical weapons in the late 1930s.

In the course of research on the creation of means to combat insects, the most deadly type of toxic substances in service was discovered - nerve poisons. Initially, it was possible to synthesize a substance later known as "Tabun". Later, even more poisonous substances were created and produced on an industrial scale: "Zarin" and "Soman".

Fortunately for the allied armies, the use of toxic substances against them did not take place.

Germany, doomed to defeat in the war by conventional means, did not try to turn the tide of the war in its favor with the help of the latest chemical weapons. For this reason, the German MLRS used only high-explosive, incendiary, smoke and agitation mines for firing.

Tests of the 150-mm six-barreled mortar and rocket mines began in 1937. And by the beginning of 1940, the "Fog thrower" was brought to the required level of combat readiness.

This weapon was first used by the Germans during the French campaign. In 1942 (after entering service with the 28/32 cm Nebelwerfer 41 MLRS), the installation was renamed 15 cm Nb.W. 41 (15 cm Nebelwerfer 41).

The installation was a package of six tubular guides with a length of 1300 mm, combined into a block and mounted on a converted carriage of a 37-mm anti-tank gun 3,7 cm Pak 35/36.

The rocket mortar had a vertical guidance mechanism with a maximum elevation angle of 45 ° and a swivel mechanism that provided a 24 ° horizontal firing sector. In the combat position, the wheels were hung out, the carriage rested on the bipod of the sliding beds and the folding front stop. Loading took place from the breech. Sometimes, for better stability when firing from launchers, the wheel drive was dismantled.


Nebelwerfer 41

German designers managed to create a very light and compact rocket launcher. The combat weight in the equipped position reached 770 kg, in the stowed position this figure was equal to 515 kg. For short distances, the installation could be rolled by the forces of calculation. The volley lasted about 10 seconds. A well-functioning crew of 5 people could reload a gun in 90 seconds.


After aiming the mortar at the target, the crew went into cover and, with the help of the launch unit, fired in series of 3 mines. The ignition of the electric igniter at start occurs remotely from the battery of the vehicle towing the installation.

For firing, 150-mm turbojet mines were used, which had a very unusual device for their time.

The war charge, which consisted of 2 kg of TNT, was located in the tail section, and in the front - a solid-fuel jet engine with a fairing, equipped with a perforated bottom with 28 nozzles inclined at an angle of 14 °. The stabilization of the projectile after launch was carried out due to rotation at a speed of about 1000 revolutions per second, provided by inclined nozzles.

The main difference between the German 15 cm Wurfgranete rocket mine from the Soviet M-8 and M-13 missiles was the method of stabilization in flight. The turbojet projectiles had a higher accuracy, since this stabilization method also made it possible to compensate for the eccentricity of the engine thrust. In addition, shorter guides could be used. Since, unlike the missiles stabilized by the tail, the effectiveness of stabilization did not depend on the initial speed of the missile. But due to the fact that part of the energy of the outflowing gases was spent on unwinding the projectile, the firing range was shorter than that of a feathered rocket.

The maximum range of a high-explosive fragmentation rocket with a launch weight of 34,15 kg was 6700 m. The maximum flight speed was 340 m / s. The Nebelwerfer had a very good accuracy for a MLRS of that time.

At a distance of 6000 m, the dispersion of shells along the front was 60–90 m, and at a range of 80–100 m. The dispersal of lethal fragments during the explosion of a high-explosive fragmentation warhead was 40 meters along the front and 15 meters ahead of the place of the rupture. Large fragments retained their lethal force at a distance of more than 200 m.

The relatively high firing accuracy made it possible to use rocket mortars to fire not only area targets, but also point targets. Although, of course, with significantly less efficiency than a conventional artillery piece.

At the beginning of 1942, the Wehrmacht had three regiments of rocket launchers (three divisions in each), as well as nine separate divisions. The division consisted of three fire batteries, 6 units each.

Since 1943, batteries of 150-mm rocket launchers began to be included in the light battalions of artillery regiments of infantry divisions, replacing 105-mm field howitzers in them. As a rule, one division had two batteries of MLRS, but in some cases their number was increased to three. In total, the German industry produced 5283 15 cm Nb.W. 41 and 5,5 million high-explosive and smoke mines.

Reactive six-barreled mortars were very actively used on the Soviet-German front. On the Eastern Front, being in service with the 4th Special Purpose Chemical Regiment, from the first hours of the war they were used to shell the Brest Fortress and fired over 2800 high-explosive rocket mines.


When firing from a 150-mm six-barreled mortar, the shells gave a clearly visible trail of smoke, giving out the location of the firing position.

Considering that the German MLRS were a priority target for our artillery, this was their big drawback.

210 mm rocket mortar 21 cm Nb.W. 42


In 1942, a 210 mm five-barreled 21 cm Nb.W. rocket launcher entered service. 42. It was fired from 21 cm Wurfgranate jet mines, stabilized in flight by rotation. As with 150 mm rockets, the 210 mm rocket nozzles, located at an angle to the body axis, ensured its rotation.

Structurally, the 210-mm 21 cm Nb.W. 42. had a lot in common with the 15 cm Nb.W. 41 and mounted on a similar gun carriage. In the firing position, the mass of the installation was 1100 kg, in the stowed position - 605 kg.

The volley was fired within 8 seconds, reloading the mortar took about 90 seconds. The powder charge in the jet engine burned out in 1,8 s, accelerating the projectile to a speed of 320 m / s, which provided a flight range of 7850 m.

A jet mine, in the warhead of which contained up to 28,6 kg of cast TNT or amatol, had a strong destructive effect.


The German crew loads a 210 mm 21 cm Nb.W. 42

If necessary, there was the possibility of firing single shells, which made it easier to zero in. Also, with the help of special inserts, it was possible to fire 150-mm shells from a 15 cm Nb.W. six-barreled mortar. 41. If necessary, a crew of six could roll 21 cm Nebelwerfer 42 over short distances.


Five-barreled installations were actively used by the Germans until the last days of the war.

In total, more than 1550 towed MLRS of this type were produced. In terms of service, operational and combat characteristics, the 21 cm Nb.W. 42 can be considered the best German MLRS used during World War II.

Rocket mortar 28/32 cm Nebelwerfer 41


In the initial period of the war, during the combat use of 150-mm six-barreled rocket launchers, it became clear that their firing range in most cases during the provision of direct fire support was excessive when striking the enemy's front edge.

At the same time, it was highly desirable to increase the power of the missile warhead, since in a 150-mm jet mine, most of the internal volume was occupied by jet fuel. In this regard, two large-caliber rocket mines were created using a well-developed solid-fuel engine of a 150-mm projectile 15 cm Wurfgranete.


280 mm rocket mine

The 280-mm high-explosive fragmentation missile was loaded with 45,4 kg of explosives.

With a direct hit of ammunition in a brick building, it was completely destroyed, and the lethal effect of the fragments remained at a distance of more than 400 m.The warhead of a 320-mm incendiary rocket was filled with 50 liters of incendiary substance (crude oil) and had an explosive charge of explosives weighing 1 kg. An incendiary projectile, when used in populated areas or in wooded areas, could cause a fire on an area of ​​150-200 m².

Since the mass and drag of the new rocket projectiles were significantly higher than that of the 150 cm Wurfgranete 15-mm projectile, the firing range decreased by about three times. And it was 1950-2200 m with a maximum projectile speed of 150-155 m / s. This made it possible to fire only at targets on the line of contact and in the immediate rear of the enemy.


Calculation with launcher 28/32 cm Nebelwerfer 41

A simplified launcher was created to launch high-explosive and incendiary rockets.

A two-tier barrel truss was attached to a wheeled carriage with a fixed frame bed. The guides made it possible to load both 280-mm high-explosive (28 cm Wurfkorper Spreng) and 320-mm incendiary (32 cm Wurfkorper Flam) rockets.

The mass of the unloaded installation was 500 kg, which made it possible to freely roll it on the battlefield by the crew. Combat weight of the installation, depending on the type of missiles used: 1600-1650 kg. The horizontal firing sector was 22 °, the elevation angle was 45 °. A volley of 6 missiles took 10 s, and could be reloaded in 180 s.


During the war, the Germans discontinued production of 320-mm incendiary missiles due to their lack of effectiveness. In addition, the thin-walled bodies of the incendiary shells were not very reliable, they often leaked and collapsed on launch.

In the conditions of a total shortage of oil, at the final stage of hostilities, the enemy decided that it was not rational to use it to equip incendiary shells.

The 28/32 cm Nebelwerfer 41 towed launchers were produced 320 units. They were also sent to form rocket artillery battalions. 280-mm and 320-mm rockets could be used without towed launchers. For this it was necessary to dig out the starting position. Mines in boxes of 1–4 were located on leveled sloping areas of soil on top of wooden flooring.


Early release rockets at launch often did not come out of the seals and were fired along with them. Since wooden boxes greatly increased aerodynamic drag, the range of fire was significantly reduced. And there was a danger of destruction of their units.

The frames located in fixed positions were soon replaced by "heavy throwing devices" (schweres Wurfgerat). The seals-guides (four pieces) were installed on a light frame metal or wooden machine. The frame could be located at different angles, which made it possible to give the PU elevation angles from 5 to 42 degrees.

The combat weight of a wooden sWG 40 loaded with 280-mm missiles was 500 kg. With 320 mm ammunition - 488 kg. For the steel launcher sWG 41, these characteristics were 558 and 548 kg, respectively.


The volley was fired for 6 s, the reload speed was 180 s.

The sights were very primitive and included only a conventional protractor. Constant calculations for the maintenance of these simple installations did not stand out: any infantryman could conduct fire from sWG 40/41.

The first massive use of the 28/32 cm Nebelwerfer 41 installations took place on the Eastern Front during the German summer offensive in 1942. They were especially widely used during the siege of Sevastopol.

Because of the characteristic sound of flying rockets, they received the nicknames "creak" and "donkey" from Soviet soldiers. Another colloquial name is “Vanyusha” (by analogy with “Katyusha”).


Rocket mortar 15 cm Nb.W. 41 at the collection point of captured artillery weapons

Taking into account that the enemy widely used multiple launch rocket systems, they were often captured in good condition by our soldiers.


The organized use of German six-barreled mortars in the Red Army was organized at the beginning of 1943, when the first battery was formed.


To ensure the combat activities of units with trophy rocket launchers, the collection and centralized accounting of ammunition was organized. And the shooting tables were translated into Russian.


Apparently, our troops captured the five-barreled 210-mm 21 cm Nebelwerfer 42 mortars much less often than the 150-mm six-barreled 15 cm Wurfgranete.

It was not possible to find references to their regular use in the Red Army.

Separate trophy installations could supernaturally be attached to Soviet units of regimental and divisional artillery.

In the first half of 1942, in besieged Leningrad, the production of rocket mines began, according to their design, repeating the German 28 cm Wurfkorper Spreng and 32 cm Wurfkorper Flam.

They were launched from portable frame installations and were well suited for trench warfare.

The warheads of the M-28 high-explosive projectiles were equipped with a surrogate explosive based on ammonium nitrate. Incendiary mines M-32 were poured with combustible waste of oil refining, the igniter of the combustible mixture was a small charge of explosives placed in a glass of white phosphorus.

But few incendiary 320-mm rocket mines, which demonstrated low efficiency, were released. More than 280 units of 10000-mm high-explosive shells were produced in Leningrad.

Although the Germans did not release the 28/32 cm Nebelwerfer 41 towed launchers, they, along with 280 and 320-mm rocket mines, also became trophies of the Red Army and were used against the former owners. Much more, the Red Army captured frame installations designed to launch rockets from the ground.

For example, in a report submitted by the headquarters of the 347th Rifle Division to the operational department of the 10th Rifle Corps (1st Baltic Front) in March 1945, it is said about the regular use of 280 and 320-mm TMA (heavy propelling units) to shell enemy positions.

Since November 1944, each of the three rifle regiments of the 347th division had a "TMA battery". The installations were actively used as "nomadic guns" for one salvo with the subsequent change of the firing position.

It was noted that surprise strikes against German infantry units prepared for counterattacks were especially effective. In addition to tangible losses in manpower, the effect of TMA had a significant demoralizing effect on the enemy's personnel. The document indicates that during the period of defensive battles from November 1944 to March 1945, the division spent 320 captured missiles.

In March 1945, the command of the 49th Army (2nd Belorussian Front) issued an order in which the chiefs of artillery of corps and divisions were ordered to use captured rocket launchers to destroy enemy defense points, anti-tank and wire obstacles.

The last armed conflict in which the German "Fog-throwers" participated was the war on the Korean Peninsula.

Several dozen captured 15 cm Nb.W. 41 were at the disposal of the North Korean army and the Chinese people's volunteers.

With American air supremacy aviation and hilly terrain, the German six-barreled rocket launchers, which had great tactical mobility, performed better than the Soviet Katyushas.

The towed installations could be rolled by the forces of calculation and used horse-drawn traction. In addition, the very compact German MLRS was much easier to camouflage than the Soviet BM-13N rocket artillery combat vehicles on a cargo chassis.

In the DPRK, assessing the capabilities of this weapon, they launched the release of ammunition for rocket-propelled mortars.

Analyzing the results of hostilities in Korea, Soviet experts noted the high efficiency of this weapon in rough terrain.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Use of captured German pistols in the USSR
The use of German captured submachine guns in the USSR
The use of captured German rifles and machine guns in the USSR
The use of captured German machine guns in the USSR
The use of captured German tanks and self-propelled guns in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War
Use of captured "Panthers" and "Tigers" at the final stage of the Great Patriotic War
The use of captured German self-propelled guns in the Red Army at the final stage of World War II
The use of German armored vehicles in the postwar period
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  1. Toucan
    Toucan 18 February 2021 05: 07
    +3
    German mortars, including six-barreled ones, were a very perfect and formidable weapon for their time, and our soldiers, when captured, quite justifiably tried to use them against their former owners. I did not know that 150-mm rocket launchers were used in Korea.
    1. Civil
      Civil 18 February 2021 07: 30
      +2
      In the video of the war in Syria, the parties actively used artisanal rocket launchers, very similar to the German towed RM ... maybe we should remember about them again?

      1. OgnennyiKotik
        OgnennyiKotik 18 February 2021 08: 45
        +2
        There is a Chinese 107 mm MLRS Type-63, it is used everywhere in the Middle East. Karabakh was also lit up. A very effective system, especially on pickup trucks.

        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 18 February 2021 08: 53
          +3
          Quote: OgnennyiKotik
          There is a Chinese 107 mm MLRS Type-63

          If I am not mistaken, has a Soviet ancestor?
          1. OgnennyiKotik
            OgnennyiKotik 18 February 2021 09: 00
            +8
            BM-14, but there is 140 mm, the Chinese have it easier. There was an RPU-14 version for the Airborne Forces
      2. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 09: 37
        +5
        Quote: Civil
        the sides actively used artisanal rocket launchers, very similar to the German towed RM ... maybe we should remember about them again?

        But the picture shows a banal self-made mortar (or a mortar, if you want ...)! What does the MLRS have to do with it?
    2. Incvizitor
      Incvizitor 26 February 2021 03: 06
      0
      Here are some more captured German SPGs.
      Sturmpanzer I bison as far as I know
      1. Incvizitor
        Incvizitor 26 February 2021 03: 08
        0
        This kind of Stug 10.5
        1. Incvizitor
          Incvizitor 26 February 2021 03: 10
          +1
          What a wonderful self-propelled mortar
          1. Incvizitor
            Incvizitor 26 February 2021 03: 13
            +1
            Humeli 150 mm.
        2. Bongo
          26 February 2021 06: 36
          +2
          Quote: Incvizitor
          This kind of Stug 10.5

          No, this is an early modification of the StuG III.
          1. Incvizitor
            Incvizitor 26 February 2021 12: 42
            0
            And which 75, how were they?

            I thought at first "cigarette butt" 105 mm now I see that it is smaller and shorter.
  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 18 February 2021 05: 10
    +5
    However, in the second half of the war, the Red Army also abandoned company mortars. And the remaining 50 mm mines were converted into hand grenades.
    According to the recollections of our veterans, 50 mm mines and without alteration could, in case of great need, use grenades like this: "Hit a mine with a shank on something solid (remove from the fuse), and then throw it towards the enemy." True, the percentage of operation in this case was far from one hundred.
    Fortunately for the allied armies, the use of toxic substances against them did not take place.
    Or, fortunately for the Germans, it seems like the Germans were directly told that if something went wrong, they themselves would be flooded with chemistry.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 18 February 2021 07: 22
      +13
      Or, fortunately for the Germans, it seems like the Germans were directly told that if something went wrong, they themselves would be flooded with chemistry.

      On this subject, we made a film "Five from the Sky" about our reconnaissance group, which was tasked with obtaining one "sample" of a chemical projectile with an agent, to present it to our allies. And those in this case promised without fail to convey to Hitler that in the case of the use of OV on the Eastern Front, all the power of the chemical. Allied weapons will fall on Germany.
      Still from the film. On the right is our guy.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 18 February 2021 08: 56
        +9
        Quote: Sea Cat
        We made a film on this topic "Five from Heaven"
        Wow, there is a real "Troika" in the frame! But the film was from 1969, then instead of German technology, the devil was already filming.
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 18 February 2021 09: 15
        +5
        Hi Konstantin! There was also a 1983 film on a similar topic * At the Dangerous Line *.
        hi
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 18 February 2021 09: 38
          +4
          Hello, Sergey. hi
          I have not seen this film, alas.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 18 February 2021 09: 43
            +4
            A good film, there will be an opportunity, look. In short, about our scouts and chemical weapons. One of the strong episodes when the Germans conduct tests and our prisoners in uniform attack their positions. * Thirty-fours *, infantrymen, and then gases and ... Yes, and the actors were good. hi
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 09: 28
      +2
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      And the remaining 50 mm mines were converted into hand grenades.

      Not only ... into grenades! But also anti-personnel mines!
  3. pmkemcity
    pmkemcity 18 February 2021 05: 24
    +1
    Middeldorf notes in his book that due to the shortage of explosives, there was no massive use of MLRS in the German army, and in this regard, they did not have the same significance as our Katyushas.
  4. Catfish
    Catfish 18 February 2021 06: 31
    +13
    Thanks to Sergey for continuing the series! hi
    Everything, as always, is detailed and with rich photographic material, it is easy to read and in one breath. good
    I would risk running ahead, but I don’t think that the equipment in the photographs below was massively captured and used by our troops just as massively.
    Just as an illustration to the article how the Germans tried to "self-drive" their Nebelferfer.



    But what it is, I'm sorry, I never understood
    yal. Can anyone know what this system is?
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 February 2021 08: 07
      +9
      Thank you Sergey for another interesting topic!
      Good morning Constantine.
      I also could not define this miracle! But Chuika says that he is drawn to the French spirit.

      In turn, I'll throw in a few more combinations of the gloomy Teutonic genius and French 81mm mortars. Moreover, in a combination of salvo fire systems.


      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 16: 38
        +6
        Vladislav! The first 2 shots are indeed a 16-barreled mortar launcher, but the third shot is, in my opinion, an 3-mm MLRS, created by the Germans on the basis of the Soviet BM-80 ...

        At the end of the last century, it seems, Belgium also created a 120-mm 4-barreled mortar installation ... In the internet there is also such a "wunderwaffle" ...

        Signed as a German 6-barrel 50mm mortar ... perhaps a casemate mortar ...
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 February 2021 17: 07
          +4
          Perhaps it is!
        2. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 19: 40
          +3
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          16-barreled mortar installation

    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 18 February 2021 08: 35
      +7
      It looks like it was "Caleopa" taken from a Sherman. In the background there are Americans.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 18 February 2021 09: 06
        +10
        Vlad, hello. hi
        A couple more photos.

      2. Avior
        Avior 18 February 2021 23: 00
        +5
        probably Calliope, vertical aiming with the barrel of the Sherman gun, the same system was left, only shifted to the end of the barrel
    4. Constanty
      Constanty 18 February 2021 08: 53
      +12
      Yes - this is the American "Caliope" on SdKfz 251 / D.




      The Americans often installed their T34 Caliope on various "carriers", and sometimes even on the M3 37 mm anti-tank guns.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 18 February 2021 09: 04
        +13
        Exactly. Thanks, namesake. smile

    5. The comment was deleted.
    6. BAI
      BAI 18 February 2021 09: 58
      +7
      Upper part - American MLRS "T34 Calliope"
      Bottom - German SD.KFZ. 251
      Initially, it was planned like this:
    7. Crane
      Crane 18 February 2021 10: 19
      +6
      This is an American Calliope on the chassis of a fascist armored personnel carrier.
    8. zyablik.olga
      zyablik.olga 18 February 2021 12: 49
      +5
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Thanks to Sergey for continuing the series!
      Everything, as always, is detailed and with rich photographic material, it is easy to read and in one breath.

      Konstantin, hello! I remember that Seryozha several years ago already did a cycle on American, British, German and Soviet jet systems of World War II. He himself had already fought off, after the night shift all day on his feet, had supper and sleep. So, today he will not join the noble donors.
  5. Sergey M. Karasev
    Sergey M. Karasev 18 February 2021 06: 37
    +5
    Early release rockets at launch often did not come out of the seals and were fired along with them. Since wooden boxes greatly increased aerodynamic drag, the range of fire was significantly reduced. And there was a danger of destruction of their units.

    The same problem was with our early M-30s launched from the ground from the capping. Sometimes the whole capping started with all the contents. With a successful hit in this case, the effect was overwhelming, but this is with a successful hit, which did not always happen.
    1. Andy
      Andy 18 February 2021 07: 55
      +6
      the Germans said that the Russians were shooting sheds. I also remembered this fact about our PCs
  6. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 18 February 2021 08: 15
    +7
    Thank you, Sergey. The cycle is very interesting. We can only add that for the characteristic sound of a salvo from the "nebelwerf", our soldiers christened it "Ishak".
    1. Toucan
      Toucan 18 February 2021 09: 03
      +2
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Thank you, Sergey. The cycle is very interesting. We can only add that for the characteristic sound of a salvo from the "nebelwerf", our soldiers christened it "Ishak".

      So the author writes about it:
      Because of the characteristic sound of flying rockets, they received the nicknames "creak" and "donkey" from Soviet soldiers. Another colloquial name is “Vanyusha” (by analogy with “Katyusha”).
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 18 February 2021 09: 45
        +1
        Oh, I'm sorry. I missed it like that. I focused more on those data and figures.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 18 February 2021 10: 19
      +5
      Americans nicknamed him "Moaning Mickey".
  7. Petrik66
    Petrik66 18 February 2021 09: 38
    +2
    Perfume actively used the Chinese type 63. simple, reliable. And they fired at the bases from the guides.
  8. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 09: 49
    +4
    There is one "catch" associated with the German "six-barreled guns"! It has always been noted in the articles that their caliber is 150 mm! But for some time other figures - 158 mm - began to appear in the articles!

    On the breech of each barrel, mine grippers and pull-out spring contacts are mounted. On the front clip there is a bar with a control platform for setting the control level when checking the sighting devices. On the right side of the block there is a plug box for connecting a seven-core cable. Three guide strips are fixed on the inner surface of each barrel. The trunk diameter along the strips is equal to 158,5 + 0,4 mm.
    The mortar was fired 158,5-mm high-explosive rocket and smoke mines weighing 35 kg each, stability in flight of which was provided by a kind of turbine that had 28 nozzle holes around the circumference with a minimum diameter of 5,5 mm, inclined at an angle of 14 °.
    1. DED_peer_DED
      DED_peer_DED 18 February 2021 14: 18
      +5
      circumference 28 nozzle holes with a minimum diameter of 5,5 mm, inclined at an angle of 14 °


      This is where there is a transition of the diameter of the projectile to a smaller one and these "holes" are located - microduses.
      I felt with my hands and looked with my eyes
  9. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 10: 18
    +2
    German 28 cm Wurfkorper Spreng and 32 cm Wurfkorper Flam.
    In February 1943, the Wehrmacht began to receive a 300-mm rocket-propelled high-explosive mine 30 cm Wurfkorper Wurfgranate Spreng (30cm WK.Spr.42), created taking into account the combat experience of using 280/320 mm rockets. This jet mine weighing 127 kg and a length of 1248 mm had a flight range of 4550 m, i.e. twice as much as the previous ammunition!
    Shooting with 300-mm eres was supposed to be carried out from a new six-shot launcher 30 cm Nebelwerfer 42 (30 cm WK Spr. 42). Installation weight - 1100 kg, maximum elevation angle - 45 degrees, horizontal firing angle - 22,5 degrees ...

    Charging 30 cm Nebelwerfer 42

    Subsequently, this installation was replaced by the more advanced Raketenwerfer 56. The 30 cm Raketenwerfer 56 launcher was mounted on a converted gun carriage from a 50 mm anti-tank gun 5 cm PaK 38. The aiming angle was from -3 to +45 degrees vertically, and 22 degrees horizontally. With the inserts of the 30 cm Raketenwerfer 56, it was possible to fire 150 mm shells of 15 cm Wurfgranate 41! There was also the possibility of firing 300-mm shells from the ground. Ammunition was loaded into capping 280/320 mm rocket mines using inserts. The mass of the installation loaded with missiles reached 738 kg.
  10. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 10: 32
    +2
    In addition to the "traditional" mortars, the Wehrmacht used 89/200 mm rod bombers on the "Eastern" front ...


  11. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 10: 40
    +3
    In the summer and autumn of 1944, there were cases of successful combat use of light mortars in street battles. Captured mortars were installed on the upper armor of T-70 light tanks and were used to combat enemy infantry that had settled in attics and rooftops.
    And where are our smart Jews? After all, they do not miss the opportunity to mention the 60-mm mortars on the "Merkava"! Like, this is their "priority"! negative
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 18 February 2021 11: 54
      +8
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      And where are our smart Jews? After all, they do not miss the opportunity to mention the 60-mm mortars on the "Merkava"! Like, this is their "priority"!

      pfff .... 1917th year, Mark-4 Tadpole with Stokes' mortar))
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 12: 21
        +3
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        1917th year, Mark-4 Tadpole with Stokes' mortar))

        I know this picture ... winked I hoped they wouldn't remember him ... it turns out, in vain! request
        1. Richard
          Richard 18 February 2021 16: 30
          +8
          With rare exceptions, mortars of the First World War were trench weapons and were not suitable for mobile warfare. German rifled mortars had satisfactory marksmanship, but were too expensive. The mines fired from smooth-bore mortars had a huge dispersion, or even flew, tumbling.
          It was only in 1924 that the French engineer Brandt was able to obtain for the first time a sample of a "correctly flying feathered projectile" - the prototype of a modern mine.
          By 1927, Brandt's firm had established the production of the world's first 81-mm mortars, created according to the scheme of an imaginary triangle. The kinematic diagram of an imaginary triangle - three hinges and two links. The third link is imaginary. This link is the pound on which the mortar is mounted. Most of the escort mortars were manufactured according to this scheme. Structurally, it looks like this: the trunk is pivotally connected to a biped, resting in the ground, and a plate, also resting in the ground. The biped and the slab are not connected to each other.
          Brandt's mortars had a smooth barrel and fired feathered mines. The charge ignition scheme was developed by the English engineer Stokes. The ignition and combustion of the main propellant charge according to this scheme occurs in a closed volume (in the mine stabilizer tube) at a pressure of 900–1500 kg / cm2. Powder gases break through the shell of the sleeve and burst into the space behind the mine. The very same ignition occurs by self-pricking a mine, lowered into the barrel on the sting of the striker at the bottom of the channel (Fig. 1).
          pic.1

          Therefore, such mortars were called the Stokes - Brandt system. Abroad, they were often called infantry escort mortars. Indeed, the Stokes - Brandt 81 mm mortars were easily and quickly disassembled into three parts - the barrel, tripod and base plate.
          1. Richard
            Richard 18 February 2021 16: 34
            +8
            Within just a couple of years, the Stokes-Brandt 81-mm mortars spread almost all over the world. Our artillery control of the Red Army failed or failed to purchase them in France. But in October 1929, a Soviet-Chinese armed conflict began on the Chinese Eastern Railway. During the fighting, units of the Red Army captured several dozen Chinese 81-mm Stokes - Brandt mortars and hundreds of mines for them. In November - December 1929, captured mortars were sent to Moscow and Leningrad for study.
            Naturally, the first thing the Chinese mortars did was get into Group D. At the very first acquaintance with them, N. A. Dorovlev appreciated the ingenious simplicity of the product. Without hesitation, he abandoned the dull scheme, although work on such systems was still carried out for some time by inertia. Within several months, the "D" group developed a system of three mortars of calibers 82, 107 and 120 mm according to the scheme of an imaginary triangle (or rather, copied a Chinese mortar)
            Working drawings of the 82-mm mortar were sent by Dorovlev to the Artillery Directorate on November 29, 1931.
            Why did the Group D mortars have a caliber of 82 mm, and not 81,4 mm, like the Stokes-Brandt mortars in the rest of the world?
            Dorovlev substantiated the difference in calibers as follows: the mines of battalion mortars of foreign armies could be used by our mortarmen when firing from our mortars, while our mines were not suitable for firing from foreign mortars
  12. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 18 February 2021 11: 02
    +5
    At the same time, the Germans were greatly impressed by the Soviet regimental 120-mm PM-38 mortar.
    In the future, the Germans used the captured mortar very actively.

    The Soviet PM-38 was so successful that the German command ordered to copy it.

    A German mortar known as the Gr.W. 42 (German Granatwerfer 42) from January 1943 was produced at the Waffenwerke Brünn plant in Brno.

    The Wehrmacht got acquainted with 120-mm mortars in France ... (Brandt Mle 35) "Frenchman" appeared before the Soviet PM-38 ... Due to the slowness of the French in the production of new weapons in the 30s, the Germans got 120-mm mortars "roll yes a little" ... (ten or two in pieces ...)! This number was not enough for the Wehrmacht to evaluate this caliber ... Some "armament specialists" in their articles declare that the Soviet PM-38 was "written off" from the French Mle 35 ..., but no fewer authors (and maybe more ...) refute this opinion ....!
  13. Alien From
    Alien From 18 February 2021 11: 24
    +3
    Thanks to the author, the article and photos are great! I look forward to continuing hi
  14. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 18 February 2021 11: 35
    +2
    "Agitation mines" is how?
    1. Alex013
      Alex013 18 February 2021 12: 16
      +5
      With propaganda leaflets
    2. Bormanxnumx
      Bormanxnumx 18 February 2021 12: 26
      +8
      Instead of an explosive charge, there is a bundle of leaflets. After the shot, on the descending branch of the trajectory, it is pushed out of the mine by a powder charge initiated by a remote tube.
      1. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 18 February 2021 12: 28
        +1
        What a beauty ... Thank you!
  15. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 18 February 2021 13: 17
    0
    Fortunately for the allied armies, the use of toxic substances against them did not take place.

    It was the army that was equipped with personal protective equipment (gas masks) and would have suffered limited losses, but to receive in response the bombing of the Reich with bombs with toxic substances - which would be a disaster for Germany. This is common knowledge.
    1. Toucan
      Toucan 18 February 2021 14: 04
      +3
      Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
      Fortunately for the allied armies, the use of toxic substances against them did not take place.

      Just the army was equipped with personal protective equipment (gas masks) and would have suffered limited losses ...

      Gas masks capable of reliably holding nerve agents and protective overalls from these poisons appeared only in the post-war period.
      1. Dmitry V.
        Dmitry V. 18 February 2021 14: 24
        0
        Quote: Tucan
        Gas masks capable of reliably holding nerve agents and protective overalls from these poisons appeared only in the post-war period.


        What is the radius of destruction of a projectile or an aerial bomb with sarin?
        Unstable nerve agents such as sarin are designed to be killed immediately, as their effects are limited in time. In fact, the main function of chemical weapons with sarin as an active ingredient is to generate as much aerosol as possible (a cloud of finely dispersed droplets).

        https://ru.bellingcat.com/materialy/2017/04/21/anatomy-sarin-part-1/
        some data on the old US chemical arsenal has been leaked to the public. This relationship has been carefully studied in large-scale field trials at pilot sites, resulting in the optimal coefficient for aerosol formation. For example, the American MC-1 chemical bomb contained 100 kg of sarin, and the weight of its fuse was 6,8 kg.

        That is, the aerosol can spread from 70-150 m within a radius of damage up to 300 m in the direction of the wind. The soil will be contaminated. But after a while, subject to safety measures, without direct skin contact with the contaminated soil, troops in their usual form can proceed through the contaminated area - without OZK.
        A regular raincoat and gas mask will provide good protection against unstable NPS.
        Soman, according to its characteristics, belongs to chemical warfare agents and has a nerve effect. The use of a soman in battle is carried out using fragmentation shells. When such ammunition explodes, the poison breaks up into small droplets, forming a cloud, like from an aerosol.
        In the warm season, soman quickly evaporates, turning into gas. In the cold period, it condenses and is stored for a long time in the contaminated area. At the site of the rupture of the shell, a pit is formed, saturated with soman, where the soil remains poisonous for a long time.
        Soman easily poisons a person through the respiratory tract, but his ability to penetrate the skin is low.


        You are confusing it with the post-war type VX persistent nerve agents.
        1. Toucan
          Toucan 18 February 2021 15: 03
          +2
          Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
          You are confusing it with the post-war type VX persistent nerve agents.

          The then gas masks did not hold Sarin securely, and in terms of toxicity, Soman is quite comparable to the binary VX.
          1. Dmitry V.
            Dmitry V. 18 February 2021 15: 41
            0
            Quote: Tucan
            The then gas masks did not hold Sarin securely, and in terms of toxicity, Soman is quite comparable to the binary VX.

            What are you composing?
            What activated charcoal began to put more? :))
            Or put thicker cardboard in a gas mask box?
            The absorption of gaseous toxic substances occurs in the layer of the charge (granular activated carbon)

            What is the difference between the same filter box GP-5 and MT-4?


            I had a GP-5 since childhood - a thing!
            The PMG in the army of the combined arms "Nerekhta" - the EO-18K box - is slightly better than the GP-5, the EO-62K is similar.
            All conditionally fit against NPS.
      2. Dmitry V.
        Dmitry V. 18 February 2021 14: 55
        +2
        Quote: Tucan
        Gas masks capable of reliably holding nerve agents and protective overalls from these poisons appeared only in the post-war period.


        if for 2 minutes a group of people continuously inhale sarin in the form of an aerosol or vapor and having a concentration of 35 mg per cubic meter of air, approximately 50% of them will die

        Sarin in the form of vapor or aerosol can penetrate the skin. This requires a MUCH LARGE concentration and exposure time. The lethal dose (LD50) in this case will be from 6000 to 12000 mg × min / m3 with a much longer exposure (from 30 minutes to 6 hours)


        So, for unstable NPS during WWII, the presence of OZK is not critical (although it is desirable, of course, in order to protect against droplets of the substance during an explosion of an ammunition), since the absorption of aerosol through the skin requires high concentrations and a lot of time - at least sufficient to leave the affected area.
        In addition, shelling the attackers with military nerve agents is not very effective, they can leave the contaminated territory, but for the defenders, poisonous substances are a problem, an alternative to leave the territory during an attack or die.
        So the author exaggerates the significance of the "special effectiveness" of German chemical warfare agents, for it was the Germans who had to defend themselves in 1944-1945.
        1. Bongo
          19 February 2021 03: 50
          +5
          Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
          So the author exaggerates the significance of the "special effectiveness" of German chemical warfare agents, because it was the Germans who had to defend themselves in 1944-1945.

          Dmitry Vladimirovich, I am not a military chemist, but due to circumstances I received additional training in terms of protection against weapons of mass destruction. So, what about "exaggerating", I can assure you you are a little mistaken. I am well informed about the combat capabilities of the nerve poisons that the Germans had, as well as how they differed from mustard gas, lewisite and phosgene that the USSR, USA and Great Britain had.
          Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
          What is the radius of destruction of a projectile or an aerial bomb with sarin?

          And what caliber of the projectile and the mass of the bomb are we talking about? In addition, you cannot fail to know that the use of all types of BOV implies massiveness.
          Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
          So, for unstable NPS during WWII, the presence of OZK is not critical (although it is desirable, of course, in order to protect against droplets of the substance during an explosion of an ammunition), since the absorption of aerosol through the skin requires high concentrations and a lot of time - at least sufficient to leave the affected area.
          In addition, shelling the attackers with military nerve agents is not very effective, they can leave the contaminated territory, but for the defenders, poisonous substances are a problem, an alternative to leave the territory during an attack or die.

          Everything you write is partly fair, but exaggerated. The method of using, say, Zarin and Zoman is very different. The first is quite applicable for shelling the attacking battle formations and the enemy's forward edge shortly before the attack of own troops. At positive air temperatures, Zarin, due to its volatility, does not form persistent foci of infection, and measured in half an hour this area is safe.
          Soman, on the contrary, creates very persistent foci of infection and is very well absorbed into the paint coating of equipment and weapons. Accordingly, it is used differently - mainly to constrain the actions of the enemy.
          Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
          What are you composing?

          In this case, you are not entirely competent, the composition of the charge in pre-war and post-war gas masks has changed a lot. In addition, you do not take into account the level of toxicity of toxic substances of different generations.
          1. Dmitry V.
            Dmitry V. 19 February 2021 14: 34
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            In this case, you are not entirely competent, the composition of the charge in pre-war and post-war gas masks has changed a lot.


            Good day, dear Sergey.

            For me, as an engineer, "changed a lot" is not a term.
            Is there more specific information about the change in the composition of the charge (activated carbon) in MT-4 and post-war?
            According to my data - changes in terms of adding an anti-aerosol filter and obtaining a certain granularity of activated carbon - the efficiency slightly increased, but not due to the introduction of additional elements into the charge, but due to an increase in the porosity of activated carbon particles, but due to this, the weight of the filter box was reduced, and the composition - activated carbon is not changed.
            I would be grateful if there is more detailed information.

            Quote: Bongo
            due to the circumstances received additional training in terms of protection against weapons of mass destruction

            Like everyone who served in the USSR army. And also marching in gas masks - what else will we remember the pleasure?

            As for the army is not ready for chemical attacks - it's just not knowing the issue.

            You should be familiar with the term IPP - an individual anti-chemical package and that it was created in the 30s and relied on every soldier of the Red Army.

            In 1938, due to the fact that more effective OV (second generation) were created, a new anti-chemical package was adopted to supply the Red Army.

            And the exercises of anti-chemical protection against sarin zoman took place in the USSR before the war - the USSR was seriously preparing for a chemical war with Germany, not only in the Red Army, but also in the Civil Defense.

            a little application here https://tov-sergeant.livejournal.com/39967.html

            https://www.himza.ru/tree/tree.php?id=218
            The Red Army was equipped with reliable personal protective equipment. These items included gas masks, protective stockings, capes and gloves, an individual chemical bag (IPP), and impregnated uniforms. This PKhZ combat kit was intended for everyday use by every soldier and commander of the Red Army.

            The personnel of the chemical troops were provided with protective suits (overalls) with rubber gloves and boots, protective aprons and oxygen isolating devices and devices KIP-5, IP-3.


            Sergei was disappointing me ...
            I thought you were better informed historically about the PCP of the RKKA
            1. Bongo
              20 February 2021 03: 39
              +3
              Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
              Sergei was disappointing me ...

              Dmitry Vladimirovich, in order to "disappoint", I first had to "charm". I assure you, I have no desire to "charm" anyone on the site. No.
              Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
              And the exercises of anti-chemical protection against sarin zoman took place in the USSR before the war - the USSR was seriously preparing for a chemical war with Germany,

              How can you excuse me if our experts introduce nerve-paralytic BOV only after the end of World War II?
              Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
              In 1938, due to the fact that more effective OV (second generation) were created, a new anti-chemical package was adopted to supply the Red Army.

              yes Designed to protect against skin blisters.
              Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
              As for the army is not ready for chemical attacks - it's just not knowing the issue.

              Where did I state this? The armed forces of the anti-Hitler coalition were unprepared for the massive use of new nerve agents.
              Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
              Like everyone who served in the USSR army. And also marching in gas masks - what else will we remember the pleasure?

              Where did I write about conscript service?
              Quote: Dmitry Vladimirovich
              For me as an engineer ...

              Dmitry Vladimirovich, I respect your knowledge and life experience. But with this phrase of yours, you sometimes put yourself in an awkward position. Probably it is not worth it to trump your engineering education indiscriminately. No. The specialist is like a flux, and its completeness is one-sided. Nobody knows everything. If you wish, I can recall a couple of cases when after the phrase "For me, as for an engineer", you turned out to be, to put it mildly, not quite right.
          2. Dmitry V.
            Dmitry V. 19 February 2021 14: 42
            0
            Quote: Bongo
            Accordingly, it is used differently - mainly to constrain the actions of the enemy.


            Rikaz on the reorganization of the chemical protection troops of the Red Army
            № 0285
            13 1941 of August

            The brutalized German fascists are intensively preparing for the use of toxic substances against the Red Army.

            By using this monstrous weapon, they intend to catch us by surprise, cause confusion and thereby break the staunch resistance of our units.

            To prevent this, it is necessary to reliably organize the chemical protection of all troops and to bring the means of protection, degassing, chemical reconnaissance and observation in the troops into proper condition.

            I order:

            1. Reorganize the degassing battalions into chemical defense battalions in accordance with the attached state, transferring them to the direct subordination of the armies, at the rate of one per army.

            The General Staff of the Red Army shall establish the sequence of reorganization of chemical defense battalions along the fronts.

            2. To form an additional 10 battalions of chemical protection at the disposal of the Main Military-Chemical Directorate of the Red Army, as a reserve of the Supreme Command, deployed at the direction of the General Staff.

            3. In rifle and cavalry divisions, the chemical companies existing under state No. 04/409 should be reorganized into chemical protection companies, according to the attached state.

            ...
            7. In the shortest possible time to eliminate the careless attitude to the preservation of chemical property items. The commanders and commissars of all units should check the condition of chemical protection equipment in the entrusted units and ensure that each soldier and commander has serviceable gas masks, as well as a set of protective stockings, capes, overalls and degassing equipment in each unit according to the established standards, in every possible way popularizing among the broad Red Army masses serious importance of chemical defense.

            8. Military councils of armies and fronts and the Main Military-Chemical Directorate of the Red Army to take measures to provide all units with chemical protection means adopted for service. Thoroughly investigate all the facts of irresponsible attitude to the preservation of chemical property, especially gas masks, bringing the perpetrators to the strictest responsibility.

            http://armedman.ru/dokumentyi/prikazyi-0065-0066-0285-o-himicheskoy-zashhite-krasnoy-armii-i-himicheskih-voyskah.html


            Very valuable information was obtained by chemical reconnaissance units in the territory liberated from the enemy. So, during the Debrecen operation, chemical reconnaissance detachments of the 46th Army (head of the chemical department, Colonel B.D.Pashkov) on October 19, 1944, on the northwestern outskirts of the city of Szeged, a warehouse was found in which barrels with mustard gas and chemical land mines equipped with it were stored ...
          3. Dmitry V.
            Dmitry V. 19 February 2021 14: 57
            0
            Quote: Bongo
            Accordingly, it is used differently - mainly to constrain the actions of the enemy.


            the successive defeats of enemy troops on the Soviet-German front after they were surrounded at Stalingrad led to an even greater increase in the danger of unleashing a chemical war by the fascists. Moreover, this danger became especially real after the defeat of the German troops at Kursk. Intelligence data of all types indicated a sharp intensification of the activities of the fascist command to carry out PCP measures and prepare for the use of chemical weapons. The enemy troops began to receive new gas masks and chemical reconnaissance devices.

            https://topwar.ru/99793-k-primeneniyu-fashistami-himicheskogo-oruzhiya-gotovilis-vsyu-voynu.html

            In 1943, new, simpler degassing means were put into service: a degassing kit for degassing weapons and material parts of the DK-1, a group degassing set of the GDK, a suspended degassing set for degassing the area with bulk degassers PDM-2, a degassing kit for degassing uniforms and equipment DK-OS. At the same time, PDM-2 and DK-OS began to be manufactured directly in the troops according to the drawings sent out. And although these devices were imperfect, they nevertheless significantly increased the capabilities of the units to eliminate the consequences of possible chemical attacks by the enemy. In the deployed sanitary and degassing points, during the day, if necessary, it was possible to process 30-40 percent of weapons, 20-25 percent or more of the uniforms available in the front troops.

            So, in the troops of the 1st Ukrainian Front alone, during the Berlin operation, there were up to 750 wagons of chemical equipment. The approach of all supply agencies to the troops, the allocation of mobile depots and flyovers ensured the uninterrupted supply of formations and units with chemical property in conditions of rapid maneuvering actions.


            Both in the British Army and in the US Army during the war, individual filtering masks were standard equipment.
            So there would be no catastrophic impact of German chemical weapons.
            The troops, the closer to the end of the war, the more they expected that the desperate Germans would use poisonous substances.
          4. Dmitry V.
            Dmitry V. 19 February 2021 15: 14
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            In this case, you are not entirely competent, the composition of the charge in pre-war and post-war gas masks has changed a lot.


            FKKO code: 7 67 911 11 49 4 activated carbon from filter-absorbing boxes of gas masks, contaminated with arsenic and its compounds:
            Waste composition:
            Activated carbon - 67%, arsenites - 20% (oxygen-containing arsenic ions in oxidation state +3. They are salts of arsenous acid H3AsO3), mechanical impurities - 13% (dust).

            Pay attention - activated carbon.
            Rather, you are not very familiar with the question of the composition.
            1. Bongo
              20 February 2021 04: 02
              +2
              Especially for you, I found my previous works on the topic of BOV:
              https://topwar.ru/104865-himicheskie-strahi.html

              https://topwar.ru/104948-prover-himicheskie-strahi-chast-2.html

              https://topwar.ru/39261-boevye-otravlyayuschie-veschestva-ne-letalnogo-deystviya.html
          5. Mister X
            Mister X 22 February 2021 09: 30
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            On September 1, 1939, the troops had 4624 mortars. As of June 1, 1941, there were 11 mortars in the Wehrmacht's infantry divisions.

            hi
            Let me add
            The presence of 8-cm mortars in the German army (pcs.)
            1.09.1939g-4624
            1.04.1940g-6796
            1.06.1941g-11767
            1.10.1944g-14900
            1.01.1945g-16454

            Production of mortars 8-cm GrW 34 (pcs)
            1939-1523
            1940-4380
            1941-4230
            1942-9780
            1943-19588
            1944-26341
            1945- 5788

            The cost of one Granatwerfer 34 mortar (8-cm GrW 34) was 810 Reichsmarks.

            The significant difference in the availability and production of 8-cm GrW 34 mortars is explained by their large losses.
            So, only from June 22, 1941 to September 1, 1942, 3466 mortars were lost, all of which were on the Eastern Front.
          6. Mister X
            Mister X 22 February 2021 09: 36
            +1
            Quote: Bongo
            The ammunition included fragmentation and smoke mines.
            A bouncing fragmentation mine was created in 1939

            Mines for target designation were also developed.


  16. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 18 February 2021 13: 32
    +2
    Imitation of allies' nebelwefers.
    British "Land Mattress" (applied in Sicily in 1943 36 and 24 guides)

    Compilation of 3 kg warhead and rocket engine from aircraft RS.
  17. DED_peer_DED
    DED_peer_DED 18 February 2021 14: 10
    +4
    I was holding such a shell in my hands.

    In the 90s, several of these were found in a hollow near the city.
    The difference in diameters (seen in the picture) is the basis of their jet propulsion.
    A plurality of jet engine microduses are located around the ring. Some authors write that they were made slightly offset, i.e. provided the axial rotation of the projectile for greater accuracy.
  18. Mister X
    Mister X 18 February 2021 23: 08
    +2
    When firing from a 150-mm six-barreled mortar, the shells gave a clearly visible trail of smoke, giving out the location of the firing position.

    Considering that the German MLRS were a priority target for our artillery, this was their big drawback.
    Author: Linnik Sergey




    In order to increase the mobility and security of the calculation, a self-propelled 1942cm MLRS Panzerwerfer 15 Auf.Sf or Sd.Kfz.42 / 4 with a combat weight of 1 tons was created on the basis of the semi-tracked Opel Maultier truck. The launcher consisted of ten trunks arranged in two rows, connected in one block by two clips and a casing.
    1. Bongo
      19 February 2021 03: 52
      +2
      Hey! I even know where you got these photos from. wink
      1. Mister X
        Mister X 19 February 2021 08: 03
        +3
        Quote: Bongo
        Hi!

        Hi!
        Quote: Bongo
        I even know where you got these photos from.

        Really!
        And the text? wink
        1. zyablik.olga
          zyablik.olga 19 February 2021 13: 31
          +1
          Quote: Mister X
          Really!
          And the text?

          Hello hello
          Oddly enough, I also remember where the text and photos came from ... lol
          1. Mister X
            Mister X 19 February 2021 15: 44
            +1
            Quote: zyablik.olga
            Hello hello

            Hello, Olenka!
            Quote: zyablik.olga
            Oddly enough, I also remember where the text and photos came from ...

            Show me !?
            And I was sure that these were unique text and photos;)
  19. Incvizitor
    Incvizitor 26 February 2021 02: 39
    0
    The Soviets also had their own large MLRS calatushka bm 31-12 310 mm.