Military Review

Praetorians. Creators of the Roman emperors

168

"Proclamation of Claudius Emperor by Praetorians", artist L. Alma-Tadema


Considering all history humanity, then few military units have ever had such an impact on world history as the Praetorians. Historians call them the first bodyguards in history. But they guarded the most powerful people of their time - the Roman emperors. And the Roman Empire, during its dawn, replaced almost the entire world.

At the same time, the elitism of these units and their high number over time made the Praetorians an independent element of the domestic and foreign policy of Rome.

They not only protected, but sometimes controlled the leaders of the most powerful empire of their time. Overthrew some rulers and enthroned others. Ultimately, this was the reason for the complete disbandment of the Praetorian Guard.

Creation of the Praetorian Guard


In the era of civil wars in the empire, praetorians were called elite soldiers who served as the bodyguards of the warlord. At the same time, in a combat situation, they also performed the role of a well-trained reserve that could decide the outcome of the battle. Many famous Roman military leaders had their own praetorian cohorts. For example, Guy Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, Mark Antony, Guy Caesar Octavian and others.

After the end of the civil wars, Emperor Octavian Augustus retained all Praetorian cohorts belonging to him at that time, making them one of the elements of his rule. It was Octavian Augustus who created the Praetorian Guard - the personal guard of the emperor, which was devoted directly to him, and not to Rome.

In the Praetorian Guard created by Octavian Augustus, which could also be called the personal army of the emperor, there were 9 cohorts of 500 warriors in each (perhaps their number was already greater then). The composition of the cohorts was mixed: they included both infantrymen and horsemen. Initially, only three cohorts were located directly on the territory of Rome. The rest were stationed in the vicinity of the city.

The Praetorians were the only ones who could wear weapon in Rome. The permanent deployment of three cohorts in the city gradually accustomed the townspeople to the sight of armed people on the city streets. This was contrary to the political and religious beliefs of the Republic era. But it fit into the new reality of Rome.

Soldiers of the Praetorian Guard served near the palace of the emperor, and also always accompanied him during exits to the city, participated in religious ceremonies and public holidays. They also went with the emperor on military campaigns. At the same time, the Praetorian Guard went on military campaigns in full force. The general command of the elite units was exercised by the praetorian prefect appointed by the emperor.


Preserved walls of the Praetorian military camp in Rome, Castra Praetoria

Very quickly, the Praetorian Guard turned into a real stronghold and support of the emperor's power.

After the death of Octavian Augustus, his successor Tiberius in 23 AD brought all the Praetorian cohorts to Rome.

A large military camp was built specifically to accommodate them. The camp was located in the northern part of Rome between the Viminal and Esquiline hills.

Having gathered all the Praetorian cohorts in one place, the emperor received a powerful argument capable of intimidating all internal enemies. And also to provide him with protection in the event of riots, popular unrest in the eternal city or military mutinies that were not uncommon in those days in the provinces. The fortified camp of the Praetorian Guard in Rome was named Castra Praetoria. In fact, it was a real fortress, similar to those that could be found on the borders of the empire.

The composition of the elite Roman army changed over time.

For example, after the reform of Septimius Severus, the guard already numbered 10 cohorts with a total number of 10 thousand people. The number of cohorts constantly varied, in some periods it reached 16.

At the same time, historians today continue to argue about the very number of cohorts. Some believe that under Octavian Augustus, their maximum number was 500 people, others say that already initially, there were 1000 soldiers in the cohorts of the Praetorian Guard.

Privileges of the Praetorian Guard


Like any elite unit, the Praetorians had their own privileges. Their most important advantage consisted in a greater salary than that of ordinary legionnaires. The salary of Praetorians from 750 denarii during the reign of Emperor Augustus increased to 1000 denarii during the reign of Domitian. In different years, it was at least 2–3 times higher than the salary of an ordinary legionnaire.

After completing the service, each soldier of the Praetorian Guard received a lump sum of 5000 denarii against 3000 from ordinary legionaries and 3750 denarii from the soldiers of the city cohort.

There were other payments as well. For example, according to the will of Emperor Octavian Augustus, after his death in 14 AD, each soldier of the Praetorian Guard received 2500 denarii as a gift. Tiberius followed his example. And Caligula even doubled this amount.

In addition, large sums of money were paid to the Praetorians from time to time. For example, on the "round" anniversaries of the reign of the emperor, the birth of the heir to the throne, his majority, as well as on the occasion of the military victories won by Rome.

Also, large sums of money were paid to the Praetorians when the new emperor ascended the throne. Otherwise, it would be very difficult to gain their personal favor and loyalty.


The Praetorian Guard in Total War: Rome II

An important advantage of the Praetorian Guard was the fact that the service life of the legionaries was 25 years, and the Praetorians - 16 years. The retired Praetorians did not always leave military service. They could more easily get an officer's post, especially in the auxiliary troops that were located on the borders of the vast empire, which during its heyday occupied the entire coast of the Mediterranean Sea.

Also, the Praetorian Guard was very well equipped. One of the privileges was that only praetorians (besides the emperor and his family) could wear "imperial purple" in their clothes. For example, they wore purple togas when they were on guard in the imperial palace. The weapons of the Praetorians were often richly decorated, and their ceremonial helmets were crowned with a magnificent crest.

Before the reign of Septimius Severus, only natives from the territory of Italy were enrolled in the guard. The acquisition was voluntary. They tried to give preference to people from the middle class and honorable families of the Italian municipal nobility. The guard opened up good career prospects, promised excellent income and good support.

The money issue ruined them


Over time, the praetorians began to play a huge role in the politics of Rome, the fate of the emperors directly depended on their loyalty.

You could buy this loyalty with money.

But not everyone was able to collect the required amount. And then the bodyguards could turn into killers. Many emperors were killed by the soldiers of the Praetorian Guard or by the Praetorian Prefect himself.

The Guard's appetites grew.

And with each new emperor, the requests became more serious.

For example, after becoming emperor, Caligula paid each of the guardsmen five thousand denarii. This was twice as much as Tiberius, who ruled before him, gave them. But even that did not save him. He was killed by conspirators from among the Praetorians. It is believed that he was personally killed by the tribune of the Praetorian Guard of Khera. True, it should be noted that Caligula was perceived by his contemporaries as a cruel and voluptuous tyrant, a madman.

Having got rid of the objectionable ruler, the Praetorians elevated Claudius to the throne.

The new emperor promised to pay each soldier of the guards 15 thousand sesterces, about 4 thousand denarii. However, he failed to collect such a sum. The next contender for the throne, Pertinax, decided to reduce the rate to 12 thousand sesterces. But we didn’t manage to collect this amount either, only half was found. As a result, the Praetorians, dissatisfied with the failure to fulfill their promises, killed Pertinax, whom they themselves had elevated to the throne three months earlier. The severed head of the emperor was then carried by the praetorians through the Roman streets.

Praetorians. Creators of the Roman emperors
Praetorians, early 1st century AD

After such a development, the stakes in the struggle for the loyalty of the praetorian cohorts began to grow again.

In 193 AD, the supreme power in the powerful empire was actually put up for auction.

The father-in-law of Pertinax, who was killed by the Praetorians, Sulpician offered 20 thousand sesterces to the guards. However, the victory was won by Didius Julian, who offered 25 thousand sesterces.

It was a fabulous sum, which was the salary of a soldier for several years of service. At the same time, Didius Julian failed to pay off the guardsmen. And no one defended him when the senate decided to depose the emperor, giving preference to the commander Lucius Septimius Severus.

In this case, the Praetorians themselves became emperors.

Thus, the Praetorian Prefect Macrinus became the head of a conspiracy to assassinate the Emperor Caracalla from the Severian dynasty. After his assassination, Macrinus himself ascended the Roman throne.

Praetorian prefect Mark Opellius Macrinus became emperor in 217.

End of the Praetorian Guard


The Praetorian Guard ended its existence in 312.

The forerunner was the battle of two contenders for the throne of the Roman Empire - Constantine and Maxentius. The battle on the Mulvian bridge ended with the victory of Constantine the Great, who, thanks to the successful outcome of the battle, became the sole ruler of the western part of the Roman Empire.

The significance of the battle was not only in the elimination of the Praetorian Guard, which had earlier brought the usurper Maxentius to power. The world-historical outcome of the battle was that it ultimately contributed to the legalization of Christianity and its transformation into the state religion of the empire.


Battle of Mulvian Bridge, Giulio Romano

In the battle itself, both the infantry and the cavalry of Maxentius wavered and fled almost immediately. But the Praetorians held out and maintained their positions. In the end, they alone remained against all the forces of Constantine and were pressed against the Tiber. The Praetorians continued to fight until they were overcome by fatigue and the overwhelming superiority of the enemy forces. Many of them found their death on the banks and in the Tiber River, like Maxentius himself.

After the battle, Constantine completely disbanded the Praetorian Guard. At the same time, the former soldiers of the Praetorian cohorts were sent to various border units stationed on the banks of the Danube and Rhine - away from Rome.

Also, by order of Emperor Constantine, the Praetorian barracks in Rome were destroyed - their fortress Castra Praetoria.

Only the northern and eastern parts of the wall remained from the fortress, which became part of the walls of the city itself.

Constantine the Great destroyed the Roman Praetorian camp as

"A constant nest of rebellions and strife."

To replace the Praetorians, various new guards units were formed, not so numerous.

Barbarians and representatives of the outlying provinces of the empire were now actively recruiting to serve in them.
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  1. Far B
    Far B 19 February 2021 04: 22
    +2
    Such wonderful bodyguards. If they want, they guard the imperial body; if they want, they eliminate it. And when some Vespasian with his legions approaches the Eternal City, they move aside, like: "What are we? We are nicho!" It is surprising that in general they held out for several centuries in the historical arena.
    1. Bacha
      Bacha 19 February 2021 04: 46
      +10
      Yes, and we had it. Suffice it to recall the Russian Guard in the period 1725-1825. One to one.
      1. Far B
        Far B 19 February 2021 04: 56
        +4
        It was))) But in our country they somehow played tricks three times less, in Rome their party lasted for almost three and a half centuries. In general, there are many parallels between our empire and the Roman Empire. Starting with an abbreviation - both RI laughing
        1. Cowbra
          Cowbra 19 February 2021 05: 36
          +6
          Not. It has been proven that they also founded Rome. Riot on the Outskirts of Rome:
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 19 February 2021 10: 05
            +5
            Funny picture laughing hi now to the article ...
            The author, where did you get the idea that the Praetorians are the first bodyguards in History ???
            Even in the days of the communal system, bodyguards were ordinary soldiers, whom the tribe instructed to protect the leaders and priests in skirmishes with the enemy.
            In ancient Egypt, the pharaoh's bodyguards are the most trained units of the army. The guard units included infantry and chariot warriors.
            In Persia under Darius I, the core of the Persian army was the ten-thousandth personal guard of the king - the so-called "immortals", headed by a particularly privileged Warrior.
            In ancient Greece, where the ruler of every major city had detachments of personal bodyguards, the ruler of ancient Greek Sparta had 300 bodyguards (300 Spartans), in Thebes - the bodyguards were called the "Sacred detachment". In Athens, bodyguards were recruited from among the Olympic champions.
            Alexander the Great had two types of royal bodyguards in his service, horse guards and a detachment of foot bodyguards.
            All of the above was long before the appearance of the Praetorians.
            1. Fat
              Fat 21 February 2021 01: 54
              0
              Yes, Slava and Alesander .... we are already out into the yard without a dog.
              Noted - each vegetable has its own season
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 February 2021 08: 11
          +5
          Quote: Dalny V
          In general, there are many parallels between our empire and the Roman Empire. Starting with an abbreviation - both RI

          Yeah, now it remains to link the abbreviation "SPOR" (Senate and people of Rome) with the princely title of Ivan Kalita and you can make a revolution in history cleaner than Nosonov-Fomenko !!! laughing
          The trouble is different, the real concept of "imperium" and the one that was invested by the contemporaries of Guy Julius Caesar have different connotations.
          Well, the last thing in the Roman Empire itself, the abbreviation "RI" could not be used, even if it was pulled by the ears, then it had to look like "IR".
          Well the last one. Where did the term "tsar" and "Caesar" come from in Russia and what connects them with the notorious House of Julia !!!
          1. Far B
            Far B 19 February 2021 08: 42
            +2
            Where did the term "tsar" and "Caesar" come from in Russia and what connects them with the notorious House of Julia
            Well, the very word "Caesar" and binds, Gaius Julius will not let laughing For the rest of your suggestions, I pass, I am not fond of Fomenkovism, my brain is still dear to me, albeit purely as a memory laughing
          2. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 19 February 2021 10: 44
            +2
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Where did the term "tsar" and "Caesar" come from in Russia and what connects them with the notorious House of Julia !!!

            Good afternoon, in the most direct way: as you know, the Rurikovichs descend directly from Octavian Augustus, from his brother Prus, to be more precise ("The Legend of the Vladimir Princes") wassat
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 February 2021 12: 34
              +3
              Quote: Mihaylov
              Good afternoon, in the most direct way: as you know, the Rurikovichs descend directly from Octavian Augustus, from his brother Prus, to be more precise ("The Legend of the Vladimir Princes")


              I appreciated the joke, I'll throw some more firewood into the furnace!
              Before Ivan III, the Moscow princes called themselves not even Rurik, but "Kalitich".
              Your “beautiful version of kinship with Augustus, if I’m not mistaken, was first voiced during the time of Ivan IV the Terrible. However, he was the first to be married to the kingdom as "king", "Caesar", "Caesar."
              Although his father and grandfather were also referred to in internal documents as "kings"!
              1. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 19 February 2021 12: 41
                +4
                Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                A racist version of kinship with Augustus, the first, if I'm not mistaken, was voiced during the time of Ivan IV the Terrible. However, he was the first to be married to the kingdom as "king", "Caesar", "Caesar."

                Actually the first follows from the second: an ideological rationale was needed and it was created.
                Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                Although his father and grandfather were also referred to in internal documents as "kings"!

                Domestically, yes, but accepting this title officially was a very serious step. The great khans were called tsars, respectively, the adoption of such a title put forward claims to their heritage and the closest neighbors from this began to "burn" hi
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 19 February 2021 14: 29
                  +2
                  Moscow princes called themselves not even Rurik, but "Kalitich".

                  Can the word "kalitichi" be associated with a Karelian pie - a gate? wink That is, they were originally Karelians? repeat
                  By the way, a bear in the Russian national symbols first appears on the Great Seal of Ivan the Terrible, and personifies Karelia (the second bear is Perm).
                  So it turns out, "kalitichi" - wickets - "pedestrian kaliki" - and the state bear-Karelian, like the cherry on the cake. yes
                  It all fits together! wink Checkmate and Slavic-Russ! laughing Give Great Karelia from May to May! fellow each with a fishing rod and a plot with mushrooms! drinks
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 19 February 2021 15: 46
                    +4
                    Give Great Karelia from May to May!
                    She is already "from mozha to mozha", from Baltic to White.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 09: 57
                      0
                      She is already "from mozha to mozha", from Baltic to White.

                      From North to Yellow! And not a centimeter less!
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 February 2021 09: 59
                        +3
                        This is another state, Great Chuvashia.
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 30
                        +1
                        This is another state, Great Chuvashia.

                        Is this a thick hint of my roots with Vlad? Okay, persuaded. lol
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 February 2021 10: 43
                        +1
                        Good, persuaded.
                        I didn't even think! Simply, "Velikaya Vyatka" - does not sound.
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 49
                        +1
                        I didn't even think! Simply, "Velikaya Vyatka" - does not sound.

                        Velikaya Vyatka will be an ulus of federal significance with its own Mejlis-Landtag. yes
            2. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 19 February 2021 18: 01
              +2
              Good evening, actually it would be more correct: measure by measure. Can it be Polish
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 09: 56
                +1
                Can it be Polish

                Vera, I remember, just in the 20s, especially stubborn intellectuals dreamed of Poland "from May to May", and therefore took the floor from there. laughing
          3. Richard
            Richard 19 February 2021 15: 26
            +5
            As Suetonius wrote, the main external distinguishing feature of Praetorian cohorts from ordinary legionnaires was not the color of the tunic or the crest of the helmet, but the so-called "Praetorianum scorpionem" - the image of a scorpion, which was necessarily present on Praetorian shields. The Praetorians were armed with shields, mainly of the scutum or cetratus type. Marcellinus Ammianus also points to such symbolism, he also mentions a special Praetorian ensign, which depicted an eagle holding jewels and coins in its paws, which was worn by Vexilifiers of Praetorian cohorts
            photo1 Praetorian shield (Museo di Roma)

            Modern Italian replica of a Praetorian shield
            1. Richard
              Richard 19 February 2021 15: 31
              +7
              Images and Figures of Praetorians




              1. Richard
                Richard 19 February 2021 15: 50
                +6
                The main everyday armor of the Praetorians was the lightweight Lorica plumata
                It is one of the less common types of Roman scaled (lamellar) armor used exclusively by praetorians and officers of the Roman legion. Due to the low prevalence of this armor, information about it is extremely scarce, and they are collected bit by bit. Despite the fact that the design of this armor is known, it is not known for certain whether the plumate lorica was used by someone else. This armor was not only a good means of protection, but also a distinctive feature. Suetonius writes that plumate lorica was forbidden to be used by ordinary soldiers. Scale armor was one of the most practical and was in service in various European countries until the XIV century. It is not difficult to guess where this type of armor came from, our ancestors just looked at the protection of animals, in some tribes in antiquity even armor was made from the scaly skin of animals. With proper processing, the skin did not lose scales, but only added in strength, and with the advent of metal weapons, lamellar armor became a rather interesting solution for protection. It was created according to the principle of stitching together small metal plates-scales. However, the plumate lorica is, in a sense, a unique armor, because the scales in it looked more like bird feathers, and not fish scales and not the scales of a reptile.

                the praetorian shield in the background of the photo also has "Praetorianum scorpionem"
                in combat conditions praetorians used the armor of the thorax lorica musculata (Lorica musculata)


                The soldier's lorica hamata was more expensive to manufacture than the carapace of the musculature, but it served longer and repairs were cheaper, which is why the lorika hamata became the standard protection of legionnaires. Lorica musculature remained the same as the armor of the senior officers and guards. During the Roman Empire, only praetorians, legates and the emperor himself could wear such a shell.

                Link: https: //1893501-dospehi-armii-drevnego-rima.html
                1. Richard
                  Richard 19 February 2021 16: 11
                  +7
                  Many people mistakenly believe that the main duty of the Praetorian Guard of Rome was only to protect the emperor. Ancient Roman authors directly indicate that in addition to the cohorts of the Praetorians, that is, their entire number, there was a separate detachment, not subject to the Praetorian Prefect, but directly subordinate to the Emperor. These were the personal bodyguards of the emperor and his family, which consisted of confidants, friends, eminent soldiers, as well as part of the cavalry. With the arrival of a new ruler, the composition of this detachment changed. For example, Augustus formed it from the Germans, and under Julius-Claudius, the Praetorian Guard was formed from the Batavians. It was the personal bodyguards of the emperor who were his support. And the rest of the praetorian cohorts performed the duties of the internal troops, police and gendarmerie. Suetonius writes that since ancient times, pirates and barbarian robber groups have raided Italian cities and settlements, the responsibility of fighting which was entrusted to the Praetorian cohorts.
                  He also mentions ... the fire functions of the Praetorian cohorts
                  There were fires in the history of Rome, during which most of the city burned out. Therefore, along with maintaining internal law and order, the activities of firefighters were extremely important. Emperor Nero, perfectly understanding this, made it the responsibility of the Praetorians to fight with fire.
                  The duties of the Roman praetorians were so successful that they were subsequently copied by many countries of the world. For example, the structure of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR included the Internal Troops, and the police and firefighters
                  Something like this
                  Source: https: //2523190-pretorianskaja-gvardija-opisanie-osobennosti-istorija-i-interesnye-fakty.html
                2. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 19 February 2021 18: 41
                  +2
                  Colleague Richard, myself, and probably most of my colleagues, knew none of this.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 19 February 2021 17: 35
      +2
      Essesno! Even the most ossified "tradition" understands that "aquila" is a "non-attacking rarog"! wassat
    3. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 19 February 2021 17: 51
      +1
      Colleague Mikhailov, let's give Mikhail "trilobites", he is our specialist in ancient Russia
  2. vladcub
    vladcub 19 February 2021 13: 16
    +4
    Namesake, we will not take away bread from Bar and other alternatives
  3. Akuzenka
    Akuzenka 20 February 2021 09: 58
    -1
    Yeah, now it remains to link the abbreviation "SPOR" (Senate and people of Rome) with the princely title of Ivan Kalita and you can make a revolution in history cleaner than Nosonov-Fomenko !!!
    You, this, take it easy with your imagination. And now "alternatively thinking" will inflate. And we should wait for a new series of "revelations".
  • Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 19 February 2021 07: 52
    +5
    Quote: Dalny V
    Vespasian with his legions approaches the Eternal City - they move aside, like: "And we are cho? We are nicho!"

    This was the case with us when the guards were sent to war with the Swedes in 1741. Instead of being sent to the front, the guards preferred to enthrone Elizabeth
    1. Far B
      Far B 19 February 2021 08: 02
      +1
      Pralna. Next to a woman, something is more comfortable than in a war))) But in Rome they somehow did not think of it - to elevate women to the throne. Although, on the other hand, who should be considered the same Caligula and Heliogabalus? The front looks like a male floor. And behind - ??? However, these are their ancient Roman problems, they somehow figured out with them themselves.
  • Bar1
    Bar1 19 February 2021 09: 10
    +5
    what is the etymology of the word praetorians, author?
    In general, all these palace relations between praetorians and emperors, as a blueprint, duplicate the relationship between the janissaries and the sultan. The same constantly rebelled and could either elect or displace the sultan.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 February 2021 12: 49
      +4
      Quote: Bar1
      what is the etymology of the word praetorians, author?
      In general, all these palace relations between praetorians and emperors, as a blueprint, duplicate the relationship between the janissaries and the sultan. The same constantly rebelled and could either elect or displace the sultan.

      Timur and etymology?
      There are many parallels in history when close bodyguards take power from the ruler and dictate their terms! From the immortals and wolf-footed Persians and tyrants of Athens, the Life Guards of Imperial Russia of the 18th century model.
      But where is the etymology of the word, and where is the similarity of tasks and opportunities!
      For example, the praetorians of Rome rebelled and promoted their emperors, and the line legions, and later the federates of Rome, did the same!
      In fact, based on your presentation, it is probably worth writing a treatise "non-traditional sexual orientation" and the reasons for its influence on the military contingents of elite troops!
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 19 February 2021 13: 30
        +3
        Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Quote: Bar1
        what is the etymology of the word praetorians, author?
        In general, all these palace relations between praetorians and emperors, as a blueprint, duplicate the relationship between the janissaries and the sultan. The same constantly rebelled and could either elect or displace the sultan.

        Timur and etymology?
        There are many parallels in history when close bodyguards take power from the ruler and dictate their terms! From the immortals and wolf-footed Persians and tyrants of Athens, the Life Guards of Imperial Russia of the 18th century model.
        But where is the etymology of the word, and where is the similarity of tasks and opportunities!
        For example, the praetorians of Rome rebelled and promoted their emperors, and the line legions, and later the federates of Rome, did the same!
        In fact, based on your presentation, it is probably worth writing a treatise "non-traditional sexual orientation" and the reasons for its influence on the military contingents of elite troops!


        you do not invent too much for yourself.
        And whoever is not interested in the etymology-origin of words is not a historian.
  • Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 19 February 2021 05: 28
    +9
    I always admired Rome, a well-organized army with discipline, a water supply system, a sewage system that still works at most Cloaca, public toilets, public baths, forums, amphitheaters, the life of society was well organized, and this is impossible without a sufficient level of education, in Europe there is a sewage system only in the end of the 19th century, the beginning appears. Here is how the Romans lived under Jupiter smile
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 February 2021 08: 25
      +7
      Quote: Pessimist22
      ... public toilets, public baths, forums, amphitheaters, society was well organized, and this is impossible without a sufficient level of education

      A similar or slightly smaller set could boast of the policies of Hellas, the cities of the Persians, Egyptians and Phoenicians. I forgot a little, advanced members of the forum will add, in the territory of northern India, excavations of a pre-Aryan city are underway, where there was already a water supply.
      For the organized life of the city, the Roman Senate, weeps on the sidelines in comparison with the laws of Lycurgus! "Deferentiation of society by the color of trousers" and "war communism" in one bottle.
      1. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov 19 February 2021 10: 54
        +7
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        A similar or slightly smaller set could boast of the policies of Hellas,

        For illustration, the Greek baths and plumbing from Nemea:

    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 19 February 2021 11: 11
      +8
      Quote: Pessimist22
      Always admired Rome

      Yes, many things there cannot but admire. However, it is always worth remembering that in order to create all this, slave labor was required. It didn't work otherwise. smile
      The state can be considered prosperous when every citizen has at least three slaves

      I don't remember where it came from, but I like the phrase itself.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 19 February 2021 18: 11
        +4
        The state can be considered prosperous when every citizen has at least three slaves

        This is from "Monday begins on Saturday" by the Strugatskys, when the main character traveled through the times described in the literature.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 19 February 2021 18: 35
          +6
          Probably. yes
          Yes ... Nothing in our world has changed since those ancient Roman times ... Unless the slaves have ceased to be transported from place to place - they are robbed right there, in their historical homeland. smile
  • rocket757
    rocket757 19 February 2021 06: 11
    +6
    Praetorians. Creators of the Roman emperors

    This is some kind of historical rake! For many centuries and for many countries !!!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 19 February 2021 14: 57
      +4
      Praetorians. Creators of the Roman emperors

      This is some kind of historical rake! For many centuries and for many countries !!!


      Good afternoon, Victor, I can't help but agree. Truly so! soldier

      1. rocket757
        rocket757 19 February 2021 15: 32
        +2
        Good afternoon Konstantin soldier
        At all times the rulers tried to gather support, protection around themselves ... as it seemed to them! And then ... it turned out differently.
        Now they shield themselves in different ways, primarily by a system of checks and balances, different in form, essentially the same ... at least in "civilized" countries they have learned to do this.
        And here ... the balance was disturbed, but all the same, over time, they tried to return to the "civilized framework" and the power structures are not allowed to the very top, and the methods of pressure are different or mask well!
        Various small-town manifestations, in general and in general, were extinguished !!! because the very top is no longer high. They act in a different way ... more camouflaged and try to preserve the appearance of the legitimacy of their actions.
        Nothing stands still, medieval methods have been ousted from the "civilized" space, conventionally, of course.
  • LAWNER
    LAWNER 19 February 2021 06: 13
    +4
    The first (guards ..) praetorian regiments were created by the emperor Diocletian (it is believed that he was a Slav). Known for trading his post as emperor for growing cabbage. But the subsequent emperors, the Praetorians helped. Who will rise to the Olympus of power, and who will go to Tartarus.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 February 2021 08: 31
      +3
      Quote: LAWNER
      The first (guards ..) praetorian regiments were created by the emperor Diocletian (it is believed that he was a Slav). Known for trading his post as emperor for growing cabbage. But the subsequent emperors, the Praetorians helped. Who will rise to the Olympus of power, and who will go to Tartarus.

      Greeks walked to Olympus and Tartarus! laughing
      The Egyptians screwed up the cabbage! request
      Controversial, however, like the author's thesis:
      Historians call them (Praetorians) the first bodyguards in history.

      At the very least, arguing this, one should not know about the "immortals" among the Persians and the Selekvids.
      In fact, if anyone wants to find an answer where the "praetorians" came from, they should google who the "praetorium" was during the time of the Roman Republic.
      1. Fat
        Fat 19 February 2021 13: 39
        +6
        Ochepyatka? how?!
        Cabbage screwed up Egyptians! drinks
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 19 February 2021 14: 33
          +3
          The Egyptians screwed up the cabbage!

          Well, how-how .. It's a simple matter! wink They took it, and screwed it up, right in the cabbage field! request
          1. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 19 February 2021 14: 55
            +3
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            They took it, and screwed it up, right in the cabbage field!

            Here, again, you have to dig deeper, and right in the cabbage field: "cabbage" is a loot. The Egyptians screwed up with it (dough) and their civilization ended. No money - no civilization! drinks
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 19 February 2021 14: 58
              +4
              No money - no civilization!

              That is, first, nevertheless, "cabbage", and then - civilization? wink
            2. Fat
              Fat 19 February 2021 16: 46
              +2
              That is, financial success directly depends on the style of harvesting cabbage?
              We urgently need to unsubscribe the sisters ...
              They don't know ...(C) belay
          2. Fat
            Fat 19 February 2021 16: 36
            +2
            Here hey! A number of peoples ...
            Situation - to dress up in the owner's garden .. Was an ordinary gratitude for the hospitality ... Why are such privileges kvapusta?
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 01
              +1
              The situation is to dress up in the owner's garden .. Was an ordinary gratitude for the hospitality ...

              Was it so bad with the manure? sad Previously, Mikado fans used their own as fertilizer, but now the apologists of the smiling chubby Kim use their gravy. lol
              The photo was in the mail the day before yesterday. Pay attention to the "iconostasis" of the general on the right-back. fellow Dear Leonid Ilyich is hysterical on the sidelines ... from envy ... laughing
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 19 February 2021 11: 18
      +9
      Quote: LAWNER
      The first (guards ..) praetorian regiments were created by the emperor Diocletian

      You are not a provocateur, you are, apparently, a joker. smile
      Quote: LAWNER
      there is an opinion that the Slav

      Based on the fact that he was born there, where in three hundred years will the Slavs come? laughing
      No, you are definitely a joker! good
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 19 February 2021 12: 25
        +6
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        Based on the fact that he was born there, where in three hundred years will the Slavs come?
        No, you are definitely a joker!

        Greetings Mikhail, haven't looked in for a long time!
        Naturally, three centuries after the glorious emperor, no less glorious Slavs found barrels of sauerkraut in the place of his garden! Having tasted it, they began to shout "gloriously", "gloriously" and after that they were nicknamed "Slavs" !!! good
        Who invented this, no, not me "some historians"! repeat
        1. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov 19 February 2021 12: 28
          +3
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          no less glorious Slavs found barrels of sauerkraut in the place of his garden! Having tasted it, they began to shout "glorious", "glorious"

          It's a sin to eat such cabbage besides vodka
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 19 February 2021 12: 55
          +8
          My compliments, Vlad. smile hi
          I check in regularly, I rarely comment lately.
          I am not well versed in the processes of pickling in general and pickling cabbage in principle, but for three hundred years ... For cabbage, it is clearly too much.
          I would venture to suggest that not only cabbage grew in Diocletian's garden. Most likely, the Slavs, due to their denseness, took for sauerkraut something made from another material, for example, from grapes unknown to them. Still, I suppose, they were surprised, they say, it is not clear, there is some strange pickle (it does not pinch like a child), but there is no cabbage itself or there, cucumbers, in it. Where did the snack go, Herods? laughing
          1. Fat
            Fat 19 February 2021 13: 52
            +5
            Michael. In English, there was no place at all for the distinction between watercress and forked cabbage. they have everything - lettuce
            Let them continue to call the unfinished "starka" whiskey ...
            but the cucumbers came to us late. I had to do with salty vigor ... both mushrooms and milk mushrooms laughing
            1. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter 19 February 2021 14: 23
              +2
              In English, there was no place at all for the distinction between watercress and forked cabbage. they have everything - lettuce
              It seems to be
              cress-watercress
              cabbage- cabbage
              lettuce- lettuce
              And the whiskey is not an unfinished stark.
              1. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 19 February 2021 14: 59
                +4
                Quote: Bolt Cutter
                And the whiskey is not an unfinished stark

                There is only one correct whiskey:
                drinks
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 19 February 2021 15: 11
                  +4
                  There is only one correct whiskey:

                  Racial Soviet whiskey! good There is also such a thing, but I didn’t like it - it’s better to grunt "Bulbasha". drinks
                  1. Mihaylov
                    Mihaylov 19 February 2021 15: 13
                    +4
                    Quote: Pane Kohanku
                    Racial Soviet whiskey!

                    Pay attention Nikolay, he: "Soviet whiskey" drinks
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 19 February 2021 15: 15
                      +3
                      Pay attention Nikolay, he: "Soviet whiskey"

                      I did, but decided to write it the way I used to! drinks I wonder what they drank from strong alcohol before the invention of whiskey?
                      1. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 19 February 2021 15: 23
                        +3
                        Most likely brandy - in Italy was driven back in the 13th century - in medical yes purposes. This technology appeared on the islands in the 15th century through monks.
                      2. Fat
                        Fat 19 February 2021 17: 23
                        +3
                        Alex. Well, never the 15th century. The word alcohol "came" from the Arabs
                        In fact, Moroccans began to massively consume alcohol from the same sources ...
                        Farther... for some reason everyone translates it as "intoxicating". Although, in fact, the prefix "al in the Mediterranean languages ​​means" saint. "Ko" means - joint. And "gol" - "gul" is one of the seven Arab varieties of jinn. Among the Arabs, this variety is now considered small toilets , but in fairy tales 1001 nights were very cool and contributed to the spread of Islam of the first wave. Even before Mohammed. Ie alcohol is together with holy genies! Although who knows ... Quatrocente-same
                      3. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 19 February 2021 17: 37
                        +3
                        Vika claims that in Italy they began to drive living water aqua vitae laughing and make medicinal tinctures on it. (A friend of the Irish claimed that the Irish drove whiskey to heal horses, and the Scots thought of drinking it. The Scots, interviewed two, agree, but vice versa). And then the art of making herbal liqueurs tincture spread throughout Europe. And even the ancient Greeks knew about distillation. Sorry - I'm in a hurry - I'm in a circular defense in the branch about the Baotian ports - the leavens are pressing
                      4. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 19 February 2021 18: 49
                        +3
                        Quote: Bolt Cutter
                        that the Irish drove the whiskey to heal the horses, and the Scots thought of drinking it.

                        I see nothing in this world changes: the balm "Horsepower" has long been humanized too hi
                      5. Fat
                        Fat 21 February 2021 21: 25
                        +1
                        Only thanks to Malakhov, but the fact that this is a tool, not only for a horse, I learned a lot earlier ...
                    2. Fat
                      Fat 21 February 2021 21: 08
                      +1
                      Egyptians: Come on, who knows who and when started to make really condensed wine for sailors?
                      I don’t know where they are, but I sympathize, Boro
              2. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 19 February 2021 15: 40
                +3
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                I wonder what they drank from strong alcohol before the invention of whiskey?

                I think only beer, maybe they also made what kind of brew, know - imported wine.
                I don’t know when they started distilling, I think it’s late enough. drinks
              3. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 19 February 2021 16: 37
                +3
                since when did they start distilling,
                The alembic was invented by the Arab Ar-Razi in the XNUMXth century.
                to know - imported wine.
                In the second half of the XNUMXth century, a jug of young wine in Paris cost half a denier (obol).
              4. Fat
                Fat 21 February 2021 21: 37
                +1
                Yes, Anton. Thanks for the date, otherwise everyone believed that the Egyptians were at the beginning of the era of Christianity. They began to thicken the wine.
              5. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 21 February 2021 21: 52
                0
                What are the Egyptians at the beginning of Christianity? Only Rome !!!
              6. Fat
                Fat 21 February 2021 22: 42
                0
                First century from Christmas. How they saw it there to live the secret of the ages is when Caesar pioneered Gnaeus Pompey (Magna)
        3. Fat
          Fat 21 February 2021 21: 31
          0
          Beer for the young, Bro. When this business began to thicken, a number of absurdities emerged about which they argue to this day.
      2. paul3390
        paul3390 20 February 2021 21: 35
        +1
        In the North - winter beer. Where the degree increased by freezing the water. Judging by the sagas ..
      3. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 21 February 2021 00: 53
        +1
        In the North - winter beer. Where the degree increased by freezing the water. Judging by the sagas ..

        Pavel, thank you very much for the information! Can I have more information? drinks
      4. paul3390
        paul3390 21 February 2021 10: 28
        +1
        They write - something like that. I have not tried it myself ..

        When making homemade winter ales, you need to take an ale or dark beer, pour it into a wide-necked jar, and close the jar to put it in the freezer.

        After a while, remove the vessel and remove the water frozen in ice from it. If necessary, you can repeat the process and increase the degree of the Viking Winter Ale. The main thing is not to overdo it with freezing, otherwise at -10 degrees in the freezer all beer will turn into ice.

        Thus, without using a moonshine still, you can get a fairly strong alcoholic beverage.



        in principle, the method of purifying alcohol-containing liquids in winter is based on the same - a thin stream on a crowbar in frost. On the difference in the freezing point of the components.
      5. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 21 February 2021 16: 10
        +3
        in principle, the method of purifying alcohol-containing liquids in winter is based on the same - a thin stream on a crowbar in frost. On the difference in the freezing point of the components.

        Class! Need to remember! wink drinks
      6. paul3390
        paul3390 21 February 2021 16: 59
        +1
        Nowadays it is no longer relevant - at least fill up with booze for every taste .. I do not like it - a lot of moonshine stills are on sale. Many of my friends have switched exclusively to their own moonshine. Let's say Calvados - it turns out very decent. Or the same cranberry. Grushevka again. You can also brew beer there, and even make cheese!

      7. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 21 February 2021 19: 03
        +1
        Grushevka again. You can also brew beer there, and even make cheese!

        My former deputy chief cooked my moonshine. It turned out - shine! With a delicate aroma of citrus fruits ... Among other things, there was an ethnic Pole, a military officer! soldier
        Pavel, come to our company more often! We have been creating it for five years! drinks Clever and sane interlocutors are welcome and accepted as friends! good
        All I dream of getting to your namesake in articles, writing a cycle ... my hands do not reach! recourse
  • Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter 19 February 2021 15: 25
    +3
    There is also such a thing
    Where did you get it? It clearly has nothing to do with Scotland / Ireland.
    1. Fat
      Fat 19 February 2021 17: 46
      +3
      No other inventor would even think about condensed beer. Purely Celtic notion IMHO.
    2. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 09: 54
      +3
      Where did you get it? It clearly has nothing to do with Scotland / Ireland.

      Of course not! laughing sold in our stores on shelves with inexpensive alcohol. yes
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 11: 04
        +2
        How much is? And where is it done? And is it beer drinks ?
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 11: 30
        +3
        How much is? And where is it done? And is it beer

        Not more than 400 rubles. I tried it for a long time, about three years ago. So-so, to be honest. Very so-so. The producers are ours, it seems.
      3. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 11: 34
        +2
        The producers are ours, it seems.
        Water, alcohol, liquid smoke, caramel, strong tea and singed whiskey "Hills of Arnautskaya" is ready. If the alcohol is good, it will not even be very bad the next morning yes ... Funfir for 4 pounds - yes, of course. good
      4. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 11: 56
        +3
        Funfir for 4 pounds - yes, of course.

        Cheap and cheerful, although not tasty. laughing How much does a bottle of whiskey cost in England?
      5. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 12: 06
        +2
        A liter of "blended" - that is, a blend of different ages - Famous grouse, Bell's, Whyte & Mackay, Grant's - 18/20 pounds. Often discounts (attract shoppers to supermarkets) - 16 per liter. By the way, Dewar's almost never drink here. What can be called whiskey - single malt and beer - about 30 pounds for 0.7. Again, discounts are frequent. It was Whyte & Mackay who gave the world the expression real mcKoy, meaning good original product. During the sagging, this whiskey was imported from Glasgow to the States through Canada, which stood out for its quality against the background of surrogates that flooded the black market. The name was shortened to McKoy, and went-and-go-enriched the language.
      6. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 12: 27
        +3
        It was Whyte & Mackay who gave the world the expression real mcKoy, meaning good original product.

        And the Irish red beer - gave mankind the cult phrase "Oh my God, they killed Kenny!" laughing Bells, it seems, is cheaper in our stores. But I'm not very whiskey - I prefer gin and rum.
      7. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 12: 32
        +2
        Bells ", it seems, in our stores it is cheaper
        The excise tax is high here.
        I prefer gin
        Jean's wife has great respect. The choice here is a huge (easier to make) Whitley Neill from Liverpool is our everything! Bottle 0.7-20 lbs.
      8. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 12: 48
        +2
        The choice here is a huge (easier to make) Whitley Neill from Liverpool is our everything! Bottle 0.7-20 lbs.

        We began to make domestic. It is clear that the quality is different from the foreign one.
        This one is produced in Penza. Price in St. Petersburg - up to 400 rubles. "Freeman".

        This one is even cheaper. No more than 350 rubles.

        In short, cheap and cheerful.
      9. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 12: 50
        +2
        When I get to Russia, I'll check it out. While I'm waiting. sad
      10. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 13: 51
        +2
        When I get to Russia, I'll check it out. While I'm waiting.

        This is yes. I have one customer last year stuck in quarantine in Spain (he has a living space there). They say he got tired of sitting there. laughing
        And so - your comparison would be interesting. drinks
      11. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 13: 56
        +2
        By all means, especially since a visa is not needed (for 8 days). So I’ll find out how right yesterday’s stories about the horrors of life (in the thread about the abandonment of the Baltic ports) were in Latvia compared to Russian realities. My monitor was streaming with kvass wassat
      12. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 15: 08
        +2
        So I’ll find out how right yesterday’s stories about the horrors of life (in the thread about the abandonment of the Baltic ports) were in Latvia compared to Russian realities.

        To be honest, it is deeply violet to me how they live, the main thing is that they do not do nasty things to us.
        And kvass is good in hot weather! wink drinks
        Has anyone registered on pinterest? I see that you can find a lot of pictures on military topics.
      13. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 15: 12
        +2
        there you can find a lot of pictures on military topics.
        They can be ripped out of there anyway.
        deeply violet, how they live, the main thing is that we do not do nasty things.
        For some reason, many consider the breakaway states to be some rebellious colonies.
      14. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 February 2021 15: 23
        +1
        Phantom pain is not cured.
      15. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 15: 26
        +1
        For some reason, many consider the breakaway states to be some rebellious colonies.

        If in fact, then for almost three hundred years they were part of the empire. "Genetic memory". laughing If you are in Latvia, tell us later how they treat the former SS-sheep. hi
        Alex, I suggest not to talk about politics. Well him! drinks we do not consider ourselves to be leavened patriots, we don’t pour slogans ... but we appreciate the Motherland! drinks
      16. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 15: 38
        +1
        If you will be in Latvia, tell us later how they treat the former SS-sheep
        I have been to Latvia more than once yes Normal people do not belong to them - there is an old grandfather and there is. The medals are hung-yes, let him fool around in his old age-in the box soon. Political marginals, yes, there are all sorts. Do not forget that the SS went as if voluntarily. Those who voluntarily did not fall under suspicion as agents of Stalin and communists and went directly to the execution.
      17. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 18: 34
        +2
        Those who voluntarily did not fall under suspicion as agents of Stalin and communists and went directly to the execution.

        Once they got there, not voluntarily, they managed to smear their hands up to the elbows with blood.
      18. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 23: 20
        +1
        There were all sorts of people. Those who refused, in an abandoned park near the rebuilt dovecote in Liepaja (I posted a photo earlier), there is a cross installed by volunteers - I did not find a photo, I will have to do it myself later.
      19. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 21 February 2021 00: 59
        +1
        There were all sorts of people. Those who refused, in an abandoned park near the rebuilt dovecote in Liepaja (I posted a photo earlier), there is a cross installed by volunteers - I did not find a photo, I will have to do it myself later.

        All sorts, not all sorts, but the SS is recognized as a criminal organization. And I don't know what kinds of varieties you know, who is ideological and who is forced. No. Killing women, children, old people and prisoners of war is not much honor. And they muddied the Holocaust in the Baltics more abruptly than in other republics even. Then they lit up in the fight against partisans - here they killed everyone, both partisans and villagers.
        The time was like that. If you remember, the famous English Nazi - Hitler's servant was executed only for propaganda. He didn't kill anyone. But he was sentenced. For the criminal. negative Therefore, I will not feel sorry for these "forced". Too much blood on my hands ... Best regards, Nikolai drinks
      20. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 21 February 2021 11: 01
        +1
        Therefore, I will not feel sorry for these "forced"
        And no one regrets them. Just a page of history.
      21. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 21 February 2021 16: 12
        +2
        And no one regrets them. Just a page of history.

        Yes you are right. On the advice of Kostya's uncle - the Sea Cat (please love and favor!) - I downloaded the book "SS in Action". To be honest, hair on end. Thank God, we do not live in the world of victorious Nazism. drinks
      22. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 21 February 2021 16: 21
        +1
        I recently read the adventures of Dirlewanger. There's a clinic over there. I also recommend the adventures of the Japanese in detachment 731 to study bolmen deeply. Many did not even hear about the Khabarovsk Tribunal, as I was surprised to learn.
        we do not live in a world of victorious Nazism.
        This is yes. But it is possible that later in the future something like this may be returned. Can you imagine, for example, the developed civilization of the Aztecs, which was not defeated by the conquistadors and they developed in their own (extremely) way to the present day?
      23. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 21 February 2021 16: 44
        +2
        I recently read the adventures of Dirlewanger. There's a clinic over there.

        Clinic. The emblem of his division was two crossed grenades, and only one cavalier was a knight's cross - Dirlewanger himself.
        His thugs are remembered from the Warsaw Uprising. But before that, they lit up with might and main in the Soviet Union. In particular, then his unit participated in the encirclement of the partisan region in Ushachi (Vitebsk region, 50 km from Polotsk), and RONA Kaminsky worked there. I was at the Ushach Museum in 2017. The partisans went to a breakthrough near the village of Plino. They broke through. Not the least role was played by the former Nazis - the Gil-Rodionov detachment, which went over to the side of the partisans. Gil himself died then, and was buried in Ushachi, I was at his grave. A monument was erected at the site of the breakthrough, military equipment stands. Hundreds of names on the monument - people died in families. So ... But when I was there, there was a stork - a symbol of Belarus. So we will live!
        I recommend Nikolai Obrynba's book "The Fate of the Militia". He escaped from captivity, was a partisan artist, his posters and paintings are in the Ushach Museum. He was acquainted with Gil, about whom he left a good opinion. The book is on the "militer".
        I still recommend the adventures of the Japanese in Unit 731 to study Bolmen in depth. Many did not even hear about the Khabarovsk Tribunal, as I was surprised to learn.

        Some are better off throwing slogans than knowing history, unfortunately ...
        This is yes. But it is possible that later in the future something like this may be returned.

        This comes back every time in any conflict. It is enough to give one person a gun and take this gun away from another. This provokes any fanaticism - even without racial theory and religious fanaticism. The most suffering are civilians and prisoners of war.
        Unfortunately, those who are given carte blanche for any action very quickly turn into non-humans ...
        If you have good proven English-language sources about protazan and esponton - send the link in a personal, pliz. I've been fond of this moment for a long time, but I can't find anything in Russian.
        And this is for you. For reading.
        This is from early:
        https://topwar.ru/119690-krepost-yam-gorod-kingisepp.html
        And this is the last one:
        https://topwar.ru/158768-petershtadt-broshennaja-igrushka-petra-iii.html
      24. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 23 February 2021 18: 30
        +1
        It is enough to give one person a gun and take this gun away from another. This provokes any fanaticism - even without racial theory and religious fanaticism.
        Kurt Vonnegut noticed that humans are not averse to experimenting with killing their own kind, if they do not get anything for it (somehow). And he went through the war personally.
      25. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 24 February 2021 10: 32
        +3
        if they get nothing for it

        I willingly believe him.
  • Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 15: 39
    +1
    If in fact, then for almost three hundred years they were part of the empire
    The empire committed suicide.
  • Fat
    Fat 19 February 2021 17: 41
    +1
    All later became.
    Starka is a bread distillation stored in an oak container.
    Just. And whiskey, what is different?
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 19 February 2021 17: 44
      +3
      Starka - bread distillation
      Whiskey-barley. Scotch, for example, should be driven out of at least 3/4 of barley, infused in Scotland in a wooden container for 3 years and 1 day. Then it's a scotch whiskey.
      1. Fat
        Fat 19 February 2021 18: 57
        +3
        Complimentary services to the sellers of this poison. They made a legend, half of the world in admiration, and the second half in bewilderment.
        Moonshine from just about anything, and 3 liter cans were in short supply ...
        in an Oak container - a barrel, Bro! the most common material for bulk containers.
        Along the way - spruce storage gin. drinks wassat
        1. Fat
          Fat 19 February 2021 19: 12
          +1
          Once I brought a Swiss chocolate bar in a tin bag to a secretary, so it ended up four times in the course of the adjustment ...
          Don't grow, Bro, chocolate resources in switzerland
          And brands .... all over the world are booming with their advertising.
          1. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter 19 February 2021 21: 33
            +2
            in switzerland chocolate resources
            They are actually growing. Milk and cream make chocolate not a black concentrate of alkaloids and bitterness, but exactly the kind of chocolate that everyone knows and loves. And they have good milk in the mountains. And also the fact that the Swiss do something well if they take it.
          2. Fat
            Fat 20 February 2021 00: 34
            +2
            So I'm not talking about a mountainous territory, ...
            And about the Masters with a capital letter, that they settled there ... They settled down., Defended and made the world's grandmother's box.
          3. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 11: 07
            +2
            And grandfather's watch workshop yes ... And also a manufacturer of the best machine tools and tools and very good planes.
          4. Fat
            Fat 20 February 2021 16: 13
            +2
            About airplanes - not interested.
            And the tools are right beyond praise.
            Soundly! I have, the shore
  • Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter 19 February 2021 21: 37
    +3
    Along the way - storage spruce gin
    Jin can't stand it. He is driven through dry herbs / roots. Most likely it was originally someone's attempt to get rid of the fusel stench of distilling disgusting mash.
    Made a legend, half the world
    Champagne is the perfect PR example. The spoiled wine was used as a ritual and symbol.
    1. Fat
      Fat 20 February 2021 00: 47
      +2
      About champagne? To the point, to the bull's-eye from a hundred steps.
      Taking off my hat. Bro. Just a few words ...
    2. Fat
      Fat 20 February 2021 01: 03
      +1
      I will add ... You have to be Kaganovich to give out Soviet semi-sweet ...
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 09: 53
    0
    Whiskey-barley.

    I read that the American variety - bourbon - is driven from a different raw material.
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 20 February 2021 11: 02
      +2
      From corn. So the moonshine (moonlight) became the trademark of the southern United States.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 19 February 2021 16: 36
    +4
    Watercress in our style is generally a bug. laughing This is probably the case when it is better to use a foreign word in the menu ...
    I'm wondering: when the Slavs first encountered wine, did they already know how to ferment mead? Or did it happen for the first time only in Diocletian's garden? smile
    1. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov 19 February 2021 16: 48
      +3
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      I'm wondering: when the Slavs first encountered wine, did they already know how to ferment mead?

      As Mikhail is known, during Priscus's embassy to Attila he was treated to "honey" there, and it is written - honey, which is why many draw far-reaching conclusions about the presence of the Slavs in Attila's "state". drinks
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 19 February 2021 18: 51
        +3
        So in Diocletian's garden, the dialogue was as follows:
        - So, there is cabbage. What's in this barrel?
        - This is pithos, stupid. How many Greek ears do you need to cut off for you to remember at least one word?
        - Come on. The main thing is not what to call, but what is inside this ... fifos. Open up!
        ...
        - Well, how?
        - Oh, well, some garbage! It looks like cranberries, sour.
        - What is it they have - such sour mead, or what? Three hundred years, I suppose, was lying here?
        - Okay, let's go, they brought new girls over there. All of them are dark, nimble, and vociferous. In the sense of topless. Come on, tie it here.
        - Yeah, now, wait ... Yes, really sour. To me too - the Roman civilization ... Let's go better mead zhahnem. And the girls won't wait either ...

        So somehow ... laughing
    2. Fat
      Fat 19 February 2021 18: 01
      +3
      Oh, well ... don't put your foot on the sick.
      Mead - mead is a different thing. I tried options ...
      Some knock a person down even before the awakening process begins ...
      "Don't drink, Ivanushka from a hoof - you will become a kid!" (with)
      Cannabis - on a long vacation before the mead, Bro ...
    3. Fat
      Fat 19 February 2021 19: 25
      +3
      In our homeland, there are many things that we, by virtue of tradition, perceive badly
      It's not for me to tell you, with your preparation ... And God forbid to argue ...
      And Bukhalovo is normally perceived by Our Creator, which is strange .... The refusal of the winegrower-gift is definitely a sect.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 19 February 2021 20: 51
        +2
        Well, everything, persuaded. smile
        I will go to join, for I am not a sect. smile drinks
        1. Fat
          Fat 20 February 2021 00: 01
          +2
          "Autumn marathon" for us at a glance
          Andrei! Am I an alcoholic?
          Drunk, Calm down
          Am I a walker ?, .... I ..
          Leave me alone, I need to call ... me on ...
          - I learned so many new words ...
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 19 February 2021 14: 36
    +3
    Naturally, three centuries after the glorious emperor, no less glorious Slavs found barrels of sauerkraut in the place of his garden! Having tasted it, they began to shout "gloriously", "gloriously" and after that they were nicknamed "Slavs" !!!

    It resembles the famous scene from the storming of the Warsaw suburb - Prague, only there our soldiers poured the found alcohol from a huge bottle, and said - "Oh, good wine!"
  • Catfish
    Catfish 19 February 2021 14: 42
    +6
    "Tell me, Kote, here's how long
    You will eat broccoli
    And not our snack,
    Russian sauerkraut ?! " laughing drinks

    Vlad, hello and best wishes. smile
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 19 February 2021 15: 33
      +5
      "There is no better snack,
      Sauerkraut!
      And submit not ashamed
      And gobble up - do not mind! "
      1. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov 19 February 2021 15: 44
        +5
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        "There is no better snack,
        Sauerkraut!
        And submit not ashamed
        And gobble up - do not mind! "

        Mom, in addition to cabbage, there should be meat snacks in the house ...
        wassat
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 19 February 2021 15: 59
          +4
          "Eat and drink, dear guests! Nowadays everything is so expensive on the market !!! (c)
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 19 February 2021 16: 33
        +3
        Hello Anton! smile
        How is life in the Northern Capital? We were in Ryazan yesterday, got vaccinated, so the impression of the city fits into two words: Snowdrifts and cars. laughing
        "All people love winter,
        Everyone wants to ski,
        And if your feet begin to freeze,
        Then you can have a drink or a snack. "(C)
        I hate to endure winter, but to drink and eat - very positively. drinks
        True, now it will not be possible for a long time, so all the holidays will go "dry",
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 19 February 2021 16: 41
          +4
          I hate winter
          You, like any cat, are looking for the Door to the summer.
          Hi Uncle Kostya!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 19 February 2021 16: 48
            +5
            When this white dandruff stops pouring from the sky, the main thing is not to lose vigilance and to prevent the next terrorist attack of winter for the time being. am
      3. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 19 February 2021 16: 43
        +1
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        "There is no better snack,
        Sauerkraut!
        And submit not ashamed
        And gobble up - do not mind! "

        Well, if not enough,
        Suddenly Cabbage became
        Then from a can with a spoon
        You can eat peas
        Well, for family
        Don't be sick with a hangover
        That with onion and pepper
        Lard - eat in the evening! hi drinks
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 19 February 2021 16: 55
          +3
          hi
          Then from a can with a spoon
          You can eat peas

          It's better for us this time
          "Olivier" from the basin!
          Shpakovsky, however, will not approve. Paternalism, however ... request
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 19 February 2021 17: 01
            +1
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            hi
            "Olivier" from the basin!
            Shpakovsky, however, will not approve. Paternalism, however ... request

            Let Shpakovsky have fun
            His prepares the mess
            We're in the old fashioned way ...
            Let's eat drinks - Sardine!
            Buzzwords ...
            To the Bath ... or the stove!
            Paternalism however belay
            You can't rhyme anything!
            1. Richard
              Richard 19 February 2021 17: 47
              +4
              After a glorious New Year's date
              Something like waking up from a dream
              Write Olivier salad
              On a snowdrift your names smile
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 38
                +5
                Eh, but there was a time, not like the present burden. laughing
                Hi, drinks Buddy!
                1. Richard
                  Richard 19 February 2021 19: 39
                  +4
                  Hi Konstantin hi drinks
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 41
                  +5
                  Let's get the whole team on Early Fire. smile
                3. Richard
                  Richard 19 February 2021 19: 47
                  +4
                  I read this article by Shpakovsky with great interest, but without comments - unlike you, in the topic "Early firearms" - full "0" smile
                4. Catfish
                  Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 52
                  +2
                  So it is not absolutely necessary to go into the topic, just to chat. drinks
                5. Fat
                  Fat 20 February 2021 01: 38
                  +1
                  Richard, the Sea Cat is about the important thing. Write to one of us in a personal. For example, Konstantin or me ... Or Anton ...
                  And the reason we always ...
                  My internet is dead, otherwise they would have become ...
                  Volunteer ..
  • Fat
    Fat 19 February 2021 19: 29
    +3
    Slowly n ... please. I am writing down!
    drinks wassat request
  • vladcub
    vladcub 19 February 2021 15: 21
    +3
    "Some historians" must have names.
    When I was studying at the institute, I wrote in the essay: "some authors", and the teacher arranged for me to be harassed: "You need to indicate at least one name. You can write: I guess, but justify, etc.
  • LAWNER
    LAWNER 21 February 2021 07: 51
    0
    There is an opinion
  • Undecim
    Undecim 19 February 2021 08: 10
    +7
    An important advantage of the Praetorian Guard was the fact that the service life of the legionaries was 25 years, and the Praetorians - 16 years.
    Site authors already cannot rewrite Wikipedia without blunders.
    Until 13 BC Praetorians served for 12 years, legionnaires for 16 years. Then the service life of the praetorians was increased to 16 years, the legionnaires - to 20 years. Served auxiliaries for 25 years.
    1. Deniska999
      Deniska999 19 February 2021 08: 55
      +5
      Say thank you that Samsonov's next opus was not posted ...
      1. Fat
        Fat 19 February 2021 11: 43
        +3
        Thank. Convinced eloquently hi
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 19 February 2021 16: 57
        +1
        Pip your tongue! I've had enough of yesterday's Samsonovs. I have a suspicion that "Samsonov" is a collective pseudonym, like the Kukryniksy, Kozma Prutkov. Although, perhaps, he is one, but "multifaceted"?
        1. Fat
          Fat 20 February 2021 02: 15
          +1
          Slav, I'm already just under degrees, I'm chatting freely here .. To me. I am just offended at times.
          And a drunken neighbor, pensioners, to me and about Marx and sex in three letters creeps away, redly inaccurately, to the point of complete impossibility)))) I come with a notebook and a steward for a four .. Routine ...
          And in this place we met wonderful people
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 20 February 2021 08: 38
            0
            Degree is a double-edged sword: both beneficial and destructive.
            Vladimir the Baptist is credited with the following words: "One way to drink is good to be. Two to drink is merry. Three to drink is to be drunk." Most likely this was later said by someone, but the essence is accurately conveyed
    2. Engineer
      Engineer 19 February 2021 09: 54
      +8
      The author of the article is right. It was just worth the timeline
      Legionnaires have already served 1 years since the middle of the 25st century. In fact, often 26 years old due to the fact that the demobilization went on in even years.
      But the Praetorians, even in a later era, served for 16 years. Then they could leave or go to the line legions as centurions.
      Source - Peter Connolly "Greece and Rome". Head of the New Legions.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 19 February 2021 11: 06
        +4
        Legionnaires have already served 1 years since the middle of the 25st century.
        And in the article the events are also considered from the middle of the first century?
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 19 February 2021 11: 28
          +7
          Not. I wrote that the author could clarify the time frame. In the late Roman army, they served in the legions for 24 years with the right of dismissal after 20 years in case of impeccable service.
          But most of the Praetorians' lifetime was 25 years of service in the legions.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 19 February 2021 14: 26
            +3
            "served 24 years" and in the European armies in 18-19 you served for 25 years. Interestingly, the developers of military regulations, when they set the service life, what were they based on?
            When they called mine, the year 1978, we had a rumor that they would add service for 2 months
            The most interesting thing is that they found some justification for this rumor.
    3. Fat
      Fat 19 February 2021 11: 41
      +5
      Victor Nikolaevich. the word Auxilia itself does not imply equal treatment. These are "close", but not their own people ...
      How Rome understood such matters of course is very important
      Important but not critical.
      But the amendment is significant. thank
    4. vladcub
      vladcub 19 February 2021 17: 02
      +2
      Vic Nick, thanks for correcting the bloopers, but without you ....: "put out the light and drain the water"
  • vladcub
    vladcub 19 February 2021 13: 18
    +4
    Quote: Far In
    Where did the term "tsar" and "Caesar" come from in Russia and what connects them with the notorious House of Julia
    Well, the very word "Caesar" and binds, Gaius Julius will not let laughing For the rest of your suggestions, I pass, I am not fond of Fomenkovism, my brain is still dear to me, albeit purely as a memory laughing

    Bravo. Well said, but I'm afraid the alternatives won't appreciate
    1. Fat
      Fat 19 February 2021 14: 10
      +4
      Conservatives will not be enough either.
      You can start a small holivar.
      But the author - well filed, for which recognition ... and a hat on the bar. drinks
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 19 February 2021 18: 49
        +1
        In any case, better than "Samsonov", although the author has bloopers, they are sold by the informative part. And at "Samson" you need to double-check, otherwise it won't fit into any gate
        PS don't forget your hat on the bar
        1. Fat
          Fat 19 February 2021 20: 17
          +1
          Т
          I have them for such a ridiculous case))))
          True, not all are suitable for a bar counter ...
          There are those who will only part with my shameless little head. (((
          What is it for?
          A clear sign of an impending firefight is the headdress put on the counter by the detective. ..
          Hollywood, etit ...
  • Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 19 February 2021 15: 00
    +4
    Quote: Pane Kohanku
    That is, first, nevertheless, "cabbage", and then - civilization?

    Everything is according to Marxism, nobody has canceled it yet. hi
  • Fat
    Fat 19 February 2021 17: 09
    +2
    Quote: Mihaylov
    It's a sin to eat such cabbage besides vodka

    I've just moved my brain to the ostaptokam.
    I'll give it out!
    Yes, no h-rna, it eats ... Only the fish soup move in elven