Military Review

Processes of modernization of the Russian early warning system

17

Radar "Voronezh-DM" near Barnaul, put on duty in 2017


The implementation of a large-scale program to modernize the Russian missile attack warning system (EWS) continues. Construction of new facilities of various kinds is underway and the renovation of existing ones is underway. According to the results of the recent stages of modernization, the early warning missile system has passed state tests and is preparing for the beginning of combat duty in an updated configuration.

Modernization news


In order to update the early warning system, a number of important measures have been taken in recent years. So, the restructuring of the ground part of the system is carried out. Instead of obsolete radars of various types, stations of the Voronezh family are being built and put on duty. The deployment of the space echelon, the renewal of command posts, communications equipment, etc.

Recently, in early January, new messages were received on the progress of modernization. The Ministry of Defense spoke about the completion of the process of complete renovation of the control center of the space echelon of the early warning system This will ensure full control over the space group under construction, the size and efficiency of which will grow in the coming years.


Voronezh-DM in the Kaliningrad region

Recently it became known that the army and the defense industry have successfully completed state tests of the updated early warning system and its central command post. Now the system in its modern configuration should take over on alert. This will happen soon.

An important feature of the current modernization is the performance of work and the replacement of equipment without removing the complexes from combat duty. Continuing to work in this mode, the early warning system last year detected and tracked more than 80 launches of ballistic and space missiles in several countries.

Plans for the future


Recent successes do not allow to stop, and work to improve the early warning system will continue. They will affect the ground and space echelons and will expand their capabilities to the desired level.


Voronezh-M station near Mishelevka, Irkutsk region

The construction of over-the-horizon radar stations of the Voronezh series continues. Three such objects are being created right now. Radar stations of the Voronezh-SM type are under construction near Vorkuta and Sevastopol. The next Voronezh-VP station will operate near the city of Olenegorsk in the Murmansk region. According to the plans, the objects in Vorkuta and Olenegorsk will take over on duty next year. The third radar will have to wait until 2024.

The task of the three new radars will be to duplicate or replace existing stations. Thus, the appearance of "Voronezh-VP" in Olenegorsk in the future will make it possible to abandon the station "Dnepr". The Sevastopol station, in turn, will complement a similar facility in Armavir.

The deployment of the space echelon of the early warning system will continue. Last year, the fourth satellite of the 14F142 Tundra series, designed to operate as part of the Kupol Unified Space System, went into orbit. Also, the modernization of the control center of the space group was carried out. As a result, a minimum operating system configuration is achieved. According to current plans, by 2024 the grouping of such devices will be increased to 10 units, as a result of which the Tundra will be able to monitor the entire surface of the planet.

State and prospects


The current program for the modernization of the early warning system started in the middle of the XNUMXs with the construction of new ground facilities. The bulk of the work on updating the ground echelon has already been completed, and several years ago the replacement of satellites of the space constellation began.


Radar station "Dnepr" in Pechora

By now, some of the required results have been obtained. In particular, with the help of existing and newly built trans- and over-the-horizon radars, a closed radar field has been formed along the perimeter of the country with the ability to detect targets at ranges of up to 6 thousand km.

At the moment, the ground echelon is based on four types of Voronezh family stations, differing in their operating range and some characteristics. Three more are under construction and will be commissioned in the near future. "Voronezh" is a product of high factory readiness, which simplifies construction work and installation of equipment on site and thereby speeds up the construction process.

There are gaps in some areas between the Voronezh radar fields. They are blocked by other types of radars. So, near the town of Pechora, there is a RO-30 station of the 5N79 Daryal type. In Olenegorsk the RO-1 junction is on duty - the Dnepr station. The only radar station of the 90M6 "Volga" type operates on the Belarusian territory.

Processes of modernization of the Russian early warning system

"Volga" on the Belarusian territory

Early warning radars are capable of monitoring the situation on the Earth's surface, in the atmosphere and beyond. Their task is to detect missile launches or weapons in flight with the subsequent tie-up of routes and the issuance of data to control points. Further, these data are fed to the missile defense system of Moscow and the central industrial region.

Space construction


Until 2014, satellites of the Oko-1 series were in operation, capable of detecting missile launches on the territory of a potential enemy. Since 2015, the deployment of the modern Tundra detection system has continued. Four new satellites out of a dozen required have already been launched into orbits.

Satellites "Tundra" are placed in different orbits so that the territory of a potential enemy is always under the supervision of one or more. The device is able to detect the rocket engine torch and determine the launch. In addition, support for such a target was provided with the issuance of a route and determination of the approximate area of ​​the fall of warheads. It has been reported that the Tundra is capable of operating as a repeater for control signals for nuclear forces.

In 2021-24. six new 14F142 satellites will be sent into orbit. They are necessary to create a continuous field of observation over the entire surface of the planet. Thanks to this, the space echelon of an early warning missile system will be able to monitor not only ground-based missile systems on the territory of the main potential enemy, but also detect launches from submarines in any waters.


Launch of the carrier rocket with the Tundra satellite, 2017

With improved capabilities


In mid-February, it will be exactly half a century since the day when the domestic missile attack warning system was put on alert. Over the next decades, our SPRN has been constantly evolving, receiving new components and capabilities. The next stage of modernization is being carried out right now, and its results were recently confirmed during state tests.

At the same time, the construction and renovation processes do not stop. In the coming years, it is planned to complete the construction of several land facilities and launch the remaining spacecraft. It is expected that all these measures will further expand the capabilities of the Russian early warning system. It will be able to detect launches anywhere in the world, on land and on water, and then track the flight of the rocket from space and by ground-based radar.

Modern samples will make it possible to learn about a missile attack earlier and receive more accurate data on the basis of which further decisions will be made. These measures will seriously reduce the likelihood of a successful missile strike. Accordingly, the early warning system after the next update - in combination with anti-missile defense systems - will be not only a warning system, but also a means of deterring a potential enemy.
Author:
Photos used:
Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
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  1. Lipchanin
    Lipchanin 16 February 2021 18: 15
    0
    ... Accordingly, the early warning system after the next update - in combination with anti-missile defense systems - will be not only a warning system, but also a means of deterring a potential enemy.

    Well now serve honestly without failures and refusals
  2. Military Specialist
    Military Specialist 16 February 2021 18: 31
    +14
    Cyril, why was he in such a hurry? ... A complete confusion with the types of radars and the places of their deployment. So, near the town of Vorgashor (or Vorkuta, as in the article), a complex of two radars is being created - Voronezh-VP and Voronezh-SM; in Sevastopol a new radar station "Yakhroma" (based on VZG technologies) will be built, in Olenegorsk - "Voronezh-DM". Further, the "station" Voronezh-M "near Mishelevka, Irkutsk region" in the photo is nothing more than "Voronezh-VP"; "Radar" Dnepr "in Pechora" is actually the radar "Daryal" ... well, and a number of dubious pearls ...
  3. Military Specialist
    Military Specialist 16 February 2021 18: 37
    +11
    One more thing ... about the "possibility of detecting targets at ranges up to 6 thousand km", it is imperative to put next to the question "at what altitude?" ... This is important for sector radars, which are all the radars of the PRN system.
  4. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 16 February 2021 19: 01
    +11
    The task of the three new radars will be to duplicate or replace existing stations. Thus, the appearance of "Voronezh-VP" in Olenegorsk in the future will make it possible to abandon the station "Dnepr". The Sevastopol station, in turn, will complement a similar facility in Armavir.

    EMNIP, the Sevastopol "Voronezh" - is the replacement of 15 years as the dead Sevastopol "Dnepr".

    In 2014, the Dnipro was still planned to be restored, but it seems that after its operation, the Armed Forces of Ukraine turned out to be cheaper to build Voronezh.
  5. businessv
    businessv 16 February 2021 19: 11
    -1
    Accordingly, the early warning system after the next update - in combination with anti-missile defense systems - will be not only a warning system, but also a means of deterring a potential enemy.
    Well, thank God! So that everything is really so! good
  6. Alien From
    Alien From 16 February 2021 19: 21
    0
    Such Cyclopean structures inspire respect! Long service!
  7. Anton Shtopany
    Anton Shtopany 16 February 2021 19: 30
    -8
    Right now, we will also strengthen the space group, we will add observation and control, Rogozin promised a super-heavy rocket by 28g, and there, plus new electronic warfare, the country is reliably protected
  8. Old26
    Old26 16 February 2021 19: 35
    +9
    Quote: Military Specialist
    Cyril, why was he in such a hurry? ... A complete confusion with the types of radars and the places of their deployment. So, near the town of Vorgashor (or Vorkuta, as in the article), a complex of two radars is being created - Voronezh-VP and Voronezh-SM; in Sevastopol a new radar station "Yakhroma" (based on VZG technologies) will be built, in Olenegorsk - "Voronezh-DM". Further, the "station" Voronezh-M "near Mishelevka, Irkutsk region" in the photo is nothing more than "Voronezh-VP"; "Radar" Dnepr "in Pechora" is actually the radar "Daryal" ... well, and a number of dubious pearls ...

    I will supplement you a little, Yuri
    Kirill! Yuri is right, you have too many blunders. The photograph of the radar station in Pechora is "Darial". Radar station "Dnepr" with receiving position "Daugava" is located near Olenegorsk ...
    Further, the photograph of the Mishelevskaya radar - the Voronezh-VP radar (and not the Voronezh-M) - is quite old. Probably made somewhere around 2012-2013. In reality, now the station has two antenna strips (each strip has 6 sections, not 3, as in Voronezh-M

    Further. Yuri is right when he says that the Yakhroma station will be built in Sevastopol instead of Voronezh-SM. Although earlier they spoke about "Voronezh-SM"
    Another station of the decimeter range is planned to be built in the Lekhtusi region, where the Voronezh-M station is now located. EMNIP in the area of ​​the settlement Rogozinka-2. The very same station "Voronezh-M" is planned to be modified to the level of "Voronezh-VP"

    Yuri! About Vorgashor. If you look at the photos in the same "Google Map", then at least you can see only the Voronezh-VP station (one six-section canvas).
    1. Military Specialist
      Military Specialist 16 February 2021 19: 53
      +5
      The Voronezh-VP radar station in Vorgashor has been completed, commissioning is underway (the station is already on air), and the Voronezh-SM radar station is being built to the left of the VP, as viewed from the direction to the north. This is clearly visible in the Google Earth browser application or in Google Earth.
  9. Old26
    Old26 16 February 2021 20: 22
    +4
    Quote: Military Specialist
    The Voronezh-VP radar station in Vorgashor has been completed, commissioning is underway (the station is already on air), and the Voronezh-SM radar station is being built to the left of the VP, as viewed from the direction to the north. This is clearly visible in the Google Earth browser application or in Google Earth.

    Do I understand you correctly, Yuri?
    1. Military Specialist
      Military Specialist 17 February 2021 13: 08
      +1
      Quite right! This is the future Voronezh-SM radar.
  10. Flooding
    Flooding 16 February 2021 21: 40
    +2
    In short, the output is:
    The next article on this topic is being written by VoenSpets in co-authorship with Comrade Stary26.
  11. Lara Croft
    Lara Croft 16 February 2021 21: 42
    -3
    Such articles annoy the Empireists ... and their henchmen ...
    1. Toucan
      Toucan 17 February 2021 01: 02
      +4
      Irritating the unprofessionalism of the author! negative Lyapov in the article is more than useful information.
      1. bk316
        bk316 17 February 2021 16: 21
        -2
        Lyapov in the article is more than useful information.

        Useful information is as follows.
        The EWS in the minimum sufficient configuration is fully deployed.
        Until the age of 24, it will be deployed in an optimal configuration. Further deployment is carried out in order to increase combat stability and detect sea launches.
        The rest, including bloopers for spies and participants, what where when.
  12. Old26
    Old26 17 February 2021 16: 52
    +4
    Quote: Military Specialist
    Quite right! This is the future Voronezh-SM radar.

    In the photo, this station has three very high masts. By the way, you have come across a drawing or photographs of this centimeter range station somewhere.
    And one more question, Yuri. On behalf of the Ministry of Defense, there were two information about the Yakhroma radar station

    First:
    That the station is tri-band (m.dm, cm), although, to be honest, I don’t understand how we could (and could) combine all this in one station

    The second:
    That the station is nothing more than a more advanced version of the Voronezh-VP station of the meter range

    What do you think about this topic?
    1. Military Specialist
      Military Specialist 18 February 2021 12: 25
      0
      “And one more question, Yuri. On behalf of the Ministry of Defense, there were two information about the Yakhroma radar station ...
      The second information is true! Unlike previous products, the radar has a fully digital adaptive phased array and a significantly higher noise immunity. I think when you see her in position, she will pleasantly surprise you ...