Military Review

The myth of "noble pirates" and "treacherous Spaniards"

82
The myth of "noble pirates" and "treacherous Spaniards"
Drake accepts the surrender of Admiral Pedro de Valdes


European predators spread more and more widely across the planet. At the same time, the colonial policy of different countries was quite different. A particularly strong difference was between Catholics and Protestants.

Spain


When the Spanish conquistadors invaded America and the Philippines, they acted as brutally as possible. Any resistance was drowned in blood.

However, as soon as one or another people or tribe submitted, the natives were converted to Christianity. People were recognized as subjects of the Spanish monarch, received the protection of laws as well as other Spaniards.

Spanish nobles easily married Indian "princesses" - the daughters of the leaders, and ordinary soldiers took local aboriginal women as wives. After all, they went hiking without women. Children from such marriages were completely equal residents.

Many were even proud of their origins. One of the descendants of the "royal family" Inca Garcilaso de la Vega created "History state of the Incas ”, and the descendant of the Aztec rulers Fernando de Alva Ishtlilxochitl wrote the history of ancient Mexico.

The descendants of mixed marriages in the Spanish colonies were not second or third class people.

But it was in the possession of Holland or England. There, marriages between representatives of the "superior race" and the natives, to put it mildly, were not approved. Mestizos - descendants of mixed marriages of whites and Indians, were there people of “second class”.

And the citizens of the Spanish colonies received significant privileges, land and servants. Overseas possessions of Spain became the main source of its income.

American mines supplied precious metals (gold and silver) and precious stones. Spices, oriental fabrics and porcelain came from the Philippine Islands.

The colonies themselves soon began to live quite richly, and did not know extreme repressions and censorship in the metropolis. In particular, Catholicism here quickly began to merge with the pagan beliefs of black slaves and Indians. A double belief arose.

Local authorities and priests have come to terms with this. They understood that heresy can be eliminated only with its carriers, and this is economically unprofitable. Who will work?

Therefore, beliefs that did not oppose Christianity and power (and at the same time those who observed their rituals quietly) were given up. As a result, amazing symbiosis was born: in the Caribbean islands - the cult of voodoo, in Mexico - "carnivals of death" and the cult of holy Death, the cult of "dark-skinned Christ", etc.

Cities competed for the size and beauty of cathedrals and palaces. Spanish architecture has left a large number of beautiful monuments to humanity. Until now, the old quarters of cities in Latin America and the Philippines attract the attention of tourists from all over the world.

Landowners in Mexico, Argentina and Peru organized estates on a grand scale. These were entire states within a state. Fortified estates were erected, where numerous detachments of soldiers and servants were kept.

The owners had harems of Indian women, mestizo, black women and mulatto women. It was not considered a sin.

Both freemen and serfs and slaves worked on the farm. But for the Spaniards, black slaves were dear. They were brought mainly by the Dutch or Portuguese. Therefore, the negroes were protected. And even for serious crimes, they tried to punish them without the death penalty.

They even came up with a special way to punish a Negro slave, but at the same time preserve his working capacity - for an attempt to escape or a daring act, Negroes were castrated. Negroes considered such a measure worse than death. And the threat of such punishment alone became very effective for blacks. The Negro slaves were quiet.


The battle of the conquistadors with the Incas. XNUMXth century engraving

The myth of "noble pirates" and "Spanish villains"


In the XNUMXth century, the Caribbean Sea was the real hornet's nest.

The numerous islands here were divided among themselves by Spain, Holland, England and France. It was far from kings and governments, the locals lived by their own laws.

Immigrants flooded to the fertile islands to grow sugarcane and tobacco, which provided great profits. Planters and successful farmers got rich.

But not everyone knew how to farm in local conditions, many went bankrupt. Their lands were bought up by large landowners. So, the British in Barbados in 1645 had 11 thousand farmers and 6 thousand slaves. And by the 1660s, 745 planters remained, on which tens of thousands of slaves worked.

Many captains hunted for slaves.

Moreover, it was often not Indians or Negroes who became slaves, but whites.

In the rich West Indies, the poor and the peasants who had lost their land rushed. And also adventurers and boys who dreamed of adventures. They paid for travel or were hired to pay for sailors and cabin crews.

And upon arrival, the captains and skippers sold their passengers and temporary sailors for 20-30 reais per head.

In the port cities of England and France, recruiters were operating, offering the poor and peasants free plots of land and fabulous opportunities to get rich. They brought it in and immediately sold it.

Someone signed a service contract for several years. Like, you will quickly work, and there you will find your business and the path to wealth is open. In fact, such servants were attempted to be enslaved completely, or they were exploited in such a way that the person "ended" in a very short time.

The governors turned a blind eye to this, or even encouraged it, since they had a share in local production, which required labor. And they themselves were then the largest planters.

Broken farmers, runaway and emancipated slaves and servants filled the crowds of the port rabble who lived on odd jobs. They also became pirates, in other words, sea robbers.

Among them were recruited teams of privateers who had a certificate, a patent with the right to rob enemy property.

In the West, with the help of fictional novels and films, a myth was created about tough, but noble people (like Captain Blood from the novels of R. Sabatini) who fought with the insidious and bloodthirsty Spaniards. These pictures have nothing to do with reality.

The Anglo-Saxons simply rewrote history to their advantage. Black turned white and vice versa.

The Spaniards were "insidious villains" only in the minds of the British and French.

After all, "such-and-such" Spaniards were the first to arrive in America and seized the largest and most profitable lands. They plundered the great Indian civilizations (in the north there were mainly tribes of hunters), and managed to create rich and prosperous cities.

It is clear that the Dutch, the British and the French tried to knock the Spaniards out of their rich territories, to occupy the already developed and developed lands. They tried to use the Indians for this.

And the Spaniards, "insidious villains", actively resisted. And they didn’t let themselves be offended (to the British and others). Moreover, the Indians often helped the Spaniards. They were against the "pale brothers". The Spanish cities were warned about the appearance of "gentlemen of fortune", they themselves met with arrows.

Pirates usually did not have large ships. Among them, in general, there were few professional sailors. They operated mainly, contrary to myth, on small ships, often just on boats.

To engage in battles with Spanish convoys, where large and well-armed ships were sailing, they had a lot of guts. They watched over the stragglers hit by storms. They secretly followed them and, at an opportunity (most often at night), attacked and took them on board.

The richest booty (a fortune) could come from the wealthy coastal cities of the Spaniards. The robbers repeatedly ravaged and burned Havana, Valparaiso, Cartagena, Porto Caballo, San Pedro, Gibraltar, Veracruz, Panama, Maracaibo, etc.


Olone in "Pirates of America" ​​by A. Exquemelin

"Noble" pirates


The main bases of the "noble robbers" were the Dutch island of Curacao, the French Tortuga and the English Port Royal in Jamaica.

These were the real "pirate babylon". Merchants flourished here - buyers of loot, shopkeepers, hucksters and slave traders.

There with might and main were building "fun" neighborhoods with taverns, gambling and brothels. Their masters always had information about the pirates' "operations". For their return, ships loaded with alcohol were ordered in Europe.

After successful raids, when wild spree began, prices skyrocketed. Therefore, the rich pirates were few.

Gold, silver, money and precious stones went down to booze and corrupt women. They walked in such a way that it happened that yesterday's "winners" were hammered into slave stocks the next morning and sold for debts.

But the owners of this entire industry (and through them the governors) enriched themselves fabulously.

With "nobility" the pirates were tight.

They didn't even care about their wounded. They die, so others will get more. In the captured villages, people were cut, raped, subjected to the most severe tortures, demanding hidden treasures and extorting ransom.

The Frenchman Montbar the Fighter had a habit of slaughtering all prisoners, regardless of gender and age. One of his many notorious torture methods was to open the abdomen of one of the prisoners, remove one end of the colon and nail it to the mast, and then make the unfortunate man dance until he fell dead, urging him on burning log.

The Dutchman Rock The Brazilian had a frenzied disposition. All Jamaica was afraid of him. He behaved like a fury. The prisoners were impaled or laid between two fires and slowly toasted.

The French pirate François Olone was not inferior to him in ferocity. The Spaniards, having heard about his cruelty, did not surrender, they fought to the death.

His antics were remembered with a shudder:

“If Olone began to torture, and the poor fellow did not immediately answer questions, then this pirate did not need to chop his victim into pieces, and finally lick the blood from his saber.”

Moreover, Olone worked in a share with the governor of Tortuga.

But the English pirate Henry Morgan was paired with the governor of Jamaica (then he himself became governor and supported the pirates).

In the captured Spanish cities, Morgan personally chopped off people's ears and noses. Some of his accomplices "simply" tortured and beat. Others were tortured by St. Andrey - driving burning fuses between fingers and toes. The third one wrapped a rope around their necks so that their eyes protruded onto their foreheads. Some were hung by their genitals and repeatedly shoved with sabers.

Their tormented victims died for 4-5 days. Some of them smeared their feet with fat and put their feet into the fire. Neither women nor children were spared.

The Englishman Morgan was a real cynical monster, a typical British pirate (that's why he became governor). Having seized huge treasures in Panama, he robbed and abandoned his people.

Loot ships were hijacked by him. And he threw 1,5 thousand of his companions on the deserted shore. Most of them died from hunger, disease and from the arrows of the Indians.

Meanwhile, their "Admiral Morgan" arrived in his England. There he gave whoever needed it. And soon they started talking about him in England as a "hero". The king himself wanted to personally meet with Morgan. For his services to England, Morgan was awarded the nobility.

Moreover, the English king then appointed this bloodthirsty bandit the lieutenant governor of Jamaica and the commander of the armed forces in the West Indies. Morgan was also assigned to fight the pirates. Since then, he has executed the most notorious robbers.

Thus, in reality, Spanish ships and cities were victims of "noble robbers" from England, who subsequently rewrote history so skillfully.

Band formations and various naval English and Dutch evil spirits of those times fed on the plunder and destruction of Spanish cities, villages and ships.

It is clear that the Spaniards resisted as best they could, they did not stand on ceremony with the prisoners. The pirate's place on the yard.

The Spanish colonial empire as a whole survived.

Piracy, on the other hand, developed to such an extent that it began to threaten the trade and economic interests of England and France.

Extraordinary measures were taken against the pirates, expeditions.

The pirates in the Caribbean were defeated.


Captain Henry Morgan attacks Panama, 1671
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 12 February 2021 05: 34
    +15
    On the ship a riot, seagulls are flying over us,
    Yesterday because of the doubloon of gold
    Two villains were pulled up in the yard,
    But - not enough. Four people were needed.
    1. Mountain shooter
      Mountain shooter 12 February 2021 07: 13
      +7
      Quote: Uncle Lee
      Two villains were pulled up in the yard,
      But - not enough. Four people were needed.

      Pirates were needed by the Naglo-Saxons, the Dutch and the French to try to "bite off" at least something from the Spanish Empire. And then they were let "under the knife", as always, when the need for used "objects" disappears ...
      1. Machito
        Machito 14 February 2021 15: 44
        +5
        Quote: Mountain Shooter
        Quote: Uncle Lee
        Two villains were pulled up in the yard,
        But - not enough. Four people were needed.

        Pirates were needed by the Naglo-Saxons, the Dutch and the French to try to "bite off" at least something from the Spanish Empire. And then they were let "under the knife", as always, when the need for used "objects" disappears ...

        Since that time, nothing has changed: Chechen rebels, Syrian barmaley, terrorists of all stripes and other Maidan Tikhanovs navalnata.
        1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Destiny
    Destiny 12 February 2021 05: 43
    +11
    "Cruel world, cruel people" ... Thank you, but somehow too short, it would be possible to write more about pirates, and write more accurately, but not one article, but a whole cycle ...
    1. Pessimist22
      Pessimist22 12 February 2021 06: 00
      +7
      This is our essence, as in nature the strongest survive.
    2. Walking
      Walking 12 February 2021 11: 15
      +6
      Quote: Destiny
      one could write more and more about pirates, but not one article, but a whole cycle ...

      So there was already a big cycle about pirates on VO, why repeat.
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 12 February 2021 05: 57
    +6
    Loot ships were hijacked by him. And he threw 1,5 thousand of his companions on the deserted shore. Most of them died from hunger, disease and from the arrows of the Indians.


    Well the man is strong !!! Alone he took all the ships! laughing
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 12 February 2021 06: 04
      +1
      Nothing. In the second part I received a reply.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 12 February 2021 06: 09
        +1
        Who and from whom? I didn't understand a little. request
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 12 February 2021 06: 42
          +1
          When Gulliver was already among the giants.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 12 February 2021 06: 44
            +6
            And I hoped that Samsonov. laughing
  4. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 12 February 2021 06: 04
    +6
    Personally, I am annoyed by the heroization of pirates coming from the Anglo-Saxons, and even for a long time and obsessively promoted among our children. So my youngest knows for sure that pirates are sea bandits and they belong, at best, in a prison.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 12 February 2021 06: 13
      +6
      So my youngest knows for sure that pirates are sea bandits and they belong, at best, in a prison.

      Exactly - frank barmaley, "do not go children to Africa for a walk." laughing
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 12 February 2021 06: 46
        +1
        Right. You can't trust pirates.
      2. No name B
        No name B 14 February 2021 13: 01
        +2
        In Germany, in six months of work as a truck driver, I saw Negroes two times, and then somehow I stopped by a company to load fuel briquettes and I see them at once 5 people - they were driving electric fluffs, at 17-00 they all washed away, the Germans stayed, here I was called by one negro and says to sign the DEM, I ask him - are you from?
        Is he Somalia, I am Somalia?
        He is Ya, I am the Pirate?
        He smiles...
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 14 February 2021 19: 17
          0
          He is Ya, I am the Pirate?
          He smiles...

          Have you retrained or just bought this company with pirated income?
    2. gsev
      gsev 12 February 2021 06: 54
      +2
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Personally, I am annoyed by the heroization of pirates coming from the Anglo-Saxons

      However, it was the Drake pirates who were able to defend the independence of England at the most critical moment in its history.
    3. Andrei Nikolaevich
      Andrei Nikolaevich 12 February 2021 08: 25
      +4
      Vikings, with their forays, simpletons and angels.)
      1. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 12 February 2021 08: 47
        +6
        Here you are wrong, the Vikings have been weird for 300 years, plundering the coast of Europe and Africa from France to Morocco.
        Pirates of the Caribbean compared to them street punks.
        1. Andrei Nikolaevich
          Andrei Nikolaevich 12 February 2021 09: 14
          -3
          This is clear. But these same Scandinavian pirates stood at the origins of our country.
          1. IGOR GORDEEV
            IGOR GORDEEV 12 February 2021 17: 37
            +5
            Quote: Andrey Nikolaevich
            This is clear. But these same Scandinavian pirates stood at the origins of our country.

            Controversial opinion - very controversial.
            1. Andrei Nikolaevich
              Andrei Nikolaevich 12 February 2021 18: 17
              +2
              Why? Do you think that Ruriks were engaged exclusively in charity work?
  5. Korsar4
    Korsar4 12 February 2021 06: 45
    +4
    And there was also a way to punish the slave - they forced him to bite off the stem of dieffenbachia ("dumb rod"). I kept my mind, but could not speak for a long time.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 12 February 2021 06: 53
      +12
      laughing Now questions from men will pour in, where to get it, and how to grow it. good
      1. evgen1221
        evgen1221 12 February 2021 08: 17
        +5
        In the fight against the mother-in-law and the skittish little wife, it has chances for enchanting success.))))
      2. Andrei Nikolaevich
        Andrei Nikolaevich 12 February 2021 08: 26
        +5
        Yeah. Mother-in-law to feed these
      3. Korsar4
        Korsar4 12 February 2021 10: 29
        +4
        Origin - America.
        As a room - it has been used for a hundred years.
        Toxicity - from calcium oxalate (by the way, maybe even to the peel of an unripe kiwi).
        It is treated by washing.
      4. mmaxx
        mmaxx 12 February 2021 18: 47
        +4
        Yes, it grows in many pots. His flower is still so white, of an unusual shape.
      5. The eye of the crying
        The eye of the crying 14 February 2021 02: 10
        -1
        You have made many mistakes in the word "henpecked".
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 14 February 2021 05: 04
          0
          laughing Now questions from men will pour in, where to get it, and how to grow it.


          And where is my word "henpecked"? request

          Your eye may be glaring, but there is clearly something wrong with your eyesight. hi
          1. The eye of the crying
            The eye of the crying 14 February 2021 12: 22
            0
            Quote: Sea Cat
            And where is my word "henpecked"? request


            I tell you - you wanted to write "henpecked", but made many mistakes in it, and it turned out "men".
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 14 February 2021 19: 14
              0
              Is this your perception - through the sirloin diagonally?
              1. The eye of the crying
                The eye of the crying 14 February 2021 19: 15
                0
                Not. Your fingers are not listening.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 14 February 2021 19: 18
                  +1
                  Okay, don't be shy, child of the proctologist and midwife.
                  1. The eye of the crying
                    The eye of the crying 14 February 2021 19: 48
                    0
                    You say that a proctologist or midwife is something bad.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 14 February 2021 21: 20
                      0
                      I have nothing personal to these doctors, I have not come across anything personally, the professions are very respected, but their children are clearly strange ... request
  6. Dart2027
    Dart2027 12 February 2021 06: 56
    +3
    I never liked stories about noble bandits, even the vaunted Robin Hood.
  7. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 12 February 2021 07: 15
    +9
    There is a classic of the genre book, the author
    Alexander Olivier Exquemelin - "Pirates of America", the author of the Dutch was an eyewitness and wrote everything in hot pursuit. This article is a free retelling of the original source.
    About the book, it was published with us several times, it was well illustrated with drawings from old engravings, with a detailed biography of famous pirates such as Francois Olone, Bartolomeo Portuguese, Rock, John Morgan and others.
    I think you can find an electronic version.
  8. evgen1221
    evgen1221 12 February 2021 08: 14
    +2
    Pirates, typical proxies of their time. Nothing is new in essence, but the essence is the same.
  9. parusnik
    parusnik 12 February 2021 08: 25
    +12
    Author, is the Sabbath going on? laughing Did you know that in London in 1724, the book "A General History of Robberies and Murders Perpetrated by the Most Famous Pirates" was published. The book was published under the pseudonym Charles Johnson. But the most likely "contender", according to most researchers, for the authorship of this book is Daniel Defoe. But there is another contender, former sailor and publicist Nathaniel Mist. The book was a great success, went through four editions, and the first edition sold out pretty quickly. But this is not the most interesting. The most interesting, another. The biographies of many of the pirates described in this book are believed to be reliable and are based on Colonies Department archives held in the British National Archives. And whoever read this book or listened to it (on the radio Zvezda, for example, read it), he knows: there are no pink and snot and the rest, pirate romance. The founder of this romantic husk is rightly considered W. Scott. And lastly, only material relating to Captain Misson and the pirate republic of Libertalia in Madagascar is fictitious, but even here the researchers break their spears. not rewriting history. You still write an article on a historical theme based on the works of Pilevin and Sorokin.
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 12 February 2021 08: 33
      +4
      In my opinion this is another Samsonov !?
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 12 February 2021 08: 44
        +8
        If for this series of articles, this is the same laughing And so there are several of them, I think there are two or three .. "The Goncourt Brothers". This one has a rather light style, but writes in the same spirit, mixing truth and untruth. Mixing fiction and historical facts. , read more fiction on historical topics.
        1. mr.ZinGer
          mr.ZinGer 12 February 2021 09: 35
          +6
          I wonder which of them runs around the editions, and which guards the manuscripts ?!
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 12 February 2021 09: 45
            +4
            Take turns smile The first is currently running, the second is guarding ..
    2. Stirbjorn
      Stirbjorn 12 February 2021 09: 00
      +3
      Quote: parusnik
      You also write an article on a historical theme based on the works of Pilevin and Sorokin.
      Well, some stubborn anti-Soviet people think that "Omon RA" Pelevin is based on real events wassat
    3. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 12 February 2021 16: 19
      +2
      Missonu and the pirate republic of Libertalia in Madagascar, but even here the researchers break their spears.

      Alexey Anatolyevich, EMNIP, Mozheiko wrote about the fact that the pirate Tew personally brought his ship to Libertalia in order to join the local society. But, as far as I understand, now the fact of Tew's participation in this "state" is denied. drinks Yes, the spears break.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 12 February 2021 16: 25
        +3
        Libertalia, very interesting, the same Peter, who was the first, after listening to the legends and tales about the given republic, planned an expedition. But death prevented the plans. And again, but ... he was really planning, or there are no special supporting documents. But rumors about Libertalia were circulating .. The truth is somewhere near, where is it near? smile drinks
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 15 February 2021 09: 59
          +1
          who was the first, having heard the legends and legends about this republic, planned an expedition. But death prevented the plans. And again, but ... he was really planning or stories, there are no special supporting documents.

          Yes, Mozheiko wrote that the tsar even purchased frigates for this expedition. But Igor Vsevolodovich, in general, was quite free in dealing with historical facts. He wrote in the pre-internet era. request
          The truth is somewhere near, where is it near?

          And the mysterious music from the X-Files behind the scenes! drinks
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 15 February 2021 18: 18
            +1
            And the mysterious music from the X-Files behind the scenes!
            laughing good
    4. Flooding
      Flooding 12 February 2021 18: 13
      +4
      Quote: parusnik
      The book was published under the pseudonym Charles Johnson. But the most likely "contender", according to most researchers, for the authorship of this book is Daniel Defoe. But there is another contender, former sailor and publicist Nathaniel Mist.

      Sold under the title "A General History of Piracy" by Daniel Defoe.
      The publishers decided not to bother.
    5. samosad
      samosad April 8 2021 07: 44
      0
      Yes, like a beeeeee, the author says that pirates are the devil, and not vice versa ...
  10. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 12 February 2021 08: 26
    +7
    In the West, with the help of fictional novels and films, a myth was created about tough, but noble people (like Captain Blood from the novels of R. Sabatini) who fought with the insidious and bloodthirsty Spaniards.
    What nonsense. Captain Blood was the only noble pirate from Sabatini's novels who became a pirate only by accident. And not all the British were exposed there in a white light. Well, you just have to read it ... And the good-natured Spaniards staged a form of genocide against the Indians of South America. In the Caribbean islands, in general, not a single indigenous was left - they had to import blacks. The kindness of the Spaniards is evidenced by the story of the dog Beserillo. By the way, the most famous novel about Stevenson's pirates "Treasure Island" does not at all make pirates noble, but vice versa. Well, this is, of course, if you read it with your eyes, and not with a sirloin wassat
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 12 February 2021 08: 32
      +4
      Conan Doyle's stories about Captain Shark, an unsympathetic character.
    2. Foul skeptic
      Foul skeptic 12 February 2021 11: 45
      +2
      Captain Blood was the only noble pirate from Sabatini's novels who became a pirate only by accident.

      Oliver Tressilian in the novel of the same name by Sabatini was a match for Blood - he became a pirate by accident, fought the Spaniards, nobly ransomed his compatriots from captivity and sent them home.
      1. Stirbjorn
        Stirbjorn 12 February 2021 12: 53
        +3
        Quote: Nefarious skeptic
        fought with the Spaniards, nobly ransomed his compatriots from captivity and sent them home.

        including) as well as with the Portuguese, Maltese, Dutch, Venetians and other enemies of the Algerian Pasha hi
        1. Foul skeptic
          Foul skeptic 12 February 2021 13: 11
          +2
          My memory also let me down - I confused the name of the cycle with the name of the book of the cycle repeat
  11. Gvardeetz77
    Gvardeetz77 12 February 2021 09: 18
    +6
    .Sovers loaded with alcohol were ordered in Europe for their return


    What for? What sugarcane for their arrival everybody stopped making rum? Or did the gentlemen prefer Bordeaux?
    Smells like an owl and a globe.
    1. Black lotos
      Black lotos 13 February 2021 23: 56
      0
      Quote: Gvardeetz77
      What for? What sugarcane for their arrival everybody stopped making rum? Or did the gentlemen prefer Bordeaux?

      water was provided by the ship at the rate of a liter per person per day. It went bad quickly (hot). It was diluted with alcohol. Rum is cheaper.
      Clean water in the Caribbean is included.
      But the Spaniards could import very expensive and elite wine and other drinks. Local, too, but worse quality. And Bordeaux, in comparison with the Spanish of that time, is also not very good.
      Spanish winemaking was valuable.
      In taverns and taverns on Tortuga (this is France) and Port Royal (Anglia) Bordeaux was definitely not poured to the pirates.
      For drunkenness and debauchery with rum and lecherous maidens (Captain Jack Sparrow), there was enough cheap and affordable alcohol. Even a cheap banana would do.
  12. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 12 February 2021 12: 18
    +5
    Both freemen and serfs and slaves worked on the farm. But for the Spaniards, black slaves were dear. They were brought mainly by the Dutch or Portuguese. Therefore, the negroes were protected. And even for serious crimes, they tried to punish them without the death penalty.

    The author tactfully omits one point: why did it even become necessary to import black slaves from another continent? Was it really not enough locals?
    It turned out - not enough. The humane and enlightened Spaniards took up the colonization so dashingly that they undermined the working resources of the colonies with punitive expeditions and excessive exploitation. And they were forced to carry the work force across the ocean.
    1. Laurus
      Laurus 12 February 2021 14: 01
      +6
      Nothing like this. The Pope banned the keeping of Indians as slaves, because the Vatican recognized them as full-fledged people with an immortal soul. Instead, it was recommended to bring in blacks, who, according to the Vatican, did not have an immortal soul.
    2. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 12 February 2021 16: 25
      +4
      The Indians were not workers, the Negroes worked much better.
      Even in our time in Latin America, the local Indian population does not really work. They are hired for days or weeks and are no longer visible.
  13. Doctor
    Doctor 12 February 2021 17: 09
    +3
    The descendants of mixed marriages in the Spanish colonies were not second or third class people.

    In fact, there is a complex system of Latin American castes.

    In general, white skin, blonde hair, and Spanish descent raised their status, and the presence of African and especially Indian blood lowered their status.

  14. Khibiny Plastun
    Khibiny Plastun 12 February 2021 18: 46
    +1
    Yes, we are taught history from English, so to speak, "textbooks", many know well about the defeat of the Great Armada in 1588, but few people know about the defeat of the Anglo-Dutch retaliatory "Armada" by the Spaniards in 1589. This event is interestingly written in Makhova's LiveJournal for 12 or 13 years. And it always has been - the winners write history, Spain lost.
    1. zenion
      zenion 13 February 2021 16: 07
      +2
      The Spanish Armada was defeated not by the British, but by a violent storm. Those who remained could not resist.
    2. Black lotos
      Black lotos 14 February 2021 00: 04
      0
      Quote: Khibiny Plastun
      Spain lost.

      well she lost the economic war altogether. in 1596 she defaulted on debt obligations.
      And the "defeat of KontrArmada" under the command of Drake belongs precisely to the weather.
      violent storm

      Where the weather helped one there and the other. So quits. London world to all of them.
      19 years in peace and cooperation.
  15. Cure72
    Cure72 12 February 2021 18: 56
    +1
    Damn, what's this Friday? Either Frolova, then Samsonov (((
    Hopefully there will be something worth reading for the weekend.
  16. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 12 February 2021 21: 59
    +3
    One myth replaced by another myth smile

    Both the Spaniards and the British were robbing with might and main. And cruelty
    dominated on both sides. Both slaves and enemies.
    The kingdoms of the Aztecs (before their collapse by the Spaniards) were also off scale cruel
    in relation to other Indian tribes.
  17. Avior
    Avior 13 February 2021 10: 25
    +4
    I would not look for political connotations in fiction about noble pirates. The image of a noble robber has been known since ancient times, in Europe it was still in Ancient Greece. Was in China, India, and in other places, both in literature and in oral legends, as a purely artistic image or based on real events
    A noble robber is an archetypal image, a hero of a literary work, folk legends or paintings, who was forced to become a criminal, but retained the idea of ​​honor and dignity.

    Robin Hood, Sun Jiang, Virapan, Zorro, Dubrovsky, Jofrey de Peyrac, Blood, Yuri Detochkin - this is a well-known artistic image of a noble robber.
    Noble pirates of the same line
    1. zenion
      zenion 13 February 2021 16: 09
      0
      But our pirates are the most pirate ones. They were so good that when they let go of the enemy, they always tied his head to his hands. So that at the Last Judgment, the op would appear fully assembled.
    2. Black lotos
      Black lotos 14 February 2021 00: 12
      0
      Quote: Avior
      Geoffrey de Peyrac

      He is Rekastor, he was not a pirate in the literal sense. He was a smuggler. Silver merchant. (By the way, before his naval career, he did this on land)
      This is in the Mediterranean, and in the Caribbean, he "pirated" mainly on sunken galleons.
      1. Avior
        Avior 14 February 2021 12: 24
        +2
        Reskator is more accurate.
        Still like a pirate. It is he, along with other pirates, who ambushes de Vivon.
        1. Black lotos
          Black lotos 14 February 2021 18: 18
          0
          Quote: Avior
          Still like a pirate. It is he, along with other pirates, who ambushes de Vivon.

          One of my favorite novels
          The news of the Battle of Cape Pissarro came to Paris in mid-July, during the last feast the king had given on the eve of his departure for Lorraine. De Vivonne's fleet was attacked off the coast of Sicily by Turkish galleys led by a traitor, an Algerian named Rescator. The battle most likely resembled a shootout. But two ships out of twenty still sank.

          Rekastor was in the service of the Great Turk. When the "Flemish" was drowned with his son, he did everything to save him. He even sent a personal janissary guard there.
          In general, he had little in common with the pirates. He was not involved in robbing ships. But the trade in silver and the ransom of prisoners and their capture, yes.
          When attacking the squadron of de Vivon, already with Angelica, he attacked their supply ship (Dauphin) in order to free his people. Again Turkish feluccas, and then his ksebek. Under its own flag.
          He attacked a squadron of a French admiral with 2 feluccas and 1 xebec. Having previously raised the flag of war. Where is the piracy then? He took nothing but his people / prisoners.
          It was other pirates in the novel who killed, raped (the same Angelica) and trafficked all people, including even the Order of Malta (holy people ... were engaged in the slave trade)
          This can be addressed to Samsonov.
          1. Avior
            Avior 14 February 2021 21: 29
            +1
            De Vivon had no doubt that Rescator was a pirate. And he understood that in this matter :)))
            ... Who is he, this Reskator that you all constantly think about? - asked Angelica.
            - One of those robbers violating all laws, whom we have been entrusted with pursuing and, if possible, capturing, - answered de Vivonne, gloomily.
            - So it's a Turkish pirate?
            “He's a pirate, that's for sure. But whether he is a Turk, I do not know.
            1. Black lotos
              Black lotos 15 February 2021 12: 42
              0
              Quote: Avior
              De Vivon had no doubt that Rescator was a pirate.

              For the admiral of the Royal Navy, all his opponents are dastardly pirates. Which, however, is not news for the Mediterranean. Although his allies, some Italian cities are pirates too. But they are his allies. Turks are the main enemy of Christians, for him all are pirates. For the Turks, the French and Maltese are pirates. And the Order of Malta is a respected office. And for them all the rest are pirates - in general, a vicious circle.
              But the answer is given by the captain of the smuggling ship - Rekastor is a smuggler and supplied the region with silver. Built a smuggling network, paid handsomely, freed all of his people from everywhere.
              He attacked the royal squadrons from the need to get either a son or prisoners. In general, all who attacked the admiral are all pirates.
              But what pirate in his right mind would attack with one ship against the Royal Squadron? And he used cannons with optics and diving equipment.
              The main goal of Rekastor's pursuit in the Mediterranean is to break his silver monopoly! Therefore, he was declared somewhere a renegade, then a pirate and other bad words.
              The main pirate of the Mediterranean, Algeria (with his admiral) was considered his worst enemy.
              By the way, the crew and the team of the admiral's galley have a slightly different opinion about the Rekastor.
              Nobody knew the full truth about him. Only partially. And each his own part.
              PS. Just now I thought that he was striving everywhere to create a monopoly on gold and silver (well, lead). For which there was a hard beat everywhere.
              1. Avior
                Avior 15 February 2021 17: 06
                +2
                He himself says that he does not know Reskator's nationality. Only a kind of activity is a pirate.
                1. Black lotos
                  Black lotos 16 February 2021 00: 45
                  0
                  Quote: Avior
                  He himself says that he does not know Reskator's nationality. Only a kind of activity is a pirate.

                  no one knew nationality. Different legends were started up for everyone. Moreover, he is a polyglot. He spoke 8 languages.
                  The occupation was also carefully hidden. Silver production and trade.
                  Since he was at sea on a ship, he was either a merchant or a pirate. At the time, they are the same thing. And then he defended his monopoly. But no one knew that it was he who owned it.
                  The admiral's crew considered him a Spanish renegade.
                  Nobody suspected that he was French at all.
                  In general, France officially considered him a Turkish pirate. Maltese-Arabic. The Algerians are simply the sworn enemy of their pirate empire. Other pirates were simply jealous of his wealth. The Turks did not consider him a pirate. Moroccans too.
                  I look we have already tightened more abruptly Samsonov's dispute about the Count of Toulouse.
                  Let's agree that for France he was a pirate. Because they did not know anything about him, except that he attacked them with one ship, with new technologies.
                  But he was a powerful smuggler of his day. No pirate could do that.
                  He even put out the Greek fire.
  18. Vadim Golubkov
    Vadim Golubkov 13 February 2021 16: 25
    0
    Didn't understand something, the Spaniards are good, and the French, Dutch, English are bad? Yes, the Spaniards were the same murderers and cruel. How many Indians were killed.
  19. Black lotos
    Black lotos 13 February 2021 23: 41
    0
    In the West, with the help of fictional novels and films, the myth of tough but noble people (like Captain Blood from the novels of R. Sabatini)

    From the novel - Blood was the son of an Irish physician and a native of Somersetshire
    twenty years of age having achieved a bachelor's degree in medicine from Dublin College

    The main character CAM was sold into slavery by the British authorities! He hated the whole English system, together with King James. Everywhere and always said that he was Irish and this is not the same thing as an Englishman.
    The novel is replete with atrocities and brutal piracy of both English and French and Spanish.
    Where is the glorification of the "West"? That an educated doctor, a soldier, innocent of a mutiny, were sold to a planter for 10 pounds by the British themselves?
    If it were not for Arabella, he would not have particularly spared the English settlements (for most of his people are French, and they don't like the English a priori)
    The fact that he himself was such a heroization was just his. And the novel itself very clearly shows the vileness of the English system of selling people into slavery, English piracy and the management of colonies, that the pirate has to defend the English colonies from the Spaniards from the French, while the greedy governors themselves chase him to Tortuga.
    There is no glorification of the West in Raphael's novel at all. Quite the opposite.
    The hero is just fighting against the English system, being an Irish doctor / soldier, with de Ritter's training.
    I strongly criticize this article because the author
    1 he put the Indians poor, and the white colonizers (and these are the Spaniards), and we know what bloodthirsty and cannibals the same Aztecs were.
    2-then the Spaniards became unhappy, whose image and life by the author in this article became positive and their colonization was designed to be a positive author, unlike others.
    Stage 3 - will the British / Dutch / French system be recognized as exemplary before, for example, the American one according to the Spanish principle?
    For example, does the author know that the French also freely mated with natives in New France?
    And the fact that the Indians there massively converted to Catholicism and fought on the side of the SF against New England *?
    They even signed contracts with them! Unlike the Spaniards, and they traded with them. True, they soldered them with fiery water, and those with tobacco and a passion for fur / beaver skins.
    The whole article is about good and poor Spaniards ... and not good "Western" ...
    This is despite the fact that the Spaniards themselves owned Holland and it brought more profit than the American colonies.
    1. SVD68
      SVD68 14 February 2021 11: 51
      0
      But Sabatini welcomes the Glorious Revolution with the accession of the noble William of Orange. And Blood goes into the service of the noble united Anglo-Dutch bourgeoisie.
      1. Black lotos
        Black lotos 14 February 2021 18: 23
        -1
        Quote: SVD68
        But the Glorious revolution with the accession of the noble William of Orange Sabatini welcomes

        For Blood, his exile is over. He hated Jacob. He also gave up on piracy earlier. Having defeated the French at Port Royal, he deserves forgiveness.
        Quote: SVD68
        And Blood goes to the service of the noble united Anglo-Dutch bourgeoisie

        did not want. He was forced to redeem. And again, these women (Arabella and save her uncle from the gallows, he always saved him when he wanted to hang him ..)
        As for the description of the Chronicle of Blood, there he had no illusions about a country with such colonial governors and chiefs. Sometimes the Spaniards were much more zealous.
  20. Cut Samshitov
    Cut Samshitov 15 February 2021 09: 06
    0
    Needless to say, the Naglo-Saxons are propaganda geniuses. Our Ivan the Terrible is like a bloody maniac, and Henry VIII, who destroyed many times more people, is a religious traitor, kind of tough, but very progressive.
  21. certero
    certero 15 February 2021 22: 37
    -1
    It is somehow too politicized for a historical article.