Military Review

Icebreakers pr. 22220. Technical advantages and prospects of navigation

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Launching of the head "Arctic", 2016


Currently, with the aim of updating the nuclear icebreaker fleet construction of new vessels of project 22220 / LK-60Ya / "Arctic" is in progress. ... The lead icebreaker of this type, Arktika, was commissioned on October 21, 2020. At the end of 2021, the flag will be raised on the second vessel of the series. In total, it is planned to build five icebreakers, which will positively affect the condition and prospects of the fleet, as well as open up new opportunities.

Lead ship


The LK-60Ya / 22220 project was developed in the XNUMXs by a number of organizations. The main contractor was the Iceberg Central Design Bureau, which specializes in icebreakers. The nuclear power plant was designed by OKBM im. I.I. Afrikantov. The Baltic Shipyard in St. Petersburg was later chosen as a site for the construction of ships. As suppliers of individual units and parts, hundreds of enterprises from all over the country were involved in the project.

In 2012, Baltiyskiy Zavod began cutting metal and assembling the first structures for the lead icebreaker Arktika. The groundbreaking ceremony took place on November 5, 2013. In June 2016, the vessel was launched and transferred to the outfitting wall. In October 2019, a nuclear power plant was launched, reaching the minimum power, which allows maintaining and controlling the reaction.

Icebreakers pr. 22220. Technical advantages and prospects of navigation

At the beginning of last year, shipbuilders had to revise the project schedule. In February, during work on the power system, one of the propulsion engines broke down. The repair took some time and shifted the dates to the right. By the fall, it was possible to start sea trials, and on September 22 "Arktika" went from St. Petersburg to Murmansk for ice testing.

Based on the results of all tests, an acceptance act was signed on October 21, and the flag was raised on the icebreaker. The vessel was handed over to the Rosatomflot enterprise and is now serving along with other domestic nuclear icebreakers.

At different stages of construction


In 2014, Baltiyskiy Zavod received an order for two serial icebreakers of project 22220. In May 2015, the first of them, Sibir, was laid down. The launching took place in September 2017. Then it was indicated that the vessel would be handed over to the customer in the spring of 2020. However, in the future, the plans changed. According to the latest data, "Siberia" is currently undergoing mooring tests, and by the end of this year it will go into operation.

In July 2016, the third vessel of the series, Ural, was laid down. Since May 2019, this icebreaker has been completed afloat, and now preparations are underway for mooring tests. Due to a general shift in the work schedule, the delivery of this vessel was postponed to the end of 2022.


"Arctic" goes to tests

Two more icebreakers are at different stages of construction. Yakutia was laid down in May last year, and Chukotka in December. They will be built and launched in 2022-24. The handover to the customer is scheduled for mid-decade. Thus, no later than 2025-26. the Russian nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet will have five new pennants.

Technical advantages


The LK-60Ya project was developed taking into account the experience of building and operating icebreakers of previous types, as well as using modern solutions and technologies. This made it possible to obtain an optimal ratio of all characteristics and some other advantages. As a result, "Arktika" and subsequent new icebreakers will become an effective addition and replacement for existing ships of the old construction.

Icebreakers of project 22220 receive a hull with a length of 173 m and a width of 34 m. The total displacement of the vessel is 33,5 thousand tons. The case was created taking into account the existing experience, but new features are provided. The vessel has ballast tanks providing a draft change from 8,5 to 10,5 m. Due to this, the icebreaker can operate both in the open sea and in shallow water. The organization-developer mentions the ability of "Arktika" to navigate the Yenisei and Ob Bay.

The power industry is based on two RITM-200 pressurized water reactors with a thermal capacity of 175 MW each, which makes the LK-60Ya icebreakers the most powerful in their class. Due to the new layout solutions, the reactors are distinguished by lower weight and dimensions. Management is carried out using modern digital systems. With the help of steam turbine units PTU-72, electricity is generated for all consumers.


For the first time, a nuclear-powered icebreaker is equipped with the so-called electric motion system (EDS). This complex was developed by the Krylov State Research Center and a number of related enterprises using domestic components. The SED generates, stores and uses electricity to ensure optimum travel performance. The propulsion is provided by three electric motors, each with its own propeller. The total propeller power is 60 MW.

On clear water icebreakers of the "Arctic" type are capable of speeds up to 22 knots. In ice up to 1,5 m thick, a speed of at least 12 knots is ensured. Maximum ice thickness - 3 m; it reduces the speed to 2 knots.

The construction of the LK-60Ya icebreakers and the production of the main components are carried out by the Russian industry with minimal involvement of foreign suppliers. This favorably distinguishes them from the vessels of the previous project 10580, the hulls of which had to be ordered in Finland.

In the interests of shipping


Until recently, Rosatomflot operated four nuclear-powered icebreakers of the 10520 Arktika and 10580 Taimyr projects. It is also necessary to recall the icebreaking transport ship "Sevmorput". The existing icebreakers are old and will require replacement in the distant future. It will be the vessels under construction, project 22220.


The main task of Russian nuclear icebreakers is to provide navigation along the Northern Sea Route. Two shallow-draft icebreakers of the Taimyr type are also capable of navigating ships and caravans along the estuaries of Siberian rivers. "Arktika" and subsequent icebreakers of the new project are capable of operating both on rivers and in the open sea, and it takes only a few hours to change the draft. This makes the LK-60Ya icebreakers a convenient and effective instrument for ensuring navigation.

The use of the accumulated experience and modern technologies has made it possible to improve the technical and operational characteristics, as well as to obtain the maximum possible service life. From this point of view, the new project 22220 has serious advantages over previous domestic developments, which allows us to look into the future with optimism.

However, there are limitations. New vessels of the LK-60Ya type are capable of breaking ice up to 3 m thick, but in winter more complex obstacles are encountered on the Northern Sea Route. Thus, several vessels of the "Arctic" type will not be able to provide year-round navigation along the entire length of the Northern Sea Route.


Design look of the icebreaker "Leader"

For this reason, a new project for the nuclear icebreaker 10510 / LK-120Ya / Leader has been developed. The lead ship is already being built by the Zvezda enterprise in the Far East. Two more will follow. For project 10510, the ability to pass through 4-meter ice is declared. This will be helped by a total displacement of more than 71 thousand tons and a 120 MW power plant on shafts.

The future of the nuclear fleet


In the distant future, Rosatomflot will have to abandon obsolete nuclear icebreakers, but their place will be taken by five new vessels of the project 22220 and three Leaders. Both quantitative and qualitative growth of the icebreaker fleet will be ensured. This will make it possible to solve all the urgent and expected tasks of ensuring navigation on the Northern Sea Route and in the nearest regions at any time of the year and practically without restrictions.

The presence of eight new icebreakers with broad capabilities will maximize the potential of the Northern Sea Route and have a positive impact on the economy. So far, plans for the construction of icebreakers have only been partially implemented. Of the eight vessels of the two projects, only one has been brought into operation, but this year the new "Siberia" will be commissioned, followed by the "Ural". The situation is changing and encouraging optimism.
Author:
Photos used:
Rosatom / Rosatomflot, Central Design Bureau "Iceberg"
37 comments
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  1. Lipchanin
    Lipchanin 13 February 2021 05: 34
    +17
    Icebreakers of project 22220 receive a hull with a length of 173 m and a width of 34 m. The total displacement of the vessel is 33,5 thousand tons.

    Well, a whopper good
    1. cost 75
      cost 75 13 February 2021 05: 50
      +12
      This is for sure a Leader is generally the size of an aircraft carrier
    2. loki565
      loki565 13 February 2021 07: 36
      +8
      Yes, but near the icebreakers they generally look epic)))
    3. Alien From
      Alien From 13 February 2021 10: 16
      +6
      I agree, but the Leader is generally handsome!
      1. Vladimir Mashkov
        Vladimir Mashkov 13 February 2021 17: 40
        +2
        Good article about the wonderful, the best in the world today Russian icebreakers of project 22220. And Russia's icebreaker fleet is the largest and best in the world. And it will be like this for a long time!
        It's amazing that there are many whiners who point-blank "do not see" this.
        1. Ugochaves
          Ugochaves 15 February 2021 09: 22
          0
          Give them aircraft carriers, and a lot and quickly ... crying
  2. Destiny
    Destiny 13 February 2021 05: 38
    +17
    The presence of eight new icebreakers with broad capabilities will maximize the potential of the Northern Sea Route and have a positive impact on the economy.

    This is good news - the future belongs to the Arctic and the NSR.
    1. Lipchanin
      Lipchanin 13 February 2021 05: 47
      +2
      Quote: Destiny
      the Arctic and the NSR are the future.

      Well, judging by the drawing and the stated performance characteristics, the "Leader" will not be a weak icebreaker
      1. Vladimir Mashkov
        Vladimir Mashkov 15 February 2021 12: 58
        -1
        "Leader" will not be "not a weak icebreaker", but the best in the world.
  3. aars
    aars 13 February 2021 06: 48
    +15
    For the first time a nuclear-powered icebreaker is equipped with the so-called electric motion system (EDS).
    Again for the first time in the world of analogs?
    Only this already looks like an insult.
    The very first icebreaker, Lenin, immediately had the same three rowing electric motors.
    This is not new at all.
    Of course, new technical solutions have been applied on pr. 22220 - so it is necessary to write about them!
    And not about what we already had 60 years ago!
    1. Alex013
      Alex013 13 February 2021 10: 22
      +8
      Exactly. And the ship of the same name of Project 10520 (72 years of construction) with a displacement of 21 thousand tons broke ice up to 5 m thick.And here -3 ...
      1. Mountain shooter
        Mountain shooter 13 February 2021 12: 10
        +13
        Quote: Alex013
        Exactly. And the ship of the same name of Project 10520 (72 years of construction) with a displacement of 21 thousand tons broke ice up to 5 m thick.And here -3 ...

        Don't forget about the width? And the gas carriers must be carried out! Very large ships must be driven along the NSR ... Up to and including container ships.
    2. TANKISTONE
      TANKISTONE 13 February 2021 23: 15
      +2
      aars The very first icebreaker, Lenin, immediately had the same three rowing electric motors.
      This is not new at all.
      In spite of the sanctions, name the first large (all-time-usable) icebreakers: 1. Lenin, 2. Stalin, 3. Chelyuskin. Less class - "Siberia", "Yamal", "Chukotka", etc. And let the whole world choke!
      1. Jager
        Jager 14 February 2021 17: 16
        0
        and do not forget about Peter I as the father of the Russian fleet)
  4. Dart2027
    Dart2027 13 February 2021 06: 51
    +4
    Happy sailing and seven feet under the keel.
  5. Flooding
    Flooding 13 February 2021 07: 02
    +2
    I was always interested in the thickness of the side of icebreakers of this class.
    Can we talk about the equivalent of armor protection?
    1. mark1
      mark1 13 February 2021 09: 16
      +3
      I can't say about icebreakers, but on the Northern Sea Route (from memory, God forbid lying), the thickness of the ice belt is 38 mm. On icebreakers, it probably reaches a hundred square meters.
      1. tralflot1832
        tralflot1832 13 February 2021 10: 31
        +4
        It was also always interesting, with the advent of the tyrnet, I was disappointed. The thickness is from 50 to 100 mm. Different sources write.
      2. tralflot1832
        tralflot1832 13 February 2021 10: 51
        +2
        I don’t know how to spread, icebreaker hulls are handled by the Central Research Institute of KM Prometheus, which is part of Rosatom. They have an article on the Leader's hull, which is very informative. hi
  6. Ros 56
    Ros 56 13 February 2021 08: 49
    0
    It is for these displacements to the right that the management of enterprises should be severely punished both in rubles and administratively, up to dismissal and dismissal under the article with a wolf's ticket. Too much will was given to them. I understand, everything happens, so that's why you and the leader, turn around, move your convolutions. And they have some kind of psychology, and where the customer goes, it will come in my pocket anyway, but it is necessary that in his personal pocket a lot has disappeared. Control is needed.
  7. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 13 February 2021 09: 01
    +5
    In February, during work on the power system, one of the propulsion engines broke down. The repair took some time and shifted the dates to the right.
    Only the engine remained broken - they are going to drive the icebreaker back to St. Petersburg in the summer. So it is now half and half operated.
    1. D16
      D16 13 February 2021 23: 38
      0
      So it is now half and half operated.

      What a liar you are laughing ... How long has it been 10mW from 60 steel half?
  8. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 13 February 2021 09: 11
    +2
    We know how to build nuclear icebreakers. We have to think about the dock (the dock which is now being used, I saw it from the school window in the first grade) And I saw Khrushchov alive! The Leader's width is 47,7 meters, and Avik Zhorik Ford's width is KVL 41 meters, probably it is not just that. good
    1. arkadiyssk
      arkadiyssk 13 February 2021 10: 46
      +4
      Well, the Leader's width of 50 m is not some kind of victory, but a forced decision of the previous idiocy. First, they built gas carriers Christophe DeMongerie 50m wide, and then realized that they needed 2 icebreakers 35m wide to guide them. In such caravans, no matter how advertised, there were no additional people willing to drive along the Northern Sea Route over the years. As a result, the cost of gas delivery is cosmic. In the USSR, everything was standard in width 35m and there were no problems with cargo ships and icebreakers, but then effective managers decided to steer.
      1. tralflot1832
        tralflot1832 13 February 2021 11: 19
        +4
        The cost of delivering gas from Europe to China is $ 64 a ton in the usual way, $ 46 via the NSR, which these 2 tankers proved in January. True, one ezipod broke, but there is a mystery covered in darkness, he was almost full speed on two propellers in cargo. at the moment he is accompanying "50 Years of Victory" in Sabbet. Comrade Michelson calculated everything. Soon Rosatom will pull up on Sabbet with its own gas carriers. I don’t know where you got such nigative information.
        1. Narak-zempo
          Narak-zempo 13 February 2021 23: 39
          -1
          Quote: tralflot1832
          The cost of delivering gas from Europe to China is $ 64 a ton in the usual way, $ 46 along the NSR that these 2 tankers proved in January

          Why drive gas carriers at all when there is Power of Siberia? request
          1. tralflot1832
            tralflot1832 14 February 2021 15: 06
            -1
            Provide gas to the Chinese coast, where they have the main production and population with work and money. LNG does not remember the power of Siberia hi
            1. Narak-zempo
              Narak-zempo 14 February 2021 17: 57
              0
              Quote: tralflot1832
              Provide gas to the Chinese coast, where they have the main production and population with work and money. LNG does not remember the power of Siberia hi

              It is necessary to pull pipes there too.
              1. tralflot1832
                tralflot1832 14 February 2021 18: 36
                -2
                For some reason, they are gasifying Manjuria, it is clear there is a dubar in winter, and ICBMs are concentrated there. The military should not freeze. And the continuation of the Power of Siberia through central China to the south. Probably it was decided to develop it, further from the coastline, there will be another development area.
          2. Ugochaves
            Ugochaves 15 February 2021 10: 01
            0
            And that "Power of Siberia" is laid to the south of China?
  9. bk0010
    bk0010 13 February 2021 09: 42
    0
    The power industry is based on two RITM-200 pressurized water reactors with a thermal capacity of 175 MW each

    The total propeller power is 60 MW.
    Where does the rest of the capacity (290 MW) go?
    1. aars
      aars 13 February 2021 10: 25
      +5
      This is the heat output.
      Reactors have low efficiency due to the low temperature in the primary circuit and the presence of heat exchangers.
  10. Alexander Yarosh
    Alexander Yarosh 13 February 2021 13: 48
    -7
    Here he fantasizes, of course they are building a Leader at a shipyard that does not exist. like the destroyer Leader
  11. 501Legion
    501Legion 13 February 2021 13: 50
    +4
    A real floating house.
    Monumental ships, you can’t say anything! well done
  12. Non-fighter
    Non-fighter 14 February 2021 13: 38
    0
    The EDS generates, stores and uses electricity to ensure optimal travel characteristics
    Stores? He's got something there. Battery like on a submarine? And how many hours are the batteries designed for?
    ZY Our civilization is sad with the storage of electricity :(
  13. Comrade Kim
    Comrade Kim 15 February 2021 02: 16
    +1
    Quote: Vladimir Mashkov
    And Russia's icebreaker fleet is the largest and best in the world. And it will be like this for a long time!


    We have something to be proud of!
  14. kot-begemot
    kot-begemot April 12 2021 03: 56
    0
    Who can say that we do not know how to build ships? In my opinion, the ships are large, powerful and simply beautiful.