Military Review

Earliest firearms: multiple-shot weapons

177

French cavalry pistol An XI (French cavalry flintlock pistol model An IX) 350 mm long and 17,1 mm caliber. Weight 1,3 kg. See how it looks in the hand of a 178 cm tall man.Penza Museum of the Russian Army


Multiple charge! And the gunsmiths were able to achieve success on this path very early.

And although their success cannot be called complete, they managed to make a multi-charge weapon and with wick and wheel locks. And, of course, both rifles and pistols with a flintlock strike lock ...

“Everything will be as we want.
In case of misfortune,
We have a machine gun "Maxim",
They don't have Maxim. "

(Hilary Belloc "New Traveler")

History firearms.
The epigraph does not mean at all that this article will focus on a machine gun. No, absolutely not.

With these words, we just wanted to emphasize the importance of fast shooting. And the fact that they understood this for a very, very long time. That is why, by the way, the wheel lock was replaced with a flint percussion lock. After all, wheel loaders had to be wound with a key, which took time. And more time to load and ... you manage to make fewer shots than your opponent.

Turkish castle


Another problem was the high cost of the wheel lock, which prevented its mass distribution. This led to the appearance of the snaphons castle (or "snaphan" in a number of our Russian publications), which was more perfect than the wick one, but cheaper than the wheel one. And almost as reliable.

The first examples of such a castle appeared in 1525. However, it took over 100 years for them to evolve into a classic flintlock.


Classic French battery-operated flintlock. Drawing from the book "Small Arms" by Christopher Hunt. P. 8

Each country created its own version of such a castle. As a result, there were such varieties of it as: Swedish, Norwegian, Baltic, Karelian, Dutch, Russian castle.

Its Mediterranean version is known. And also in many varieties: Italian, Turkish, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic and Caucasian.

Sometimes it was called simply Spanish - in Turkey. And Turkish - in Russia.

Earliest firearms: multiple-shot weapons
Spanish version of the impact flintlock. Figure: from the book: Jaroslv Lugs. Hand-feuerwaffen. Systematischer Überblick über die Handfeuerwaffen und Hire. Geschichte. Band II. DDR, Berlin, 1982. P.21


Dutch version of the impact flintlock. Figure: from the book: Jaroslv Lugs. Hand-feuerwaffen. Systematischer Überblick über die Handfeuerwaffen und Hire. Geschichte. Band II. DDR, Berlin, 1982. P.22


Swedish version of the impact flintlock. Figure: from the book: Jaroslv Lugs. Hand-feuerwaffen. Systematischer Überblick über die Handfeuerwaffen und Hire. Geschichte. Band II. DDR, Berlin, 1982. P.22


Turkish flintlock, late 154,31th century Dimensions: length 119,4 cm; barrel length 12,0 cm; caliber 4862 mm; weight XNUMX, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


Mikhelet, a Turkish percussion-type flintlock, is an early and durable form of flintlock popular throughout the Ottoman Empire from the XNUMXth to the early XNUMXth century. Several elaborately decorated shotguns, very similar to this specimen, are still preserved in Istanbul. Perhaps they were made for the Ottoman Imperial Guard. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


The rate of fire also depended on the stock of cartridges. You could have shot them quickly, but then what? Therefore, the stock of cartridges in the bags was small. Here we have a bag of a Russian musketeer of the XNUMXth century. Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore


And this is the same little bag, but open. As you can see, there are very few nests for cartridges - only 18. And more was not required because even in the most fierce battles, soldiers most often did not fire more than 10 shots. So why give them a lot of cartridges and arm them with multiple-charge weapons? Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore

The main thing that still differed from this lock from the wheel lock was that instead of a wheel with notches, an impact flint was used - a slightly curved or completely flat steel plate, on which a trigger with flint or pyrite hit.

From the impact, a stream of sparks poured onto the shelf. That's all.

But even here there was a place to improve even this simple scheme.

In France, the flint was combined with the cover of the powder shelf. On impact, the lid opened, and a sheaf of sparks fell on top of it. It is believed that it was designed by a certain Maren Le Bourgeois in the city of Lizot in France, who made weapons for Henry IV. And already in 1605-1610. made him guns with locks like this.


The Maren Le Bourgeois shotgun (c. 1550-1634) was made in 1605-1610. Material, technique: steel, wood, bone, mother of pearl, copper alloy, forging, polishing, blackening, gilding, inlay, engraving, casting, chasing. Length: 141 cm; barrel length: 103,5 cm.Inventory number ZO-94. State Hermitage, St. Petersburg

As a result, such locks began to be called battery locks. Since they combined the shelf cover and the flint into one piece (battery), and also differently than in other locks, the trigger was arranged.

True, this lock was introduced very slowly.

On pistols in the first half of the XNUMXth century. And on hunting rifles - only in the second.

They appeared in Russia under Peter I. And they existed until the Crimean War itself.

However, for us in this case, the fact is more important that, simultaneously with the improvement of the charge ignition system, gunsmiths did not stop looking for ways to make their weapons also multiply charged.

And here they have achieved considerable success.

In the previous article, you could see a photo of a hunting wheeled revolver musket with a drum for eight charges with a wick lock. It was made in Germany around 1600-1610.

However, revolver pistols with much more advanced locks soon appeared.


Here, for example, is a 279th-century pistol kept at the Royal Arsenal in Leeds: it has a wheel lock and seven barrels arranged in a duck-paw fashion. The barrels are octagonal at the base and round at the muzzle. Moreover, the central trunk is twice as long as the other six. The location of the wheel is external and the details of the lock are engraved. The wooden stock has a flattened onion-shaped handle, completely encrusted with a deer antler with engraved foliage. Central barrel length 3,061 mm. Pistol weight XNUMX kg.

However, as early as 1680 in England, master John Daft made a revolver with a snaphons lock, with powder shelves on the drum, which cleverly shifted when fired by a flint plate.


This is a very early example of a "real" revolver with a fixed barrel in front of a rotating cylinder and a side lock. Made by gunsmith Thomas Annley circa 1700. The drum is brass, it is fixed automatically before each shot. The barrel is of the traditional cannon shape, with the exception of the breech, which is enlarged to accommodate the drum shaft and has a cutout seen on later Colt revolvers (to facilitate drum loading). There is also a light hardwood engraving on the barrel. The powder shelves have sliding covers, each of which includes a small handle and is operated by a flat spring to hold it open or closed. The castle belongs to the early "French" style of the 325th century. Materials: walnut, iron, steel, copper alloy. Overall length 137 mm. Barrel length 1,29 mm. Total weight XNUMX kg. Royal Arsenal, Leeds


The same revolver. Front view. Royal Arsenal, Leeds


A fifteen-round magazine-type hunting rifle (albeit a flintlock!) P. Kalthoff's system. Master Charles Cousin, Paris, c. 1710 The bolt with gunpowder and bullets was activated by turning the trigger guard. Variants with a wheel lock are also known. By the way, today it is on display at the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. This is how mysterious the paths of some artifacts are. Material and technique: steel, wood, horn; forging, carving, engraving, bluing. Length 128,4 cm; caliber 14,5 mm. Inv. No. З.О.-638. State Hermitage, St. Petersburg


Another variant of a shop hunting rifle from Central Europe, circa 1680–1690. Material and technique: steel, wood; forging, carving, chasing. Length 140,7 cm. Inv. No. 3.0.-8364. State Hermitage, St. Petersburg

Russia


Russia was in no way inferior to Western gunsmiths here.

So, in 1790, we also made a drum hunting rifle. That is, the level of development of technology was so high that it made it possible to make even such a complex weapon.

Expensive ?!

Yes, dear. And therefore, it did not find application in the army then.

But the reason was different. Not only in price. It's also about tactics.

The infantry, getting close to the enemy, usually fired only ... two volleys (or rather had time to fire!). Then she attacked the rest with bayonets. And the whole reckoning was on who remains after this firing: our own or others. With this order of warfare, neither a large stock of cartridges, nor multiple-shot rifles were simply required.

Maximum rate of fire at the level of two shots (three maximum, until the soldier is not tired). And that's all. And then - "well done" bayonet. And win or lose.


Flintlock revolver shotgun. Russia, Tula. Around 1790 Material and technologies: steel, copper, gold, silver, wood, bone; forging, carving, chasing, engraving, gilding, inlay, oxidation. Length: 125,7 cm. Barrel length: 75,5 cm. Inv. No. 3.0.-5135. State Hermitage, St. Petersburg

However, it wasn't just drum magazine shotguns that were created. But sometimes very intricate designs with power from containers for gunpowder and bullets in the butt. Or in special tubes.

Such was, for example, the flintlock of the Italian Lorenzoni of the late XNUMXth century, which had two tubes in the butt: one with gunpowder, the other with bullets. A dispenser was installed in the breech, controlled by a lever. One turn - and a bullet was put into the barrel. The second - and the measure of gunpowder was filled in. Then you could put the gunpowder on the shelf and cock the trigger.

In 1780-1785. In India, the Shalembron flintlock rifle was manufactured. The tubes under the barrel contained gunpowder and twenty-round bullets.

Truly, the ingenuity of some gunsmiths knew no bounds! Here's a look at the picture below.


Above: Espignol-type six-shot double-barreled flintlock pistol with three consecutive charges in each barrel, rotating barrels (!) And sliding powder shelves. Moreover, the lids of the shelves, which at the same time were flint, were hollow inside and there was gunpowder. The dispenser was mounted on the lid of the folding shelf so that it was enough to turn it twice so that the required amount of gunpowder spilled onto the shelf. When struck, the flint was thrown back, so that there was a relatively small danger that powder gases would penetrate into its container and set fire to the gunpowder. In any case, six shots from a pistol, which did not require six operations with cartridges and a ramrod, of course, people were impressive then. But on the other hand, if such a pistol exploded in a person's hands, then it was also something.


Lyadunka hussar of the Russian imperial army at the end of the XNUMXth century. Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore


And this is how it looks from the inside. As you can see, the stock of cartridges in it is very small. Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore

Interestingly, at the end of the XNUMXth century, flint six-shot revolvers of a very perfect design were already being made in Russia.

Here, for example, one such pair: made in Tula in 1790 by master Ivan Polin. Below is their photo.


Revolvers by Ivan Polin. Tula. Material and technique: steel, gold, silver, wood, brass; forging, carving, chasing, engraving, thawing, gilding. Length: 38,5 cm; caliber 14,2 mm. Inv. No. З.О.-5186. State Hermitage, St. Petersburg

But it is clear that such a weapon was rare. And in light of the above-mentioned purely tactical reasons, it simply could not find wide distribution.

Nevertheless, these were all "steps" on the ladder of progress.

Everything up and up to perfection.

PS


The site administration and the author are grateful to the Deputy General Director of the State Hermitage, chief curator S. B. Adaksin for the provided photographs of the exhibits.

To be continued ...
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177 comments
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  1. polpot
    polpot 19 February 2021 18: 05
    +7
    Thank you, great article, great illustrations.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 19 February 2021 18: 33
      +3
      the author, in his repertoire, forgets that there are pioneering discoveries in Russia.
      Prevusha Isaev - Russian gunsmith of the first half of the 17th century. They say he was the first to make a revolver with a flintlock. I wonder what he called it? Not a revolver.



      in general, they say even more the first is some kind of German. But the latest research of our man in the Dutch lands, which made the translation of the Dutch chronicler Cornelius Aurelius, is Olga Semyonova -Rotherdam, so pompous.

      The oldest existing available "digitized" Dutch chronicle is the chronicle of Cornelius Aurelius 1517 - Cornelius Aurelius, Die cronycke van Hollandt, Zeelandt ende Vrieslant, met die cronike der biscoppen van Uutrecht (Divisiekroniek) 1517 (ed. Aarn deoud. zp, 2011. [Source]

      ... not far from the mouth of the river Meuse (Masen), where the Meuse flows into the sea, and they came out and took this place ende sloegen hem neder and stayed there for a long time to live in tents and huts made of wood and reed. Finally they took this place, and the fortress with the settlement rallied (built) and fortified against the attack of the enemies, as it was near the sea, the settlement which was large and strong (swaer) (they) called the (fortress-city) Slavenburch because they were called Glory (Slavs) (Slaven). ... And this was in the 9th century before the birth of God (dit was IX C jaren voer Goods gheboerte) and it was (this) in those days of Samuel who was the prophet to judge the children of Israel (Ysrahel). "




      https://www.tart-aria.info/slavjane-predki-gollandcev/
      Why did I bring this, which seems to be irrelevant to the topic? Well, this is confirmation of who lived in Holland and Germany in those years, these were the Slavs.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 19 February 2021 18: 44
        +2
        Quote: Bar1
        Prevusha Isaev - Russian gunsmith of the first half of the 17th century

        Pervusha Isaev.
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 19 February 2021 20: 49
          +4
          Quote: Bar1
          Pervusha Isaev.

          I agree with this comment, if only because the article "emphasizes" 1790 ... at least the end of the 18th century! But multiple-charge weapon systems (and in particular, revolving ...) existed much earlier (including the Russians ...)! Sorry, guys! I came home after congratulating one good friend! Something I'm out of shape today! May I not comment anymore?

          Happy weekend and holiday!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 19 February 2021 23: 47
            +5
            Something I'm out of shape today!

            Volodya, this is noticeable. wink drinks There is a clear change of priorities. laughing
            Girls with a revolver are quite compatible. good

      2. Catfish
        Catfish 19 February 2021 18: 58
        +9
        Isaeva's pistol is beautiful, but, unfortunately, not original and the master was not a pioneer in the "revolving business".
        Flintlock revolver of 1597.

        On the right side of the revolver on the keypad there is a mark in the form of a spur that allows you to determine the year of the revolver - 1597. The stamp belongs to the German blacksmith and gunsmith from Nuremberg Hans Stopler (Hans Stopler).

        According to VO materials for October 11, 2014, unfortunately, there is no author's surname.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 19 February 2021 19: 03
          0
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Isaeva's pistol is beautiful, but, unfortunately, not original and the master was not a pioneer in the "revolving business".


          that's why I brought new research on the chronicler Cornelius Aurelius.
          There is also evidence from the 17th century German scientist Leibniz that his dad was a Slav Serb-Luzhichan. These are the frames that lived at that time.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 11
            +7
            Sorry, Timur, but what you are citing here has nothing to do with the article. Here, in general, there is a place to be the topic of firearms, and not of who Mr. Leibniz's dad was, with full respect to him and to his dad, too, whoever he is. hi
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 19 February 2021 19: 16
              0
              if this Hans Stopler lived in the lower lands in the city of Slavenburg or among the Lusatian Serbs, for example in Lutzenburg / Luxembourg, then it even matters.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 23
                +6
                I don’t see what significance this could have for the invention of a new weapon system. At least kill! request
                1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                  Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 February 2021 20: 00
                  +5
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  I don’t see what significance this could have for the invention of a new weapon system. At least kill! request

                  It seems that the comrade is banally obsessed with Slavophilia. The Slavic origin of the holes in the Maasdam is our everything. God forbid you to ask him where the tulip bulbs came from ...
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 19 February 2021 20: 03
                    +6
                    I provoked, so right now I'll take and ask. laughing
                    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 February 2021 20: 14
                      +9
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      I provoked, so right now I'll take and ask. laughing

                      get ready ...
                      Now he will refer to the chronicle of the Zapridukhina desert, written by a certain monk Sosipatr the Brukvoed. There it is written in blue on birch bark that ...... etc.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 19 February 2021 20: 33
                        +5
                        Is she keeping quiet, did the mice eat birch bark?
                      2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 February 2021 20: 46
                        +5
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        Is she keeping quiet, did the mice eat birch bark?

                        Not. He's in a prayer place. Yarila makes a prayer. Well, or in the dead battery of his Hyundai, he is trying to see Slavic roots. For it is said ...
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 19 February 2021 20: 04
              +6
              Timur, where did the tulip bulbs come from? And then the people here are in doubt ...
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 19 February 2021 20: 12
                +5
                Originally from Turkey. Tulip mania is in Holland.

                “Flower of Holland.
                I am a young tulip.
                And I am so beautiful
                What will the Flemish curmudgeon give
                For a couple of bulbs, all the splendor of the archipelago
                All Java, if my camp is fresh and proud ”(c).
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 19 February 2021 20: 27
                  +6
                  By the way, the "tulip rush" is one of the first stock market crises.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 19 February 2021 21: 58
                    +5
                    Yes.
                    Twice humanity has gone completely crazy about flowers: tulip mania and orchid fever in England.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 19 February 2021 22: 31
                      +4
                      That is humanity, and several tens of millions of men - every year. And the day of this madness is near!
                    2. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 19 February 2021 22: 42
                      +3
                      And they still impose on us the February rehearsal.
                      And pumpkin destruction too.
                    3. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 19 February 2021 22: 48
                      +4
                      Better the February rehearsal than the February revolution. By the way, in recent years, all this fuss with Halloween and Valentine has somehow calmed down.
                    4. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 19 February 2021 22: 49
                      +4
                      There is something to save on.
                      And what only did not appear in the 90s, only to disappear later.
                    5. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 19 February 2021 22: 55
                      +4
                      Of the malignant neoplasms, I remember only June 12th. And then in connection with the fact that exactly on that day he was drafted into the army.
                    6. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 20 February 2021 00: 45
                      +2
                      And now we were trying to figure out when to organize the day after that.
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 20 February 2021 09: 27
                  +5
                  Will St. Patrick's Day also pass unmarked ?! recourse wink

                  Good morning, Anton!
                3. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 20 February 2021 09: 54
                  +5
                  Sergei! hi
                  If each of these leprechauns give me a pot of gold, I will not only honor St. Patrick, I will join the IRA.
                4. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 21 February 2021 09: 39
                  +2
                  "Corruption will destroy this country" (c).
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 19 February 2021 20: 35
    +7
    Eh, Sergey hi , you crossed the road to Bar, but we hoped so ... laughing
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 19 February 2021 21: 58
      +6
      To blame. I will be corrected.
  3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 February 2021 21: 00
    +9
    Quote: Korsar4
    Originally from Turkey.

    This is Slavophobic heresy! According to the Vedic gardening apocrypha, "tulipan" is the original culture of the Slavs! Tulip bulbs were used in initiation rituals among pre-Christian pagans!
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 19 February 2021 22: 01
      +4
      I believe.
      And when one of the tulips was named after Greig, this is the aggression of the Anglo-Saxons.

      And Forster and Kaufman there too.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 19 February 2021 22: 12
        +5
        They, bastards, forters with kaufmans and are now rewriting history. To the pillory of the interventionists!
      2. Korsar4
        Korsar4 19 February 2021 22: 39
        +4
        This is Kaufman who needs Kaufman.
        By the way, the Governor-General of the Turkestan Territory.
      3. Catfish
        Catfish 19 February 2021 23: 38
        +2
        Well, okay, this one is even his own, but the interventionist Forster - to the wall !!!
      4. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 February 2021 00: 48
        +3
        "Dr. Foster
        I went to Gloucester "(c).
      5. Catfish
        Catfish 20 February 2021 04: 03
        +3
        And the "Gloucester" was sunk by Fritz's aviation in Mediterranean in May 41. request smile
      6. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 February 2021 05: 23
        +3
        And the Dukes often had a complex character.
      7. Catfish
        Catfish 20 February 2021 07: 56
        +4
        "And I will ask you, I am a duke,
        Pour me a cup of coffee, drunk
        Whether you are Burgundy, whether you are Alba,
        I can't stand the taste of tea! "(C)
      8. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 February 2021 08: 50
        +3
        "Dear Marquis,
        You are the first prize
        We managed to earn it ”(c).
      9. Catfish
        Catfish 20 February 2021 09: 46
        +3

        We are all feline counts. drinks
      10. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 February 2021 12: 45
        +3
        So he called the cat.

        "Marquis, marquis,
        Marquis Karabas "(c).
      11. Catfish
        Catfish 20 February 2021 23: 04
        +1
        "Even with his cat a mile away the cat had to meet" (c)
      12. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 February 2021 23: 12
        +2
        "Don't frown, Lada" (c).
      13. Catfish
        Catfish 20 February 2021 23: 24
        +1
        "Okay, okay,
        Where were - at my grandmother,
        What they ate - porridge,
        What they drank - mash "(c)
      14. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 06: 28
        +2
        "Oh, how am I to you Kotu
        I'll pay for the work ”(c).
      15. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 08: 25
        +2
        "Macavity is a magic cat. We call him
        With the Invisible Paw, because he is a great rogue.
        He baffles Scotland Yard, any patrol, picket ...
        Where he was a moment ago - his spirit is gone! "(C)
      16. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 09: 37
        +3
        “But pantaloons, tailcoat, vest:
        All these words are not in Russian ”(c).
      17. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 09: 39
        +1
        "There is a Russian word in the world,
        Well, how can you not know him,
        There is a big Russian word,
        It sounds (obscene) mother! "(C)
      18. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 09: 41
        +2
        “In the morning we sit in the cart.
        Ready to break your head ”(c).
      19. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 09: 43
        +1
        "Here the husband comes home from work,
        He sits down to sip a cheek.
        And he says to his wife wearily,
        Sour the same ............... "(c)
      20. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 11: 36
        +2
        “And she answers me:
        Holy Spirit "(c).
      21. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 11: 41
        +1
        "She answered me:" That lamp is light, and curl around the midges "(c)
      22. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 11: 51
        +1
        “The time is coming:
        Birds come from the south ”(c).
      23. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 11: 54
        +1
        "Migratory birds are flying in the blue autumn distance,
        They fly to distant countries,
        And I stay with you "(c)
      24. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 13: 34
        +2
        "On the border with Turkey or Pakistan
        Neutral band "(c).
      25. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 14: 04
        +1
        "There are many people in Turkey,
        There are many Turks - no Russians.
        And I will tell you in honor, with Alyokha,
        I lived like Mohammed "(c)
      26. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 16: 27
        +2
        “The Hindus have invented a good religion -
        That we, having given up the ends, do not die for good ”(c).
      27. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 16: 41
        +2
        "Raj Kapoor look at these dur" (c)
      28. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 17: 41
        +1
        “And now they are breaking the record:
        Everyone eats, and they drink for a whole year ”(c).
      29. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 17: 54
        +1
        "And I was there, honey, drinking beer" (c)
      30. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 18: 42
        +1
        “Learn from them:
        By the oak, by the birch "(c).
      31. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 18: 54
        +2
        "The oak was cut down near the Lukomorye, the golden chain was demolished ..." (c) request
      32. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 19: 20
        +3
        "And one to the rescue - to the store" (c).
      33. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 19: 21
        +3
        "In Lukomorye, a fume per hectare" (c)
      34. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 19: 29
        +2
        "Prisoners rock the prison" (c).
      35. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 20: 48
        +2
        "They'll give you a lie, but don't steal!" (C)
      36. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 21: 03
        +3
        “The crook will steal,
        And I will sell ”(c).
      37. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 21: 05
        +3
        "The Black Sea is a thief on a thief" (c)
      38. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 21: 07
        +2
        "We do not live by sinful deeds" (c).
      39. Catfish
        Catfish 21 February 2021 21: 13
        +2
        "Go at least some sin to earn! Are you a man or not!" (C)
      40. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 21: 22
        +3
        "You - to pray, and I - to sin" (c).
      41. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 21 February 2021 21: 29
        +2
        You will not sin - you will not repent, you will not repent - you will not enter Paradise (s).
      42. Korsar4
        Korsar4 21 February 2021 21: 49
        +2
        “That's why people are dear to me,
        That they live with me on Earth ”(c).
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 21 February 2021 21: 41
      +2
      "Before the battle he knew that he was weak
      They prayed in formation - it didn't help! "(C)
    3. Korsar4
      Korsar4 21 February 2021 21: 48
      +2
      “This Slate, though ingenious,
      And I suppose to drink, not to eat (censorship) ”(c).
  4. Phil77
    Phil77 21 February 2021 09: 43
    +2
    Hello friends!
    Eck you, my friend, after being vaccinated on the lyrics struck, on the high style of poetry! Although, although earlier he did not shy away from poetry. laughing laughing
    Yes! How are you feeling? After this diva?
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 21 February 2021 09: 46
    +2
    Everything is in perfect order, both for me and for Masha. good

    Hello, Sergey. hi
  6. Phil77
    Phil77 21 February 2021 10: 02
    +2
    So that's great! good I wish you health! Yes, something today with interesting articles is strained. In * history * an unintelligible article about Hitler's palaces is so lively .... they are discussing. Boring. We are waiting for the present.
  7. Catfish
    Catfish 21 February 2021 10: 14
    +1
    Check out the article "Under-Aircraft Carriers and Their Flying Vehicles" on Armament, an interesting article and well written.
  8. Phil77
    Phil77 21 February 2021 10: 11
    +2
    Yes, about vaccinations. This is so, information for thought. In our office, vaccinated people are given a day off, 500 rubles and among them a drawing of prizes is held, including a trip to some islands / those overseas /, a fancy * iPhone *, well, so little things, such as an excursion to Suzdal. Here is such a tempting ... I wonder one of the * owners * flies to the islands, as * grafted * ?! wink
  9. Catfish
    Catfish 21 February 2021 10: 30
    +1
    Well, we have no "enticement", professional doctors recommended and we did it. But there is a moment - we were categorically recommended a specific medical center, in which the doctors were sure themselves that there was proper storage, defrosting, etc. So keep in mind.
  10. Phil77
    Phil77 21 February 2021 14: 44
    +1
    No! Simply, no. And that's all. Only under escort. I, damn it, something else is interesting. When the * order fall * begins, after the victory over the Virus, what orders will the main * batyrs of victory * receive -Sabyanin, Popova, Murashko? wink
  11. Catfish
    Catfish 21 February 2021 14: 48
    +1
    ... orders will be received ...


    But this worries me least of all, "everything has already been stolen before us" (c)
    You worry about yourself, look, don't miss with your "under escort", I'm serious.
  12. Phil77
    Phil77 21 February 2021 15: 13
    +1
    Here it is the key word - * about myself *! And when people who have previously increased the retirement age begin to * worry * about me, you know ... annoying.
  13. Catfish
    Catfish 21 February 2021 15: 50
    +1
    Here I cannot but agree with you. smile
  14. Korsar4
    Korsar4 21 February 2021 11: 50
    +2
    Hello Seryozha!

    A kind word cheers the heart.
  • Maki Avellevich
    Maki Avellevich 20 February 2021 11: 13
    +2
    Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Tulip bulbs were used in initiation rituals among pre-Christian pagans!

    I'm afraid to ask in what way.
  • Mister X
    Mister X 19 February 2021 22: 32
    +3
    Quote: Sea Cat
    the master was not a pioneer in the "revolving business".

    hi Bon soir!
    Is Sabantuy going on here? wink

    However, back in 1680, a revolver with a snaphons lock was made in England by master John Daft.
    The author: Vyacheslav Shpakovsky


    The website of the museum indicates that earlier: in the interval 1660-1670.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 19 February 2021 23: 26
      +2
      But what about a truly "Russian animal"? laughing
      I’m talking about Timur’s comment that Bar.
      1. Mister X
        Mister X 20 February 2021 08: 57
        +3
        Quote: Sea Cat
        But what about a truly "Russian animal"?

        I remembered the Tula blacksmith Nikita Demidov (Nikita Demidovich Antufiev).
        He worked in the time of Peter, and has nothing to do with the themes "the earliest firearm" and "many-barrel".
        But it demonstrates that in Russia there were self-taught masters from God.
        Which "not only can fix a pistol, but shoe the devil himself!"

        Evgeny Fyodorov, novel "Stone Belt"
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 20 February 2021 09: 40
          +2
          Evgeny Fyodorov, novel "Stone Belt"


          Alas, I haven't. request
          1. Mister X
            Mister X 20 February 2021 10: 08
            +2
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Alas, I haven't.

            I recommend!
            In the style of the novel "Gloomy River", author Vyacheslav Shishkov
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 20 February 2021 10: 24
              +2
              I read it, though a long time ago.
          2. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 19
            +4
            Alas, I haven't.

            Then watch the film "Demidovs" (the best role of Vadim Spiridonov, I think). There, this episode with the twin pistol is also beaten. drinks
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 20 February 2021 10: 26
              +2
              I haven’t seen an actor either.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 33
                +3
                I haven’t seen an actor either.

                What are you? One of the "main villains" of Soviet cinema! here, a frame from the film. In general, they gathered good artists there. drinks
  • Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 20 February 2021 10: 08
    +3
    Quote: Bar1
    the author in his repertoire forgets that there are pioneering discoveries in Russia

    Yes, there are all cosmopolitans and low-worshipers.
    And Kryakutny was forgotten, and Artamonov, and Polzunov, and the Cherepanov brothers, and Mozhaisky.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 19 February 2021 19: 42
    +11
    I agree: the illustrations are as always on the level
  • Destiny
    Destiny 19 February 2021 20: 21
    +13
    As always, the author has excellent work on the topic of weapons, great photos. Thanks, nice to read ..
    1. Alien From
      Alien From 20 February 2021 20: 49
      0
      I join you, the article and photos are great!
  • Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 20 February 2021 04: 55
    +1
    Quote: polpot
    Thank you, great article, great illustrations.
    Illustrations, of course, but the article is only in places where the author simply describes the weapon, as soon as he draws some conclusions, then the matter sharply worsens:

    So, in 1790, we also made a drum hunting rifle. That is, the level of development of technology was so high that it made it possible to make even such a complex weapon.
    Expensive ?!
    Yes, dear. And therefore, it did not find application in the army then.

    But the reason was different. Not only in price. It's also about tactics.
    The infantry, getting close to the enemy, usually fired only ... two volleys (or rather had time to fire!)


    Even a layman understands that revolving guns would allow infantry to fire up to bayonets the number of volleys according to the number of charges in the drum! So the author's reason (the available number of volleys) is confused with the effect (tactics).
  • The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 19 February 2021 18: 10
    +11
    How all the same duty was the way of firearms. How many branches and dead ends had to be overcome.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Friday "Charlie")))
  • Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 19 February 2021 18: 20
    +7
    Vyacheslav Olegovich - We are waiting! Great Article, from viewing illustrations profuse drooling begins! The topic of multiple-charge flintlock weapons is little covered, in fact, there were not many samples at all and they cost Fabulous money!
  • iouris
    iouris 19 February 2021 18: 42
    +4
    a firearm is a method of suicide
    jargon
  • Catfish
    Catfish 19 February 2021 18: 44
    +11
    Hi and thanks to Vyacheslav, but ... I can't get past the artillery. smile




    1. Hunter 2
      Hunter 2 19 February 2021 18: 53
      +6
      Konstantin hi They are very reminiscent of musical instruments, organs - Wars! But even in artillery, that multi-barreled guns, that buckshot - did not receive much distribution, the question of price and complexity of service outweighed the other advantages.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 05
        +7
        Hi Aleksey. hi
        The third machine from the top is called "Organ".
        ... artillery, that multi-barreled guns, that grapeshot - did not receive much distribution ...

        And here you are categorically wrong, the ancient multi-barrels of the "organ" type were even used very much in the defense of fortresses, there were not so many of them, in critical places of the breakthrough, for this they were made.
        As for the grapeshot, the Gatlings and Nordenfelds were armed with all modern armies and navies in the world. drinks
        1. Hunter 2
          Hunter 2 19 February 2021 19: 14
          +7
          I agree, they were in service, but ... if you count on your fingers, the result will definitely not be in favor of multi-charge systems, that of guns - that of canister! Especially with regard to the systems of "sequential" firing, the volley process could not be stopped, as well as charging at the moment of battle. If with regards to guns and grape-shooters "individually" shooting, then their price was an order of magnitude higher than analogues (single-barreled) and it was possible to buy single-barreled ones by a couple of orders of magnitude more (comparing the number of barrels) than complex ones! Well, the operation is available to highly trained (respectively expensive) users. In this regard, having an idea of ​​the multi-charge, they relied on simpler, mass samples.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 25
            +9
            ... they relied on simpler, mass samples.

            And I didn't even talk about mass samples. The same "Maxim", in comparison with the massive shaft of magazine rifles, could not be massive in any way. wink
            1. Hunter 2
              Hunter 2 19 February 2021 19: 35
              +7
              Slipped away laughing Comparison of Maxim and Mosinka - I applaud sobbing, and it's hard to argue - one caliber was made at some factories. crying
              Well, okay, by the way - Repeating shotguns (flintlock) - were especially popular among Hunters (who had wealth, that is, among the aristocracy) in Europe, in fact, there they only had the right to hunt.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 50
                +6
                Slipped away

                You hurt, sir. negative This passage is not in our habits, where did you see the escaping cat ?!
                I'll complain to Vlad that the colonel is not a joke. angry
                1. Hunter 2
                  Hunter 2 19 February 2021 19: 59
                  +7
                  Ha ... I saw it more than once! In childhood, I especially remember the case, Grandfather and Grandmother lived on the next street, they had a Cat - absolutely Red (even eyes) - and so, already at the "age" (they were tired of treating him after battles) - they simply closed it so that they would not walk. I constantly got a little one, for the fact that due to inexperience I managed to let him out - here's a cattle, I found a pancake of an unwary child ... and Grandfather was - Severe yes
                  Quote: Sea Cat

                  I'll complain to Vlad that the colonel is not a joke. angry

                  Sneak No.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 19 February 2021 20: 02
                    +6
                    He himself wrote that the cat is Red, and they are red ... wink
                    Sneak

                    Incorrect wording, I will not play a little, but I will report. soldier laughing
                    1. Hunter 2
                      Hunter 2 19 February 2021 20: 07
                      +5
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      He himself wrote that the cat is Red, and they are red ... wink
                      Sneak

                      Incorrect wording, I will not play a little, but I will report. soldier laughing

                      Yeah, Met Red - Kill (s) laughing Hello Chubais repeat
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 19 February 2021 20: 28
                        +7
                        You again offended the cat, and your elusive red-haired (peace be upon him). I found someone to compare with, so you definitely need to spoil the air in a decent society. crying
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 19 February 2021 19: 39
        +7
        "resembles musical instruments" seems to be the third bottom and was called: "organ". But I can't say for sure: these systems were not very widespread. Did not invest in the ratio: "benefit - price"
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 19 February 2021 19: 33
      +7
      Kostya, good evening. The "seven-barreled" cannon reminds me: the "Shmetilo machine gun" was probably freed along the central barrel
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 19 February 2021 19: 47
        +6
        Yes, Shmetilo, it is, as it were, Shmetilo, or a complete nightmare. laughing
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 19 February 2021 21: 22
          +5
          What is Shmetilo? I see: several rifles mounted on wheels
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 19 February 2021 21: 32
            +4
            The captain of the border guard Shmetilo, during the defense of Port Arthur, came up with: connect 5 together. So that one soldier replaces 5
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 20 February 2021 10: 29
              +1
              One five will never replace, even burst. Aim and reload? This is a waste of bullets in white light as a pretty penny.
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 19 February 2021 21: 36
            +4
            What is Shmetilo?


            Not what, but who. The staff captain suggested such a monster for the defense of Port Arthur. Did not help. request
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 23
              +2
              The staff captain suggested such a monster for the defense of Port Arthur. Did not help.

              During that course of the war, nothing could help there. request And Shmetillo did what he could. By the way, "Vika" writes that they used "Mannlichers" for this purpose.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 20 February 2021 10: 34
                +2
                Kohl, well, take a sober look at this structure. This is very limitedly useful when repelling an attack in the narrows, but while you reload these five barrels you will be chopped with bayonets and sabers twenty-five times. And there can be no question of any targeted shooting from this unit.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 44
                  +4
                  but while you reload these five barrels you will be chopped twenty-five times with bayonets and sabers. And there can be no question of any targeted shooting from this unit.

                  The Japanese under Arthur attacked in dense crowds. Their losses were terrible. Baron Nogi even wanted to make himself seppuku, but the emperor forbade him. True, after the death of Mikado, he did seppuku ...
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 20 February 2021 10: 47
                    +2
                    Well, at least some benefit. laughing But the fortress was surrendered anyway.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 58
                      +3
                      But the fortress was surrendered anyway.

                      Without reserves, food, and ammunition, you can't make much of it. The key mountain above the city - High - was captured. The fleet is overheated. One can argue about the timing of the delivery of the fortress - the shells, it seems, would still be enough to repulse one assault. But with the course of the war, as it happened, it was natural, unfortunately ...
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 19 February 2021 21: 42
          +3
          I didn’t know that Shmetilo had a shield and wheels. Stepanov writes that Shmetilo used Chinese Mauser rifles, and on TV they said that "three lines". I don't remember exactly: either the Shmetilo model was shown or a photograph, but in any case without a shield
          PS Don't tell me a "complete nightmare": a witty idea. At that time, a machine gun in the Japanese army was very rare.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 20 February 2021 10: 30
            +2
            Slav, well, just for a second, imagine how to wield this fool.
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 21 February 2021 09: 57
              +2
              Without a shield, you can still cope with it, but a shield ... without wheels is thirteen.
              Kostya, machine guns were not used in the Russian army in the RYAV. It seems that Maxim was then supposed for fortresses.
              Perhaps the "caliber" will give a "burst" of machine guns
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 21 February 2021 10: 26
                +2
                Yes, "Maxim" was then positioned as a serf, but our cavalry already had Madsen's rifles / machine guns, but I can't vouch for the accuracy of this information.
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub 21 February 2021 14: 43
                  +2
                  "positioned as a serf" in my opinion in the infantry, he appeared in 1910.
                  And "Madson" was really in the cavalry, but I don't know much about him and when did he appear in the cavalry?
                  Perhaps, UVO machine guns in the "clip" are loaded.
                  Hopefully Nikolaevich or Vic. Nick that they will "dig up"
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 21 February 2021 14: 50
                    0
                    I just read that they had time to the Russian-Japanese. Damn, I would have known what was needed, I would have written down the author's name somewhere.
                    1. vladcub
                      vladcub 21 February 2021 14: 53
                      +1
                      Let's ask Nikolaevich or Vic. Nick
  • Dimide
    Dimide 19 February 2021 18: 55
    +6
    It is always a pleasure to read those who are in love with their work, who know the pros! Taking off my hat!
    1. Richard
      Richard 19 February 2021 19: 57
      +12
      Yes, here is just such a case - when to read an interesting article and comments from members of the forum who love and know this topic is great. good
      1. Destiny
        Destiny 19 February 2021 20: 28
        +11
        I agree that the comments supplement the article, which makes it even more interesting to get acquainted with the material in the cycle about weapons, but it's just nice to spend time reading with a glass of tea! Thank you!
  • Intruder
    Intruder 19 February 2021 18: 59
    +12
    Great article !!! Bravo to the author ...
  • Avior
    Avior 19 February 2021 20: 06
    +8
    Above: Espignol-type six-shot double-barreled flintlock pistol with three consecutive charges in each barrel, rotating barrels (!) And sliding powder shelves.

    interesting article
    I would like to add one more nuance on multiple-charge weapons. Making several consecutive charges in the barrel was dangerous. But it was possible to put several smaller bullets in one barrel with a single charge of gunpowder. For some reason, little is written about this, although everyone must have read it.
    .... I put one of the muskets and a hunting rifle on the ground, and with the other musket aimed at the savages. Friday did the same.

    - Are you ready? I asked him.

    “Yes,” he replied.

    - Well, shoot! I said, and we fired both at the same time.

    Friday's scope turned out to be more accurate than mine: he killed two people and wounded three, but I only wounded two and killed one ...

    in total, two shots from muskets Friday and Robinson Crusoe hit eight savages during their "lunch".
    In common Russian translations, the translators omitted the explanation of why this happened, they simply wrote that Crusoe had loaded the weapon or did not write about it at all.
    But in the original English text there is an explanation for the phenomenon in which the heroes hit eight with two shots (there were 21 savages, and they had encountered Europeans earlier, one of them was just brought to dinner, so the task for the two attackers was very difficult) ...
    I made him take the two fowling-pieces which we always carried, and load them with large swan-shot as big as small pistol bullets; then I took four muskets, and loaded them with two slugs and five small bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of bullets each: I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.

    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/12623/12623-h/12623-h.htm#page230
    I gave him two hunting rifles, which we always carried with us, and loaded them with coarse shot the size of small pistol bullets; then I took four muskets and loaded them with two bullets and five small bullets each; I loaded two of my pistols with a couple of bullets each: I hung up my big naked saber, as usual, and gave Friday his ax ...

    thus, the attackers had quite a few bullets against 21 opponents, although there were only two of them initially. In principle, this is also a multiply charged weapon, although, perhaps, there could be problems against opponents protected by armor.
    1. AUL
      AUL 19 February 2021 21: 08
      +2
      IMHO, studying the history of firearms according to Daniel Defoe is a thankless task. In an adventure story, the main thing is by no means historical accuracy! laughing
      1. Avior
        Avior 19 February 2021 21: 15
        +4
        I do not quite understand.
        that is, in your opinion, loading a weapon with several bullets did not exist, is it Defoe's invention?
        1. AUL
          AUL 19 February 2021 21: 27
          +1
          Well, hunting rifles were loaded with buckshot - that's okay. But stuffing as much lead into a musket as Robinson is fraught with! With a normal load of gunpowder, such a load will either fly at a distance of spitting, or the barrel will break. Increasing the weight of the barrel is even more likely to rupture. IMHO, of course.
          1. Avior
            Avior 19 February 2021 22: 03
            +2
            for smooth-bore weapons, the size of the bullet was not then of fundamental importance, so it was more about the total weight of the lead in the barrel. and the barrels of that time had a fairly large caliber, designed for a heavy bullet, so I see nothing surprising in firing in this way at an unprotected target, if the total weight of the lead remained within reasonable limits.
            Defoe himself in the text does not emphasize that it was something special.
            Already in the 20th century, there were two-bullet cartridges for rifled weapons, such as the American M198 or the Soviet Theorist 12,7x108 / 1SL.

            and then the task was issued in general for a five-bullet cartridge! Did you read Dafoe? smile
            1. AUL
              AUL 19 February 2021 22: 43
              0
              You know, I worked for 12 years at a research institute that dealt with ammunition. Therefore, I see no reason to discuss this topic with you. hi
              1. Avior
                Avior 19 February 2021 23: 59
                +5
                I always respect the specialist in the matter under discussion.
                but with all due respect, I doubt that you developed in your research institute ammunition for weapons of the 18th century and the rules for their use.
                But Daniel Defoe - a contemporary of that time, late 17th - early 18th century, participated in hostilities - why shouldn't he know how the weapon was used then?
                Maybe this was Defoe's invention in his book, and they did not practice anything like that, while it is not clear why it was done - he wrote about modern events to his contemporaries, and he did not write to children, it later became a child's book, he wrote to those who had this weapon in held and used. Why does he need such an invention? to make readers laugh at the clumsy dreamer? He did not write fiction, but an adventure book on real events, his novel led to a fashion for pseudo-documentary fiction and generally took an important place in English literature.
                A spherical bullet of that time, in fact, was in shape the same as a large buckshot, the only difference was in diameter and nothing prevented from putting several bullets of a smaller diameter into the barrel, if the total weight of the lead was preserved.
                for example, if the barrel diameter was 20 mm (at that time it is quite realistic), then instead of one spherical bullet with a diameter of 20 mm by weight, it was possible to use 8 with a diameter of 10 mm. Perhaps it would be more correct to write that he loaded not bullets, but buckshot, but these are peculiarities of the terminology of that time, he himself writes precisely about small bullets.
                However, if you provide proof that this could not have happened in the 18th century, I will not insist
                hi
                1. Nikolaevich I
                  Nikolaevich I 20 February 2021 08: 34
                  +2
                  Practiced and such a method of "multi-bullet" loading, as "cut" bullets! In any case, I had to read about it sometimes! That is, the bullet was divided ("cut") into 2 parts (halves) or 4 parts, and loaded when assembled ... maybe the description did not pay attention to this; but I have come across references to this method in books ...
                  1. Astra wild2
                    Astra wild2 20 February 2021 10: 12
                    +1
                    "how did they manage to" collect "a bullet from parts" Nikolayevich, I would slightly lubricate the bullet particles in order to push them into the barrel
                    1. Nikolaevich I
                      Nikolaevich I 20 February 2021 10: 32
                      +1
                      Quote: Astra wild2
                      lightly lubricate the bullet particles to fit into the barrel

                      The idea is not bad .... in any case, such a "thought" flashed through me too ... for example, to lubricate it with gum ... But, in my opinion, it was solved "easier" (!) ... "halves" or "quarters" of the bullet wrapped in a piece of cloth or thin soft leather (maybe in paper ...)! By the way, perhaps I read about this method sometime ... and therefore the thought about this method was not an easy one to visit the "smart"! fool
                2. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 20 February 2021 10: 02
                  0
                  In the eyes of an amateur: reasoned
  • Undecim
    Undecim 19 February 2021 20: 08
    +8
    Nevertheless, there is a lack of a system in the presentation. It would be logical to devote to each of the ways to achieve "multi-charge", if not an article, then at least a chapter.
    Then the reader would understand that espinole is a single-barreled multiple-charge weapon, which is from other multiple-charge systems by the arrangement of charges that were placed in the barrel one after another. The number of charges depended on the type of weapon: pistols had two or three, sometimes more charges, guns could have up to twelve.
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 19 February 2021 21: 18
      +3
      Viktor Nikolaevich, this is difficult for my perception: it is impossible to understand from the picture if there was a video
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 19 February 2021 21: 30
        +4
        There is a video, I hope you are good with English.
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 20 February 2021 09: 01
      +1
      Actually, the Espignoli used the Roman candle principle! Under this principle, other weapons were developed, not just Espignola! Therefore, to say: "the principle of espignola is used in the weapon" is not entirely correct! (By the way, there were not only single-barreled espignoles, but also three-barreled ones ...) You are right, saying that the article does not have a system of presenting the material! Indeed, multiple-charge weapons can be divided into several types and each type should be given special attention! In the article, everything is "piled up"! hi
  • Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 19 February 2021 20: 15
    +2
    But the craftsmen could also insert rifled barrels into revolvers! And that would make them deadly accurate even at rifle ranges. But it is good to reason from our "bell tower" when we know a lot ...
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 19 February 2021 20: 59
    +2
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, colleagues, good evening.
    Now I read: "I had to start with the key" and wanted to continue, and the key was often lost. As a result, the soldier had an expensive and useless gun in his hands. "I have apartment keys with me, 3 pieces: sewn in a cosmetic bag and clothes, from the inside, a mini pocket, so that if I lose one key, I can enter the apartment. there was a case: he slammed the door, and the key was in the apartment and he had a lot of "fun", now he has 2 keys with him
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 February 2021 21: 05
      +3
      Quote: Astra wild2
      I have apartment keys with me, 3 pieces:

      And when I buy macadamia, I always take three keys. Lost for ...
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 19 February 2021 21: 41
        +6
        I haven’t tried it, but if they appear on the Ryazan market, on your advice I’ll take three keys, because everything is lost, our neighbor got lost here, he went to get the money and that's it. A week later, a family drama appeared, without keys, without a hat and with a black eye, and you mean the keys ... laughing drinks
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 February 2021 21: 46
          +4
          Quote: Sea Cat
          we have here hope the neighbor got lost, went for money and that's it. A week later appeared

          Popped in for a guitar, I hope?
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 19 February 2021 21: 53
            +4
            I doubt he knows sho such a guitar.
        2. Avior
          Avior 19 February 2021 22: 07
          +5
          fingal before meeting your wife at home or after?

          smile
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 19 February 2021 22: 14
            +5
            Not in the know, he became somewhat taciturn, quiet ... wink
    2. Fat
      Fat 19 February 2021 23: 25
      +1
      Ober Faubert Gauger Drum Ham Schnapps Fuehrer von Gadke of the Nosov tram wore different socks so as not to get confused where to the right and where to the left.
    3. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 26
      +3
      A neighbor had a case: he slammed the door, and the key was in the apartment and he had a lot of "fun", now he has 2 keys with him

      Two or three weeks ago I went to smoke like that ... We have an open balcony on the stairs. I went, pulled the door behind me (slammed shut), smoked ... and realized that I had left the keys at home. Ladder, I'm in an autumn jacket, sweatpants, and a tube cell phone. Here it was not funny to me! belay
  • Fat
    Fat 19 February 2021 22: 50
    +2
    How grateful I am to fate
    that I met the author of such
    The word became X and Yat
    Came across Shpakovsky
    Fair! Great stuff.
  • Lynnot
    Lynnot 19 February 2021 23: 34
    0
    By the number of rounds of shooters:
    "... The stock of cartridges carried by the shooter was small. For example, in the Prussian army of Frederick II it was 60 cartridges, in the Russian army of Peter I - 30. The stock of cartridges in the cavalry ranged from 32 to 38 pieces ...." https : //naukatehnika.com/borba-za-skorostrelnost-oruzhiya-1.html
    "... Exactly 60 rounds were in the cartridge bag of a Russian infantryman in 1812 ...."
    https://warhead.su/2019/11/19/metkost-ne-glavnoe-kakim-bylo-gladkostvolnoe-oruzhie-galantnogo-veka
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 10: 29
      +1
      For example, in the Prussian army of Frederick II, it was 60 rounds

      It is logical, because Frederick taught his soldiers to automatism. Their rate of fire was probably twice as high as in other armies. EMNIP, Frederick was also the first to introduce an iron ramrod. Solid pluses! drinks By the way, it's a pity that the "warhed" was frozen ... It was fun to read.
      1. CTABEP
        CTABEP 20 February 2021 10: 54
        +1
        Their team of authors was partially on https://warcats.ru/, of course, the level and number of articles grew up - but now, as they say, solely on self-sufficiency, and not on third-party funding :)
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 11: 00
          +4
          Their team of authors was partially on https://warcats.ru/, of course, the level and number of articles grew up - but now, as they say, solely on self-sufficiency, and not on third-party funding :)

          "War cats"? laughing Mikhail, thanks for the tip - I didn't know! good Now I looked - yes, the same authors. And Sherzad, including. Thank! drinks
          1. CTABEP
            CTABEP 20 February 2021 11: 03
            +1
            You're welcome :)
          2. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 20 February 2021 12: 02
            +1
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            "War cats"?

            Good afternoon Nikolay, "War cats":
            hi
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 12: 04
              +2
              Good afternoon Nikolay, "War cats":

              Sergey, welcome! drinks Where does this armor come from? laughing
              1. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 20 February 2021 12: 19
                +1
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                Where does this armor come from?

                I don’t know Nikolay, I downloaded it on the Internet. But someone is seriously concerned about the safety of their cat. wassat
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 12: 28
                  +2
                  But someone is seriously concerned about the safety of their cat.

                  And why are the legs, legs not covered ?! sad And how does it go through the visor? crying
                  1. Mihaylov
                    Mihaylov 20 February 2021 12: 34
                    +2
                    Quote: Pane Kohanku
                    And why are the legs, legs not covered ?!

                    Apparently, the boots are made of thick hard leather (4 pieces)
                    And how does it go through the visor?

                    I think the visor rises, but in general, the "underage cat" is doubly dangerous drinks
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 February 2021 12: 49
                      +2
                      "underage cat" is doubly dangerous

                      Peck his visor to death. fellow or at least to liquid in underpants. drinks
  • tank66
    tank66 20 February 2021 12: 15
    +1
    Lepo, lepo, friends! It would be more common to find such pearls ... Thanks for the article.
    For gourmets: here is a link to an article in Rugjö # 4 2000 about flints.
    "... since 1791 a soldier has been punished in German troops /? I wonder how? winked / for misfire
    on 16 shots, with a new flint ... "
    http://www.reenactor.ru/ARH/PDF/Syxanov_Xabyrzaniya_00.pdf