Military Review

Turkish Ukraine: violence, slavery and death

95
Turkish Ukraine: violence, slavery and death
Battle of Khotin. Dutch artist J. van Huchtenburg


Under the rule of the Ottomans, Ukraine turned into a “wild field”. Podolia was directly incorporated into the Turkish Empire. The West Russian population of the region fell into real slavery. The hetman's rate, Chigirin, became a large slave market at this time. Slave traders from all over the region came here - the Tatars, who felt themselves to be complete masters on the Right Bank, and drove and drove a string of prisoners.

"Khotyn lion"


At the beginning of the 1673 campaign, the Russian command expected the Turkish army to march on the Dnieper. However, the Turks did not go after the Russians this year.

The infamous Buchach peace with Turkey caused violent indignation in the Commonwealth. The Diet did not recognize the peace agreement.

The opposition to King Mikhail Vishnevetsky was led by the great crown hetman Jan Sobieski. He was a well-known adventurer who had time to travel around Europe to his heart's content, to serve various monarchs and in various armies.

His wife, the Frenchwoman Maria Casimira de Lagrange d'Arquien (better known as Marysenka), became no less famous. Her father, a French captain, made his way to the favorites of the Polish queen Maria Louise of Neverskaya, added a daughter to her retinue. She became the wife of the magnate Zamoyski, after his death she inherited his enormous wealth. Sobieski became her next official gentleman (in addition to the mass of favorites and lovers). She began to skillfully and energetically promote her husband, using her connections and a lot of money, feminine charm.

Sobieski led the pro-French party in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Marysenka went to France to the court of King Louis XIV. And in exchange for help (including the financial one necessary to bribe the electors), she guaranteed the conclusion of a Franco-Polish-Swedish alliance, which was directed against the sworn enemies of the French crown - the Habsburgs.

The national insult stirred the gentry. Warriors flocked to Sobesky. During the campaign of 1673, Poland was able to deploy a 30 strong army.

In early November, the Polish army reached the Khotyn fortress. On November 11, Polish-Lithuanian troops attacked the Turkish camp and fortress in the morning in a blizzard. They were able to break through the enemy defenses in the field camp with a surprise attack and created passages for the cavalry. The hussars went for a breakthrough. The Turks withdrew with a mounted counterattack, but were unable to stop the rush of the heavily armed Polish cavalry.

Panic began in the Turkish camp. Hussein Pasha tried to withdraw his troops to the other bank of the Dniester. However, the only bridge in Khotin was damaged by artillery fire and collapsed under masses of fugitives. Only a few thousand Turks were able to break into Kamenets. The rest of the Turkish army was beaten, destroyed or captured (up to 20 thousand people). The Turks lost an artillery park - 120 guns.

The Poles lost about 2 thousand people. On November 13, the Khotyn castle surrendered with large supplies of provisions, weapons and ammunition. Poland was jubilant, although it was still far from victory. Sobieski's prestige skyrocketed. He was nicknamed "Khotinskiy lion".

Meanwhile, on the way to Khotin, the unpopular king Mikhail Vishnevetsky died. New royal elections were outlined. The gentry rushed home, the army collapsed. Like, the enemies were defeated.

Sobieski refused to go to the Danube principalities, he was the first contender for the throne. Therefore, Poland could not take advantage of its victory, even Kamenets was not recaptured. Polish troops occupied some of the fortresses in Moldavia. The forward detachment occupied Iasi, but soon retreated when the Tatar cavalry appeared.

In the spring of 1674, Jan III Sobieski was elected king. And the Turks launched a new offensive. The crumbling crown army retreated. The Ottomans and Tatars followed, burning and ravaging cities and towns.


Andrzej Steh. Jan Sobieski near Khotin

Ukrainian front


In connection with the defeat of Poland in 1672 and the news of the conclusion of the Buchach peace, the tsarist government took extraordinary measures to defend the Left-Bank Ukraine.

The hetman of the Left-Bank Ukraine Samoilovich asked Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich for early assistance. At the end of 1672, strong reinforcements were sent to Ukraine (primarily to Kiev).

In January - February 1673, the troops of the governor Yuri Trubetskoy (about 5 thousand) approached Kiev. Other garrisons also strengthened: Prince Khovansky went to Chernigov, Prince Zvenigorodsky - to Nizhyn, Prince Volkonsky - to Pereyaslav. Troops were also sent to the Don.

The Zemsky Sobor approved extraordinary fees for waging war. The preparation of the main forces of Russia for the campaign began. Heavy artillery was delivered to Kaluga in the spring of 1673. Three directions of hostilities were outlined: Ukraine, Belgorod zasechnaya line (defense from the Crimeans) and the lower reaches of the Don (new attack of Azov and Perekop). Also, the Cossacks had to attack the enemy in the lower reaches of the Dnieper and in the Crimea.

In April 1673, the commander of the Russian regiments, Prince Grigory Romodanovsky, informed the tsar that an unusually strong flood impedes the movement of troops.

Meanwhile, Moscow learned that the Warsaw Sejm had rejected the terms of peace with Turkey and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth is preparing to renew the war. In this situation, the need to immediately send the main forces of the tsarist army to Ukraine disappeared.

The government limited itself to sending regiments of the Belgorod category. On the other hand, only the Cossack regiments of Doroshenko stood on the Right Bank (they guarded the crossings on the Dnieper, in Chigirin and Kanev), and small Tatar forces in order to support the right bank hetman and the raid on the left bank of the Dnieper. The Turks were stationed only in the Transnistrian cities with the main forces in Khotin.

Therefore, after the resumption of the Polish-Turkish war, the campaign took on an indecisive character. Romodanovsky and Samoilovich in late April - early May made a short raid on the right bank of the Dnieper. They offered Doroshenko and Colonel Lizogub (Kanev) to take the oath to the tsar, but they refused.

Romodanovsky, under the pretext of defending the Belgorod line from the Tatars, returned to the left bank. The troops were withdrawn to Pereyaslav, then briefly to the Belgorod category. Samoilovich's Cossacks are basically dispersed to their homes.

Belgorod line. Black sea


In May, the Crimean horde of Selim-Girey tried to break through "beyond the Line", where weakly defended townships were located, founded after the construction of a fortified line and inhabited mainly by Cherkassians (Cossacks, South Russian population).

First, the Crimeans ravaged many villages that had been founded "beyond the Devil" in the previous relatively peaceful years. Then they were able to overcome the rampart at the Verkhoosenskoye and Novooskolskoye sections. And the horde poured into these districts, and also approached Userd.

But the steppe dwellers did not manage to penetrate far into the territory of the Belgorod category. In the summer, attacks continued, new villages were devastated. It is worth noting that not only servicemen and Cherkassians, but also the Cossacks of Ataman Serko, took part in the fight against the Crimean predators. And Romodanovsky's army sent part of the forces to defend the rampart.

The Russian command tried to distract the enemy with active actions in the Black Sea region. For this in the winter of 1672-1673. built ships of the river-sea class for actions on the Don, Dnieper and on the Black Sea coast. To strengthen the Don near Lebedyan, military men of the Belgorod category (more than 1 thousand people) were assembled under the command of the voivode Poluektov (he had already noted the construction of the ship "Eagle"). They built flotilla from hundreds of small ships, dozens of plows were intended for the sea. By the spring of 1673, they were delivered to Voronezh. Ships were also built in Sich.

In the spring of 1673, the riflemen of the governor Khitrovo (up to 8 thousand soldiers) lowered them down the Don to Cherkassk, built a Ratny town. In August, they, together with the donors of Ataman Yakovlev (up to 5 thousand people), again laid siege to the towers near Azov. A fortification was also laid at the mouth of the Mius. Azov, as well as towers, were not taken. In the spring and summer, Turkish galleys brought in significant reinforcements.

Meanwhile, Serko's Cossacks took Islam-Kermen on the Dnieper in June, and in August they ruined Ochakov and Tyagin. As a result, the Zaporozhye Cossacks made a big noise in the enemy's rear, defeated several important Turkish fortresses on the Dnieper and Dniester. This distracted part of the Turkish-Tatar forces from the Polish front, which helped the Poles.

Sultan Hetmanate


Meanwhile, under the rule of the Ottomans, Ukraine was turning into a "wild field". Podolia was directly incorporated into the Turkish Empire. Hetman Doroshenko received only Mogilev-Podolsk in the patrimony for his services to the Sultan. All the fortresses of the Podolsk province, except for those where the Ottoman garrisons stood, were destroyed. The hetman was offered to destroy all the fortifications of the Right Bank, except for Chigirin.

The West Russian population of Podillya fell into real slavery. The Turks immediately began to establish their order in the occupied lands. So, most of the churches of the captured Kamenets were turned into mosques, young nuns were raped and sold into slavery, the youth began to be taken into the Sultan's army.

Doroshenko himself had to ask for letters of protection for the churches of his domain. The people were imposed with heavy taxes, and for non-payment they were sold into slavery. The Turks also treated the Cossack allies with contempt, calling them "unfaithful pigs." There were plans to deport the Russians from Podolia with the aim of their early Islamization and assimilation, and their replacement by Muslims.

Doroshenko, under the cover of the Sultan's scimitars, at first felt good. All attempts by the tsarist governors to establish contact with him failed.

The "Turkish hetman" had appropriate assistants. The closest was Ivan Mazepa, who became famous later. More precisely, Jan, a former small Polish gentry. He had an excellent Jesuit education and complete lack of principles, which allowed Mazepa to advance under the hetman and become a general clerk.

The hetman's rate, Chigirin, became a large slave market at this time. Slave traders from all over the region, Ottomans, Armenians and Jews came here. And the Tatars, who felt themselves to be complete masters on the Right Bank, drove and drove the rows of prisoners. The Cossack foreman also did not offend himself and actively participated in this shameful trade. Why be ashamed if wealth itself flows into your hands?

On the other hand, throughout Ukraine, the name of Doroshenko and his henchmen, who brought the "bastard" to the country, caused general curses. The population of the Right Bank was partly captured and sold into slavery by the Turks and Tatars, partly fled to the Left Bank under the protection of the tsarist regiments.

Discontent was ripening among the rank-and-file Cossacks.

They did not want to fight for the "Turkish hetman".


Juliusz Kossak. "Tatar dance"

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. No name B
    No name B 8 February 2021 03: 54
    -16%
    The author's ataman Serko cuts his eyes, who is this? Otaman Sirko was in Ukraine. Who is Cherkasy? Didn't there really exist Ukrainians on either the right-bank or the left-bank Ukraine? So write on the right-bank Cherkassy and the left-bank Cherkassia, otherwise the country is Ukraine and the inhabitants of Cherkasy. Are the Zaporozhye Cossacks Cherkasy or Ukrainians? And what about the Russian inhabitants of Podillya? The author, you have somehow decided who lived in my long-suffering Ukraine - Cherkasy, Ukrainians, Cossacks, Cossacks, Russians or some other unknown animals?
    1. Old electrician
      Old electrician 8 February 2021 05: 42
      +15
      Since the XNUMXth century, the Cossack Ataman Serko (Sirko) has been a hero of many legends and myths. So, for example, he is the main character of the famous painting by I.E. Repin
      Ivan Dmitrievich Serko with his comrades responds with mockery to the pompous formidable letter of Sultan Mohammed the Fourth koshevoy
      .
      Fomenkovets A. Bushkov in his bestseller "Catherine II: Diamond Cinderella" -SPb. Publishing house "Niva", 2005 "raised him to the level of a saint and ascended to heaven:
      The story of the raid on the Crimea of ​​the Zaporozhye ataman on Sirko in 1675 shows in an excellent way how the “struggle with the Basurmans” took place. After having roused and plundered there, the Zaporozhians returned to their steppes, taking with them several thousand captives, and were captured without distinction of religion. Having stopped at the camp, they began to sort them. There were seven thousand Christians. Then Ataman Sirkov asked: who of you, Orthodox Christians, wants to go with us, and who wants to return to Crimea?
      So, three thousand out of seven - Russians, Orthodox, just wanted to return to Crimea! Motivating this by the fact that they do not live so badly with the Tatars, there is no particular oppression of the Orthodox faith, everyone has their own household, which is a pity to leave.
      Something not quite like the classic picture of the oppressed Slavs groaning under the cruel yoke of Basurman?
      So, Sirko sent these three thousand back to the Crimea - and immediately sent after them a Cossack detachment with the order to knock out every last one. The Cossacks scrupulously executed this order.

      As you can see, Bushkov cut the truth to the uterus and opened our eyes: "Something does not quite resemble the classic picture of the oppressed Slavs groaning under the cruel yoke of Basurman."
      The real life story of Serko can be found in S.M. Solovyov's "History of Russia from Ancient Times" vols. 11 and 12. Let's start with the fact that when meeting with the tsar's envoy, Streltsy Sotnik Chaduev on March 13, 1674, Ataman Serko said:
      The Sultan of Tours this spring certainly wants to be near Kiev and beyond; let the kings be transferred among themselves, and we will find a place for ourselves: whoever is strong, the sovereign will be for us
      .
      “The one who is strong will be the sovereign for us” - the devoted licking of the master's backside for hard currency is a characteristic feature of all hohlo heroes. Serko's entire life and political credo is contained in this phrase. Serko's unfulfilled dream is to become a hetman at any cost. For the sake of this dream, Serko was ready to serve the Crimean khan, the Turkish sultan, the Polish king, the Moscow tsar - no matter who. However, he never received the hetman.
      For the first time Serko (? -1680) is mentioned as a Kalnitsky colonel on October 10, 1659, since 1663 he is a koshevoy chieftain.
      Until 1672, he served the king against the Crimean Tatars and Poles. In 1672 he went over to the Poles, was immediately captured by the tsar and was exiled, but at the end of 1672 he was pardoned.
      In 1673, Serko raised the banner of a new impostor - Tsarevich Simeon Alekseevich, allegedly the son of the reigning Tsar Alexei (!) With the aim of starting a new turmoil in Russia. However, Stepan Razin, who gave birth to this impostor, was already defeated. Russia is growing stronger, and there is no hope that the impostor who fled from the defeated Don will stir up the population. Therefore, in 1674, less than six months after the solemn promises to the impostor, Serko sent the thief to the great sovereign and assured him of his loyalty.
      In 1675, Serko made another attempt to achieve hetmanship, which he had passionately dreamed of all his life. Bummer. Then Serko tried to go over to the Polish king, but the Cossacks did not follow him.
      In 1677 Serko with the Cossacks went over to the Sultan. A quote from the report to the tsar father from the "special services" of that time:
      The sultan sent the Kazykermen bey 30000 pieces of gold to bribe Serk with the Cossacks. Bey from the Polish Tatars, studied in schools, knows languages; he met with Serk in the steppe, they walked between the bushes, holding hands, and then Koshevoy swore allegiance to the Sultan

      The Sultan from this report is that very Muhammad the Fourth, who allegedly sent menacing letters to the chieftain of the bandit gang. It was these 30000 hearts that made the faces of all Serko's associates so happy in the painting by Ilya Repin.
      I will not talk about the fabulous life of the Slavs in Turkish captivity, I will tell you how Serko saved them. To begin with, three thousand slaves are an expensive commodity. For the XNUMXth century, at first it is noble to send three thousand pieces of goods back to the Crimea, and then to kill all this goods because of such a trifle as someone's religious beliefs - this is a completely implausible act. This is as believable as the heroic canvas of our days, in which Someone, when leaving the Kremlin, patriotically throws into the trash can a huge cardboard box from a copier with the hated American dollars.
      In 1675, Serko once again went over to the king:
      At the end of September, Serko let Moscow know about his faithful service: by the tsar's decree, Prince Kaspulat Mutsalovich Cherkassky, steward Leontyev, streltsy head Lukoshkin, Mazin-Murza with Kalmyks, Ataman Frol Minaev with the Don Cossacks came to Zaporozhye; Serko united with them, and on September 17 everyone went to repair the military trade over the Crimean ulus people, they smashed the Tatar outpost beyond Perekop, the villages were burned, they took a lot of them, and many Christian souls were freed, and everyone came back healthy

      In this campaign, Serko was not the main one, there is not even a hint of any return to the Crimea of ​​the Slavs who flourished there and their heroic execution in the royal documents of the XNUMXth century. And when, then, did Serko chop the captives for lack of faith? Didn't it happen? - It was!
      During the Russian-Polish war of 1654-1667 for Ukraine and Belarus, a detachment of 500 dragoons, soldiers and Don Cossacks was separated in Zaporozhye under the command of the solicitor Grigory Kasogov. This was in 1662. Kasogov's position in Zaporozhye was very, very precarious - the Cossacks at any moment could spread to the king, the sultan or the Crimean khan. Any of these options guaranteed certain death for the entire Russian detachment. Despite this, in the same year, Kasogov's detachment from the Zaporozhye Sich began to act together with the Cossacks of the Koshevoy Ataman Serko against the Cossacks who had switched to the royal (Polish) side and the Crimean Tatars. Now about the heroic "raid on the Crimea"
      October 2 (1662) Serko and Kasogov set out at Perekop; On the night of the 11th, Serko with foot Cherkas and soldiers entered Perekop posad from the Crimean side, and Kasogov with horse Cherkas and Russian people came to the Perekop gate from the Russian side; a large stone city was taken, but the Russians could not take the small one and left, setting the big city on fire; Janissaries and Tatars pursued them from five miles. October 16 Kasogov and Serko returned to Sich; only ten people from Kasogov's detachment were killed; they did not bring the prisoners to the Sich, they chopped them down, sparing neither their wives nor children, on the grounds, as Kasogov reported, that there was a wind in the Crimea and Perekop; but the Zaporozhye envoys arrived in Moscow with the same news about the campaign near Perekop and announced: “In Perekop there was no plague with us, they heard that there was a fever, but long before their arrival; We cut the prisoners to pieces, being in a quarrel with each other, and the chieftain Ivan Serko wrote about a pestilence to hetman Bryukhovetsky, we think, out of shame that there was no one to send languages ​​to him, because they had beaten everyone with an army. "

      In short, the heroic Cossacks could not share the spoils and, in a drunken heat, decided that the easiest way was to chop up prisoners, including women and children, in order to observe Cossack justice. As you can see, in this story, Serko and his Cossacks have neither pity, nor nobility, nor faith in God. Well, Bushkov embellished this story, and in order to hide the historical ends in the water, he transferred it from 1662 to 1675.
      1. Profiler
        Profiler 8 February 2021 07: 11
        +12
        Quote: Old electrician
        Since the XNUMXth century, the Cossack ataman Serko (Sirko) has been a hero of many legends and myths.

        And in Ukrainian villages, to this day, yard dogs are called "Sirko" ...

        1. Profiler
          Profiler 8 February 2021 07: 25
          +5
          Quote: Profiler
          And in Ukrainian villages, to this day, yard dogs are called "Sirko" ...


          Some kind of glitch request Failed to attach artwork to comment.

          Ukrainian folk tale. Publishing house Kiev, 1994

          1. Proxima
            Proxima 8 February 2021 11: 05
            +6
            There is an interesting version why the Ukrainians have pork and especially lard raised to a cult. The fact is that the Krymchaks and Turks, of course, when they ravaged Ukrainian villages, besides the prisoners, they also drove away livestock (sheep, cattle, horses) with them. For some reason they disdained about pigs negative and "generously" left them... And in the future, when the Ukrainian peasant faced the choice of what to get, a cow or, say, a couple of pigs, he naturally stopped at the latter option. So much for the national food. recourse
            1. ee2100
              ee2100 8 February 2021 11: 49
              +5
              It's not over yet. The Turks and Tatars began to take the pigs for sale, and then they began to fatten them to such a state that the pig could hardly move.
              The Hungarians had a similar story.
              1. Proxima
                Proxima 8 February 2021 12: 35
                +2
                Quote: ee2100
                It's not over yet. The Turks and Tatars began to take the pigs for sale, and then they began to fatten them to such a state that the pig could hardly move.
                The Hungarians had a similar story.

                It is not surprising that in the national Hungarian cuisine pork products are in a very large segment. Bacon and bacon for example.
                1. ee2100
                  ee2100 8 February 2021 13: 21
                  +1
                  Not only makes them related, but there is also a significant difference. Lard tends to turn rancid i.e. oxidize as a result of which its taste changes and an unpleasant odor appears. To fight off the smell in Ukraine, garlic is used, and the Hungarians use paprika.
                  1. No name B
                    No name B 8 February 2021 22: 20
                    -3
                    How long should this fat lie? In Ukraine, lard does not lie for a long time ... In Germany, I found Spanish lard in Edeke for about 1,5 € for 500 g niche, almost similar to Ukrainian!
                    1. ee2100
                      ee2100 8 February 2021 23: 54
                      +2
                      The Spanish pig and the Ukrainian pig are two different pigs. You can't make Ukrainian ham wink
                      1. Black lotos
                        Black lotos 9 February 2021 23: 58
                        0
                        Quote: ee2100
                        The Spanish pig and the Ukrainian pig are two different pigs.

                        breed white and black Iberian pigs. Fattened with acorns
                        Bellota-exclusively acorns (that's why more than 200 euros per kg price)
                        The most popular brand of Ukrainian jamon-Karo Food, TM Ham.Lo. This is an Italian type of jamon made from Ukrainian raw materials. Three times cheaper than Italian jamon. (In Italy, dry-cured pork leg is called prosciutto)
                        Jamon is also produced in Russia. And foie gras.
                        But the original jamon is only in Spain. The combination of breed and climatic aging is only there.
                      2. ee2100
                        ee2100 10 February 2021 09: 49
                        0
                        This article is in the history section and, accordingly, the comments should be viewed in a historical vein, but what is happening now in animal husbandry has nothing to do with history.
                    2. gsev
                      gsev 12 February 2021 05: 35
                      -1
                      Quote: ee2100
                      You can't make Ukrainian ham

                      Ukrainian lard can often successfully compete with any other meat delicacy. The taste depends more on the quality of pig keeping and salting of the lard, and not on the name and country of origin.
            2. vladcub
              vladcub 8 February 2021 15: 52
              +1
              In Estonia, fish with a "smell" is held in high esteem for exactly the same reasons. The gentlemen took the fresh fish for themselves, and the "smelling one" was graciously left to the servants.
              I personally disdain to eat this, and they are delighted
              1. ee2100
                ee2100 8 February 2021 16: 33
                +2
                Where did you get this? Can you indicate the source? If you are talking about surstroemming, then it is with the Swedes.
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub 8 February 2021 18: 20
                  0
                  My cousin nephew lived there
                  1. ee2100
                    ee2100 8 February 2021 20: 38
                    +1
                    I don’t know what a relative told you, but this is complete nonsense. Type in a search engine something about Estonian cuisine and see for yourself. There is an opinion about Estonians that they are "brakes", this is also not untrue, but at least it has a basis.
                    When a Russian person asks an Estonian about something, he will first translate it into Estonian, formulate an answer, and then translate it into Russian and answer.
                    The last USSR basketball champion is the Estonian SSR national team.
                    1. Astra wild2
                      Astra wild2 8 February 2021 21: 23
                      0
                      I have an Estonian daughter-in-law. She named many fish dishes. They even have milk soup with fish.
                      Vladkuba was misled: a pig and its lard, also with a "flavor" with porridge, are fed with a good-smelling fish. Naturally, I forgot the name.
                      "Translate into Estonian first" not only they do that
                    2. ee2100
                      ee2100 8 February 2021 22: 23
                      0
                      There are quite a few varieties of milk soups with fish in Estonian cuisine: Vürtsikas juustune kalasupp (soup with sprat and cheese), vürtsine kalasupp (just with sprat), kalasupp piimaga (just milk soup with fish), now in public catering there is mainly soup with salmon and cream.
                      Quite tasty.
                      Now home-fed pork is in huge shortage.
              2. Elena Akinfieva
                Elena Akinfieva 8 February 2021 22: 09
                +5
                Why are the Swedes at once? There is Komi saline or Pechora saline, who as they call it, the same thing.
        2. Seal
          Seal 9 February 2021 09: 45
          +2
          It should also be borne in mind that in an anonymous literary work written in the genre of libel in 1606, the Commonwealth was called “Heaven for the gentry, purgatory for the bourgeoisie, inferno for slaves and heaven for Jews” (Polish: Polska była niebem dla szlachty , czyśćcem dla mieszczan, piekłem dla chłopów, a rajem dla Żydów).
          The Jews were usurers.
          The Jews were also engaged in pay-offs.
          Payoff ("large lease"; transfer of state revenues and monopolies to a private person for a monetary contribution from his side to the state).
          Jews in Poland began to take over primarily royal items of income: minting coins, developing salt mines, collecting duties and taxes. On a large scale, the Jews first engaged in such kind of ransom in the Polish-Lithuanian state in the 14-15th centuries. In 1538, the Polish Sejm (Parliament) prohibited the granting of royalties to the Jews. In 1569, the Lithuanian Sejm granted the gentry a monopoly on the farm out in Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. The economic consequences of this decree could be disastrous for Lithuanian Jewry, which, however, enjoyed sufficient influence to resist its use until the end of the 17th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries. the Jewry of the so-called Chervonnaya Rus (until 1939 Western Ukraine) also played an important role in the purchase of duties, salt mines, a monopoly on the trade in alcoholic beverages, etc. Subsequently, Jews were often tacit companions of nominally Christian tax farmers (mostly Armenians).
          In the late 16th century, nobles began renting out their estates to Jews in exchange for a fixed amount, which was usually paid in advance. All the income of the estate from the labor of serfs, payments of townspeople and Jews (who lived in the cities that were part of the estates), income from mills and other establishments were transferred to the tenant. During the term of the lease, the Jew controlled the estate and its inhabitants and was empowered to punish the serfs at his own discretion.
          A certain Abraham from Tursk is known, who rented vast lands in Volyn. Many Jews rented hotels, selected branches of agriculture in the countryside, or collected taxes in a particular city or town.
          Tenants of this kind were actually agents and confidants of the property owner and the financial, administrative and directors of aristocratic-class farms. As a result of their functions, such tenants gained administrative power and great economic influence. At the same time, they became the object of the anger of the peasants, townspeople and the small gentry.
          So the villagers, and the burghers, who were threatened with deprivation of their movable property by Jews-usurers or tax farmers, apparently also had a serious motive to breed pigs.
    2. Tochilka
      Tochilka 8 February 2021 17: 03
      0
      Oh how! And as a child, reading Ukrainian fairy tales, he believed that this is a derivative of the word "gray". I did not know about the chieftain. As well as about the piglets.
  2. vladcub
    vladcub 8 February 2021 08: 12
    +4
    "The one who is strong and the sovereign will be for us" does not sound very nice, but for the sake of truth, not only Sirko was like that. Remember the "War of the Scarlet and White Rose"? There is also the same song: he goes to bed like a crimson rose, and wakes up with a white rose. There were many such cases in civilian life.
  3. No name B
    No name B 8 February 2021 22: 28
    -5
    Thanks for the details.
    Serko (? -1680) is first mentioned as Kalnitsky Colonel October 10, 1659, since 1663 he is the chieftain

    I myself am from the village of Kalnik, Ilyinetsky district, Vinnytsia region. We still have in the village
    Bohun's hut
    stands the same colonel in the army of B. Khmelnitsky and one of the main characters of the Polish film "With Fire and Sword".
    Ancestors on the grandmother's line from the registered Cossacks, but in general the pedigree can be traced to the 18th century. And we have Cossack lands, abundantly watered with people's blood and against the Poles and Tatars. And the village is a multicultural and Jews and Poles and Ukrainians and Russians ...
  • Lipchanin
    Lipchanin 8 February 2021 06: 28
    +1
    Quote: No name B
    my long-suffering Ukraine

    So you made it yourself.
    They went to bed under everyone. In Europe they tried everyone, got over a puddle
    We lay down under the zashtatnikov, and even be proud of it
    1. Profiler
      Profiler 8 February 2021 07: 44
      +5
      Quote: No name B
      my long-suffering Ukraine

      Quote: Lipchanin
      So you made it yourself.

      Not in reproach to all Ukrainians, but only their stupid part, the territory - good , only fool got it.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 8 February 2021 15: 59
        +3
        "not in reproach to all Ukrainians" I agree here. It is not the fault of the people that the "Maidans" have seized power. By and large, they, like a distorting mirror, repeated what we had with EBN
    2. aars
      aars 8 February 2021 13: 04
      0
      They didn't have much choice.
  • Profiler
    Profiler 8 February 2021 07: 02
    +9
    Quote: No name B
    The author's ataman Serko cuts his eyes, who is this? Otaman Sirko was in Ukraine.

    Indeed, not a distorted nickname Serko, but Sirko but not "B", but "NA" Ukraine, also a distorted definition of the "outskirts" of Rus.
    Quote: No name B
    Who is Cherkasy? Didn't there really exist Ukrainians on either the right-bank or the left-bank Ukraine? So write on the right-bank Cherkassy and the left-bank Cherkassia, otherwise the country is Ukraine and the inhabitants of Cherkasy.


    You demand a correct, verified definition for the people, whose national and ethnic status at that time was very uncertain and rather heterogeneous in composition, especially among the Cossacks.

    As for "Cherkasy", it is obvious that you yourself understand that the status of the "country of Ukraine", which, if it managed to form a kind of quasi-statehood in its entire history only twice, and then only due to the collapse of the early XX century RI, and at the end of the same century - the USSR, and then only for a relatively short time.

    What "country Ukraine" can we talk about in the XNUMXth century?
    1. No name B
      No name B 8 February 2021 14: 26
      -12%
      In Ukraine, this is a country that is now independent of you, and not a territory like the Urals or the Don with the Kuban. Russia twice betrayed Ukraine, after Bohdan Khmelnitsky presented it to the Moscow Tsar on a silver platter, after 6 years he surrendered the right-bank Ukraine to the Polish king. And after that, you want some kind of loyalty at that time? The second time we paid off the Germans during WWI. You can call my country what you want, it's your business, but this will not add respect to you.
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 8 February 2021 17: 34
        +5
        In Ukraine, this is a country now independent from you
        And when will Ukraine be admitted to the European Union laughing?
        1. No name B
          No name B 8 February 2021 22: 12
          -8
          Then when the LDNR becomes Russia, that is, never
          1. Bolt cutter
            Bolt cutter 8 February 2021 22: 18
            0
            The day is not far off when everyone in the LPR will become citizens of the Russian Federation, then the controversial status of this territory will simply become fictitious. And the EU states are not rushing to distribute Ukrainian passports. Big difference.
            1. No name B
              No name B 9 February 2021 22: 41
              -2
              Well, sho sho Russian passport spirit you do not have enough LDPR to attach officially, and you will shit under the fence shop only Ukraine did not enter the EU and NATO ...!)))
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter 9 February 2021 22: 48
                -1
                Well, sho sho Russian passport will not be enough for you
                Cyprus is in the EU and NATO, but has not decided on a Turkish piece of Cyprus.
                you will spoil the shop under the fence only Ukraine has not entered the EU and NATO
                You don't have a penny for either one or the other. The European Union is not an ATM, as they say tongue And NATO is not a shield.
                1. No name B
                  No name B 10 February 2021 10: 04
                  -2
                  I agree, but we would have to remove our creatures Natsik and thoroughly corrupt government. Then we'll get out ourselves. In fact, there is more than enough finance in Ukraine, they just steal at all levels. They also have the audacity to dishonor the whole world, give them a penny. And the EU needs to be in order to switch to their standards by which people live and everything is done for people, there is no need to reinvent the wheel when everything has been invented long ago. NATO should be so that you again do not want to create somewhere new-Russia in Ukraine.
                  1. Bolt cutter
                    Bolt cutter 10 February 2021 13: 09
                    -1
                    but we would have to remove our creatures Natsik and thoroughly corrupt government. Then we'll scramble ourselves
                    If you remove alcohol from vodka, then it will no longer be vodka.
                    finance in Ukraine is more than enough
                    In an agrarian state with finances strained a priori. Where from?
                    The EU needs to move to their standards
                    Does the EU itself need you? Do you distribute apartments and allowances to your single mothers in Germany and Finland?
                    NATO is necessary so that you again do not want to somewhere new-Russia
                    Not us, but you. First of all, your citizens did not want to ride together.
                    1. No name B
                      No name B 10 February 2021 14: 25
                      -1
                      Like Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, the Baltic states, too, were not particularly industrial powers. But the standard of living, especially in Poland, is very high, for Russia to crawl and crawl, so sho accession to the EU is advantageous for everyone. And people from the assistant to the mayor to the head of Sylrada told about finance. The system is built in such a way that everyone steals and no longer really hides. We are clearly not on the road, we were eating a fake table in the internet while still in the USSR to help you. Along the way, you realized that the role of the "lesser" brother does not tempt us and now you cling to whatever you want, if only Ukraine does not finally float away. We left you right and good luck.
                    2. Bolt cutter
                      Bolt cutter 10 February 2021 14: 34
                      0
                      we ate you back in the USSR
                      I know the European Union from the inside - I am a citizen of a state that has managed to both join and screw from there. Compared to the Baltics, where I lived in the 90s after Ukraine, everything in the Baltics was already European. Plus mentality. (Difference in mentality)
                      standard of living especially in Poland
                      England, Ireland, Finland, yes. Poland, if not allowed further.
                      so sho accession to the EU is beneficial for any
                      That is, you think that the EU will raise your standard of living laughing The problem is that the Balts are few, but there are many of you, and you are much poorer, you cannot be extended. The main problem is that the EU has noticed your freeloader mentality. If the Romanians who occupied free housing in the EU countries are already too much, then the deer and aunts will go nuts from such freebies and just everyone will rush to free Western European bread with their families and brood. And the EU, I repeat, is not an ATM or social security. And not even a residential building.
                    3. No name B
                      No name B 10 February 2021 20: 05
                      -2
                      This is a favorite stamp of Russians like Ukrainians freeloaders). Probably only the Chinese are more able to work than us. For me personally, the main criterion for joining the EU is a judicial and legal system where there is no bribery, corruption, bribery, nepotism, theft. By the way, Ukraine sets the limits for the sale of agricultural products in the EU for a month. Once again, I repeat, Ukraine has a lot of money of its own, but the system of power is robbing the people, and therefore the EU needs to break it. Russia is clearly not on the way here.
                    4. Bolt cutter
                      Bolt cutter 10 February 2021 20: 51
                      +1
                      This is a favorite stamp of Russians like Ukrainians freeloaders)
                      I have been living in Europe (England / Ireland) almost from the age of majority. (By the way, I had a chance to live in Ukraine as a child) And I met your hard workers. I was asked several times, you have an English passport, why do you work at all. A table conversation is like getting an apartment from the state.
                      where there is no bribery, corruption, bribery, nepotism, theft
                      This is your mentality. (Not to make money, but to sweat it out) Otherwise you would already have a second France.
                      the system of power robs the people, that's why the EU is needed
                      Are your authorities from Moscow or from Mars? These are your people, with your mentality. The EU won't send you Gauleiters. If you send against them on the Maidan, trample the reasons, see above.
                      Ukraine has heaps of money
                      Where from? You won't earn much on grain and seeds.
                    5. No name B
                      No name B 12 February 2021 06: 35
                      -2
                      To live for free in the West, you need to make incredible efforts, and judging by the number of migrant workers in Europe, Ukrainians are the most working nation in Europe. Offer the Ukrainian a decent salary, he will move mountains, even in the North, even on Mars! I myself am such a farer / driver LKV / Truck. Honestly earning money in Ukraine is unrealistic, and the state forces people to puff them out by paying them a penny. The system of power feeds itself, whoever gets there must play by its rules. Well, the time will come and we will change it, with the help of the EU this process could be accelerated. Money not only from industry, but from taxes on the population is the largest. We steal money for 1 km of the constructed road. The proportion applies approximately to everything. Only in retirement for some reason is not enough. Previously, with IMF loans, they built residential townships, neighborhoods - welded several times. And you did not move to England for a freebie ???
                    6. Bolt cutter
                      Bolt cutter 12 February 2021 11: 48
                      0
                      And you did not move to England for a freebie ???
                      A sincere question betrays your surprise that another option (for something other than a freebie) is generally possible. No, not for a freebie - in Latvia, too, is not bad, especially with its own housing. I just wanted to get to know this exceptional country, to get to know the descendants of successful colonists and outstanding engineers. First came for a year. Then for another year. And then he got married and stayed. Probably soon we will eat together already. But my cousin immediately said, I also want to live in London, I will receive benefits and study for free laughing .
                      ... Money not only from industry, but from taxes on the population
                      And the population where they take them (in normal countries) - receives a salary for the production of value-added products.
                      Honestly making money in Ukraine is unrealistic, but the state is forcing people to outrage
                      And what makes your hard workers do the same in England, Ireland, France, Lithuania wassat? But the Ukrainians there have already "glorified" accordingly.
                      we will change it, with the help of the EU this process could be accelerated
                      Two questions
                      1. How?
                      2. Do they need it?
                    7. No name B
                      No name B 13 February 2021 18: 51
                      -2
                      A sincere question betrays your surprise that another option (for something other than a freebie) is generally possible.
                      No, not a question but irony. Of course, everyone goes to the West to sincerely get acquainted with the local sights, especially when you have an EU passport and leaving poor Latvia is not a problem at all. I think that millions of freeloaders from the Baltic States, Poland, Romania work and live in western Europe, and the Ukrainians understand freeloaders, they still need to be able to leave for the EU, who are you unfriendly bred here?
                      Tell you how many Russian-speaking people were bred in the EU countries? Even in the trucking business, only the Russian boss - go by, especially in Lithuania, divorce and working conditions are almost always humiliating. Everything that you write can be said about the Russian-speaking Lithuanians, you probably tried a little. Ukrainians are not ideals, there are always enough freaks. It's just that Ukraine has something to develop and there are many of us, while Europe is better off accepting Arabs and Araps, as I understand it, the Baltic states are already over?
                    8. Bolt cutter
                      Bolt cutter 14 February 2021 12: 28
                      0
                      poor Latvia is not a problem at all
                      Real GDP per capita in Latvia is 4.5 times higher than Ukrainian tongue (in terms of PPP-only 3 times smile ) That is, Sri Lanka and Egypt are overtaking the second France.
                      everyone goes west to genuinely get to know the local attractions, especially when you have an EU passport
                      Can't fit in your head?
                      there are a lot of us
                      And you are in embroidered shirts wassat
                    9. No name B
                      No name B 14 February 2021 23: 59
                      -2
                      You are clearly a naive Chukchi youth, thinking in cliches. Once again, for those who are in the tank - if you have an EU passport, and Latvia is a part of the EU, then it is not a problem to go to see the sights, and so still not all of the Baltic States in the EU see the sights? But when Ukrainians massively trample on to contemplate the sights in the EU, you will start a tailspin and burning, how to feed them freeloaders, they do not go to work, and for free housing, education, and if they start to work, the locals will have nothing left? Somehow one German to my answer nicht ferstein exclaimed in his hearts - Mine Got where is Deutsche Farer (driver) !? And I told him - that's all, the Deutsche Faroes, Kaput, Ukraine Farer Alles are over!) So the New Europeans are afraid of us, the Ukrainians are coming and take your freebie!
  • Black lotos
    Black lotos 10 February 2021 00: 05
    0
    Quote: Bolt Cutter
    become citizens of the Russian Federation, then the controversial status of this territory will become simply fictitious

    I would not like to get into your hurray for patriotic disputes between Russians and Ukrainians for the title of the most patriotic, but why then the PMR, with all its desire, repeated referendums, with the overwhelming possession of Russian passports, is not part of Russia?
    And vice versa, Crimea 2014, few who own a Russian passport, and it did not hurt.
    Maybe it's not about passports then?
    I am inclined to the humanitarian role of issuing passports. People are still a resource that can also strengthen the country. And passports will facilitate their mobility. With the territory, everything is more complicated.
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 10 February 2021 00: 20
      0
      then the PMR, with all its desire
      PMR-enclave. And that's all. If in Crimea (and Donbass) you can simply sail or fly, then there is no way.
      Crimea 2014, few who own a Russian passport
      But there are many who wish. Again, the northern Cypriot Turks supported their own, because they could. If the Turks in Dusseldorf formed their own republic and asked for help from their motherland-mother, then everything would end up in a mess, hypothetical planes with the help of them would have burned in the border areas.
  • gsev
    gsev 12 February 2021 06: 16
    0
    Quote: No name B
    Russia betrayed Ukraine twice

    Have you heard about the civil war in Ukraine-Ruin? About Baturyn records with the accusation of the organizers of the ruins? The flip side of the Cossack liberties is the inability to resist the real state. In 1917-1918, hundreds of bandit atamans from obvious puppets such as the pro-German hetman or the pro-French Petliura, who signed all the railways to France to the half-bandit-semi-anarchist Makhno, claimed power in Ukraine. Defeating them was no easier than modern punishers from the gangs of oligarchs and their allies from Europe and from across the ocean. Nevertheless, only the Russian state was able to collect all Ukrainians and their lands in one state. Yushchenko donated the Serpent Island to Romania and over 10 sq. km of the Black Sea shelf. And Poroshenko expelled ten million inhabitants of Ukraine to a foreign land to provide sex services, harvest crops and work for foreign owners by paying taxes to the foreign treasury.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 8 February 2021 07: 54
    -4
    Comrade No name, do not cling to one letter in the last name.
    Ataman Sirko (Serko) was a fact. He was popular among the Cossacks, otherwise he would not have been chosen as chieftain, this is also a fact.
    1. Profiler
      Profiler 8 February 2021 09: 12
      +4
      Quote: vladcub
      Ataman Sirko (Serko) was a fact. He was popular among the Cossacks, otherwise he would not have been chosen as chieftain, this is also a fact.


      You should be more careful with the classification of human garlic.

      Of course, the injection is not in your address, but a reference to assessments of the nature of the actions of some people, and the trace they left in history
  • credo
    credo 8 February 2021 14: 07
    +9
    Quote: No name B
    The author's ataman Serko cuts his eyes, who is this? Otaman Sirko was in Ukraine. Who is Cherkasy? Didn't there really exist Ukrainians on either the right-bank or the left-bank Ukraine? So write on the right-bank Cherkassy and the left-bank Cherkassia, otherwise the country is Ukraine and the inhabitants of Cherkasy. Are the Zaporozhye Cossacks Cherkasy or Ukrainians? And what about the Russian inhabitants of Podillya? The author, you have somehow decided who lived in my long-suffering Ukraine - Cherkasy, Ukrainians, Cossacks, Cossacks, Russians or some other unknown animals?

    The Author does not write about the Ukrainians, because there was no such nationality there. But he writes about Russians and writes about Poles and writes about Tatars and about Turks and others, because they lived there in different capacities. And that's a fact.
    It is a pity that the current education in Ukraine has distorted the actual history of this region.
    And the very name "Ukraine" comes from the word outskirts - that's the whole story.
    1. Black lotos
      Black lotos 10 February 2021 00: 26
      0
      Quote: credo
      The Author does not write about Ukrainians, because there was no such nationality there

      then there were no nationalities in the modern sense
      The first Polish written mention of the term "Ukrainians" dates back to 1596 in connection with the Nalivaiko uprising. It is used by the crown hetman Stanislav Zholkevsky. True, at the very beginning, this was the name of the Poles (subjects of the king) in these lands. And then everyone else. Samsonov just operates with this time. And the Poles have already been called Ukrainians in writing (by the way, sometimes the subjects of the Moscow Tsar also called them the same).
      Although there are few arguments against the Boplan map. 1648.

      It was first translated into Russian in 1832 in St. Petersburg.
      DESCRIPTION OF UKRAINE
      ILI
      Areas of the Kingdom of Poland, lying between the borders of Muscovy and Transnlvania, with the addition of information about the rights, customs and military arts of Ukrainians.
      Composition by BOPLAN
      For Count Vorontsov, they transferred it.
      In general, we can conclude that this is an eternal dispute was or was not. And since the characters are equally stubborn, the fact that one was not for the other causes a directly opposite effect of strengthening national pride.
      The USSR did the right thing. Everything is. But everyone is united by one idea and one country.
      1. credo
        credo 10 February 2021 13: 10
        0
        Arguments are not enough, and the argumentation is weak.
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 8 February 2021 04: 16
    +7
    The history of Ukraine and Poland in those years is a history of betrayal. The traitor sat on the traitor and drove the traitor ... to the delight of the Turks.
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 8 February 2021 05: 38
      +10
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      The history of Ukraine and Poland in those years is a history of betrayal.

      If you remember who, together with the Poles, captured Smolensk, Moscow, who destroyed the Russian people from 1610-1618, then there Sagaidachny was noted for bloody deeds.
      And the famous saber was presented to the famous hetman by the Polish king for Smolensk.
      1. Profiler
        Profiler 8 February 2021 07: 55
        +16
        Quote: tihonmarine
        there and Sagaidachny noted bloody deeds

        The nuns of the Novodevichy Convent, raped and killed by the Cossacks, are evidence of this.
        And it would be okay if the reason for the raids were the "age-old oppression of Ukrainians by the Russians" about which the Ukrainian official propaganda is now crucified, but no, the Muscovy could not physically somehow infringe on the Little Russians at that time ...

        Themselves barely recovered from the turmoil, wars and upheavals.
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 8 February 2021 09: 24
          +5
          Quote: Profiler
          Themselves barely recovered from the turmoil, wars and upheavals.

          To be honest, I'm not sure if the turmoil is over. In the modern world there is no certainty that tomorrow will be calm, without upheavals.
      2. Black lotos
        Black lotos 10 February 2021 00: 51
        0
        Quote: tihonmarine
        If you remember who, together with the Poles, captured Smolensk, Moscow, who destroyed the Russian people from 1610-1618, then there Sagaidachny was noted for bloody deeds.

        so he is a Polish citizen. He also chopped the Turk
        And the Russian cities were captured - Putivl, Rylsk, Kursk, Valuyki, Yelets, Lebedyan, Dankov, Skopin, Ryazhsk,
        He besieged Moscow and confronted the heroes of Russian history, Volkonsky and Pozharsky. He persuaded the Poles to lift the siege. Profitable use of their weakness for strengthening.
        His embassy in Moscow was equated to a foreign one. The negotiations between his embassy and the Russian tsar led nowhere.
        In autumn 2018, there were exactly 400 years of the siege of Moscow by the registered Cossacks of Sagaidachny.
        A common episode of that life. Enemy troops are devastating foreign territory.
        Russian-Swedish, Polish, Polish-Swedish, Turkish, Russian. Turks and Tatars, all.
        Quote: tihonmarine
        And the famous saber was presented to the famous hetman by the Polish king for Smolensk.

        Bogdan-Zinovy ​​Mikhailovich Khmelnitsky received the golden saber for bravery in the battle near Smolensk
        in 1634. For his courage and salvation of the king from Russian captivity, he received a golden saber.
        Khmelnitsky took part in the Smolensk war against the Moscow state. Until the end he was faithful to his king Vladislav 4. Until his death.
        However, there are so many legends about him. That he even had Mazarin ...
        As you can see, the subjects of the Polish king took part against Moscow. What is the betrayal? Sagaidachny and Khmelnitsky did not take the oath to the king when they fought on the side of the Commonwealth.
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 10 February 2021 10: 20
          -1
          Quote: Black Lotos
          What is the betrayal? Sagaidachny and Khmelnitsky did not take the oath to the king when they fought on the side of the Commonwealth.

          Until 1654, they did not betray Russia, they faithfully served the Rzecz Pospolita, but they periodically betrayed it, like Doroshenko rushing between the Poles, Turks and Tatars. Others are no better. Well, after 1654 Russia received the same, until Catherine the Great completely dispersed the bandit hetmaster.
      3. gsev
        gsev 12 February 2021 06: 26
        0
        Quote: tihonmarine
        then there and Sagaidachny noted bloody deeds.

        So the Russian Cossacks are also seen in bloody deeds both before and after the Time of Troubles. Ermak was accused of robbery, Novgorod and Vyatka ushkuyshuk, Pugachev and Razin. In Dubrovsky and Nedoroslya, the plot is based on attempts by landowners to commit illegal actions. In Nedoroslya, mother and son conceived to rape the bride of the sovereign officer, in Dubrovskoe the deserter-officer gathered a gang of robbers and arsonists.
  • tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 8 February 2021 05: 31
    +8
    On the other hand, throughout Ukraine, the name of Doroshenko and his henchmen, who brought a "bastard" to the country, caused general curses. The population of the Right Bank was partly captured and sold into slavery by the Turks and Tatars.

    But now in Ukraine, Doroshenko has been elevated to the rank of a hero.
    1. Lipchanin
      Lipchanin 8 February 2021 06: 32
      +8
      Quote: tihonmarine
      But now in Ukraine, Doroshenko has been elevated to the rank of a hero.

      And with them, the more he betrayed and sold, the higher he is presented and heroized
      1. Profiler
        Profiler 8 February 2021 09: 21
        +10
        Quote: Lipchanin
        And with them, the more he betrayed and sold, the higher he is presented and heroized

        A familiar auto repairman, Afghan warrior, refugee from Ukraine formulated the essence of the policy of the Ukrainian state as follows:

        - "You in Russia are proud of heroes, and despise traitors and traitors, while in Ukraine they honor traitors and trample on heroes"

        Philosopher, it's hard to add something ...
        1. Lipchanin
          Lipchanin 8 February 2021 09: 24
          +4
          Quote: Profiler
          Philosopher, it's hard to add something ..

          I would also add, and always whine and always blame anyone for their troubles, but not myself
          1. Profiler
            Profiler 8 February 2021 09: 27
            +4
            Quote: Lipchanin

            I would also add, and always whine and always blame anyone for their troubles, but not myself


            This is already an afterword, as an addition to a brief but comprehensive description of the psychotype of power in Ukraine.
            I emphasize AUTHORITIES and not a downtrodden and disoriented people ...
            1. Lipchanin
              Lipchanin 8 February 2021 09: 36
              0
              Quote: Profiler
              and not a downtrodden and disoriented people ...

              For over thirty years this has been happening
              Maybe it's time to do something ourselves, and not wait for Russia to come and kick out the Banderlog
              1. Profiler
                Profiler 8 February 2021 09: 42
                +3
                Quote: Lipchanin
                For over thirty years this has been happening
                Maybe it's time to do something ourselves, and not wait for Russia to come and kick out the Banderlog

                In Russian Imeria, revolutions (February and October 1917) “ripened” for more than one hundred years, until several factors combined at once predetermined their possibility.
                1. Lipchanin
                  Lipchanin 8 February 2021 09: 50
                  -1
                  Quote: Profiler
                  Quote: Lipchanin
                  For over thirty years this has been happening
                  Maybe it's time to do something ourselves, and not wait for Russia to come and kick out the Banderlog

                  In Russian Imeria, revolutions (February and October 1917) “ripened” for more than one hundred years, until several factors combined at once predetermined their possibility.

                  And I'm not talking about the revolution.
                  I'm talking about cleansing my country and restoring my statehood
                  1. Profiler
                    Profiler 8 February 2021 10: 10
                    +1
                    Quote: Lipchanin
                    And I'm not talking about the revolution.
                    I'm talking about cleansing my country and restoring my statehood

                    What is overthrow of the existing state system (we will not talk about goals), if not a revolution?
                    Read the classics - theorists and practitioners of the revolutionary movement yes


                    Quote: Lipchanin
                    I'm talking about ............... restoring your statehood


                    Should I give them that chance again?

                    After all, already the second attempt to create at least some semblance of Ukrainian statehood is pouring out into blood and farce ...
                    1. Lipchanin
                      Lipchanin 8 February 2021 10: 15
                      -4
                      Quote: Profiler
                      What is the overthrow of the existing state system (we will not talk about goals) if not a revolution?

                      What will they change it to us?
                      I'm talking about the fact that the country needs to be cleared of Banderlog
                      Should I give them that chance again?

                      Let them decide
                      The people do not seem to be stupid if they again chew snot and choose all kinds of evil spirits for president
                      1. Profiler
                        Profiler 8 February 2021 10: 27
                        +2
                        Quote: Lipchanin
                        What will they change it to us?
                        I'm talking about the fact that the country needs to be cleared of Banderlog


                        Excuse me, do you understand what you are writing?

                        "the country needs to be cleared of Banderlog"Okay, let's say we cleaned yes
                        Further what, powerwill remain the same?
                        If not, what actions do you envisage after the Bandera supporters were driven out?
                        It is logical to assume that the establishment of new government / systemdifferent from the existing Nazi ...

                        What is - revolutionary transformation of statehood .

                        Otherwise, to expel the Bandera supporters, but to leave the milestone of power as it was, this is fiction, natural sado-maso ...

                        Quote: Lipchanin
                        Let them decide


                        These, decide yes

                        Ukrainian folk proverb: "Where there are two Ukrainians, there are three hetmans"
        2. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 12 February 2021 08: 55
          0
          Quote: Profiler
          "You in Russia are proud of heroes, and despise traitors and traitors, while in our Ukraine they honor traitors and trample on heroes."

          Philosopher, it's hard to add something ...

          What to do, they have hereditary - to betray.
      2. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 8 February 2021 09: 29
        +1
        Quote: Lipchanin
        And with them, the more he betrayed and sold, the higher he is presented and heroized

        And they have no others. In what was good, and heroes, it remained in the USSR, and so now it is not held in high esteem. Who now in Ukraine remembers the Twice Hero of the USSR, the famous partisan Kovpak? But on the other hand, every kid knows that Bandera is a dick.
        1. Profiler
          Profiler 8 February 2021 09: 34
          +2
          Quote: tihonmarine
          Who now in Ukraine remembers the Twice Hero of the USSR, the famous partisan Kovpak?


          Many people remember and know, but prefer not to talk about it "in order to avoid".
          Quote: tihonmarine
          But on the other hand, every kid knows that Bandera is a dick.

          But this, just there, is protruded and implanted at the state level, as a "unifying national idea" ...
          1. tihonmarine
            tihonmarine 8 February 2021 09: 41
            -1
            Quote: Profiler
            Many people remember and know, but prefer not to talk about it "in order to avoid".

            Well, if in Odessa, the literature teacher was removed from the school for reading Yesenin's poems in class. (Although he is a fan of Zelensky).
        2. Lipchanin
          Lipchanin 8 February 2021 09: 38
          -1
          Quote: tihonmarine
          In what was good, and heroes, it remained in the USSR, and so now it is not held in high esteem.

          This is why they lick the shoes of zaluzhniks to a mirror shine
    2. gsev
      gsev 12 February 2021 06: 35
      0
      Quote: tihonmarine
      But now in Ukraine, Doroshenko has been elevated to the rank of a hero.

      Do you really believe that the supplier of Ukrainian meadow women to Turkish harems is seriously considered by the people as a national hero? Whether in Ukrainian or Polish?
  • Konnick
    Konnick 8 February 2021 06: 48
    +4
    Quote: tihonmarine
    now in Ukraine, Doroshenko has been elevated to the rank of hero.

    Something I do not see on the grave of Doroshenko flowers and zhovtoblakitnyh ensigns. The hetman's grave is located in Yaropolets, not far from Volokolamsk.
    1. Profiler
      Profiler 8 February 2021 08: 29
      +5
      Quote: Konnick
      Something I do not see on the grave of Doroshenko flowers and zhovtoblakitnyh ensigns.

      In Ukraine, in general, they do not see much, neither the punitive Nazis, nor the fact that the country was destroyed not by an imaginary "Russian aggression", but by themselves ...

      And ... (!) Volokolamsk, is this where in Ukraine?
      1. Konnick
        Konnick 8 February 2021 08: 38
        +1
        Moscow hi
        1. Profiler
          Profiler 8 February 2021 09: 01
          +1
          Quote: Konnick
          Moscow

          Yes, I know ... And for many, the phrase "Volokolamsk highway" evokes the feeling of something familiar from the history of the Great Patriotic War.

          The question of the location of Volokolamsk was asked for a different reason, namely, because of bewilderment over the fact of the possibility of finding symbols of, to put it mildly, not friendly Ukraine, on the burial (chapel-burial vault) ...



          Are we not enough scandals with some of our "heroes", whom some forces are more and more persistently trying to drag into our memory?

          https://pravdapfo.ru/news/100680-byust-zaki-validi-snesli-v-sankt

          The bust of Ahmed-Zaki Validi Tugan, donated to the University of St. Petersburg by Bashkiria, was dismantled at the request of the prosecutor's office.

          The inappropriateness of finding the bust on the territory of the university was indicated by the mother of one of the students, a former resident of Bashkiria. She expressed her complaints in the virtual reception of the university. The leadership did not dare to take responsibility on itself and sent a request to the prosecutor's office.

          The supervisory authority noted that Zaki Validi, on the one hand, is an outstanding scientist-Turkologist, professor, honorary doctor of a number of European universities. But at the same time, he is an accomplice of the Nazis.

          - The placement of a bust of a person who, during the Great Patriotic War, disseminated ideas about the creation of a state on a national basis and about the superiority of one nation over others, which, according to Russian law, is a criminal offense, as well as the Akhmet-Zaki Museum on the territory of the university testify to the heroization of the acts of Nazi accomplices criminals, contradicts the legislation on countering extremist activities, has a negative impact on students and is unacceptable, - says the submission of the prosecutor's office of St. Petersburg.

          The supervisor ordered the university to eliminate the violations, which the management did.
    2. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 8 February 2021 09: 20
      0
      Quote: Konnick
      Something I do not see on the grave of Doroshenko flowers and zhovtoblakitnyh ensigns.

      Let them stage it in their Ukraine, but in Russia, it won't work.
      1. gsev
        gsev 12 February 2021 06: 42
        0
        Quote: tihonmarine
        Let them stage it in their Ukraine, but in Russia, it won't work.

        At the end of his life, Doroshenko betrayed the Turks and Poles and submitted to the tsar. In that difficult situation, it was easier for the Russian government to keep him dependent under supervision in the suburbs than in the service of the Turks and Poles. He cannot be denied military and political talents. Successful states have always preferred to negotiate with their opponents. The Russians were able to reach an agreement in the end with Doroshenko, the Poles, Turks, Crimean Tatars and Cossack leaders did not.
    3. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 8 February 2021 14: 37
      -2
      Did you teach geography at school?
  • mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 8 February 2021 08: 27
    +2
    The repetition of words is still understandable, the lack of literary experience,
    but repeatability of entire paragraphs.
    Author, are you rereading your opuses?
  • vladcub
    vladcub 8 February 2021 09: 17
    +3
    "The gentry rushed home. The army collapsed" Jan Sobesski of course could not crush Turkey then, but it was possible to teach a lesson.
    "The collapsed crown army retreated. The Ottomans and Tatars followed behind" and said: "Praise be to Allah that the Poles missed their chance" unfortunately so often happens that a partial victory is regarded as a final victory
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 8 February 2021 14: 19
    +1
    Colleagues, off topic. in St. Petersburg, some minors have extinguished the Eternal Flame! If now such sacredness is still a film fact, but if Navalny wins it will be everywhere !!!
    What else to expect from a person whom the West officially takes care of! And there were figures on our site that they say: "It's a pity that I'm not 20-22", otherwise would I run to support Navalny?
    Now a friend called her son: she will break his legs if she still wants to. On the 23rd he went with his friends. Not against BB, but just hang out
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 8 February 2021 16: 03
      +3
      Taak Koli from Urengoy breed
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 8 February 2021 14: 46
    +2
    Colleagues, have you got the present Ukraine? Isn't it a lot of honor to a saucepan ready to remember them constantly?
    Sometimes I think that V. V..the situation in Kiev is advantageous, so that against the background it seems like a "beacon of the mind"
    1. gsev
      gsev 12 February 2021 06: 46
      0
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Colleagues, have you got the present Ukraine?

      This is an integral part of the Russian world!
  • sevryuk
    sevryuk 8 February 2021 20: 18
    0
    Quote: No name B
    Who is Cherkasy? Didn't there really exist Ukrainians on either the right-bank or the left-bank Ukraine? So write on the right-bank Cherkassy and the left-bank Cherkassia, otherwise the country is Ukraine and the inhabitants of Cherkasy. Are the Zaporozhye Cossacks Cherkasy or Ukrainians? And what about the Russian inhabitants of Podillya?



    Cherkasy is an exoethnonym of the population of the Kiev Voivodeship / Hetmanate from the side of Moscow Rus (cf. Russian Lozova - Cherkasskaya Lozovaya, Russian Tishki - Cherkassky Tishki in Kharkov region). They did not have an endoethnonym - the "buckwheat" did not have any ethnic identity, and the "Yylita" called themselves either Russians or Cossacks. Whether Podolia belongs to Ukraine is a moot point, it was not included in the Wild Field.
    1. No name B
      No name B 8 February 2021 22: 44
      -4
      Podillia is precisely the heart of historical Ukraine ... Ruskyms, russians people say so right now when they want to distinguish them from other peoples. Even the city of Cherkassy is a region and this is also Podillia / Podillia.
      In general, the authorities cleverly in Russia distract attention with Ukraine, in Ukraine with Russia, but you are still far away from us, so keep Putin as the apple of the Eye.
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 8 February 2021 22: 10
    0
    : Bohdan Khmelnitsky himself traded in the slave trade, selling residents into slavery of the inhabitants of Ukraine "The joyful news came to the capital that [the Cossack tribe], together with the Tatars, raided the Poles, and brought forty thousand Rusyn captives ..." - this is how the 18th century chronicler Shemdanizade Suleiman wrote. efendi about the beginning of the Cossack war laughing Oh goddai Khmel Khmelnitsky
    The first cooler did not pass
    Who was the leader of the brothers
    І young ladies!
    The steams are blown away,
    And the girl is ridayuchi,
    And the young ladies
    Old Hop Cursing:
    Oh goddai Khmel Khmelnitsky
    The first cooler did not pass!
    “Khmelnitsky was such that he knew a Turk. Sometimes he would go to a Turk and sell one or the other city or village. The Turks have already ruined those villages and took the yasyr. "
    In 1843, Panteleimon Kulish recorded the interpretation of the song from one of the residents of the town of Smila in the Cherkasy region: according to Islam Gerey, they could have fled from him along with the rest of the subjects. Like the Tatars, they are fed by the raid. It is the Cossacks that Shemdanizade denotes with interesting Arabism. He has them - taife, which means not only "people", but also - "tribe" or "group of tribes". Similarly, the Ottoman chroniclers designated the Nogais. It is not without reason that they also called the Cossacks “Kardash”, that is, “brothers,” according to the tradition of the Crimean Tatars.
  • Seal
    Seal 9 February 2021 09: 34
    0
    So, most of the churches of the captured Kamenets were turned into mosques, young nuns were raped and sold into slavery, the youth began to be taken into the Sultan's army.
    In fact, for the information of the author, nuns visit monasteries, not churches. And that is not in all monasteries, but in womens. No, I understand that nothing is impossible and maybe in some male monastery the monks welcomed the nuns, but this is from a different opera.
    So I wonder what kind of "nuns" could have been raped in Kamenets-Podolsk, if there was only one Dominican monastery in the city? Maybe the author meant that the Turks raped young monks ???
    In Kamenets, there was the Cathedral Church of St. Apostles Peter and Paul. The Turks turned it into a mosque in 1672.
    The church of the Dominican monastery was also turned into a mosque for the Sultana Haseki.
    But the Catholics were not left without compensation.
    In the city was built in 1580, a stone three-concave Orthodox church, the Church of St. Apostles Peter and Paul. By the time the Turkish occupation began, this triple structure remained the only one of the three Orthodox churches that had previously existed in the city. So the Turks transferred this last Orthodox church of Kamyanets to the Roman Catholic Church in 1672.
    In Kamenets, since 1577, there was also the stone Armenian Cathedral of St. Nicholas, which was the architectural dominant of the Armenian quarters of the city. But by 1672, as a result of the Polonization of the Kamenets Armenians, the priests of the Church of St. Nicholas accepted the union. That is, the Armenian church became a church even before the Turkish occupation. In 1672 this church was destroyed, and on its ruins a mosque of the vizier Kara Mustafa arose.