Military Review

Operation Nemesis

106

In the previous article (Armenian pogroms in the Ottoman Empire and the massacre of 1915-1916.) was told about the beginning of the Armenian pogroms in this state (which began in 1894) and about the large-scale massacre of Armenians in 1915 and subsequent years, which for the first time in stories was called genocide.


In this part, we will talk about the first Armenian republic and the revenge of Armenians to those involved in the destruction of their fellow tribesmen.

First Armenian Republic


After the collapse of the Russian Empire, on April 22, 1918, the Transcaucasian Democratic Federal Republic was formed, headed by the Menshevik A. Chkhenkeli.

This state formation turned out to be unviable.

And already on May 26, Georgia (in which Chkhenkeli became Minister of Foreign Affairs) separated from its structure. And on May 28, 1918 - Armenia and Azerbaijan.

"Newborn" Armenia immediately grappled with Georgia, and with Azerbaijan, and with Turkey - this was described in the article Fall of the Ottoman Empire.

"26 Baku commissars"


Especially fierce were the interethnic clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis: the level of hatred was such that both sides sought not only to expel the strangers, but to physically exterminate them.

Armenians partially destroyed, partially expelled Azerbaijanis from Novobayazet, Erivan, Echmiadzin and Sharur-Daralagez districts.

The Azerbaijanis did the same with the Armenians in Shemakha and Nukha districts, Aghdam and Ganja.

The situation in Baku was difficult, where pogroms of Muslims began in March 1918, supported by the leadership of the Baku commune (where there were many Armenians) and the Dashnaktsutyun party.

On April 25, 1918, the Council of People's Commissars was established in Baku, the head of which was S. Shaumyan. One of these “Baku commissars” was the notorious Anastas Mikoyan.


Young Mikoyan and Stalin

In June, the troops of the Baku Soviet were defeated by the allied Azerbaijani and Turkish formations near the city of Goychay. Baku was under siege.

The council was "split." And on July 25, the Mensheviks, Right SRs and Dashnaks pushed through the decision to invite the British, who arrived on August 4, into the city.

Before that, on August 1, 1918, the so-called Provisional Dictatorship of the Central Caspian Sea was formed. On August 16, the former leaders of the Baku Soviet tried to sail for Astrakhan. But they were arrested.

The British did not help the Central Caspian.

The situation was critical. Therefore, on September 13, the British evacuated their troops from Baku.

On September 14, they were followed by the leaders of the "Dictatorship". On the night of September 15, 1918, Baku fell. The Azerbaijani units entered the city, which began to take revenge on the Armenians for the killed tribesmen.

The commanders of the regular Turkish units, fearing a loss of discipline, did not want their soldiers to participate in this "bloody orgy." But they could not ban it to the allies either.

Therefore, Turkish troops entered Baku only two days later. Later, the Azerbaijanis also destroyed 28 Armenian villages in the Nukhinsky and Areshsky districts.

The "Baku commissars", whom A. Mikoyan, who was in an illegal position, managed to free on the eve of the entry of Azerbaijani troops into Baku, got to Krasnovodsk on the steamer "Turkmen". Where 25 of them (as well as the 26th commander of the Dashnak detachment Tatevos Amirov) were executed by order of the Transcaspian Provisional Government, controlled by the Social Revolutionaries.

Most often they talk about execution. But some claim they were beheaded.

Sergei Yesenin, in his famous poem, following the official version, attributes the execution to the British.

But by that time they had not yet reached Krasnovodsk.

Mikoyan, as you understand, was not executed. And he lived until 1978, dying at the age of 83 (according to his will, he was buried next to his wife at the Novodevichy cemetery).

Turkish Kemalist General Halil Pasha


Operation Nemesis
Halil pasha

In April 1920, units of the Red Army entered Azerbaijan and Baku.

Turkish Kemalist officers, led by Khalil Pasha, paid Russia in full for future military and economic aid, deliberately misleading Azerbaijani allies. They argued that the advancing Red Army was headed by their compatriot, Nijat-bek, in whose regiments there were many Volga Turks. And that this army goes to the aid of Turkey - to Anatolia.

Thanks to the efforts of Khalil Pasha, the oil fields of Baku and oil refineries were not destroyed and were handed over to representatives of the new government in a working condition.

From Azerbaijan, Halil Pasha went to Moscow, where in mid-May 1920, as part of a Turkish delegation, he took part in negotiations with the Soviet government, met with Chicherin. Among other things, he promised Turkish support for Moscow's policy among the Muslims of Persia, India (which then included Pakistan) and Afghanistan.

Before leaving for his homeland, Khalil Pasha received a silver dagger from the Central Executive Committee of the RSFSR, which can now be seen in the military museum of Istanbul.

The ancient knot of Nagorno-Karabakh


The situation in Artsakh (Nagorno-Karabakh) was also very tense.

This territory has long been inhabited by Armenians. But then it was conquered by the Turkic Karabakh Khanate. And here the ancestors of modern Azerbaijanis began to settle.

In the first half of the XNUMXth century, Nagorno-Karabakh, along with other regions, became part of Russia. Later it turned out to be part of the Elizavetpol province, inhabited by both Armenians and Azerbaijanis.


Elizavetpol province on the map


Map of the areas of residence of Armenians today

Every time when the central government weakened, interethnic clashes broke out in Karabakh.

This was the case during the First Russian Revolution of 1905–1907. Then the Armenian pogroms were noted, for example, in the city of Shusha located on the territory of Karabakh.

After the collapse of the Russian Empire and the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, Azerbaijan declared its entire territory of the Elizavetpol province.

What the Armenians of Karabakh strongly disagreed with: they wanted independence or union with Armenia.

The authorities of the Armenian Republic did not object to the inclusion of Artsakh in their state.


Azerbaijan and Armenia in 1919-1920


Azerbaijani army officers, 1918


Armenian soldiers in Karabakh

In March 1920, the Armenian quarters were again destroyed in Shusha: from five hundred to two thousand people were killed then, the rest were expelled from the city.

The city was never fully rebuilt. Its population dropped from 67 thousand to 9 thousand people.

But it should be said that this catastrophe was provoked by the Armenians themselves, whose armed militants attacked the Azerbaijani garrisons of Shushi, Askeran and Khankendi on the night of March 23. Moreover, in the latter city a military hospital was attacked.

Interethnic clashes in Transcaucasia ended with the arrival of the Bolsheviks there: both in Azerbaijan and in Armenia they quickly realized that the new Russian government was strong and

"Doesn't change anymore"

no one will allow to cut neighbors now.

From the former Elizavetpol province, lands with an Armenian population were allocated, from which the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region was formed as part of the Azerbaijan SSR.


Perhaps this was done because the newly formed autonomous region did not have a border with Armenia.

However, some historians believe that the NKAO was transferred to Azerbaijan under the influence of Turkey, relations with which at that time the Soviet authorities were more than friendly.

Shaan Natalie and the militants of Operation Nemesis


The first Armenian republic lasted only until December 2, 1920.

By that time, she had suffered a crushing defeat in the war with Turkey. And she was forced to conclude the humiliating Peace of Alexandropol, which was annulled after the establishment of Soviet power in Armenia.

This was discussed in the article Fall of the Ottoman Empire.

But the leaders of the Dashnaktsutyun party at the IX Congress (Yerevan, October 1919) managed to make a decision to carry out an operation to physically destroy the Turkish leaders, who were guilty of organizing the massacres of Armenians in 1915, and the rulers of Azerbaijan, involved in the massacre of Armenians in Shusha and in Baku in 1918-1920

The initiator of this operation, called "Nemesis" (after the name of the ancient Greek goddess of justice), was Hakob Ter-Hakobyan, better known as Shaan (Shagan) Natali - a pseudonym consisting of the names of his father and the woman he loved. Ter-Hakobyan's father and many relatives were killed in 1894-1896.


Shahan Natali (Hakob Ter-Hakobyan). It is hard to believe that this "book boy" became the organizer of one of the most effective punitive operations in world history.

His opponents then were members of the Bureau of the Dashnaktsutyun Party Simon Vratsyan, Ruben Ter-Minasyan, and Ruben Darbinyan. Later Ter-Hakobyan wrote about the reasons for his decision:

“I have seen a lot in my life, including listening to the recommendations of the world, in what correct form the Armenians should take revenge for 1,5 million innocently killed compatriots and for the lost Motherland.

And should you at all ...

The recipe for progressive mankind resembled a diagnosis: complete amnesia!

We were advised to forget everything: stabbed parents, sisters, children, and finally, the Motherland, in order to be able to take revenge in a "civilized" manner on the executioner hiding under a false name.

Advice, to be sure, is very wise, especially when it is given to a bloody victim. "

Hakob Ter-Hakobyan (Shaan Natali) and Grigor Merjanov (a participant in battles with Azerbaijanis in 1905, in 1915-1918 he served in the Bulgarian army) became the immediate leaders of Operation Nemesis.

The main informant of the headquarters of the operation "Nemesis" was Hrach Papazyan, who, disguised as a Turkish student, managed to become his own man among the Young Turkish emigrants.

A unique feature of the liquidation acts prepared by Ter-Hakobyan and Merjanov was that not a single bystander was injured during their implementation. Each group of performers consisted of three to five people who established observation of a potential victim and determined the place and time of the attack. If the condemned did not have bodyguards, one person was sent to the action, otherwise two or three conspirators could attack him at the same time.

The first step was to compile a list of 650 people involved in the deportations and murders of Armenians.

The leaders of the operation were still realistic. They understood the limitations of their resources. And so they focused their efforts on eliminating the most odious

"The executioners of the Armenian people."

As a result, 41 of them were sentenced to death.

Former Minister of Internal Affairs of the Ottoman Empire Mehmed Talaat Pasha was chosen as target number 1.


Talaat Pasha

Soghomon Tehlirian was sent to "hunt" for him, whom Ter-Hakobyan ordered to remain at the place of the punitive act and wait for the police, putting his foot on the corpse, and then allow himself to be arrested without resistance.

At the trial, Tehlirian had to convey to the world community the truth about the deeds of Talaat and the tragedy of the Armenian people. Everything turned out exactly as Ter-Hakobyan intended: Talaat was killed in Berlin on March 15, 1921, and on December 6 of the same year, the German court acquitted Tehlirian.


Soghomon Tehlirian

The trial was attended by a Polish journalist (a native of the Grodno region of modern Belarus) Rafael Lemkin, who, having heard the testimony of witnesses about the massacres of Armenians, began to study the history of the issue and eventually came up with a new term - "genocide".

He first used it in 1944 in his book "The Rule of the Axis States in Occupied Europe", where he cited "the extermination of Armenians in 1915" as an example.

On June 19, 1920, the former Prime Minister of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Fatali Khan Khoysky, was killed in Tiflis and the former Minister of Justice of Azerbaijan Khalil-bey Khasmamedov, who were found guilty of organizing pogroms and massacres of Armenians in Baku by the leaders of Nemesis (in September 1918). The executors were Aram Yerkanyan and Misak Kirakosyan (he was wounded during this operation).

Grigor Merzhanov himself, as part of one of the groups, took part in the operation to eliminate Said Khali Pasha (Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire in the period 1913-1917): on December 6, 1921, he was killed in Rome by Arshavir Shirakyan.

On April 17 of the following 1922, Arshavir Shirakyan and Aram Yerkanyan, already familiar to us, shot and killed the former governor of Trebizond Dzhemal Azmi in Berlin (by his order, 15 thousand Armenians were drowned in this city) and the creator of the "Special Organization" (counterintelligence - "Teshkilatiya Makhsuse") Behaeddin Shakiredin -pow. During this action, one of Shakir's guards was also killed.


Arshavir Shirakyan


Aram Yerkanyan

A few months later, the same group in Tiflis killed the commander-in-chief of the fourth Ottoman army Kemal Pasha.

Also in Tiflis a group which included S. Tsagikyan, A. Gevorgyan, P. Ter-Poghosyan and Z. Melik-Shahnazaryan on July 25, 1922

"Carried out the sentence"

Ahmed Jemal Pasha (one of the members of the "Young Turk Triumvirate"), who was also "famous" for repressions against the Lebanese and Syrian Shiites and was nicknamed Al-Saffah - "bloody butcher" in the Middle East.

Ahmed Jemal Pasha

At that time, Jemal Pasha was a military adviser to the Afghan government and in Tiflis he was on his way to Turkey, where he was going to meet with Mustafa Kemal.

Another member of the "Young Turk Triumvirate" is the former Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire, Ismail Enver (Enver Pasha), who fled from Constantinople. He tried to offer his services to the Bolsheviks - as an expert on "East" and Turkestan. Sent to Bukhara, in the summer of 1921 he surrendered to the Basmachs, commanded by Ibrahim-bek of the Uzbek tribe Lokai.


Enver Pasha, colorized photograph, 1917


Captured Ibrahim-bek. Photo taken in 1931, shortly before the execution

Ibrahim treated the former Ottoman minister without any respect: he robbed him and held him for three months as a prisoner.

However, in the fall of the same year, Enver unexpectedly turned out to be the commander-in-chief of the Basmach detachments of Bukhara and Khiva. In February 1922, he even captured Dushanbe and most of the territory of the former Bukhara Khanate. But already in May of this year, Red Army units inflicted several serious defeats on him and drove him out of Dushanbe.

Ibrahim-bek, who did not harbor any warm feelings for Enver, not only did not help the visiting Turk, but even attacked his detachment in the Lokai Valley, patting him well.

On August 4, Ismail Enver died in a battle in the village of Chagan (the territory of modern Tajikistan). Some argue that he was killed by Yakov Melkumov (Hakob Melkumyan), who was the interim commander of the First Turkestan Cavalry Division. Allegedly, it was for this that he was awarded the second Order of the Red Banner.


Hakob Melkumov

Former general secretary of the Young Turk party "Unity and Progress" Nazim-bey Selanikli (ideologist of the Armenian massacre), the participants in the "Nemesis" operation failed to kill.

He was hanged by the Turks themselves - in 1926 for an attempt to assassinate Gazi Mustafa Kemal (not yet Ataturk).

Several Armenian collaborators were killed in Constantinople as part of Operation Nemesis. Among them were Mkrtich Harutyunyan, who served in the Ottoman secret police, who was shot by Soghomon Tehlerian (after that he went to Berlin to kill Talaat), Vahe Yesayan, who participated in drawing up lists for deportation (killed by Arshavir Shirakyan), Amayak Aramyants, who in 1914 betrayed to the Ottomans the participants in the conspiracy against Talaat Pasha (shot by Arshak Yezdanyan).

Also in Constantinople on July 19, 1921, a group of Misak Torlakyan, Yervand Fundukyan and Harutyun Harutyunyants liquidated the former Minister of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan Behbud Khan Jivanshir and wounded Behbud.

The direct executor was Torlakyan. He was arrested by the British occupation authorities, but the judges of the military tribunal released him from punishment, claiming that the murder was committed by him in a state of passion.

After Nemesis


The fate of the participants in Operation Nemesis developed in different ways.

Hakob Ter-Hakobyan (Shahan Natali) was known as an Armenian writer, poet and philosopher, died in the USA.

Grigor Merzhanov left the Dashnaktsutyun party in 1922, accusing its leadership of "lack of principle". Lived in Paris.

Hrach Papazyan was a member of the Syrian parliament, and shortly before his death he moved to Lebanon.

Arshavir Shirakanyan opened an oriental carpet store in New York.

Aram Yerkanyan has changed many countries. In Argentina, he was the editor of the newspaper "My Armenia". He died of tuberculosis in Cordoba.

Soghomon Tehlirian lived in Serbia for a long time, before his death he moved to the United States.

Zare Melik-Shakhnazarov worked in the Transcaucasian Central Executive Committee, in the construction organizations of Sumgait and in the Universal Education of Azerbaijan. During the Great Patriotic War, he was a shooting instructor. He died in 1992.


Zare Melik-Shakhnazarov. Photo from the book "Notes of a Karabakh Soldier"

During World War II, Misak Torlakyan joined the ranks of the Armenian Legion, was arrested by the American military, but released, since it was recognized that he did not commit war crimes.
Author:
106 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 7 February 2021 07: 41
    +5
    Thank you, Valery.
    Yesenin's poem from childhood engraved in memory.
    And along with it - and the question: what happened there.

    After your article it became a little clearer, but to be honest, not much.
    1. VLR
      7 February 2021 08: 25
      +7
      In Baku, the "Baku commissars" were arrested on charges of "fleeing without submitting a report on spending the people's money, exporting military property and treason." Instead of Astrakhan, where they were headed, they ended up in Krasnovodsk, most likely due to a lack of fuel on the ship. Why were they executed? A "muddy" story. Most likely, several factors coincided. And before the British, with whom the SRs actively contacted and who soon came, they wanted to curry favor (the "commissars" were against their invitation to Baku), and inter-party scores and hostility (SRs and Bolsheviks).
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 7 February 2021 08: 46
        +8
        So it turns out some kind of chain of events that led to Krasnovodsk, about which we can only guess.
    2. VLR
      7 February 2021 08: 33
      +9
      Now, by the way, the "Baku Commune" in Azerbaijan is considered something like an "Armenian putsch".
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 7 February 2021 08: 49
        +12
        The national question is implicated in long-standing blood.
        Although, among the commissars, there were also Azerbaijanis.
        1. icant007
          icant007 7 February 2021 10: 04
          +6
          Quote: Korsar4
          Although, among the commissars, there were also Azerbaijanis.


          Yeah, as many as two)
          1. VLR
            7 February 2021 10: 24
            +7
            At the same time, the "Baku commissars" were reburied in independent Azerbaijan in 2009, and it was planned to build an underground parking on the site of the former memorial with their graves - I do not know whether they have already built it or not.
            1. icant007
              icant007 7 February 2021 11: 06
              +3
              Quote: VlR
              and on the site of the former memorial with their graves, it was planned to build an underground parking


              It is a pity that the memorial looked good, no matter what they say about the "Armenian putsch".
            2. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 7 February 2021 11: 14
              +2
              "it was planned to build an underground parking" of course, this is their internal affair, but I suspect that they do not like, to put it mildly, the memory of "Baku commissars".
              P
              S
              Valery, true or not, I heard from my grandmother, allegedly by 1967 they already knew who commanded the executioners of the "Baku commissars". She mentioned one or two names, but I was a schoolgirl and I don't remember
              1. VLR
                7 February 2021 11: 44
                +7
                The head of the Transcaspian Provisional Government, Funtikov, who gave the order for the execution, was arrested in 1919. But it was he who, defending himself, became the author of the version about the execution of the commissars by the British. Then they believed him and released him. And in 1926 the case was again considered and shot.
                1. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 7 February 2021 16: 14
                  0
                  Valery, but there were others besides Funtikov. After all, it was not he who personally executed and it was not he who commanded the punishers
                  1. Astra wild2
                    Astra wild2 7 February 2021 16: 32
                    0
                    Colleagues, I believed and still believe that everyone had to answer. So it will be fair, or maybe you think differently?
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 7 February 2021 16: 40
                      +2
                      Quote: Astra wild2
                      everyone should have.

                      Would you like to apply the principle of collective responsibility to them? wink
                      1. Astra wild2
                        Astra wild2 8 February 2021 19: 55
                        -1
                        ONLY GUILTY. Funtikov is indisputably guilty, but how many punitive detachments were there? My grandmother said that in the archives KIPA documents about the punishers. They also had to answer.
                      2. Phil77
                        Phil77 8 February 2021 20: 03
                        +1
                        Quote: Astra wild2
                        punitive squads? My grandmother said that in the archives KIPA documents about the punishers. They also had to answer.

                        Vera! A * chonovtsev * What category would you classify? The civil war ended a hundred years ago, but even judging by our website it is far from over. How long?
                      3. Astra wild2
                        Astra wild2 8 February 2021 20: 12
                        0
                        I myself think about it as much as I can, but I'm afraid to say: some especially emotional minuses will cast aside
                      4. Phil77
                        Phil77 8 February 2021 20: 21
                        0
                        Quote: Astra wild2
                        I myself think about it as much as I can, but I'm afraid to say: some especially emotional minuses will cast aside

                        Cons to be afraid, do not go to the site. laughing So who are they - * Chonovites *?
                      5. Astra wild2
                        Astra wild2 8 February 2021 20: 33
                        +1
                        There were scoundrels and opportunists and decent ones. As always and everywhere
                      6. Phil77
                        Phil77 8 February 2021 20: 43
                        0
                        Quote: Astra wild2
                        ... As always and everywhere

  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 7 February 2021 13: 12
    +5
    So everyone has their own choice and their own biography.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 7 February 2021 10: 34
    +9
    In some ways they are right: "the pogroms of Muslims, supported by the leadership of the Baku commune." I think they could have stopped these pogroms, but ...
  • Nazar
    Nazar 7 February 2021 08: 04
    +15
    Respect is the fact that they did not forgive, they executed the executioners - again, for the future, those who want to arrange a new massacre should know that they will not escape their well-deserved punishment.
    1. Professor
      Professor 7 February 2021 09: 04
      +13
      History teaches nothing and anyone. Unfortunately. However, retaliation is not worth giving up.
      1. Nazar
        Nazar 7 February 2021 12: 35
        +3
        professor - I agree with you. And your "fellow countrymen", in this respect, command respect no less than "Nemesis" - I mean "Sword of Gideon". This is, of course, a feature film ... but there is no smoke without fire.
        1. Professor
          Professor 7 February 2021 12: 52
          +5
          Quote: Nazar
          professor - I agree with you. And your "fellow countrymen", in this respect, command respect no less than "Nemesis" - I mean "Sword of Gideon". This is, of course, a feature film ... but there is no smoke without fire.

          The terrorists were liquidated not for the destruction of terror or educational work, but "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, an arm for an arm and a leg for a leg." Neither and dead terrorists commit terrorist acts anymore.
          1. Nazar
            Nazar 7 February 2021 12: 58
            +6
            Professor - In Russia now, too, terrorists are "extinguished" on the spot, otherwise - the investigation, the court, lawyers ... not the fact that they will be punished at all. And so everything is according to the eternal principle: "no enemy - no problem."
          2. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 7 February 2021 14: 19
            +5
            Quote: Professor

            The terrorists were liquidated not for the destruction of terror or educational work, but "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, an arm for an arm and a leg for a leg." Neither and dead terrorists commit terrorist acts anymore.

            To prevent future terrorist attacks, they were eliminated. To “not turn Israel into a ghetto,” according to Golda Meir
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 7 February 2021 17: 59
      +2
      ... must know that they will not leave the well-deserved punishment.

      It is useless, those who give orders or create conditions always expect that "the winners are not judged," or simply hope to evade responsibility, and the performers act at the animal level of a cave creature, they have nothing to think with, their general level is so primitive
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 7 February 2021 08: 56
    -2
    After the collapse of the Russian empire On April 22, 1918, the Transcaucasian Democratic Federal Republic was formed, headed by the Menshevik A. Chkhenkeli.

    Not true: EVERYTHING, absolutely all independence on the territory of Russia was declared only after the thief, not one before her.
    This is just a fact.

    It was the thief and the dispersal of the US that caused the formation of independent states on the body of the country and even those recognized by the Bolsheviks - the same UNR)

    Many did NOT recognize the so-called. the "Soviet" illegal government of the minority, but at the same time enthusiastically seized on its declared right to self-determination, proclaimed in the criminal, treacherous in relation to the country, the so-called. "peace decree", etc. "Declaration of the rights of the peoples of Russia.

    Turkish Kemalist officers, led by Khalil Pasha, paid Russia in full for future military and economic aid, deliberately misleading Azerbaijani allies. They argued that the advancing Red Army was headed by their compatriot, Nijat-bek, in whose regiments there were many Volga Turks. And that this army goes to the aid of Turkey - to Anatolia.

    Thanks to the efforts of Khalil Pasha, the oil fields of Baku and oil refineries were not destroyed and transferred to representatives of the new government in a working condition.

    Let the author name at least ONE reason for the Azerbaijanis to destroy ..... OWN crafts and infrastructure. belay lolThey're not ichiots - destroying the bonanza
    However, some historians believe that the NKAO was transferred to Azerbaijan under the influence of Turkey, relations with which at that time the Soviet authorities had more than friendly. .

    And so it was: the eternal enemies of Russia, who had just killed hundreds of thousands of Russian people in the World War — the Bolsheviks' best friends — that Turkey, which was given by Kars, etc., that Germany, which they gave FOREVER a third of European Russia.

    Operation Nemesis was fair, and at least partially punished the bloody butchers ..

    The Israelis did the same after WWII with regard to the perpetrators of the Holocaust - they did the right thing.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 7 February 2021 12: 58
      +3
      Olgovich, I agree: "Operation:" Nemesis "was fair and at least partially punished" here really resembles the operation of MOSAD. The capture of Eichmann alone was worth what.
      True or not, but MOSAD "remade" half of the militants from: "Black September". If they worked like that "September", it is unlikely that "heirs" will appear: October, November, etc. Albert knows more about this topic
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 7 February 2021 14: 30
        +3
        Quote: vladcub
        Olgovich, I agree: "Operation:" Nemesis "was fair and at least partially punished" here really resembles the operation of MOSAD. The capture of Eichmann alone was worth what.
        True or not, but MOSAD "remade" half of the militants from: "Black September". If they worked like that "September", it is unlikely that "heirs" will appear: October, November, etc. Albert knows more about this topic

        Greetings, Vlad! hi In September, many of the leadership were shoveled, but their disappearance was the result of only two factors:
        1) They were originally de facto the "sabotage wing" of the PLO, acting de Jure as an independent organization designed to fight with Jordan, an Arab country that expelled the Palestinians as avengers and against Jews, using the most unpopular methods among the world community, such as shooting athletes at the Olympics. When Arafat and others no longer needed it, the emergency ceased to exist.
        2) The rich Arab countries, which were sponsors of the Palestinians, did not like the activities of the latter against another Arab state.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 7 February 2021 15: 51
          +2
          In that case, if I were the sheikhs, I would have written out a prize for the MOSAD, or maybe they chipped half of it, but they wrote it off to you?
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 7 February 2021 16: 18
            +3
            laughing Israel gladly attributes many liquidations to sheikhs. I think the opposite picture also takes place
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 8 February 2021 10: 28
              +1
              A reciprocal process?
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 8 February 2021 12: 50
                0
                Exactly
  • Catfish
    Catfish 7 February 2021 09: 08
    +10
    A completely unknown page of history for me, thank you, Valery. hi
    No, we all knew about the "Baku commissars" from childhood, it was impossible not to know, but without any details.
    I heard that Stalin seemed to have warned that it was impossible to send Armenians to Baku as commissars, whether this is really not in the know.
    And Enver, the son of a bitch, was an adventurer, an adventurer, and finished, got what he deserved. He, yes Souchon, this "sweet couple" has spoiled us a little with at least one "Sevastopol wake-up call".
    Even the outspoken bandit Ibrahim-bek did not take him seriously.
    1. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 7 February 2021 10: 29
      +5
      Morskoy Kot, I agree, everyone heard about 26 Baku residents in the Soviet school. As far as I remember (according to the textbook), they were shot by the British.
      Naturally, there is not a word about interethnic massacre in the textbook.
      Many new things come out over the years, which have not been discussed before.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 7 February 2021 10: 42
      +7
      Kostya, hello. I agree from the forehead: “everyone knew about the“ Baku commissars. ”But somehow they knew that they knew nothing.
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 7 February 2021 12: 44
      +5
      "the outspoken bandit Ibrahim-bey did not take seriously" in my opinion the principle here: "two bears in one den"
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 7 February 2021 17: 29
        +3
        Yes, Enver is more like a cowardly jackal and Beck felt it.
        "Abdullah is a warrior, Javdet is a coward." (C) And that says it all. smile
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 8 February 2021 10: 26
          +1
          Quite possible
  • VLR
    7 February 2021 09: 09
    +6
    Quote: Olgovich

    Let the author name at least ONE reason for the Azerbaijanis to destroy ..... OWN crafts and infrastructure. belay lolThey're not ichiots - destroying the bonanza
    .

    The Azerbaijani government was then under the control of the British, who did not feel sorry for the infrastructure they did not get. But to transfer it intact and safe to the Bolsheviks - on the contrary, it is very a pity.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 7 February 2021 13: 43
      0
      Quote: VlR
      The Azerbaijani government was then under the control of the British, who were not sorry for the infrastructure they did not get.

      That is, if the British ordered the Azeris to jump into the abyss, they would ... jump.

      Interesting "logic", yes. lol
      1. VLR
        7 February 2021 13: 52
        +4
        Yes, they (the then rulers of Azerbaijan) themselves did not intend to live in their homeland under the Bolsheviks, thoughts like “don’t get to anyone,” probably came to mind.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 7 February 2021 16: 59
          +1
          Quote: VlR
          Yes, they (the then rulers of Azerbaijan) themselves did not intend to live in their homeland under the Bolsheviks, thoughts like “don’t get to anyone,” probably came to mind.

          But they were going to live in their homeland WITHOUT the Bolsheviks.

          But in fact: how many authorities have changed in Baku, and it never occurred to ANYONE to demolish the crafts: each hoped to return.

          That is the whole explanation.
  • Unknown
    Unknown 7 February 2021 10: 13
    +9
    The knot there on the blood has been tied for a long time, and it is probably not possible to untie it. At one time R.I. It also made its contribution, the XV article of the "Turkmenchay agreement" signed on February 10, 1828 provided for the resettlement of Armenians.The settlers were given great benefits: they were exempt from taxes and military service for 6 years, they were paid benefits at the expense of contributions received from Iran, etc. etc. After some preparatory activities, resettlement began. The number of Armenians resettled from Iran was 40-50 thousand people. Plus, after the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-1829, 90 thousand Armenians were resettled from Turkey. When the Armenians moved to Transcaucasia, special attention was paid to exactly where to place them. A.S. Griboyedov wrote: “From the regions captured by the Russian army - Tabriz, Khoy, Salmaz, Maragi, all Armenians should be settled in Nakhichevan, Erivan and the Karabakh region”. This recommendation of Griboyedov was adequately fulfilled.

    Shavrov wrote: “The Armenians settled mainly on the fertile lands of Elizavetpol (Ganja) and the Erivan province, where they were negligible. The mountainous part of the Elizavetpol province (Nagorno-Karabakh) and the shores of Lake Goycha were inhabited by these Armenians. Such actions have yielded results. In 1832, 64,8% of the population of Karabakh were Azerbaijanis and 34,8% were Armenians. But in 1897 these figures were 45 and 53%, and in 1917 - 40,2 and 52,3%. So anyway, the contradictions between the Armenians and the Azerbaijanis living there should have exploded, which later happened. And no matter how later the representatives of these peoples say, the Soviet power threw them apart, here is a quote from S.M. Kirov ...... Whatever variant of a non-violent and civilized settlement of the situation in Karabakh you can imagine, it will be impossible under the rule of the capitalists. With capitalist fragmentation. Only by being free from capitalism, which sows hostility, the peoples of Armenia and Azerbaijan will be able to resolve this crisis in accordance with the interests of the peoples. In other cases, there will be a senseless and all-destructive massacre for the sake of the interests of class elites, hiding behind nationalism ...
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 7 February 2021 11: 52
      +4
      "provided for the resettlement of Armenians" in fairness.
      This has always been done. For example, Poles encouraged the resettlement of their citizens to the territory of western Belarus and Ukraine. They were called: "besiegers" and were armed with revolvers.
      The present Wrocław Voivodeship-Breslau. Kaliningrad region-Konigsberg
    2. GKA72
      GKA72 11 February 2021 13: 15
      0
      drew attention to your numbers
      But in 1897 these figures were 45 and 53%, and in 1917 - 40,2 and 52,3%.
      These data are taken from the Azerbaijan site. smile
      1. GKA72
        GKA72 11 February 2021 13: 35
        0
        And what is the reason?
    3. GKA72
      GKA72 11 February 2021 13: 42
      0
      But in 1897 these figures were 45 and 53%, and in 1917 - 40,2 and 52,3%.
      According to other sources, in 1886 the Turkic-speaking population was 14% and by 1989 increased to 23%. Do not read Azerbaijani and Armenian sources before dinner hi
  • vladcub
    vladcub 7 February 2021 10: 47
    +4
    Valery, once again I am convinced that even our history we know mediocre
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 7 February 2021 10: 56
    0
    Colleagues, hello. I have not yet turned into a monkey and I hope that my example will convince some of the hesitant.
    P
    S
    Heard that Muslim ulama blessed vaccination
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 7 February 2021 11: 00
      +2
      Good morning Vera! No, she won't convince me. And in general, this is a voluntary-compulsory matter, which is alarming. So? Well, if you want, get vaccinated. wink
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 7 February 2021 11: 22
        +2
        I have already done the first part of the vaccination.
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 7 February 2021 11: 03
      +3
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Muslim ulema blessed vaccination

      And they have something to do with it? This is a thoroughly personal matter. Trust the clergy? Well, well ... laughing
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 7 February 2021 11: 42
        +5
        You see, there were people among the believers who were ready to get sick, but not violate any prohibitions. You and I will not understand this
        1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
          Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 7 February 2021 16: 12
          +2
          Do not get sick, but die! Beliefs and religions are all like that.
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 7 February 2021 16: 25
            +2
            Fortunately, in the 21st century the priests began to take care of themselves, and this cannot be particularly hidden. So they approved the vaccine
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 7 February 2021 16: 44
              +4
              Quote: Astra wild2
              Fortunately, in the 21st century the priests began to take care of themselves, and this cannot be particularly hidden.

              And when was it different? Vaccine, you say? Well, your health and only yours. It's up to you.
              1. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 8 February 2021 19: 21
                +1
                In my opinion, there are no longer religious fanatics among the clergy. However, I do not have familiar priests, and you.?
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 8 February 2021 20: 07
                  +2
                  Quote: Astra wild2
                  religious fanatics

                  A fanatic, he is a fanatic. Logic is powerless here. I have no acquaintances of clergymen, and I never have.
              2. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 8 February 2021 20: 07
                +1
                "It's up to you to decide" I hesitated for a very long time. The Internet is full of all sorts of horror stories about the vaccine and they thoroughly restrained me, but I know more about the statistics on my clinic. 3 of our best doctors are still sick, and our surgeon is in intensive care for 2 months!
                Р
                S
                Are you fundamentally against all vaccinations or specifically against "companion"?
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 8 February 2021 20: 17
                  +2
                  Quote: Astra wild2
                  It's up to you to decide "I hesitated for a very long time.

                  And they hesitated very correctly.
                  Quote: Astra wild2
                  but I know more about statistics on my clinic. 3 of our best doctors are still sick, and our surgeon is in intensive care for 2 months!

                  Surely they didn't have chronic diseases?
                  Quote: Astra wild2
                  Are you fundamentally against all vaccinations or specifically against "companion"?

                  I do not believe the initiatives of the ruling regime, and those people from whom they come. My right? My health? Mine! Personally mine!
                  1. Astra wild2
                    Astra wild2 8 February 2021 20: 30
                    +1
                    The chief ordered: to call the cause of death anything, even tuberculosis, but not the crown. This order was on June 1 and so they did.
                    For all I do not know, but for 2 I guarantee.

                    "I do not believe the initiatives of the ruling regime" one in the questionnaire motivated the refusal, with the words: "in spite of Putin I will not get vaccinated"
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 8 February 2021 20: 33
                      +2
                      Quote: Astra wild2
                      in spite of Putin I won't get vaccinated "

                      Yes, not out of spite! And not against! And not for Navalny! I just do not believe these characters. I DO NOT BELIEVE!
  • sevtrash
    sevtrash 7 February 2021 11: 12
    +5
    In the Russian Empire, there was a wiser division - on territorial, not on ethnic grounds. Strongly intelligent revolutionaries (narrow-minded, high-browed) in their struggle for ephemeral freedom laid nationalist mines in all future countries.
    Parallels are seen between the Armenian and Jewish genocides, as well as the hunt for the perpetrators. Although this is only a small part of the genocides. It is pointed out about the genocide by the Ottomans not only of Armenians, but also of Greeks and Assyrians. For example ... from 1956 to 2016, 43 genocides were committed, as a result of which about 50 million people died ...
    1. icant007
      icant007 7 February 2021 12: 04
      +3
      Quote: sevtrash
      In the Russian Empire there was a wiser division - on territorial, not on a national basis


      It was only at first glance that the division was territorial. The first decades after the annexation of Transcaucasia to Russia, in general, the same local way of life was preserved there: the form of government, customs, laws. Then, as the administrative system was brought to an all-Russian one, the tsarist government allowed an imbalance in the representation of various nationalities in the government. This is how a bias was formed towards the Christians of the Transcaucasus; they received more influence than the Muslims.
      And what is power here in Russia? - This is money, access to resources, contracts, etc. All of this was largely in the hands of the Armenian-Georgian aristocracy. Azerbaijani elites found themselves in a less advantageous position. Hence the contradiction.
      Again, the Russian authorities were far from wise in their administrative activities.

      For example
      Most of the Armenians are settled on the lands of the Muslim landlords. In the summer this could still be tolerated. The owners, Muslims, for the most part were on nomadic camps and had few cases of communicating with non-faithful newcomers.
      No forest has been harvested and no other places have been allocated for the permanent settlement of the settlers. All this was lost in due time. It is too late to correct the mistake this year. The settlers themselves are in close quarters and push the Muslims, who all murmur and thoroughly. It is known in [your] s [clergy] that in general, all the local inhabitants in difficulty should be regarded as migrants, for they were all evicted by the sardar during wartime and are in the most poor situation.
      The state monetary allowance was distributed to no avail: they were given out at a ruble, two at a time, like beggars, without correct information, how many were in need and who needed what. 25 rubles given out at a time is ten times more important than the same amount given out in fractional terms at different times. No general measure has been taken, such as buying bread to support the whole society, also for sowing next year, etc.


      Note on the resettlement of Armenians from Persia to our regions (Griboyedov) 1828
      1. sevtrash
        sevtrash 7 February 2021 20: 39
        +3
        Quote: icant007
        And what is power here in Russia? - This is money, access to resources, contracts, etc. All of this was largely in the hands of the Armenian-Georgian aristocracy. Azerbaijani elites found themselves in a less advantageous position. Hence the contradiction.

        It was not ideal, like everything in the world, but it could make it difficult to divide by nationality. Nikolaev, Odessa, Tselinograd provinces would hardly have separated. Like many others.
        1. icant007
          icant007 7 February 2021 22: 18
          +2
          Quote: sevtrash
          however, it could make it difficult to divide by nationality.


          But this does not mean that there was no national question in tsarist Russia. And after all, the lack of attention of the state power to the problems of the national borderlands has largely spurred the revolutionary movement in the country. We all know how many of the revolutionaries were Jews, people from the Caucasus.
          1. Seal
            Seal 9 February 2021 11: 18
            +1
            In Spain, the authorities have paid and are still paying great attention to their "national outskirts". Catalonia, for example, lives significantly better than the rest of Spain. And the result is the same.
            1. icant007
              icant007 9 February 2021 15: 43
              -1
              Quote: Seal
              Catalonia, for example, lives significantly better than the rest of Spain. And the result is the same.


              Well, this is a riot of well-fed fools. As in Libya, Tunisia. Scotland out too)

              How is it in pedagogy? - An excess of attention is just as bad as a lack.

              Poor (including in the meaning of "deprived") national borderlands in tsarist Russia partly became a breeding ground for revolutionism.
              Well-fed national outskirts (or rather their leadership) at the end of the 80s became a source of separatism.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 7 February 2021 12: 00
    -2
    "they claimed that the advancing Red Army was headed by their compatriot Nijat-bek" in this case the Azerbaijanis did not have elementary intelligence at all. Do they have intelligence like in kindergarten?
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 7 February 2021 15: 44
      0
      Astra correctly noted that the Azerbaijanis had full seams with intelligence or were they willing to believe everything that the Turks say?
      1. Seal
        Seal 9 February 2021 11: 18
        +1
        What else could they do?
  • Alex013
    Alex013 7 February 2021 12: 25
    +5
    Anastas Mikoyan is an outstanding personality and was noted here. I remembered - the way from "Ilyich to Ilyich without a heart attack and paralysis" and - it is raining heavily outside, why didn't you get wet? - and I carefully, carefully between the drops ...
  • vladcub
    vladcub 7 February 2021 12: 35
    +3
    "Managed to free Mikoyan, who was in illegal position" it would be interesting to know the details of this story. How did he do it: undermining, bribery of sentries, intimidated the chief of the guard?
    In fact, there is too much murk in this story. Valery thinks that the "Turkmen" ship has run out of fuel. Wig knows him, perhaps this way, and maybe otherwise. Once I read that the captain was "wrong", or rather was a traitor
    1. VLR
      7 February 2021 13: 02
      +7
      Yes, the story is "muddy": Mikoyan either made the head of the prison release his comrades with threats, or "on the sly" led them out of their cells. Mikoyan was not shot for the reason that he was not in prison and his name was not on the list for food for prisoners, which fell into the hands of the SRs in Krasnovodsk. Stalin called him "the 27th Baku commissar" and, according to the memoirs of Mikoyan himself, once told him:
      "The story of how 26 Baku commissars were shot and only one of them - Mikoyan - survived, is dark and confusing. And you, Anastas, don't make us unravel this story."
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 7 February 2021 14: 18
        +3
        "dark and confused" cannot be added or subtracted. But I have such a feeling that Dzerzhinsky and Stalin and Kirov or Ordzhonikidze could know if not 100%, but 80% of this story. It was much easier then. For example, they didn’t investigate right away in hot pursuit, but in 1926 or later the OGPU-NKVD could find both participants and witnesses. Just for some reason they pretended not to know
  • VLR
    7 February 2021 13: 22
    +4
    I didn’t even think that the topic “26 Baku commissars” would arouse such interest. And then, perhaps, he spoke about them in more detail in a separate article.
    See how they looked:
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 7 February 2021 14: 24
      +4
      "talked about them in a separate article", but this can be corrected.
      Valery, what do you have in the near future? I'm just as curious as Astra. You have EVERYTHING "TASTY", but I want to know what we will savor next
      1. VLR
        7 February 2021 14: 44
        +6
        Then here are these guys from the Sicilian mafia:




        Continuing the topic of the article about the criminal clans of Albania, which actively cooperate with the Italian neighbors
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 7 February 2021 14: 48
          +5
          Quote: VlR
          Then here are these guys from the Sicilian Mafia:

          Greetings Valery! Is it really true? About * mafia *?!
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 7 February 2021 15: 04
          +5
          Quote: VlR
          Sicilian Mafia:

          Yes, the topic is very interesting! And ... you can * swing * a whole cycle! wink

        3. vladcub
          vladcub 7 February 2021 15: 39
          +3
          Quite "friendly" boys. Stuffed with lead on the most "don't spoil"
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 7 February 2021 15: 45
            +5
            Quote: vladcub
            friendly "boys

            You know, it's professional. laughing
            Well ... this is the job. wink
          2. Phil77
            Phil77 7 February 2021 15: 47
            +5
            Quote: vladcub
            Quite "friendly" boys. Stuffed with lead on the most "don't spoil"

            Or from our past.
            1. depressant
              depressant 7 February 2021 17: 05
              +6
              Hmmm ...
              I read the article. Impressed. "NEMESIS" means. That's all right. And only so. I also have my own account with someone, but God did not give a horn to the butcher cow.
              As for the Armenians and Azerbaijanis, television frames are still in front of our eyes: the collapse of the Union, Sumgait, the voiceover says that the Russian military is hastily loaded onto ships with their families, leaving Azerbaijan, and therefore to stop this is what I saw on screen, there is already no one. And there was a wall of marching Azerbaijanis - it was a wall that consisted - no, not of the military, but of hard workers with sticks, shovels and everything that came to hand, with knives - butcher's, domestic, fighting. And these people walked along a wall, line after line, encouraging themselves with menacing shouts - they went to slaughter the Armenians. And they cut it. Throughout the entire Soviet regime, they endured, and when it ended, they stopped being Soviet at once and went to cut.
              The USSR did not have enough historical time for the horrors of bygone eras to be forgotten, dissolving in the haze of the past.
              1. icant007
                icant007 7 February 2021 22: 30
                +1
                Quote: depressant
                the Russian military is hastily loaded onto ships with their families, leaving Azerbaijan, and therefore there is no one to stop this - what I saw on the screen. AND


                Not the Russian military, but their families, as well as the Armenians, and others who were afraid to stay in Azerbaijan during this period.
                The military did not leave anywhere, but only came and came.
                Another question is that the Ministry of Internal Affairs has profited new pogroms, although it seems that Sumgait should already have been taught.

                Quote: depressant
                And there was a wall of marching Azerbaijanis - it was a wall that consisted - no, not of the military, but of hard workers with sticks, shovels and everything that came to hand, with knives - butcher's, domestic, fighting. And these people walked along a wall, line after line, encouraging themselves with menacing shouts - they went to slaughter the Armenians.


                But you could not see this. There are no such frames in nature. Probably you are confused with something.
                1. depressant
                  depressant 8 February 2021 00: 20
                  +5
                  Dear Colleague ...
                  For two years in a row I am convinced that materials from the Internet disappear. Today they are there, but tomorrow someone vigilant removed them, and you will not find the ends. Even about those people who left their mark on politics and science - those whom I knew personally. The inconvenient truth disappears from their biographies, much disappears ...
                  I saw the Sumgait procession of pogromists on TV. And the point. The frames are in front of my eyes! They were filmed by a correspondent, the story was immediately shown on the central channels. Until that moment, I did not know such a city - Sumgait.
                  I suppose you really do not want to be remembered about the Sumgait massacre. But, imagine, remember. A family of quiet vegetable traders lives in my village, he is Azerbaijani, she is Armenian. Here they are from there, they remember. They saw everything with their own eyes, and I saw it on TV, and I also remember. Someone saw this plot and forgot, because it did not concern him. I am not from Sumgait, but from such a Caucasian region, which has a similar story, only it happened earlier - in the winter of 1983-1984. That is why I remembered Sumgait. That which already has support in memory is remembered. And from the fact that the footage of the reportage may have been destroyed, and many who saw them forgot what they saw, it does not follow that there was no Sumgayit story. It also does not follow that I am on someone's side. Because - and this is purely my opinion - neither side has a mind. Intelligence, tolerance and kindness. To me, a Russian person, all this medieval savagery, including with Nagorno-Karabakh, is disgusting. Sorry for the frankness. Think what you want.
                  I removed the minus for you out of courtesy.
                  1. icant007
                    icant007 8 February 2021 07: 27
                    -1
                    Quote: depressant
                    I saw the Sumgait procession of pogromists on TV.


                    This could be it.
                    And for January 1990 in Baku, and this is the period you meant when you said "loaded onto ships", there are no such facts recorded on the video.
                    I myself lived in Baku from 88 to 91.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 7 February 2021 14: 03
    +5
    "Ismail Enver died in battle in the village of Chagan" comrades, I am interested in the following question: Enverpasha was an enemy of the Soviet regime and died in 1922, and in 1996 his remains were reburied in Turkey. So they knew exactly where he was buried? Or Ismail bey was shot in 1931, and recently there was information that his grave was found. The graves of the most such enemies were known, and they lost deserved people. For example, the grave of Shchors was found forty or fifty years later. The grave of Admiral Geller has not survived, but how many similar examples
  • iskanderzp
    iskanderzp 7 February 2021 14: 45
    +5
    Valery! Thanks for one more "half-opened" page of history. I agree with my colleagues: everyone who studied in Soviet schools knew about the very fact of the shooting of the Baku commissars, but that was all. But the details of these events were not announced anywhere. All in all, you've got a wonderful series of articles. Traditionally, we are looking forward to new works!
    Sincerely, Alexander.
  • Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
    Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 7 February 2021 16: 08
    +8
    God, and I didn't know anything about it at all! ... Thank you. Now I will study all this. Kingdom of heaven to all those who fell during the genocides of the XNUMXth century.
  • Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 7 February 2021 22: 59
    +1
    The situation in Baku was difficult, where in March 1918 began pogroms of Muslims, supported by the leadership of the Baku commune (where there were many Armenians) and the Dashnaktsutyun party.

    It would be interesting to know where the author subtracted this nonsense?
    The commune leadership (Baku commissars) were internationalists and they a priori could not support the pogroms of Muslims.
    1. VLR
      7 February 2021 23: 10
      +4
      The pogroms of Muslims took place in March, and the Council, which included these "26 commissars", was created on April 25 - the article clearly states. The Commune and the Soviet are different organs of power.
      1. Alexander Greene
        Alexander Greene 7 February 2021 23: 34
        +2
        Quote: VlR
        The pogroms of Muslims took place in March, and the Council, which included these "26 commissars", was created on April 25 - the article clearly states. The Commune and the Soviet are different organs of power.

        You are confusing something.
        The Baku Council was established back in 1917. After receiving news of the victory of the October Revolution in Petrograd, the Baku committee of the RSDLP (b) on October 27, 1917, suggested that the council take power into their own hands, which they did on November 2, 1917. The Soviet republic was formed.
        On March 30, 1918, an anti-Soviet revolt of the Musavatists was raised in Baku. It was suppressed by the armed forces of the Baku Council, but in many districts the value remained in the hands of the Musavatists. and if there were any pogroms, it was on the conscience of the nationalists, but not the Baku commune.
        1. VLR
          8 February 2021 07: 07
          +3
          There is often confusion here: indeed, there was at first the Baku Soviet, which had 308 deputies, of which only 58 were Bolsheviks, the rest were Socialist-Revolutionaries, Mensheviks, Dashnaks and others. There was also the Baku City Duma - a self-government body. And on April 25, 1918, the Soviet of Workers' Deputies was created in Baku, that is, it was already a government headed by the Bolshevik Shaumyan.
          1. Alexander Greene
            Alexander Greene 8 February 2021 19: 04
            +1
            Quote: VlR
            And on April 25, 1918, the Council of Workers' Deputies was established in Baku,

            It was not the Council of Workers' Deputies that was created, but the Council of People's Commissars, so its power was called the Baku Commune. At the head were the Bolshevik internationalists who, well, in no way, could not support any pogroms.
  • Seal
    Seal 9 February 2021 10: 16
    0
    Quote: Olgovich
    Let the author name at least ONE reason for the Azerbaijanis to destroy ..... OWN crafts and infrastructure. They are not ichiots - to destroy the bonanza
    Do you really not understand even such elementary things? The oil fields have owners. Who perfectly understood that the Bolsheviks would take these oil fields away from them. In fact, the same thing could happen as here https://youtu.be/VDeju1HoWC8
    But it didn't.
    Quote: Olgovich

    And so it was: the eternal enemies of Russia, who had just killed hundreds of thousands of Russian people in the World War — the Bolsheviks' best friends — that Turkey, which was given by Kars, etc., that Germany, which they gave FOREVER a third of European Russia.
    Are you okay ? What third of Russia have we supposedly given to Germany forever?
    Where did you get the "hundreds of thousands of Russian people" allegedly killed by the Turks in the First World War? Show the source of your fantasies.
    What are the "eternal enemies"? Let's see the list of wars between us.
    1) 1568-1570 years. Started the war: Turkey. Winner: Russia.
    Then 100 years of peaceful relations.
    2) 1672-1681 years. (in the USSR it was believed that 1676-1681 gg.). Started the war: Russia. Winner: Turkey (in the USSR it was claimed that Russia, but this statement objectively contradicts the outcome of the war).
    3) 1686-1700 Started the war: Russia. Winner: Russia.
    4) 1710-1713 Started the war: Russia. Winner: Turkey.
    5) 1735-1739 Started the war: Russia. Winner: Russia.
    6) 1768-1774 years. Started the war: Turkey. Winner: Russia.
    7) 1787-1791 years. Started the war: Turkey. Winner: Russia.
    8) 1806-1812 Started the war: Russia. Winner: Russia.
    9) 1828-1829 Started the war: Russia. Winner: Russia.
    10) 1853-1856 Started the Crimean War: Russia (surprisingly for the layman, but it was the Russian government issued a memorandum on the severance of diplomatic relations with Turkey, after which Nicholas I ordered Russian troops to occupy the Danubian principalities subordinate to the Sultan, Moldova and Wallachia, "as a pledge, until Turkey satisfies fair demands of Russia "; however, Turkey preferred war to shame and did not fail). Winner: Turkey (and Allies)
    11) 1877-1878 Started the war: Russia. Winner: Russia.
    12) 1914-1918. Started the war (which became an integral part of the First World War): Russia after the provocation of Turkey. Winner: Turkey (and allies, although in general she and her allies lost the First World War).
    A total of 8 times we started the war; The Turks started the war 3 times; 1 time (1914) the war began, as it were, mutually. Formally, we declared war, but after the Turkish provocation with shelling of our coastal cities. But it should be borne in mind that before that there were provocations of Armenian "fideas" against Turkey, who crossed over to Turkish territory on our part and committed so-called "acts of retaliation" on Turkish territory.
    1. Seal
      Seal 9 February 2021 10: 18
      0
      Now for a more detailed analysis of the wars.
      1) In 1569, the Turks laid siege to Astrakhan.
      But how long before Astrakhan was ours?
      In fact, Tsar Ivan the Terrible on July 2, 1556, annexed Astrakhan to the Russian state and liquidated the Astrakhan Khanate.
      Astrakhan Khan and his family members fled to Turkey.
      The Sultan, who was part-time as the Caliph of all Muslims, was OBLIGED to protect Muslims. Suleiman stretched out for time and died. His son Selim, who is a drunkard, purely formally sent not God knows what army to protect the offended Astrakhan Khan.
      It's unfortunate. Not protected.
      That is, even according to modern norms of international law, that war on the part of Turkey was completely legal.
      2) Chigirin campaigns 1672-1681
      Getman of Right-Bank Ukraine Petro Doroshenko fell under Turkish influence. Fearing an invasion of Left-Bank Ukraine, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich ordered regular troops and Cossacks to begin hostilities against the Turks and Doroshenko's troops.
      As a result, the Russians and Zaporozhtsy jointly occupied the city of Chigirin. Subsequently, he passed from hand to hand more than once, and the war ended with the Bakhchisaray Peace Treaty of the Year 1681, which secured the border between Russia and Turkey along the Dnieper.
      Is Turkey to blame?
      3). Russian-Turkish war 1686-1700
      The basis of the anti-Turkish coalition in that war was laid by Austria and Poland. Russia entered the war in 1686, when another war with the Poles ended in a peace treaty. Crimean troops from 1682, regularly invaded Russian territory. It should stop. The rules in Moscow then princess Sophia. In 1687 and 1689, her right hand — the boyar Vasily Golitsyn — took trips to the Crimea.
      However, he could not manage to supply the troops with fresh water, and the campaigns had to be interrupted. Peter I, entrenched on the throne, suffered military operations under the Azov. The first Azov campaign, 1695, ended in failure, but in 1696, the Russian troops under the command of our first generalissimo Alexei Shein managed to force the fortress to surrender. In 1700, the capture of Azov was enshrined in the Treaty of Constantinople.
      Krymchaks attacked us and Poland.
      Cossacks attacked Crimea and Turkey.
      The Turkish Sultan in front of our Tsar and the Polish King denied himself from the raids of the Tatars. Our Tsar and the Polish King in the same way always denied to the Sultan from the raids of the Cossacks. They say that the Cossacks are walking people (free), they do not obey us.
      1. Seal
        Seal 9 February 2021 10: 18
        +1
        4) Prut campaign 1710-1713
        After the Poltava collapse, the Swedish king Charles XII hid in Turkey. Tsar Peter I demanded the extradition of Charles XII, Turkey refused. Then Peter personally led the campaign against Turkey. The Russian army moved towards the Prut. The Turks managed to concentrate a huge army there: together with the Crimean cavalry, there were about 200 thousand of them. In New Stalinesti, our troops were surrounded.
        The Turkish assault managed to repel, the Ottomans with losses retreated. However, the position of Peter's army became desperate because of the actual blockade. Under the terms of the Prut Peace Treaty, the Turks pledged to release the Russian army from the encirclement.
        But Russia promised to give Turkey Azov, to tear down the fortifications of Taganrog and a number of other southern forts, to give Karl XII the opportunity to move to Sweden.
        5) Russian-Turkish war 1735-1739
        We have declared war. The new war was supposed to “stop the ongoing Crimean raids”.
        6). Russian-Turkish war 1768-1774
        Sultan Mustafa III declared war on Russia, taking advantage of the following reason: a detachment of Zaporozhye Cossacks, pursuing the Poles, burst into the city of Balta, which belonged to the Ottoman Empire, and pretty much destroyed the city, cutting off, as usual, many Jews. But not just Jews, but Jews - subjects of the Ottoman Empire.
        Well, here everyone is free to count as he wants.
        We won and took part of the Crimea from the Crimean Khanate - Kerch and the Kerch Peninsula.
        7). Russian-Turkish war 1787-1791
        On the eve of this war, the entire Crimea and Kuban were already part of the Russian Empire. That the Turks were offended. Turkey was not satisfied with the Treaty of St. George, concluded between Russia and the Georgian kingdom. Istanbul issued an ultimatum to Russia demanding that it abandon Crimea and Georgia. So a new war began.
        1. Seal
          Seal 9 February 2021 10: 20
          +1
          8). Here the French were stirring up.
          In 1804, the Serbs revolted under the leadership of Karageorgiy. Despite the fact that the rebels turned to St. Petersburg for help, their request was received more than coolly: with an indication that petitions should be addressed first of all to Istanbul, to their own ruler. The king did not want to quarrel with the Turks on the eve of the war with Napoleon. Nevertheless, Napoleonic ambassador to Istanbul, General Sebastiani, was able to convince the Sultan that it was the Russians who were helping the Serbs in the guerrilla war in the Balkans. The diplomatic combinations skillfully played out by the French gave their generous fruits - the role of Russia in the Serbian issue was an old and painful pet peeve for the Turks, on which Sebastiani skillfully pressed.
          In the fall of 1806, Istanbul went to a direct violation of the treaty with St. Petersburg, unilaterally displacing the rulers of Moldova and Wallachia. According to the diplomatic protocol, this procedure could only go through the courts and in agreement with the Russian side. The dismissal of the Lords Muruzi and Ypsilanti was a direct non-observance of the previously reached agreements, which could not be let down on the brakes. The situation was complicated by the fact that Alexander I could not fail to respond to such a violation, but at that moment the emperor was bound by the war with Napoleon. In order to somehow react to the Turkish demarches, the official Petersburg finally decided to provide Karageorgy with more substantial assistance than excuses about appealing to its own ruler and so on, "well, you hang on there." On September 24, 1806, Alexander I signed a decree ordering to send 18 thousand gold pieces of gold and weapons to the Serbs.
          Back in April 1806, the grand vizier expressed this position in a demand for the Russian ambassador A. Ya. Italinsky to reduce the number of Russian ships passing through the straits. And in the fall of 1806, the Turks announced a ban on the passage of warships under the St. Andrew's flag through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles, and significant restrictions were imposed on the passage of merchant ships.
          On October 4, 1806, Emperor Alexander I signed an order: the commander of the Russian southern army, cavalry general Ivan Ivanovich Mikhelson, was ordered to cross the Dniester and occupy the Moldavian principalities with the entrusted troops.
          At the insistence of the French ambassador, on December 18, 1806, Sultan Selim III declared war on the Russian Empire.
          9). Russian-Turkish war 1828-1829
          Greeks and Bulgarians from the beginning of the 19th century began to advocate independence from Turkey. Russia under Alexander I took a position of non-interference. With the accession of Nicholas I, the position of St. Petersburg on the Greek issue began to change, our volunteers reached Greece, who began to actively help the Greeks.
          Sultan Mahmud II, in response, began to strengthen the Danube fortresses and blocked the Bosphorus. Emperor Nicholas I declared war on Turkey. Fighting began in Moldavia and Wallachia, as well as in the Caucasus.
          ten). Crimean War 10-1853
          In the Ottoman Empire, and specifically in Bethlehem, Orthodox and Catholics clashed (well, the Armenians also ran between their legs and interfered with both) over who would be honored to block the rotted roof of the Temple of the Lord.
          Instead of sitting down and agreeing, yielding to each other in everything, as befits good Christians, good Christians began to complain to the Sultan and gave the question to his decision. The Sultan, in order not to offend either one or the other, announced that he would close the roof of the Temple himself, at the expense of the budget of the Ottoman Empire.
          For some reason, this offended Nicholas I, who issued an ultimatum to the Sultan to recognize the primacy of the Orthodox in the Holy Places. But since Turkey was financially dependent on France, which supported Catholics, Turkey was in no hurry to fulfill the conditions of the ultimatum. Then Nicholas I gave the order to occupy Moldova and Wallachia.
          The Sultan demanded that our troops be withdrawn from the Turkish provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia.
          In short, the war began essentially from scratch.
          What, again, Turkey "incited"?
          11) Russian-Turkish war 1877-1878.
          At this point, in a purely brotherly way, we decided to help the "brothers".
          What has Turkey to do with incitement?
          1. Seal
            Seal 9 February 2021 10: 24
            +1
            Russian-Turkish War as an integral part of the First World War.
            In 1914, after the outbreak of the First World War, we had to refrain from war with Turkey with all our might. Moreover, at the very beginning of the First World War, Turkey was not at all going to participate in it. The Sultan was against war, the Heir to the throne was also against war. The Grand Vizier is also against war. The finance minister is against war. Of the Young Turks triumvirate, only Enver Pasha stood firmly on the side of Germany for the immediate entry into the war. Yes, the Germans were pulling Turkey into the war with all their might. But it is not a fact that the Germans alone, without the help of the Armenians, would have been able to drag Turkey into the First World War. However, even at the end of the 19th century and including the entire period of peace with Turkey, Armenian "vigilantes" or as they are also called "fedai" (in modern language - international terrorists) moved from the territory of Russia to the territory of Turkey and committed "acts of retaliation" there against the Turkish officials, officers and soldiers, policemen, mullahs and just Turks and Kurds. And the worst thing is that these fedai were intensively spreading rumors that they were doing all this almost on the orders of the Russian Emperor. It is clear that information about the bloody raids of retaliation and information about rumors reached Istanbul and all of Turkey. Our Russian newspapers also reached Turkey, most of which were periodically printed, inspired by Russian Armenians as well (although we had enough "hurray-patriots" without them), hurray-patriotic articles on the topic "Let's return the cross to St. Sophia" ... And within three months, public opinion in Turkey has undergone a dramatic change. The influence of the so-called "party of peace" has come to naught. It was taking into account this changed public opinion at the end of October 1914, Evner-Pasha, who, like a sin, was the Minister of War, at his own peril and risk, authorized the exit of the Turkish fleet, including the former Goeben and Breslau, with German crews to shell our shores. Having learned about the shelling of our cities, ships and vessels, the Sultan and the Chief Vizier immediately sent telegrams to Emperor Nicholas II and our Government and apologized and proposals to create a commission, punish the guilty, compensate for the damage ... in General, everything that is accepted in such cases. But we preferred to declare war on Turkey. As a result, Russia was put in conditions of war on two fronts and lost the ability to receive help from the allies in the Black Sea ports. It was necessary to urgently start building a railway from Murmansk (Romanov-na Murman), which was commissioned only in December 1916.
            On the Caucasian front, it is clear that we won. However, these victories of ours did not have the slightest effect on the course of the First World War as a whole. We were retreating on the German front. After the war, Field Marshal Ludendorff let slip that: "If we had not been able to involve Turkey in the war on our side, Germany would not have held out until 1916."
            But the Germans, with the active help of the Armenians, managed to drag Turkey into the war. World War I dragged on. Our armies suffered millions losses. The people and the army began to tire of the war. A pre-revolutionary situation was created. How it all ended - everyone knows.
            I do not want to say that if there were no Armenian aid to the Germans, Turkey would have remained a neutral country. But even if Turkey entered the war a year later, or even half a year later, this would be a huge plus for us. And most likely, if Turkey had not entered the war in 1914, then she really would not have entered it at all. For already in 1915 it became clear that the blitzkrieg had failed and that victory did not shine for the Germans in a protracted war.
  • Seal
    Seal 9 February 2021 11: 14
    +1
    At the trial, Tehlirian had to convey to the world community the truth about the deeds of Talaat and the tragedy of the Armenian people. Everything turned out exactly as Ter-Hakobyan intended: Talaat was killed in Berlin on March 15, 1921, and on December 6 of the same year, the German court acquitted Tehlirian.
    Yes, Tehlirian's court acquitted. But the question is - on what basis did you justify? For example, a jury trial on March 31 (April 12), 1878, fully acquitted Zasulich. Although, according to the law, such crimes were punishable by 15 to 20 years in prison. And that, it was also right and legal?
    It would seem that in the middle of 1921, when the war had ended three years ago, a carriage and a small cart should have gathered in the center of Europe, witnesses of Turkish atrocities against Armenians. What is the problem to arrive from Norway or Denmark to Berlin? Moreover, at the expense of the court ??? Yes, no. And the "witnesses arrived."
    The following were invited as witnesses:
    1. Nurses Tora von Wedel-Jarlsberg and Eva Elvers, living in Berlin-Siemensstadt, Nonnendamm, 97.
    2. Dr. von Scheubner-Richter, Munich, Luitpoldstrasse 58.
    3. Consul V. Rösler, now in Eger.
    4. Retired Lieutenant Colonel Ernst Parraquin, Munich, Römerstr, 11.
    5. Major F. Ts. Anders from Gauting near Munich.
    6. Mrs. Missionary M. Didstzum, from Niederlösnitz near Kötzschenbroda, Gradsteg, 33.
    7. Ms. Spiker from Rosleben at Unstrut.
    8. Army writer T. Wegner, Neuglobsov (Margrave).
    9. Tehlirian's cousin Samuel Vosganyan
    10. Writer Aram Andonian from Paris.
    Question. Which of the witnesses personally saw at least one killed Armenian? Not to mention the murder process itself.
  • Seal
    Seal 9 February 2021 17: 00
    0
    Quote: icant007
    Poor (including in the meaning of "deprived") national borderlands in tsarist Russia partly became a breeding ground for revolutionism.
    Kirghiz (in the broad sense of this term before the First World War), Turkmens, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Karakalpaks ... Khanty, Mansi, Nenets, Yakuts, Evenks, Nivkhs, Koryaks, Chukchi, and indeed, having returned to the Transcaucasia - Caucasian Tatars, as well as Moldovans, Gagauzians, Crimean Tatars ... somehow they didn't give a significant number of revolutionaries?
    And with the revolutionaries-Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians somehow very mediocre. With the Finns too.
    Some kind of selective breeding ground. Nourished exclusively Jews, Armenians, Georgians and Poles. Although the Poles also seemed to live relatively well.
  • Armen Sologyan
    Armen Sologyan 16 February 2021 19: 13
    0
    There would be no persecution of the Armenians and the Armenian Genocide by the Turks, and then there would be no answer like "Nemesis". Nothing happens for no reason and nothing is forgotten. Even centuries and centuries will pass, but the Armenian Genocide will always be remembered by Armenians. Already at the genetic level, there is a dislike for the Turks, as well as for those who follow in the footsteps of the Turks. Also, at the genetic level, Ivan the Terrible has a special attitude towards Russians and this will also last forever. The Northern Brother for the Armenians will remain the Northern Brother of the Armenians !!!