Military Review

"New Oil of the XXI Century". Lithium is a strategic resource for the future

126

Lithium mining in Bolivia. Source: nat-geo.ru


Strategic lithium


The increase in lithium consumption by the military industry is inevitable for many reasons.

Firstly, currently only lithium-ion batteries can store a lot of electricity in relatively small amounts.

Secondly, the military is constantly increasing the number of gadgets that need energy, which in the field can often only be provided by rechargeable batteries. The exoskeletons coming to the troops, in general, became possible only due to the miniaturization of power supply systems.

Third, heavy equipment is gradually shifting to hybrid drives, requiring somewhere to store energy from generators and regenerative braking. Hybrids enter the army not because of the now fashionable decarbonization - the refusal to burn hydrocarbon fuels, but because of the high secrecy of such decisions.

On the battlefield, a hybrid tank or infantry fighting vehicle can turn off the engine-generator and move exclusively on the electricity stored in the batteries. That is, armored vehicles do not smoke, do not make noise, and are not so clearly illuminated in the infrared range. And, of course, hybrid armored vehicles save fuel and engine resource.


Source: army.mil

Similar developments already exist abroad in pre-production form.

For example, in the USA they are working on a hybrid BMP Bredley-HED equipped with Modular EX-Drive electric transmission and lithium-ion battery units. Several years ago, the Krymsk hybrid armored personnel carrier was tested in Russia, and now work is underway on a special wheeled platform-O chassis with an electric transmission. Despite the high fire hazard of lithium, this metal will take an important place in the military-technical industry in the foreseeable future. This means that lithium deposits will become strategic objects.

Lithium from salts


In nature, lithium, due to its high activity, is not found in free form - only in the composition of dissolved salts and solid minerals.

The main sources of lithium are salt lakes in arid countries, which are related to hydrothermal lithium raw materials. In this regard, Chile was the most fortunate, on whose territory a large lithium deposit is located - the Salar de Atacama salt marsh. The surface area of ​​this dried up lake reaches 3 square meters. km. And the approximate reserves of lithium metal hidden in the salt crust are estimated at almost 000 million tons.

Indeed, it is not for nothing that Chile is called the "lithium Saudi Arabia." In recent decades, this South American country has provided up to 43% of the world's lightest metal consumption.

Not only a giant salt marsh, but also the burning sun coupled with a desert arid climate became an important link in the Chilean lithium miracle. Precipitation in this area falls the least of all than anywhere else in the world - only 10 mm / year. This causes intensive evaporation of moisture (up to 3 mm / year). That is why only an extremely concentrated salt solution - brine - remains in the lake.

The entire surface of the salt marsh is covered with "kalich", a porous rock of gypsum and halite impregnated with brine. The depth of such "kalich" can reach several tens of meters.

The main compounds in brine are lithium chloride and sulfate. And the total proportion of metal in one liter of such a cocktail can reach 7 grams per liter. According to this parameter, the Chilean salt marsh (Salar de Atacama) is simply unmatched in the world.

In addition to lithium salts, compounds of sodium, potassium, bromine and calcium are dissolved in the brine. Magnesium compounds are almost always adjacent to lithium in brines. If the ratio of magnesium to lithium is greater than 11/1, mining may not be economically viable.


Lithium deposit in Bolivia. Source: dw.com

Now a little about the United States' lithium program.

The metal is mined on brine in the state of Nevada. Fortunately, the climate favors the Americans for this. The US Geological Survey does not publish open data on production volumes. But indirect sources say that most of the lithium raw materials (up to 84%) the country imports from Latin America. More than 35% of the volume of domestic production and import of lithium goes to the production of batteries. And every year this share only increases.

Russia in lithium stories clearly not among the leaders. The climate does not allow for the evaporation of minerals from salt lakes in the sun. And domestic consumption is not particularly developed. And it is unprofitable to sell lithium to foreign markets - Latin American mining giants are asking much less for the strategic metal. Nevertheless, lithium reserves in Russia are estimated at 900 thousand tons, most of which are concentrated in groundwater.

"Lithium triangle"


An even larger deposit of "dissolved in water" lithium is the high-altitude salt marsh Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia, which, according to various estimates, has preserved up to 100 million tons of metal.

Despite such impressive reserves, it is expensive to extract lithium from the Salar de Uyuni salt marsh, as the ratio of Mg to Li reaches 18,6. For comparison: in the Salar de Atacama salt marsh, the same indicator is close to 6,4.

Together with Argentina, Bolivia and Chile make up the so-called "lithium triangle" of Latin America, which controls up to 70% of the world's lightest metal market.

One can often see the following picture at deposits: powerful pumps pump brine to the surface of salt marshes from the depths of the earth, which in a year and a half in the sun turns into brine. The landscape is mesmerizing - geometrically correct artificial reservoirs, each of which is the size of several football fields, go far beyond the horizon. It takes a lot of energy to fill these tanks.

For example, in the Salar de Atacama salt marsh, mining companies raise up to 2 liters of deep brine per minute to the surface in this way. This seriously accelerates the process of mining lithium salts, but negatively affects the ecological state of the surrounding area. Due to the constant pumping of groundwater and intense evaporation, the supply of fresh water in the area around is decreasing. As a result, residents complain about the lack of fresh water and the massive death of fish in drained water bodies.

The places where lithium was mined in Latin America even received a peculiar name - "white death". The ever-growing demand of the global industry for lithium and the environmental damage associated with mining makes one think about the reality of the "green" status of civilian lithium-ion batteries.

Lithium from stone


It is relatively easy to extract lithium salts from concentrated brine, when the sun and dry climate do some of the work. But what if nature has deprived the area of ​​lithium salt marshes?

You can search in unconventional sources. For example, in associated oil waters or geothermal brines. But the concentration of lithium compounds in them is low - in oil waters the proportion of lithium chloride LiCl is not more than 1 g / l.

Therefore, it is much more profitable to look for metal in the composition of rocks.

Currently, solid minerals hide up to 23% of the world's lithium reserves. Of course, it is difficult and expensive to extract valuable metal from such raw materials. But the high demand for batteries covers all costs. The key minerals of industrial importance are various granites: spodumene, lepidolite, amblygonite and petalite.

The main proven reserves of lithium minerals are located in the United States, China, Australia and Canada. Recently, spodumene deposits were discovered in Portugal, in which the proportion of lithium oxide can reach 5%.

Relatively small deposits of lithium minerals have been found in Russia, Finland, Portugal, and some African countries.

The USA and China are unique in this regard - they are the only countries with granite deposits and saline lithium lakes.

Do not forget about the recycling of failed lithium-ion batteries. One of the first to use a complex recycling procedure at the plant of the American company Rockwood Lithium in 1992 in Canada. The company is now the world leader in the recycling of lithium ion batteries. And the development potential will allow in the future to recycle most of the batteries.

However, now the world's reserves of lithium are so large and widely available that it is much easier to remove the metal from nature than to spend money on laborious extraction from old batteries. According to analysts, if by 2030 the demand for lithium reaches the planned 28 tons per year, then the development of an efficient method of recycling batteries will come to the fore.

From raw materials to semi-finished products


Before lithium becomes part of a storage battery, it must undergo an extraction and enrichment procedure.

First of all, lithium chloride from lake brine must be precipitated in some way in an insoluble form. For this, ammonium bicarbonate is excellent, which allows to isolate up to 99,8% of lithium from brine in the form of carbonate.

And if the concentration of lithium compounds is too low, and chemical precipitation of salts is unprofitable?

For this, technologists have developed methods of selective absorption of compounds dissolved in water by solids - selective sorption. Special ion-exchange resins "taught" to sorb only Li ions+leaving Na ions in solution+ and other active metals.

After primary processing of lithium raw materials, chloride is again obtained from poorly soluble lithium carbonate. The next step is the electrolytic separation of the pure metal. Electrolysis is carried out in a molten salt, pre-adding potassium and barium chlorides to lower the melting point of the electrolysis mixture. The final purification of lithium is carried out by distillation under vacuum conditions in order to exclude contact of the active metal with air components, and at a temperature of about 550 ºС.


Lithium carbonate is the main form for export and import of the world's lightest metal. Source: dw.com

Hard granite lithium-containing minerals are much more difficult to enrich and process. After mechanical crushing of the rock, flotation enrichment of the rock occurs - this is the most common method for the primary processing of solid lithium minerals. For this purpose, particles of rock are moistened with special oils, which are released in the flotation baths as part of the foam. Spodumene minerals are enriched by high temperatures. In the course of such sintering, the mineral particles crack and crumble into powder, which is separated from the gangue minerals by screening or air separation.

Further, the lithium concentrate is transferred to the hands of process chemists. Processing is carried out using lime, sulfate or sulfuric acid methods. For this, calcium carbonate, potassium sulfate and sulfuric acid are used. The output is lithium sulfates and carbonates, which are processed, converting the compounds into lithium chloride.

Lithium comes to consumers in various compounds. Most of all (up to 40% of world sales) falls on lithium carbonate, the second place is taken by liquid lithium concentrate (22%), lithium hydroxide (16%) and lithium chloride (4%). Pure lithium metal accounts for 4% of world sales, the remaining 12% is occupied by multicomponent lithium compounds.

Not just batteries


Lithium in the 70st century is not only a raw material for modern storage batteries. Despite the fact that up to XNUMX% of the world's lightest metal production is spent on the needs of the electric power industry, lithium has found wide application in other industries.

When lithium compounds are added to glass, products made from it become chemically resistant, transmit ultraviolet and infrared radiation - an important property in military affairs. If lithium salts are included in the recipe for making ceramics, then you get high-voltage and high-temperature porcelain.

Lithium salts of fatty acids have found application in lubricants for thickening petroleum oils. For example, lithium stearate is used in the well-known lithol.

Without lithium compounds, a person would hardly have been able to master the depths of the sea and outer space. It's all about lithium peroxide, which is used in systems for cleaning air from carbon dioxide on submarines and manned spacecraft. The reaction takes place with the release of oxygen and the absorption of carbon dioxide.

In nuclear power, lithium is used as a coolant for cooling reactors, and lithium hydride LiH is very promising as a hydrogen storage substance.

Lithium, as a key component of traction batteries for electric vehicles, has already established itself as the “new gasoline” of the 4st century. But scientists are seriously considering lithium as a rocket fuel. It turns out that when lithium hydride, lithium boride LiB and pure metal are burned, up to 000 kcal of energy are released, while ordinary kerosene produces only 2 kcal. Due to the high proportion of oxygen (up to 300%), lithium perchlorates and nitrates can be excellent oxidizers of rocket fuel. For comparison, the classical oxidant ammonium perchlorate contains only 69,5% oxygen.

The prospects for lithium in the power industry are rather unpredictable. On the one hand, the reserves of lithium compounds dissolved in brines will be enough for mankind for no more than 50 years (in solid rocks - for 25 years), and on the other hand, valuable minerals are unlimitedly dissolved in small concentrations in almost all groundwater.

Only now it is completely unprofitable to extract lithium from such water.
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  1. Pavel73
    Pavel73 2 February 2021 05: 09
    +6
    We need to work on sodium as a substitute for lithium. The energy density of the batteries will be about the same, but the price is much lower.
    1. bad
      bad 2 February 2021 07: 14
      +15
      Sodium is heavier. And about the charge density, science does not stand still hi
      1. astepanov
        astepanov 2 February 2021 10: 12
        +8
        Several years ago, the Krymsk hybrid armored personnel carrier was tested in Russia, and now work is underway on a special wheeled platform-O chassis with an electric transmission.
        Only the "Krymsk" didn't smell of lithium. There was a storage device on electrochemical capacitors. And despite the fact that all performance characteristics were provided, the topic was not developed.
        Quote: malo
        Sodium is heavier. And about the charge density, science does not stand still

        The share of lithium in the total mass of the battery is absolutely negligible. Theoretically, with 1 g of lithium, you can get 3,83 A-hour capacity. The main contribution to the mass is made by cathode materials, electrolyte, collectors and housing. So replacing with sodium will not greatly affect energy intensity. The problem is how to do this replacement. And about the fact that "science does not stand still": there is a theoretical limit, and it is almost exhausted. If we were only talking about energy intensity, but in the battery you have to look for compromises between energy intensity, power, resource, safety and price, and energy consumption as a result loses.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 2 February 2021 08: 08
      +10
      We need to work on sodium as a substitute for lithium.
      Sodium ion batteries were developed thirty years ago and are being successfully produced.
      1. nsm1
        nsm1 2 February 2021 09: 40
        -1
        Specific capacity?
  2. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 2 February 2021 05: 18
    +8
    And, of course, hybrid armored vehicles save fuel and engine resource.
    fool Thunder of victory thunder? fool Where did the energy come from in the batteries? Out of the socket?requestThere are positive aspects, but gentlemen, be careful ...
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 2 February 2021 05: 35
      +9
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Where did the energy come from in the batteries?

      This is the question! And electric cars are not so environmentally friendly and cheap: lithium mining, power generation, battery disposal. Here you need to think ...
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 2 February 2021 06: 03
        +2
        You don't have to think. For the convenience of the consumer, for the market - refuse. For "high targets" submarines, Airplanes, missiles, etc. - allow.
        1. user1212
          user1212 2 February 2021 06: 21
          +3
          Quote: Mavrikiy
          For the convenience of the consumer, for the market - refuse. For "high targets" submarines, Airplanes, missiles, etc. - allow.

          Nowadays, not only the army is important, but also the economy, and without communication there is no modern economy. So at the moment, the conventional Amazon is more important than a dozen nuclear submarines, and aliexpress, in terms of the level of influence, successfully replaces the ENTIRE US fleet. Although exaggerated, but not much
        2. RealPilot
          RealPilot 2 February 2021 06: 34
          +1
          And imagine, after a while a separate business will appear: "I will buy old lithium batteries."
          As in 90, they handed over non-ferrous metal, so the batteries will be carried.

          And we buy so much equipment and electronics in Russia that we will have a lot of batteries by that time.
          You don't even need to destroy nature ..
          1. Civil
            Civil 2 February 2021 07: 57
            +1
            I read that our scientists in the year 2015 made an installation for the extraction of lithium from sludge of polymetallic rocks ... further the fate of the project is unknown
          2. nsm1
            nsm1 2 February 2021 07: 58
            0
            Lead has been taken for many, many years in a row ...
          3. evgen1221
            evgen1221 2 February 2021 20: 16
            +1
            Well, only if we stop decreasing the population of 500000 in 5 years
      2. Jacket in stock
        Jacket in stock 2 February 2021 06: 11
        +9
        Quote: Uncle Lee
        electric cars are not so environmentally friendly and cheap: lithium mining, power generation, battery disposal. Here you need to think ...

        What does the golden billionaire care about where and how lithium was mined and how it will be utilized. The main thing is that personally in his city / country there will be less smoke and dust.
      3. rocket757
        rocket757 2 February 2021 06: 19
        0
        Quote: Uncle Lee
        Here you need to think ...

        Are you joking!!!
        What is there to think, we must take!
        However, in addition to the mainstream, there is also rationality, responsibility in decision-making, one can only hope for it.
      4. Professor
        Professor 2 February 2021 07: 46
        +7
        Quote: Uncle Lee
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        Where did the energy come from in the batteries?

        This is the question! And electric cars are not so environmentally friendly and cheap: lithium mining, power generation, battery disposal. Here you need to think ...

        I read a study a couple of years ago. They found out that considering the entire life cycle, the Hummer turned out to be more environmentally friendly than the Toyota Prius. fellow

        PS
        My opinion is that there is no alternative to electric vehicles.
        1. chenia
          chenia 2 February 2021 10: 09
          0
          Quote: Professor
          My opinion is that there is no alternative to electric vehicles.


          Well yes! With Otto motor efficiency (25%)
        2. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 2 February 2021 10: 21
          +4
          Quote: Professor
          My opinion is that there is no alternative to electric vehicles.

          You may not have, but in Russia you will not have enough wires to poke around electric refueling stations.
          1. nsm1
            nsm1 2 February 2021 11: 00
            -3
            Wires are a mere trifle, not even worth mentioning.
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 2 February 2021 11: 13
              +2
              Quote: nsm1
              Wires are a mere trifle, not even worth mentioning.

              Sure. They also need watchmen. And there are enough freeloaders, threw two fishing rods with hooks-wires on the line, and refuel as much as you like.
              1. nsm1
                nsm1 2 February 2021 11: 17
                0
                By the way, yes...
                I read about the Tesla run - from transformer boxes, shields, etc. charging ...
                And we arrived normally.
              2. vadimtt
                vadimtt 2 February 2021 13: 34
                0
                Better watchman than live 6 kV, have not yet been invented! laughing
                1. nsm1
                  nsm1 2 February 2021 15: 36
                  -1
                  Oh, not even an electrician can tell the high side.
                  There is nowhere to connect.
              3. BARKHAN
                BARKHAN 2 February 2021 18: 57
                0
                Quote: mordvin xnumx
                Quote: nsm1
                Wires are a mere trifle, not even worth mentioning.

                Sure. They also need watchmen. And there are enough freeloaders, threw two fishing rods with hooks-wires on the line, and refuel as much as you like.

                20 years in prison for destroying state communications ... and all businesses.
                I remember Genghis Khan with his laws ... for all death. And the order was perfect. These are certainly extreme but very effective measures.
          2. Professor
            Professor 2 February 2021 11: 47
            +1
            Quote: mordvin xnumx
            Quote: Professor
            My opinion is that there is no alternative to electric vehicles.

            You may not have, but in Russia you will not have enough wires to poke around electric refueling stations.

            Even grandfather Ulyanov carried out general electrification. Or not? wink

            Quote: mordvin xnumx
            Quote: nsm1
            Wires are a mere trifle, not even worth mentioning.

            Sure. They also need watchmen. And there are enough freeloaders, threw two fishing rods with hooks-wires on the line, and refuel as much as you like.

            Is it like a USB socket at the airport "charge who wants"? Not so easy. Without ID, electricity won't flow through the wires. hi
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 2 February 2021 12: 08
              +2
              Quote: Professor
              Even grandfather Ulyanov carried out general electrification.

              They didn’t think of electric filling stations. Especially somewhere in the deep taiga. A canister of electricity on the stock is difficult to fill.
              Quote: Professor
              Not so easy. Without ID, electricity won't flow through the wires.

              Homemade products have not yet died out, the transformer in the garage will be bungled.
              1. Professor
                Professor 2 February 2021 12: 20
                +7
                Quote: Mordvin 3
                They didn’t think of electric filling stations. Especially somewhere in the deep taiga. A canister of electricity on the stock is difficult to fill.

                So the socket is enough.

                Quote: Mordvin 3
                Homemade products have not yet died out, the transformer in the garage will be bungled.

                Then charge at your own expense. These things don't work at an electric station. By the way, "getting infected at your own expense" is the most interesting thing. I put solar panels on the roof of my house and you don't depend on anyone. This is how my neighbor charges his Merce.
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 2 February 2021 12: 39
                  0
                  Quote: Professor
                  Then charge at your own expense.

                  Quote: Mordvin 3
                  threw two fishing rods with hooks-wires on the line, and refuel as much as you like.
                  1. Professor
                    Professor 2 February 2021 15: 59
                    +3
                    Quote: mordvin xnumx
                    Quote: Professor
                    Then charge at your own expense.

                    Quote: Mordvin 3
                    threw two fishing rods with hooks-wires on the line, and refuel as much as you like.

                    Damn, was it possible? request
                    1. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 2 February 2021 17: 56
                      +2
                      Quote: Professor
                      could it be so?

                      Specifically, my uncle stole electricity from the pole for several years in the 90s.
                    2. not main
                      not main 3 February 2021 02: 51
                      +2
                      Can! The main thing is not to confuse the lines! 0,4 kV is just right! But to "throw" on 6 or 10 kV is already sad! am
                2. Bolt cutter
                  Bolt cutter 2 February 2021 20: 03
                  0
                  so my neighbor charges his Mears.
                  How long does it take to charge up to 80%?
                  1. Professor
                    Professor 2 February 2021 21: 42
                    -1
                    Quote: Bolt Cutter
                    so my neighbor charges his Mears.
                    How long does it take to charge up to 80%?

                    I didn't ask, but here they write that it's 20 hours from the socket.
                3. zenion
                  zenion 2 February 2021 21: 19
                  +1
                  The American special forces colonel said - there are no sockets in the jungle.
                4. dauria
                  dauria 3 February 2021 09: 11
                  +2
                  I put solar panels on the roof of my house and you don't depend on anyone. This is how my neighbor charges his Merce.

                  Have a horse or a Hindu rickshaw. It will come out cheaper and more environmentally friendly.
                  Well, now the reality is. As soon as the required power is more than 5 horses, and the required time in such a power is a couple of hours, then the total mass of the engine and batteries is no comparison with the internal combustion engine and a bucket of diesel fuel. Everyone enthusiastically considers one hundred percent efficiency of electric motors, forgetting a simple thing. The ICE carries only one component of fuel with it. He takes the oxidizer (oxygen) for free from the air. And it (wait a minute) we need three times more in weight than kerosene. Awesome win over any battery. On a submarine, in space (without this freebie), the picture immediately changes to the opposite.
                  Just imagine in your Zhigulyonka next to a 40-liter gas tank a 200-liter tank of nitric acid. Or oxygen tanks.
                  1. Motorist
                    Motorist 3 February 2021 23: 07
                    +2
                    Quote: dauria
                    And it (wait a minute) we need three times more in weight than kerosene.

                    14,3 kg per kg, EMNIP. Of course, plus or minus, it depends on the calorific value of the fuel. Moreover, the excess air ratio should be, the blowdown ratio. In general, you need a lot of air ...
                    1. dauria
                      dauria 4 February 2021 00: 17
                      +3
                      14,3 kg per kg, EMNIP. Of course give or take


                      This is air, I'm talking about oxygen ... And its fifth part, the rest is unnecessary nitrogen. We will honestly argue with fans of batteries, we do not need too much ... So 3 kilos comes out for complete combustion of 1 kg. wink
                      1. Motorist
                        Motorist 4 February 2021 01: 00
                        +2
                        Quote: dauria
                        This is air, I'm talking about oxygen ...

                        Soryan misunderstood. hi And the "battery people" - the victims of propaganda (IMHO) - do not see the whole cycle. Now, if only a fuel cell ... But so far things are dull - coal cannot become electricity directly (yet). And the MHD generator is a thing, but also - it's still quiet. Maybe, of course, my data is outdated, but I don't see this in my everyday life.
        3. nsm1
          nsm1 2 February 2021 10: 59
          0
          Quote: Professor
          They found out that given the entire life cycle, the Hummer turned out to be more environmentally friendly than the Toyota Prius.
          It depends on the battery life.
          With the emergence of lithium-titanate, although not so long ago, but for a long time, the battery life can exceed the life of a car, mechanics, that is ...
          Tens of thousands of charge-discharge cycles, normal low temperature operation, etc.
          Progress does not stand still.
          1. vadimtt
            vadimtt 2 February 2021 13: 35
            0
            The only pity is that it was in this case that progress in specific capacity stalled. laughing
            1. nsm1
              nsm1 2 February 2021 13: 40
              -2
              The capacity is quite decent.
              "Prius" often comes to me, a taxi ...
              Drove him praises, in traffic jams, in general in the city very economical.
              Here's the thing for such applications.
              1. vadimtt
                vadimtt 2 February 2021 15: 31
                0
                This is when Prius got a lithium titanate battery? It seems even about iron phosphate out of the question.
                1. nsm1
                  nsm1 2 February 2021 15: 34
                  -2
                  Here's the thing for such applications.
                  And where is the word "prius" here?
                  Is it not clear what hybrids were meant, in particular?
                  Or a shunting diesel locomotive?
          2. TANKISTONE
            TANKISTONE 3 February 2021 19: 48
            +1
            nsm1
            They explained to you: soil dehydration - 1. Utilization - 2. And where is this "ecology"? If everything does not happen near your house - do not care, as in Europe ???
        4. for
          for 2 February 2021 13: 56
          0
          Quote: Professor
          turned out to be more environmentally friendly

          It depends on who conducted the research and who is the customer
        5. user1212
          user1212 3 February 2021 06: 11
          -1
          Quote: Professor
          I read a study a couple of years ago. They found out that given the entire life cycle, the Hummer turned out to be more environmentally friendly than the Toyota Prius

          Pay attention to the Prius, not the Tesla. Free journalism is free, yeah
          Quote: Professor
          My opinion is that there is no alternative to electric vehicles.

          Let's see the development of the battery theme. So-so toy IMHO
    2. Jacket in stock
      Jacket in stock 2 February 2021 06: 09
      0
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Where did the energy come from in the batteries? Out of the socket?

      Yes, from the engine. Only there was stored excess engine energy that was not used while driving and, especially, in a parking lot, when the engine was turned on was used as a source of energy for weapons and other equipment.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 2 February 2021 08: 20
        -1
        Quote: Jacket in stock
        Only there was stored excess engine energy, which was not used while driving and, especially, in the parking lot, when the engine was turned on was used as a source of energy for weapons and other equipment.

        Yes, theoretically, on paper, but here are the ravines ... request
    3. Sahalinets
      Sahalinets 2 February 2021 06: 24
      +11
      So the trick is that in terms of energy density per kilogram, even aluminum-lithium batteries are 50 times worse than banal gasoline !!!
      Even taking into account the low efficiency of internal combustion engines, batteries are not a competitor to fossil fuels in serious cars, I'm not even talking about their cost.
      1. nsm1
        nsm1 2 February 2021 08: 00
        -6
        It’s something "Tesla" runs under 800 km on one charge.
        1. Sahalinets
          Sahalinets 2 February 2021 12: 00
          +6
          That's why her batteries weigh under a ton! laughing
        2. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 2 February 2021 13: 31
          +11
          runs under 800 km on a single charge
          Without heater / air conditioner on, with energy saving tires at low speed yes ... Two times the pedal in half a third of the battery is gone.
          1. Sahalinets
            Sahalinets 2 February 2021 14: 47
            +4
            The real power reserve of Tesla S is 300 km. At subzero temperatures - 200 km.
            1. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter 2 February 2021 15: 14
              +4
              Tesla's real power reserve S
              This is usually the second / third car, which drives 50-60 km per day. And they also burn well good
        3. evgen1221
          evgen1221 2 February 2021 20: 21
          +3
          And the battery 18650 in Tesla burns very cheerfully, and without warning, that is, without a haze, even bang and the car is all on fire. There is no chance of dumping even in theory from the salon.
      2. bk316
        bk316 2 February 2021 15: 24
        0
        accumulators lose to banal gasoline 50 times !!!

        And I read that much less ...
    4. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 2 February 2021 07: 47
      -2
      The efficiency of the generator plus electric motor bundle is higher than that of the internal combustion engine
      1. Sahalinets
        Sahalinets 2 February 2021 12: 01
        +4
        And how are you going to turn this generator, with the holy spirit? Or is it an internal combustion engine? laughing
        1. Blackmokona
          Blackmokona 2 February 2021 12: 22
          +1
          The internal combustion engine is constantly in optimal operating mode. Millions of hybrid cars drive and save fuel like this
          1. Sahalinets
            Sahalinets 2 February 2021 13: 31
            +1
            The efficiency of the internal combustion engine in the optimal mode does not exceed 40% for a diesel engine and 30% for others. Add to this the energy conversion losses. I'm not even talking about excess weight and volume of all this good.
            1. Blackmokona
              Blackmokona 2 February 2021 13: 47
              -2
              Works in practice and is widely used. Since the efficiency of the internal combustion engine is not optimal, it is extremely terrible.
              1. Sahalinets
                Sahalinets 2 February 2021 14: 37
                0
                The Mercedes E-class with a 300 horsepower engine spends 8 liters per 100 km in the urban cycle, i.e. in non-optimal mode. Nissan Leaf drives the same 100 km in the urban cycle, then gets up, and its battery weighs 270 kilos!
                At the same time, Leaf's weight is 1,5 tons, estimate the mass of batteries for the same Tiger, let's not talk about tanks.
                1. Blackmokona
                  Blackmokona 2 February 2021 14: 45
                  -1
                  What does the electric car have to do with it? I'm talking about hybrids.
            2. Motorist
              Motorist 3 February 2021 23: 24
              +2
              Quote: Sahalinets
              ICE efficiency in optimal mode does not exceed 40%

              I studied at the "school", and the efficiency of 2-stroke marine diesel engines exceeded 50%. In my course book, Sulzer's RTA84T got 51,6% (effective! At par!). bully
    5. Ruby
      Ruby 2 February 2021 09: 05
      +10
      So everyone knows that electricity is taken from the outlet, and potatoes are immediately growing on the shelf in the supermarket :)
    6. astepanov
      astepanov 2 February 2021 10: 15
      -1
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Where did the energy come from in the batteries? From the outlet? There are positive points, but gentlemen, have a measure ...

      The hybrid drive does not require plug-in power. Energy comes from the internal combustion engine through the generator
      1. Jager
        Jager 2 February 2021 12: 22
        +3
        Such an eco-friendly hybrid, even crawling through the fields near Kursk. True, not for long and not far)
        1. nsm1
          nsm1 3 February 2021 05: 32
          -3
          Shame on you, comrade!
          It's not a hybrid, an electric drivetrain is different.
    7. Motorist
      Motorist 3 February 2021 22: 56
      0
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Where did the energy come from in the batteries? Out of the socket?

      There was something about recuperation when braking. Well, and from the outlet - including. Although the game (saving the resource of the main engine) is, of course, not worth the dressing (all electrics of the movement) - you are right. Stealth is another matter.
    8. Serpet
      Serpet 4 February 2021 13: 45
      +19
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Where did the energy come from in the batteries? Out of the socket?

      That's okay ... Can you explain to me how sinusoidal current flows through straight wires? (joke from electrical engineering)
      1. Motorist
        Motorist 4 February 2021 22: 10
        +1
        Quote: Serpet
        Can you explain to me how sinusoidal current flows through straight wires?

        Elementary! The wire is not infinitely thin - it has a diameter. The larger it is, the more amplitude the sinusoid can be inserted there. Twisted wires - for higher harmonics. laughing
  3. The comment was deleted.
  4. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 2 February 2021 06: 08
    +2
    Dear colleagues! Sell ​​shares in oil and gas companies, buy shares in lithium mining companies.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 2 February 2021 06: 25
      +3
      Quote: Pessimist22
      Dear colleagues! Sell ​​shares in oil and gas companies, buy shares in lithium mining companies.

      Rather, ROSATOM and ROSENERGO.
      1. Pessimist22
        Pessimist22 2 February 2021 06: 57
        0
        I agree that energy is a profitable business, but investments are long-term and low-profit, I think that due to the crisis of capitalism, investments in precious metals and real estate are currently the most promising.
        1. Mavrikiy
          Mavrikiy 2 February 2021 08: 24
          +3
          Quote: Pessimist22
          at the moment the most promising are investments in precious metals and real estate.

          And where are you, with precious metals and real estate without a homeland? repeat
          1. Snail N9
            Snail N9 2 February 2021 11: 03
            0
            Lithium - "new oil". Hehe ... But, not in Russia. I remember how "a certain well-known personality" recently said that in Russia: "People are the second oil" .... Forget about "lithium", but better hold on to your pockets and wallets ... yes
          2. ANB
            ANB 4 February 2021 00: 43
            0
            Uh-huh. With full, the currency will be cartridges. (c) Berkem al Atomi.
      2. antivirus
        antivirus 2 February 2021 13: 04
        0
        it's easier to buy ice in the Arctic and evaporate everything you need from it ...................................... .............. ours.
  5. HaByxoDaBHocep
    HaByxoDaBHocep 2 February 2021 06: 57
    +3
    All these hybrid technologies, gadgets, collimators and night vision devices are good for conventional war, but imagine what will happen to all this equipment with multiple EMPs as a result of the detonation of nuclear weapons, you will have to go into battle with AK-47, BMP-1, T-62 and UAZ with old Urals)
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 2 February 2021 07: 48
      -5
      And imagine what will happen to the BMP-1, T-62 and UAZs with the Urals when nuclear bombs are blown into nuclear ashes?
      1. Pessimist22
        Pessimist22 2 February 2021 08: 02
        0
        I think it will not be effective for BMP and T62 to work with nuclear bombs.
        1. Blackmokona
          Blackmokona 2 February 2021 08: 23
          -4
          Why? In order to destroy tank wedges and tactical nuclear weapons were developed
      2. HaByxoDaBHocep
        HaByxoDaBHocep 3 February 2021 06: 35
        +2
        So they will already walk through the ashes) I do not think that someone will climb wedges under nuclear strikes
        1. Blackmokona
          Blackmokona 3 February 2021 10: 24
          -1
          Where will he go?
    2. nsm1
      nsm1 2 February 2021 08: 00
      -1
      EMP protection has long been developed.
  6. Jacket in stock
    Jacket in stock 2 February 2021 08: 07
    +1
    I repeat.
    For what reason did this essay at the 5th grade of high school get into the analyst section?
    Who and what is analyzing here?
    1. Pilot
      Pilot 2 February 2021 08: 24
      0
      Oil and gas raw materials are swayed, piled up .. laughing
      1. Captain45
        Captain45 2 February 2021 10: 49
        +4
        Quote: Pilot
        Oil and gas raw materials are swayed, piled up ..

        So it is necessary to save lithium and use it not for batteries, but for its intended purpose - to treat the "Berlin patient" and his followers. Doctors say lithium helps expel shizu well from the brain laughing
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 2 February 2021 13: 42
          +1
          Doctors say lithium helps
          From 1929 to 1948, 7up lemonade contained the psychoactive lithium citrate. Prior to this, CocaCola was produced with a version that contained lithium and was advertised as a hangover cure (so called Lithia Coke) wassat Lithium is psychoactive (among other antidepressant effects), although its mechanism of action is still not understood.
    2. astepanov
      astepanov 2 February 2021 10: 31
      +2
      Quote: Jacket in stock
      this essay at grade 5 level

      What did you want on a popular resource? The accuracy and completeness of the scientific article? For me, this is how the problem is outlined quite clearly and correctly. Controversial? Yes, it's debatable. But you will find the same controversy in full reviews from professionals.
      1. Jacket in stock
        Jacket in stock 2 February 2021 11: 42
        -2
        Quote: astepanov
        the problem is outlined quite clearly and correctly. Controversial? Yes, it's debatable. But you will find the same controversy in full reviews from professionals.

        Controversial? What is there to argue about?
        Problem? What's the problem? What is it?
        A set of some facts, also with errors.
        what to argue about?
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 2 February 2021 08: 43
    +3
    "New Oil of the XXI Century". Lithium is a strategic resource for the future
    The headline, as always, is catchy and, as in most cases in today's journalism, is far from reality.
    Science is moving forward and is working to replace lithium-ion batteries with more efficient ones.
    In the very near future, fluoride-ionic.

    Until now, the problem was the operating temperature of such batteries above 150 degrees Celsius), but the Japanese and Germans have solved this issue.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 2 February 2021 08: 55
      +7
      Nevertheless, in Russia, lithium reserves are estimated at 900 thousand tons, most of which are concentrated in groundwater.
      The author is clearly far from the topic. The main lithium reserves in Russia are confined to the pegmatite veins of the Kola Peninsula (Western Keivy), where more than 50% of Russian lithium reserves are concentrated in the form of such a mineral as spodumene.
    2. nsm1
      nsm1 2 February 2021 09: 46
      -3
      Lanthanum?!
      Unreal...
      1. astepanov
        astepanov 2 February 2021 10: 27
        +1
        Are you talking about fluoride-ion? Yes, it's unreal. And it is hard to believe that a purely metal anode will have a high resource and service life. In addition, it will not work at subzero temperatures (solid electrolyte, nothing can be done), poisonous filling of lead or bismuth fluorides, and stories about "ten times the capacity" are for kindergarten. In reality, the parameters are the same as those of lithium-ion.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 2 February 2021 11: 13
          +1
          And it's hard to believe
          In science and technology, the issue of faith is not considered. This is to the priest. The result matters here.
          What sources and when did you last look?
          1. The eye of the crying
            The eye of the crying 2 February 2021 11: 42
            0
            What sources did you look at and what is the "nearest perspective"? https://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Technology/Kyoto-University-and-Toyota-test-1-000-km-per-charge-EV-battery "Many experts believe it will be sometime in the 2030s before commercially viable FIBs are available "
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 2 February 2021 12: 21
              +3
              Well, I cannot master such serious sources as you.
              I leaf more, which is simpler, magazines like the Journal of Fluorine Chemistry or Science.
              And in your opinion 2030 is a distant prospect?
              1. The eye of the crying
                The eye of the crying 2 February 2021 12: 27
                -1
                Quote: Undecim
                I leaf more, which is simpler, magazines like the Journal of Fluorine Chemistry or Science.


                Knowing the names of the magazines is really easy. Linking to specific reviews is harder.

                Quote: Undecim
                And in your opinion 2030 is a distant prospect?


                If you read carefully, you would see that it is not "in 2030" but "somewhere in the 2030s." And this, of course, is not "the nearest future."
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 2 February 2021 12: 36
                  0
                  Linking to specific articles is harder.
                  Nothing complicated.
                  https://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/suppl/2018/12/05/362.6419.1144.DC1/aat7070_Davis_SM.pdf
                  In the Journal of Fluorine Chemistry for money only. Sorry.
                  And the thirties are already near. You won't have time to look back.
                  1. The eye of the crying
                    The eye of the crying 2 February 2021 12: 53
                    -1
                    Quote: Undecim
                    https://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/suppl/2018/12/05/362.6419.1144.DC1/aat7070_Davis_SM.pdf


                    These are supplementary materials, not an article. Give DOI immediately smile The article itself does not look like a review.

                    Quote: Undecim
                    And the thirties are already near. You won't have time to look back.


                    The thirties is also 2039. I will have time to look back more than once.
          2. astepanov
            astepanov 2 February 2021 17: 09
            -1
            Quote: Undecim
            In science and technology, the issue of faith is not considered.

            Well, then do the math. I found it with difficulty, but the standard Gibbs potential for cerium trifluoride is about 1577 kJ / mol. You can find the parameters for lead difluoride yourself. From them, it is easy to calculate (using Faraday's law - school method) and EMF, and specific capacity, and the theoretical limit of energy consumption. Count, and then compare with the same limit for well-known systems - say, a nickel-zinc battery. You will be pleasantly surprised. I think you can handle it - all the same, what articles you read. And, by the way, where is the confidence that cerium or lanthanum will cycle for a long time in a non-aqueous electrolyte? With calcium, this problem has not been resolved for forty years, and neither with pure lithium.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 2 February 2021 18: 08
              +1
              I have a hard time but found
              I congratulate you. I am glad that there are still talents who, using simple school methods, in five minutes refute the long-term efforts of all types of scientists and research institutes, eating up huge budgets.
              I will not even try to refute your conclusion.
              1. astepanov
                astepanov 2 February 2021 18: 51
                +1
                Honorable, turn down your ambition. I have been doing HIT for the fifth decade, I have a lot of implemented (including in the defense industry) work. And if you are not able to perform the simplest thermodynamic calculation, then this is your problem. As for "the type of scientists and research institutes eating up huge budgets," we simply do not have them in Russia, if we are talking about HIT. There was "Quant" and NIIHIT, but what is left? Chubaisov Liotech? Are you just sitting on grants at a university? Are you finishing off an ancient potentiostat like Pi-500? Do you write articles based on the dissertation and without the prospect of implementation? You, venerable, do not know that the prospects of any work begin precisely with the simplest estimates, and if you are not familiar with the basics of electrochemistry - so what to talk about?
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 2 February 2021 19: 04
                  +1
                  Well, my ambition is far from yours.
                  It is strange that a person who has been involved in HIT for the fifth decade does not know that besides Russia there are other countries in which there are also people who have been involved in HIT for the fifth decade.
                  Really, you are not familiar with the achievements of foreign colleagues.
                  You, venerable, do not know that the prospects of any work begin precisely with the simplest estimates, and if you are not familiar with the basics of electrochemistry - so what to talk about?
                  And you tell me about ambition!
                  All the best to you and success in your studies of HIT for the next thirty years.
      2. The eye of the crying
        The eye of the crying 2 February 2021 10: 48
        -2
        What's wrong with lanthanum? They write that it is more common than cobalt or lithium.
        1. nsm1
          nsm1 2 February 2021 10: 51
          -2
          This, as the name suggests, lanthanoid.
          Separating them is very difficult.
  8. Gardamir
    Gardamir 2 February 2021 10: 31
    +4
    A good, necessary article, but unfortunately abusive articles have a higher rating.
  9. Kushka
    Kushka 2 February 2021 13: 18
    +1
    Quote: nsm1
    That "Tesla" runs under 800 km on one charge[i] [/ i].

    Recently I read somewhere about some research,
    according to which an electric car would finally become
    that plus, that is, to kill all the minus that arises
    during its production, it must work for 30 years. And only then
    we can say that this is a plus, compared to a car
    with internal combustion engine.
    1. The eye of the crying
      The eye of the crying 2 February 2021 15: 42
      -2
      Quote: Kushka
      Recently I read somewhere about some research,
      according to which an electric car would finally become
      that plus, that is, kill all that minus


      Did the research use these terms directly, "to become a plus" and "to interrupt a minus"?
      1. Kushka
        Kushka 2 February 2021 16: 20
        +2
        Forgive me for God's sake, the Almighty did not honor me
        memorize texts like the legendary Kuznetsov.
        But the general meaning was just that - during production
        electric car everything, as with everything - harmful emissions in
        industrial-scale atmosphere, resource burning,
        environmental harm - someone translated it all into money,
        considered the benefits of operating an electric vehicle and
        made a conclusion - going into "plus" will be in 30 years
        exploitation (if he "survives", of course).
        For what I bought, for what I sold.
      2. The eye of the crying
        The eye of the crying 2 February 2021 16: 54
        -1
        Clear. I wonder how they thought - with the generation of electricity at a coal-fired power plant?
  10. certero
    certero 2 February 2021 14: 13
    0
    Despite all this, in just a year, the price of lithium fell by almost 50%. And this year it has not yet grown to the limit values ​​of 2018. Hence the conclusion of lithium on the planet so far dofiga
    1. Motorist
      Motorist 3 February 2021 23: 41
      0
      Quote: certero
      lithium on the planet bye dofiga

      As my thermodynamics teacher used to say: the question is not when the oil will run out, but when the oil will run out at such and such a price.
  11. trahterist
    trahterist 2 February 2021 16: 55
    +1
    Quote: Professor
    Quote: Mordvin 3
    They didn’t think of electric filling stations. Especially somewhere in the deep taiga. A canister of electricity on the stock is difficult to fill.

    So the socket is enough.

    Quote: Mordvin 3
    Homemade products have not yet died out, the transformer in the garage will be bungled.

    Then charge at your own expense. These things don't work at an electric station. By the way, "getting infected at your own expense" is the most interesting thing. I put solar panels on the roof of my house and you don't depend on anyone. This is how my neighbor charges his Merce.

    Strange, in the same Britain the installation and operation of solar panels is still LOST, and is subsidized by the state.
    There are no fools to install purely "for their own".
    And this is with a much more "money" population on average.
    I know firsthand how things are in this market, I myself worked at ION Energy at one time.
    But the elves have no alternatives, yeah ...
    IMHO, a portable nuclear energy source is the future, and all this alternatives with hybrids, teslama debris and other wind turbines with panels is a maximum for purely applied tasks, and then only temporarily.
    1. The eye of the crying
      The eye of the crying 2 February 2021 17: 01
      -1
      Quote: trahterist
      IMHO, portable nuclear power source is the future,


      He's not there yet.
    2. Alex013
      Alex013 2 February 2021 21: 32
      0
      In Israel, sunny days are an order of magnitude higher than in Britain ...
  12. Eroma
    Eroma 2 February 2021 23: 52
    0
    Informative hi
  13. Blastmassa
    Blastmassa 3 February 2021 22: 05
    0
    an attempt to direct attention to the lunar program
  14. Mikhalych
    Mikhalych 4 February 2021 10: 12
    +1
    Secondly, the military is constantly increasing the number of gadgets.
    .
    Lord! How annoying I am with all these gadgets (English gadget - a gadget, device, trinket). Look how many Russian words. My power, so I would send these lovers of the overseas word to the wipers.
  15. trahterist
    trahterist 4 February 2021 22: 44
    0
    Quote: Eye of the Crying
    Quote: trahterist
    IMHO, portable nuclear power source is the future,


    He's not there yet.

    Panels, wind turbines and lithium batteries with Acceptable characteristics and efficiency are all the more fantastic.
    And in nuclear technologies, there are successes in the direction of compactness.
  16. trahterist
    trahterist 4 February 2021 22: 54
    0
    Quote: Alex013
    In Israel, sunny days are an order of magnitude higher than in Britain ...

    And how much does Israel need that energy?
    But serious production, transport infrastructure, communications and servicing all the needs of large residential areas with those obscenely frivolous indicators of the effectiveness of the panels is about nothing.
    But the show turns out to be spectacular, you can't argue with that.
  17. trahterist
    trahterist 4 February 2021 23: 01
    0
    Quote: Mikhalych
    Secondly, the military is constantly increasing the number of gadgets.
    .
    Lord! How annoying I am with all these gadgets (English gadget - a gadget, device, trinket). Look how many Russian words. My power, so I would send these lovers of the overseas word to the wipers.

    Strongly agree.
    There are specific terms for which it is difficult to find suitable words from a foreign language (computer, touchpad, file, collector, etc.).
    But when the device is called a gadget, Creativity-creative, development-development, display-rendering, business-business, case-case, and similar geek words, then there really is a strong desire to punch such characters from their feet into a pumpkin.
  18. Intruder
    Intruder 6 February 2021 00: 02
    +1
    The prospects for lithium in the power industry are rather unpredictable. On the one hand, the reserves of lithium compounds dissolved in brines will be enough for mankind for no more than 50 years (in solid rocks - for 25 years), and on the other hand, valuable minerals are unlimitedly dissolved in small concentrations in almost all groundwater.
    Hm
    Rather, there is relatively little that has been explored. In 2019, the global proven reserves of this metal were estimated at 17 million tons. In Russia - about 900 tons. If we take the potentially “fertile” deposits, then we get about 000 million tons. Perhaps geologists are exploring new deposits, but in any case, there is little lithium on Earth.
  19. Intruder
    Intruder 6 February 2021 00: 07
    +2
    Together with Argentina, Bolivia and Chile make up the so-called "lithium triangle" of Latin America, which controls up to 70% of the world's lightest metal market.

    and where are the rest of the suppliers and deposits, to complete the "picture" !?:
    The main supply of lithium is carried out from Australia (18,3 thousand tons per year), compared with: Chile (14,1 thousand tons per year) and Argentina (5,5 thousand tons per year). In the near future, lithium suppliers are planning to increase its production and supply to the world market.
  20. the same doctor
    the same doctor 3 March 2021 11: 23
    0
    The author does not quite understand what he is compiling. For example: the figure for kerosene. It can be correct only when calculated together with an oxidizing agent - liquid oxygen. kg of kerosene. 4 kg of oxygen. For 5 kg of the mixture, approximately 2300 kcal is obtained. With other oxidants, the figure will be different