Military Review

Towers among the rocks

148

Lithograph from a drawing by M. Yu. Lermontov with a tower on a rock ... It bears Lermontov's handwritten inscription: "View of the Krestovaya mountain from the ravine near Kobi." Four lithographs were made from the drawing, and this name was passed on to them, but this is not entirely correct: Lermontov in this case depicted the village of Sioni, located between Stepantsminda and Kobi (now the Kazbegi municipality in Georgia). The Watchtower and Zion Church, painted in the center on the rock, have survived to this day. Due to a mistake made when transferring the image to a lithographic stone, the landscape on the print turned out to be mirror-rotated in relation to the real landscape. Pushkin House, Saint Petersburg


In the deep gorge of Darial,
Where the Terek rummages in the darkness,
The old tower stood
Blackening on a black rock
Tamara. M. Yu. Lermontov

Stories about castles. It so happens that someone is afraid of the virus and sits at home, while someone goes to rest in the Caucasus, bathes there in hot springs and breathes mountain air in the foothills of Elbrus. For example, this is what my daughter did and had a good time there. And, of course, her "task", as always, included the collection of interesting information for the site "Military Review". Therefore, when she was also offered to go and see some mountain towers, she agreed without hesitation. This is how I got interesting photos, and this is how this article about “towers in the Caucasus” was born.


M. Yu. Lermontov "Caucasian view near the village of Sioni". 1837-1838 State reserve "Tarkhany"

Even today, more than 120 of them have been identified ...


And it so happened that for some reason the local residents began to build towers in the North Caucasus a very long time ago, back in the era of megaliths. Then their construction stopped, but then resumed in the Middle Ages. And so many of them were built in the same Ingushetia that it was called "the country of towers". And today, more than 120 of them have been identified here, although, most likely, there are much more of them.

It is believed that they were built in the XIII-XIV centuries. and up to the XVII century, well, then they got a lot during the Caucasian War of 1817-1864. and during the deportation of the Ingush people in the period 1944-1957, when almost half of these towers were simply destroyed.


And here is the memory of those dramatic events. Both people and stones remember them!

In any case, история the appearance of tower-like buildings in the Caucasus is lost in the darkness of the centuries, since it dates back to the XNUMXst millennium BC. e. - the period of the spread of the Koban culture.

Not just a tower, but a whole family complex!


But later in the mountains of Ingushetia in the Middle Ages, villages appeared, consisting of a kind of knightly castles. They consisted of stone towers intended for habitation, as well as semi-combat and combat towers, united into one single family complex. Many villages were surrounded by high defensive stone walls. Moreover, the battle towers were especially high and strong, differing in strict proportions and ... very thick walls, the thickness of the masonry of which at the base reached one meter!


The stone walls of mountain settlements are illuminated by the dawn sun ...

Why the local residents built such specific residential buildings is clear as daylight: they were constantly threatened by both external aggressors and internal civil strife. Therefore, like it or not, but it was necessary to build just such fortress houses. Fortunately, there was plenty of building material around.


Once upon a time people lived here ...

Each such mountain settlement, like a Western European medieval castle, was a completely self-sufficient association of neighboring relatives living side by side. The life of such a "cell of society" was led by the elders, who acted in strict accordance with the people's law - adat. That is, they were small and completely independent from each other "medieval cities", in which the interests of the community were put at the head. Accordingly, several of these settlements constituted something like a federation of town-villages. They stood on strategically important passes and in gorges - the largest point in the most important such place, it was also something like the capital of such an association.


And finally the tower. She is ahead ... and we will go to her now!

Sleek and durable!


It is believed that the Ingush towers stand out among all other towers of neighboring peoples for their special grace and a large number of small details built into the walls and fences. These are horse feeders, stone hitching posts, and stone canopies over the windows. In addition, it is the Ingush towers that are the highest, that is, their construction required enormous labor and considerable skill from their builders.


The tower is getting closer ...

EI Krupnov, a well-known researcher of the Caucasus of the Soviet era, wrote in his fundamental work "Medieval Ingushetia":

Ingush battle towers are in the true sense the pinnacle of architectural and construction skills of the ancient population of the region. It amazes with its simplicity of form, monumentality and strict grace. <...> The Ingush towers for their time were a true miracle of human genius, as for our century new steps of man into the sky.

Note that since there has always been a huge shortage of fertile land in these places, so that literally every piece of it was used for sowing, they tried to choose the most barren areas for the construction of tower settlements, where nothing could grow, or even built on bare stones.


Nearer…

We must not forget that the place where the towers were built is also located in an earthquake-prone zone: here you have to fear earthquakes, avalanches, landslides, and also floods in the gorges! Therefore, they tried to build towers where all these misfortunes did not threaten the buildings. But the local residents had no problems with drinking water, since there were many rivers and springs in the mountains. In any case, the aesthetics and order of construction of the tower structures were followed very strictly. There was no place for fantasy. Everything was supposed to be like everyone else!

Towers among the rocks
The device of the Ingush combat tower. Drawing by Shcheblykin I.P. 1928

"Building a tower is tricky: first we take ..."


The construction of the Ingush towers according to the tradition, coming from the darkness of centuries, was accompanied by various rituals. The first stones were stained with the blood of a sacrificial ram. And, of course, a contract for good feeding was concluded with the foreman and workers, and they, in turn, had to work tirelessly. It is interesting that the tower was built from the inside, no scaffolding was erected for this, and there would not be as much forest here. For work, temporary flooring was installed along the perimeter of the tower. They laid out part of the walls and raised the flooring to a new height. But when it was necessary to lay out the pyramidal roof - a characteristic feature of the Ingush towers, then the master had to work outside, tied with ropes. Note that the pyramidal-stepped roof of the tower usually consisted of thirteen slate slabs, and this whole structure was crowned with a large cone-shaped stone, which was lifted up on ropes. Having installed this stone, the master went downstairs and, having received a symbolic "release plate", according to custom, left a handprint on the mortar of the masonry at the entrance or knocked out its outline with a chisel on the stone, after which the construction was considered complete. Ingush folk songs have come down to us, telling about the construction of such towers, glorifying their beauty, and also the skill and talent of the masters who built these towers. And one of them is called: "Illy on how the tower was built."

Tower as a criterion of "strength"


Again, according to custom, the tower should have been built in exactly one year (365 days). Because otherwise, everyone began to consider this genus weak. It happened that the tower collapsed, but it was the family that was blamed for this first of all: they say, the poor were poor and the builders were poorly fed. But even with those whose towers cracked or even collapsed, they tried not to conclude contracts. And, of course, the craft of a tower builder in Ingushetia was in great esteem, and a master who built many strong and beautiful towers was considered a very respected person.


And this is the Vovnushka tower with a flat roof with a parapet for shooters! Photo "public domain" from Internet resources

It is interesting that there was a division according to separate "specialties": there were miners of building stone, stone cutters, hired carriers, stone cutters and actually builders-masons. Of course, every physically healthy man could build a barn from stones that lie literally underfoot in this country, or, say, a corral for cattle. But to fold the high tower - this already required great skill. It is not for nothing that the people's memory has preserved the names of their builders to this day.


Vovnushki, east wing. Photo "public domain" from Internet resources

The highlanders' towers were divided into three types


The first type is residential towers, in fact, just stone residential buildings of two or three floors with an average height of 10-12 meters and an area from 5 × 6 to 10 × 12 m at the base. The walls narrowed upward, which was a characteristic feature of the architecture of the Ingush of the Middle Ages.

The towers in Gornaya Ingushetia were built on mortar, the walls were covered with a thick layer of yellow or yellow-white plaster, and inside the masonry seams were covered with mortar. According to legend, milk or whey and chicken egg protein were added to its composition.


Vovnushki against the background of the Rocky Ridge. Try to reach their inhabitants! Photo "public domain" from Internet resources

A feature of the structure was an internal support pillar, on which all the beams of the interfloor floors rested. On top of these beams, brushwood was laid, on which clay was then poured and carefully tamped. The roof was made in the same way.


And here, finally, and "our" tower! People nearby for scale

The height of the ceiling in the living room, where the family stayed most of the time, was 3-4 m. On the third floor there was a warehouse, and there could also be a guest room and a balcony. There were many loopholes within the walls, so this dwelling could well serve as a fortress. By the way, there were also slave cages here ...


So it looks close ...

The semi-combat towers were built in 3-4 floors. They were almost square and smaller than residential ones. Height - 12-16 m. The main thing that made them different from residential towers was the absence of a central support pillar. But on them there were balconies-mashikuli, like those of combat towers, but the entrance was arranged in the same way as in the residential ones, that is, on the first floor. Semi-combat towers, for which the entrance was located on the second floor, like in combat ones, are quite rare. Everything here was thought out to the smallest detail. Each floor was designed for a specific need. So, on the first, prisoners were usually kept, on the second there were guards, on the third and fourth there lived the defenders (garrison) of the tower and the families that lived in it, on the fifth there were family members and sentinels.


We go around it from all sides

The entrance to such a tower was usually at the level of the second floor, so there was no point in using a battering ram to knock out the door. Only a few of the towers, built in the wildest and most inaccessible places, had an entrance on the first floor.

Neither set on fire nor capture!


And if the ceilings in the residential towers were made of wood and clay, then the ceiling was laid out in the battle in the form of a false vault of lancet outlines. It was impossible to set such a vault on fire from below, and it was also impossible to climb up without a ladder. And being below (if the enemies managed to enter the first floor) is also not an option, since loopholes for shooting were provided in the floor.


There are only stones around. But once life was in full swing here!

Again, starting from the second floor, each of them had skylights, loopholes and viewing slots, completely invisible from the outside. Moreover, the loopholes were located so that there was no impenetrable space around the tower.

Besides stocks weapons, on the fifth-sixth floors, stocks of stones were also stored to be dropped on the besiegers. Moreover, due to the slope of the walls, and it reached 10-11 degrees on the battle towers, and in the battle tower of the village of Upper Leymi it was 14 degrees at all, stones were not thrown, but simply rolled down the wall. That is why they tried to stockpile "sharp" stones, which from hitting the rocky base of the tower scattered to pieces in all directions.

That is, even coming close to the walls of the tower, the enemy could achieve little, since a hail of stones immediately fell on him from above. And moving away from the tower, he came under shots from the upper floors!

The five-story towers reached a height of 20-25 meters, while the six-story towers were already 26-30 meters high.

"Lights on the towers: the enemies are coming!"


Ingush settlements were located at a distance of 500 meters to one kilometer from each other. So the towers were clearly visible and could also be used as signal towers: an alarm transmitted from tower to tower in a matter of minutes passed many kilometers from one village to another.


But down there, life is in full swing today. Mansions, cars, and the "memory of ancestors" remained high in the mountains!

The towers of Ingushetia, like the towers in the cities of Italy, are a vivid manifestation of the ancient national culture that has survived to this day, unique in all respects. Moreover, the Ingush are still mentally connected with their tower culture and are proud of its traditions. For them, it is a symbol of respect for their home as a family sanctuary, and family and clan for a highlander is still the most important thing in life!

PS All photographs (except for those signed accordingly) belong to S. Zolotareva.
Author:
148 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Soveticos
    Soveticos 6 February 2021 06: 54
    +6
    Thank you for the article. It was informative. It is a pity that there are no photos of the interior.
    1. kalibr
      6 February 2021 07: 21
      +14
      And there is nothing inside. A hole in the ceiling and that's it. There are no stairs. And even then - a log with notches - here is the ladder
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 6 February 2021 08: 54
        +10
        How interesting.
        You know, a long time ago, forty years ago, I read a children's book about revolutionaries. There were stories and the last one was about such a tower. I don't remember the name. Meaning - a young Caucasian volunteered to cover the retreat of the red partisan detachment, bled to death in battles. At night, the guy with his old mother occupied such a tower and for several days they did not let the pursuing White Guards through. The mother was loading the rifles and the guy was shooting.
        And the illustrations were like lithographs.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 6 February 2021 09: 06
          +11
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          How interesting.
          You know, a long time ago, forty years ago, I read a children's book about revolutionaries. There were stories and the last one was about such a tower. I don't remember the name. Meaning - a young Caucasian volunteered to cover the retreat of the red partisan detachment, bled to death in battles. At night, the guy with his old mother occupied such a tower and for several days they did not let the pursuing White Guards through. The mother was loading the rifles and the guy was shooting.
          And the illustrations were like lithographs.

          I remember this story! laughing In my opinion, the film was made on him
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 6 February 2021 15: 58
          +7
          Chief, I remember this story. More or less like this. His mother asked him: to show how to load new guns. They placed their rifles in each window, when the whites came up, they came under fire. Behind, someone was approaching the tower, my mother saw, took an old gun and shot the enemy.
          White could do nothing, and there was nowhere to put the weapon. They sent an envoy: either the red detachment leaves (they say that there is a whole detachment) or they will destroy the tower from the guns. The guy pretended to believe in the gun and agreed to leave at night with the detachment.
          I was in first grade, and a teacher was reading this story for third grade students. We studied the first and third grades together, while the second, fourth, and so on were independently.
          And now I remember, on the classroom door: a diamond of black glass and yellow numbers 1-3. Then these signs broke. And for me, even now, such plates are the most beautiful
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 6 February 2021 17: 04
        +4
        Similar towers were built in Ireland approximately on the same principle.
        I read the sequel: "Along with the Wind", where Scarlett invited Ret Butler to go to the homeland of their ancestors. They spent the night in a tower like this
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 21: 10
          +5
          Similar towers were built in Ireland approximately on the same principle.

          To the author - our Vyacheslav Olegovich, I will join Vera-Astra! love Give an article about the towers of Scotland and Ireland. angry otherwise I'll be angry! drinks
          Colleagues, the culture of the North Caucasus must be understood. Does anyone know the Nart epic? Nobody! And these legends are comparable to the myths of Ancient Greece and Kalevala. Although the Nart epic is very shady. Especially in the .. um .. breeding part. Take at least Sosruko or Dzerassa! request
          I first learned about the epic two years ago. From my fiance's school teacher, who now lives in St. Petersburg, not far from us. He is a Kabardian. But there were few people with whom I could chat about Napoleon and Berthier! good

          Need to live. We must be friends. We must study each other's history. You need to be strong - all good people. Then no one will break us. drinks
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 6 February 2021 21: 30
            +5
            Does anyone know the Nart epic?
            Everyone who watched Soviet filmstrips.

            Filmstrip 1957 "The Legend of Dahanago".
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 21: 37
              +4
              Filmstrip 1957 "The Legend of Dahanago".

              But I haven't watched this filmstrip, Viktor Nikolaevich!
              But from the customers are two girls from the mountains. One is called Zalina, the other is Dzerassa. I saw the latter - a very interesting mountain beauty. love You know, my bride is from Kabarda. There would be no happiness, but our common misfortune helped ... wink
              Can I be frank? When a person gives up his unproductive addictions, he changes in three weeks. God Himself (or Allah) slips the necessary solutions. So it is with me. To which I am glad! drinks
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 6 February 2021 21: 43
                +5
                I still have these filmstrips. But time takes its toll, the image quality deteriorates.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 21: 49
                  +5
                  I still have these filmstrips.

                  Soviet masterpieces ... Keep!
              2. Undecim
                Undecim 6 February 2021 21: 50
                +2
                But from the customers are two girls from the mountains. One is called Zalina, the other is Dzerassa.
                Ossetian women?
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 11
                  +2
                  Ossetian women?

                  I think yes. Dzerassa - for sure. A very beautiful girl, non-standard. love
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 6 February 2021 22: 29
                    +3

                    Even as a schoolboy in the circus, I watched - the famous without exaggeration Dzerassa Tuganova.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 32
                      +5
                      Even as a schoolboy in the circus, I watched - the famous without exaggeration Dzerassa Tuganova.

                      Look about the character Dzerassu in the Nart epic on Wikipedia - there is a very intricate intimate life. wink How poor I live ... recourse
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 6 February 2021 22: 35
                        +5
                        How poor I live ...
                        And what is holding back fantasies?
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 40
                        +5
                        And what is holding back fantasies?

                        And you are a very intricate provocateur ... wink Everything is there that is impossible for an ordinary person! request
            2. kalibr
              6 February 2021 21: 51
              +2
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              God Himself (or Allah) slips the necessary solutions.

              He always finds the right solutions. 46 years of my marriage is the guarantee!
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 11
                +4
                He always finds the right solutions. 46 years of my marriage is the guarantee!

                Believe it or not, I also became a fatalist. Everything has its time... yes
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 6 February 2021 22: 37
                  +3
                  Everything has its time...
                  This is not fatalism, this is laziness.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 45
                    +3
                    This is not fatalism, this is laziness.

                    And I will not look like initiative hamsters! I have such a concept as "conscience". negative
          2. kalibr
            6 February 2021 21: 50
            +2
            Quote: Undecim
            Filmstrip 1957 "The Legend of Dahanago".

            Favorite filmstrip!
          3. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 7 February 2021 08: 14
            +1
            Viktor Nikolaevich, is this legend on YouTube?
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 7 February 2021 09: 55
              +3
              It is on the net.
        2. kalibr
          6 February 2021 21: 41
          +2
          "The narration of the Narts says - who is the bravest of all in the world?
          Brave all overshadowed by the courage of all the bravest Dahanago!
          Who is more beautiful than all beauties, like the sun and the moon ...
          Glorious for their wondrous beauty, more beautiful than Dahonago! "
          Once he knew "The Legend of Dahanago" almost by heart, but there is this: "The exiled hero, his friends and enemies ..." There is a very funny thing described - "Wheel of Balsag", the only example of a living, and even harmful wheels ... There is no other epic like this!
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 21: 46
            +2
            "The exiled hero, his friends and enemies ..." There is a very funny thing described - "Wheel of Balsag", the only example of a living, and even harmful wheel ... There is no other epic like that!

            The Nart epic is the same for the North Caucasus, only the names of the main characters (language!) And the presence of minor characters differ. soldier
            Soslan - among the Ossetians. Sosruko - it is called by the Kabardians. And yet, yes, the Fiery Wheel ran over his legs. request I learned this from Arthur (see comment above), I need to introduce him to our Anton 3x3zsave and to Sergei Mikhailov. drinks
            Blue lake in the CBD. Did Svetlana ride him? A snapshot of my Asya.
            1. kalibr
              6 February 2021 21: 47
              +2
              We didn't talk about the lake ...
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 09
                +3
                We didn't talk about the lake ...

                Sorry. There are trout there. National resort. request
                Svetlana brought slippers on sheepskin? Cool! The Balkars make them. Mine brought them as gifts to my family. good
                1. kalibr
                  7 February 2021 07: 34
                  +2
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  sheepskin slippers?

                  She brought me a bed for the back made of wool - it is just great to sleep on it!
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 7 February 2021 17: 58
                    +2
                    She brought me a bed for the back made of wool - it is just great to sleep on it!

                    Bow to her! love cares! But the sheepskin stuff is really cool there. good my sneakers are not happy. yes
    2. kapitan92
      kapitan92 7 February 2021 02: 14
      +3
      Quote: kalibr
      And there is nothing inside. A hole in the ceiling and that's it. There are no stairs. And even then - a log with notches - here is the ladder

      hi

      Ingushetia, family towers
      Also very interesting material with great photos.
      https://varlamov.ru/313843.html
      Vyacheslav thanks for the article, informative and interesting! hi
  2. Bar1
    Bar1 6 February 2021 09: 13
    +8
    In the era of firearms, there was no longer any sense in building such towers as defensive structures: to roll up the gun and roll the tower over the stones. Apparently this tower, like the pyramids, was for something else.
    In general, these are just separate towers, but there were whole castles that were for some reason destroyed, only towers remained in some places. For example, in Yaroslavl, the walls were also demolished there, but the towers were left. So you wonder why.



    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 6 February 2021 09: 33
      +5
      Rather, the work of sappers is very thick walls hi
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 6 February 2021 09: 49
        +3
        the brigands will shoot the sappers from above.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 6 February 2021 11: 42
          +4
          During the assault, the abreks have no time for sappers - they do not work alone. All cracks and loopholes are fired at by the assault, the defenders shoot at sources of fire at the tower hi
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 6 February 2021 18: 09
        +5
        True, and not every weapon can be smashed into the mountains. And mountain guns are not enough for everyone.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 21: 13
          +4
          True, and not every weapon can be smashed into the mountains. And mountain guns are not enough for everyone.

          And here are the khychyns from Kabardino-Balkaria! wink snapshot of mine, October 20202. Delicious - they gave me! good
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 6 February 2021 21: 33
            +3
            snapshot of mine, October 20202
            Is it a guest from the future?
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 21: 39
              +5
              Is it a guest from the future?

              Do not find fault, you are our punctual. Naturally, 2020. drinks I went to my parents.
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 6 February 2021 21: 42
              +4
              No, Alice from Wonderland, they have a different time there. But they love to eat.))
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 6 February 2021 21: 43
            +3
            Do they pay off the gunfire with grub? laughing
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 21: 48
              +5
              Do they pay off the gunfire with grub?

              You see, a real khychyn is different from what is sold near the metro ... request And these are really tasty! good
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 February 2021 22: 34
                +5
                Even in the worst times, I never bought the rubbish that is sold on the subway. Maybe that's why he survived to this day. smile
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 38
                  +5
                  Maybe that's why he survived to this day.

                  Real khychyns resemble two pancakes, between which are filled with chestnuts and cheese. Very tasty, especially the warm ones! drinks
    2. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 6 February 2021 11: 44
      +10
      Quote: Bar1
      roll up the gun

      You will first roll it along the paths there.
      1. Bar1
        Bar1 6 February 2021 12: 04
        -3
        Quote: Senior Sailor
        Quote: Bar1
        roll up the gun

        You will first roll it along the paths there.


        most likely, the geometric similarity / similarity of the pyramids and these towers really makes them similar not only in appearance, but also functionally. And the meaning of the pyramids has not yet been revealed, so we can say that these Caucasian towers are also not understood by their purpose.
        By the way, the author could talk about construction technologies: it is clear that some of the stones are hewn and look like rectangles, therefore very even walls and clear corners. What is the solution in the masonry?
        It is unlikely that this was built by today's aborigines. These towers look too solid and impressive for the Ingush.
        There are maps on which this area is called Helia, i.e. Galia. Again, some kind of Galia.
        1. kalibr
          6 February 2021 16: 56
          +6
          Quote: Bar1
          It is unlikely that this was built by today's aborigines. These towers look too solid and impressive for the Ingush.

          The names of the builders are known, from which villages they are, everything is described and the solution, and the plank, and the masonry, songs about the builders are composed. You can write a book about all this, not an article. But who needs it? And even today in the mountains they are proud of their ancestors-builders. So, unnecessarily stupid comments are not for ...
          1. Bar1
            Bar1 6 February 2021 20: 48
            +1
            Quote: kalibr
            You can write a book about all this, not an article. But who needs it?


            it is not. How is it not needed? You always need your own story.

            Quote: kalibr
            And even today in the mountains they are proud of their ancestors-builders. So, unnecessarily stupid comments are not for ...


            these ancestors of the builders could still customize the towers, but for some reason they do not build, probably they cannot.
            And what historians have written is we will question.
            1. kalibr
              6 February 2021 21: 34
              +1
              Quote: Bar1
              these ancestors of the builders could still customize the towers, but for some reason they do not build, probably they cannot.

              Why build when peace has come? The Caucasian War ended in 1864 !!!
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 February 2021 18: 08
          +5
          Quote: Bar1
          It is unlikely that this was built by today's aborigines. These towers look too solid and impressive for the Ingush.

          Timur, why offend the Ingush and other North Caucasian peoples? Something, they know how to work with stone and brick in the Caucasus. Even in the Soviet Union, construction teams from the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic stood head and shoulders above my fellow countrymen. Traditions.
          1. Bar1
            Bar1 6 February 2021 21: 00
            0
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            Timur, why offend the Ingush and other North Caucasian peoples? Something, they know how to work with stone and brick in the Caucasus. Even in the Soviet Union, construction teams from the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic stood head and shoulders above my fellow countrymen. Traditions.


            examples please?
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 6 February 2021 18: 17
        +5
        There are mountain guns. They were transported in packs.
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 6 February 2021 18: 50
          +7
          There is. Only these appeared much later than the Caucasian towers lost their military significance. During the Caucasian War, they fought with much more primitive weapons, but even special mountain cannons to deliver to the battlefield in the mountains is not a trivial task.
          but in general I answered my colleague Bar, who is sure ... fig knows what he is sure of :)))
          PS in order not to think about the pyramids, aliens from Nubiru and other garbage, it is enough to visit the place and, so to speak, touch it with your hands :)
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 February 2021 19: 05
            +7
            ... so to speak, touch it with your hands :)

            Not everyone succeeds, but some do not need it. Once in a pioneer camp one kid, as a counselor, asks me: "Bone, why do people disappear when they come to the Chinese wall?" You see, he is absolutely sure that they are disappearing, he is only interested to know why?
            So these, there is nothing to be done.
            And about mountain guns, I just want to stick. smile
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 21: 16
          +5
          There are mountain guns. They were transported in packs.

          Uncle Kostya! This 1909 mountain cannon became the ancestor of the 1913 anti-assault cannon. Guess, on the basis of whose barrel the KT gun from the T-28 was made? wink Yes, it was General Filatov who proposed this system in terms of armored vehicles armament! yes
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 6 February 2021 21: 45
            +4
            As far as I remember, this armored vehicle did not glorify itself in any way. A mountain cannon for a tank? Well, without fish ... request drinks
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 08
              +5
              As far as I remember, this armored vehicle did not glorify itself in any way.

              Look, Uncle Kostya, but no offense! Here you are - a professional tanker who knows the T-54/55 perfectly. A man who held so many weapons in his hands that I never dreamed of. good
              But you're wrong! stop
              The short 76 mm cannon was adopted as an armored vehicle armament during the First World War. General Filatov went through several systems at his Rifle Range.
              For that time, she had the greatest high-explosive effect, plus she did not weigh so much. Therefore, he offered it for the heavy armored cars "Garford". They proved themselves more than good! request

              Further. Under Soviet rule. What should be used as a support tool? Yes, that's the same proven gun! Is the grenade powerful? Yes. And if the enemy throws armored cars and tanks into battle, their protection thickness is 15-20 mm, which can be successfully dealt with by buckshot, put "on strike"!
              The same gun was installed on the T-28, T-35, BT-7M, AT-4 and other vehicles. hi
              Therefore, further the increase in the length of the gun began, associated with an increase in the thickness of the armor of enemy tanks. This is how the L-10, L-11, F-32, F-34 guns appeared. The increase in caliber to 85 mm began in the series after the Battle of Kursk. hi
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 6 February 2021 22: 35
                +5
                Kolya, that's right, but I meant that it was not these guns that decided the outcome of the last big war.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 43
                  +5
                  Kolya, that's right, but I meant that it was not these guns that decided the outcome of the last big war.

                  Uncle Kostya, the fate of the war, its turning point, was decided by the F-34 or ZIS-5 cannon. In the Kursk battle. This is the heiress of the 1913 model short cannon, but the barrel length has just been increased. soldier
              2. Undecim
                Undecim 6 February 2021 22: 44
                +6
                The same gun was installed on the T-28, T-35, BT-7M, AT-4 and other vehicles.
                It was not installed on the BT-7M. Was installed on BT-7A.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 47
                  +7
                  It was not installed on the BT-7M. Was installed on BT-7A.

                  Viktor Nikolaevich, naturally, I described myself. On BT-7A. Dyrenkov also came up with his own whistles for him.
                  Feeling that he was having difficulty designing the installation of the towers ...
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 6 February 2021 22: 54
                    +5
                    Dyrenkov, it seems, experimented with BT-2.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 23: 08
                      +5
                      Dyrenkov, it seems, experimented with BT-2.

                      This is clear. Victor Nikolaevich, I have created a question. In his D-12 armored cars, he took a standard turret. In D-9 and D-13, he used a turret from the MS-1 tank, or T-18.
                      It turns out that it was zero in the circular rotation of the tower. He really used someone else's workpieces, because his own ended in nothing. And he did not design the shoulder straps for BT either ...
                    2. Undecim
                      Undecim 6 February 2021 23: 27
                      +5
                      Why would he have to reinvent the wheel in the form of a turret and a shoulder strap, if he could use a ready-made one?
                    3. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 7 February 2021 01: 34
                      +4
                      Why would he have to reinvent the wheel in the form of a turret and a shoulder strap, if he could use a ready-made one?

                      He did just that, I think.
              3. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 7 February 2021 10: 25
                +4
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                On BT-7A

                Good afternoon Nikolai, I did this:

                It was the worst model in terms of quality. hi
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 7 February 2021 18: 01
                  +2
                  It was the worst model in terms of quality.

                  And who is the manufacturer, Sergey? It looks very good - I bow! good drinks
                2. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov 7 February 2021 18: 20
                  +3
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  And who is the manufacturer, Sergey? It looks very good - I bow!

                  Nikolay, some kind of our, or Ukrainian company, it seems ICM, but maybe different, the quality was disgusting, everything broke and nothing came up hi
                3. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 7 February 2021 18: 43
                  +3
                  the quality was disgusting, everything broke and nothing went well

                  I can only compare "Star" and "Modelista" so far. Zvezda has better quality. And by the way, it's cheaper!
                  Here is my bunch. "Seagull" and "donkey" - from "Modelist". drinks
                4. kalibr
                  7 February 2021 21: 14
                  +2
                  Ay, yes, Nikolai !!! Well, the models ... well done!
                5. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 8 February 2021 10: 10
                  +2
                  Ay, yes, Nikolai !!! Well, the models ... well done!

                  Sergey (Mikhailov) glues better. By the way, Uncle Kostya and Sergey-Phil too. I am just learning!
              4. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 7 February 2021 21: 19
                +1
                Quote: Pane Kohanku

                I can only compare "Star" and "Modelista" so far. Zvezda has better quality. And by the way, it's cheaper!
                Here is my bunch. "Seagull" and "donkey" - from "Modelist".

                I also have, for the most part, a Star and a Modeler, there is a little REVELL and some others, but 1 each
                I did this I-16, by the way, there were also problems with it, some kind of clumsy model was hi
              5. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 8 February 2021 10: 12
                +2
                I did this I-16, by the way, there were also problems with it, some kind of clumsy model was

                Exactly what. The quality of the "Modeler" appears to be lower. hi Although for the collection I wanted both "seagull" and "donkey" of this scale - 1/72.
  • Mountain shooter
    Mountain shooter 6 February 2021 22: 43
    +4
    Quote: Bar1
    in the era of firearms, there was no longer any point in building such towers as defensive structures: rolling up the gun and rolling the tower over the stones

    I went to those places. Roll up the tool? There you walk along such paths with a backpack that only you and the sheep can pass. And I saw Vovnushhi. And climbed those towers. What kind of artillery is there ... If you drag a mortar there, you will become disfigured, and mines? Everything is on hand ... The Assy Valley is a rather inaccessible place ...
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 February 2021 07: 07
    +9
    Although predictable, it is a rather unexpected turn. Thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich and his family, I read it with pleasure!
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 21: 41
      +4
      Although predictable, it is a rather unexpected turn. Thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich and his family, I read it with pleasure!

      And you are a Cat, and your name is Cat, and I love you, and I will support you in my thoughts! drinks pleasure!
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 February 2021 22: 33
        +4
        Pan, what if I break a jar of sour cream in the cellar? All the same, you will love or a broom !!!? laughing
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 36
          +4
          Pan, what if I break a jar of sour cream in the cellar? Anyway, you will love or a broom !!! ??

          I'll scold you morally. But I will not stop loving! drinks
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 February 2021 22: 48
            +1
            I went to the cellar to catch mice, sour cream
            wanted. As they say in Mother Russia - Vaska listens and wins sour cream! The krynka died, I personally saw it, waved its tail and did not disappear the good !!!
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 22: 49
              +3
              The krynka died, I personally saw it, waved its tail and did not disappear the good !!!

              We believed, and you - the Order of Courage! drinks For all!
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 February 2021 23: 11
                +3
                Quote: Pan Kohanku
                The krynka died, I personally saw it, waved its tail and did not disappear the good !!!

                We believed, and you - the Order of Courage! drinks For all!

                - No, guys, I'm not proud.
                Without making a distance
                So I say: why do I need an order?
                I agree to two pots of sour cream

                Let it not rhyme, but there is never enough sour cream !!! You can ask Mikado, he'll confirm ... drinks
                With all due respect!
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 6 February 2021 23: 14
                  +4
                  Let it not rhyme, but there is never enough sour cream !!! You can ask Mikado, he'll confirm ...

                  This one will even support, he lives like Christ's in the bosom! drinks
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 6 February 2021 07: 38
    +10
    Liked: the tower in a year. Everything has a limit. And the work time too.
    1. depressant
      depressant 6 February 2021 09: 03
      +11
      From Wikipedia.
      Ingush (Ingush. ГIалгIай) - Nakh people living in the North Caucasus, the indigenous population of Ingushetia, as well as parts of the Prigorodny region and Vladikavkaz city of modern North Ossetia (Tarskaya valley). There are Ingush diasporas in a number of countries in Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. The total number of Ingush in the world is 700 people. They speak Ingush, writing based on the Cyrillic alphabet.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 6 February 2021 10: 05
        +8
        I know some Ingush people. They even invited me to visit. The truth is not very active.
        1. depressant
          depressant 6 February 2021 11: 08
          +6
          This is the custom in the Caucasus - to invite guests. A kind of ritual phrase like "How are you?" Showing friendliness. And to go or not to go really becomes clear from the context of the conversation and intonations. If you are profitable, you will be invited very warmly and they will take the floor that you will come. However, this is probably the case with all peoples. But among Caucasians this is a ritual.
          I respect Yunusbek Yevkurov.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 6 February 2021 12: 02
            +8
            Yes. Very similar.

            In general, within Russia, you can add separate sagas about each region. And the most interesting thing is the people themselves.
            1. depressant
              depressant 6 February 2021 17: 22
              +7
              I wanted to write a serious comment about the Ingush, but, oh Lord! ... On the street - 16, the phone said that it felt like - 26, no strength, I'm freezing, although two burners at full power, shriveled in the kitchen under the covers crying
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 6 February 2021 18: 10
                +4
                It feels like everything is fine on the street: both in the morning and in the afternoon.
                And you could admire the sun.

                You can't do without heat.

                https://stihi.ru/2008/12/26/1988
              2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 February 2021 18: 13
                +7
                Quote: depressant
                On the street - 16, the phone said that it felt like 26, I have no strength, I'm freezing, although two burners at full power, shriveled in the kitchen under the covers


                Come to us in the Urals - we have +5! I'm not kidding, everything is melting, it is raining, there is green grass over the heating mains! The cat began to shed heavily yesterday !!! laughing
                When I am still boasting about warm winter!
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 6 February 2021 18: 38
                  +6
                  I envy. We have minus 15 plus the wind, the snow piled up ... yesterday morning I got out into the yard, on a workbench, ten centimeters, take the quadric out - on a shovel and clean it, otherwise it will sit on its belly even on a lower one. I'm sick and tired of winter.
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 February 2021 19: 47
                    +4
                    Today I also saw snow from my heart. I arrived in the village, and there apparently a tractor passed - piled a pile up to the waist in front of my house and my mother. So shovel in the teeth and go ahead. I threw it back for two hours.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 6 February 2021 21: 40
                      +3
                      I have all this tomorrow, if he was wrong. negative
  • Van 16
    Van 16 6 February 2021 07: 43
    +8
    Yes, there are many interesting places in Russia, with their own history and their own characteristics.
  • Hunter 2
    Hunter 2 6 February 2021 08: 47
    +10
    I saw these towers as they say live, they make an impression!
    The North Caucasus is a peculiar place, wars began there immediately from the moment a person appeared there and practically did not stop ... both with external enemies and within the tribes. The scarcity of local resources (primarily fertile land) is the main cause of conflicts.
    Thanks for the article, it was interesting! Success to Vyacheslav Olegovich's family, thanks for the materials collected during the rest hi
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 6 February 2021 09: 08
      +6
      Good morning, Aleksey! hi
      I think that even now it is problematic to take such a tower by the forces of an infantry unit - the walls are thick
      1. Hunter 2
        Hunter 2 6 February 2021 09: 12
        +8
        Albert hi well, yes ... if you use a Bow and arrows and throw stones at you laughing it's more about "reenactors".
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 6 February 2021 09: 21
          +12
          In 1982, during the assault on the Beaufort castle in Lebanon, the Israelis lost 6 people (the reconnaissance company of the assault brigade + the company of sappers), during the capture they used ... assault ladders)). The fire of 155-mm artifacts and the bombing of the fortification did not produce any result, the only thing was that they managed to mine the paths leading to the castle from the air. Only the turrets were able to demolish with bombs weighing half a ton and shells laughing
          The main weapons of the special forces were hand grenades and machine guns. hi
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 6 February 2021 09: 32
            +12
            Albert, these towers lost their military significance back in the time of Lermontov! In Present (with standard armament) time, if someone decides to take up defensive positions in such a tower ... he will simply organize himself a monumental Tombstone!
            This is not a Castle (with a system of underground shelters and tunnels), it is just old Towers! What can such a tower give to defenders against thermobaric ammunition of a hand grenade launcher? The only thing is that some are located almost on sheer cliffs - accordingly, they have only one plane for the approach.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 6 February 2021 09: 38
              +6
              Well, yes - I did not even think about such ammunition what
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 6 February 2021 09: 42
                +7
                It became interesting about the storming of the Crusader castle! Give info, what yes, or send a link please hi
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 6 February 2021 09: 49
                  +7
                  Attempts to carry out a coup in Jordan ended in failure and military defeat for the Palestinians, but, after moving to Lebanon, they again resorted to similar methods. Gradually increasing their influence, the Palestinians took control of a significant part of the south of the country. The fact that Beaufort had a dominant position over a large part of northern Israel was, of course, not ignored. At the same time, the structure and cellars of the castle were an excellent tool for organizing a stronghold here. This is exactly what the Crusader fortress soon became. The militants created a whole network of bunkers, trenches and communication passages in the castle, thanks to which they could very successfully sit out Israeli shelling and even air raids. It was Beaufort that became one of the centers from which terrorist activities against the Israeli north emanated. It is not surprising that with the outbreak of the First Lebanese War, the castle became one of the main objects of attention of the IDF command. It was believed that, sitting at a commanding height, the militants could prevent the advance of the army columns inland (although this was not entirely true). The storming of the castle, which the terrorists had time to prepare for a ground attack, was entrusted to the Golani Brigade. The main work was carried out by the reconnaissance company (Sayeret Golani), which was practicing it on a model even before the war. In the course of a stubborn battle, a significant part of the terrorists were destroyed, and a small part left their positions. However, 6 soldiers of the IDF were killed. Among them is the commander of the reconnaissance company Roni Guernik. A few hours after the battle, a helicopter landed near the captured castle, in which were Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Defense Minister Ariel Sharon, who arrived here to get acquainted with the results of the battle. The report of this visit to Beaufort later became one of the most symbolic events of that war. By the way, in the strongholds of the terrorists in the castle, a lot of construction equipment was found, including the latest jackhammers, with the help of which the Palestinians were continuously improving the fortifications.

                  This is general information
                  Now I'll look for something about the assault itself
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 6 February 2021 10: 44
                    +5
                    They brought a bright picture. Greetings from the Middle Ages.
                2. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 6 February 2021 11: 20
                  +3
                  Quote: Hunter 2
                  It became interesting about the storming of the Crusader castle! Give info, what yes, or send a link please hi

                  The article is good in Wik
                  In English
                  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Beaufort_(1982)
            2. Sergey Valov
              Sergey Valov 6 February 2021 09: 54
              +5
              The best means of capturing such a tower is hunger and thirst, supported by the patience of the besiegers. A well on the first tier is unlikely, so the time for a siege is a maximum of a month.
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 6 February 2021 10: 02
                +10
                Some towers have water (springs). You can, of course, organize a siege, but it's troublesome ... all the more so they can go down a steep cliff (everything is there, well, or through one, natural-born climbers). But one thing is certain - in the modern War, this tower is a Trap for those who are inside!
                1. Sergey Valov
                  Sergey Valov 6 February 2021 10: 08
                  +5
                  I suspect mentality is the main obstacle to a long siege. And the well inside is very reasonable.
                  1. Hunter 2
                    Hunter 2 6 February 2021 10: 16
                    +5
                    The mentality of the besiegers ???
                    It all depends on the task! If the task is eliminated, it is easier to disassemble it to the ground, there is no need to even use heavy weapons, manual weapons are enough. If "prisoners" are needed, then of course it is wise to block and wait, leading harassing fire. The psyche also tends to "not stand" and break down.
                    1. Sergey Valov
                      Sergey Valov 6 February 2021 10: 19
                      +2
                      Apparently I didn't put it exactly. By the besiegers, I meant the same highlanders.
                      1. Hunter 2
                        Hunter 2 6 February 2021 10: 28
                        +5
                        At the time when they were being built, the towers really played the role of long-term fortified structures intended, including for long sieges. At the present time, their military purpose is negligible!
                      2. Sergey Valov
                        Sergey Valov 6 February 2021 11: 01
                        +4
                        "Their military purpose is negligible!" - for any regular army, their capture is not a problem. I suspect that these towers were built to defend against warlike neighbors who were capable of a maximum of a short raid.
                      3. Malyuta
                        Malyuta 7 February 2021 02: 29
                        +6
                        Quote: Hunter 2
                        At the present time, their military purpose is negligible!

                        Nowadays, practically, any towers and fortresses of the past are absolutely insignificant, only from a historical point of view. yes hi
                  2. vladcub
                    vladcub 6 February 2021 17: 17
                    +3
                    "it is easier to dismantle it to the bottom" provided that the garrison of the tower will allow it.
                    1. Hunter 2
                      Hunter 2 6 February 2021 17: 22
                      +5
                      Quote: vladcub
                      "it is easier to dismantle it to the bottom" provided that the garrison of the tower will allow it.

                      This is a stationary position, it will not run away anywhere. You just need to calmly aim - and the tower will fold like a house of cards. This is provided that there is no thermobaric ammunition - with them the entire siege will drag on for exactly three shots. hi
                    2. vladcub
                      vladcub 6 February 2021 17: 53
                      +2
                      This is now, but in the 17th, -18th centuries and even at the beginning of the 20th century. There you could catch on and ... It would be worth tinkering with such a tower
            3. vladcub
              vladcub 6 February 2021 16: 27
              +4
              Perhaps I got excited that a rifle squad could hold such a tower without straining.
              Under some conditions, these towers can "rustle"
  • vladcub
    vladcub 6 February 2021 16: 07
    +3
    I agree. In the presence of automatic weapons, such a tower, a rifle squad without straining, can defend. There is such a terrain that technology will not help.
    Are they not building such towers in Palestine?
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 6 February 2021 17: 43
      +4
      Quote: vladcub
      I agree. In the presence of automatic weapons, such a tower, a rifle squad without straining, can defend. There is such a terrain that technology will not help.
      Are they not building such towers in Palestine?

      Not. The last fortress on the territory of the Land of Israel was taken in June 1967 - this is the old city of Jerusalem. hi
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 6 February 2021 10: 02
    +4
    That is, they were small and completely independent from each other. "Medieval towns"in which the interests of the community were put at the head. Accordingly, several of these settlements made up something like federation of townships.


    Nonsense: having a stone building does not the village city: they are distinguished by completely different things - crafts, merchants, etc.

    And the Ingush settlements were ordinary villages and were engaged in village affairs.


    So, on the first, they usually kept captives

    Slaves and built these towers, yes.

    And, um, in some places, they try to build in the same way there and now.

    He met the builders of Tajiks, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz, young in construction battalion and civil construction sites, but never from there. Unlucky, apparently ... request


    Interestingly, the tower was built from the inside, no forests they were not erected for this, but temporary decking was installed along the perimeter of the tower. We laid out part of the walls and raised the flooring to a new height.
    No one has ever laid masonry from the scaffolding and has never done it, scaffolding for finishing an already finished structure.
    Once upon a time people lived here ...


    Many places where people lived ... disappeared in Russia 155 thousand settlements (half of its settlements) from the 1959 census to the 1989 census And no commemorative stones, yes ...
  • Undecim
    Undecim 6 February 2021 12: 04
    +7
    EI Krupnov, a well-known researcher of the Caucasus of the Soviet era, in his fundamental work "Medieval Ingushetia"
    Interesting book. I especially remember this illustration from her.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 6 February 2021 13: 44
      +6
      What would Freud say about illustration?
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 6 February 2021 13: 47
        +6
        What would Freud say about illustration?
        "People find reality unsatisfactory and therefore live in a fantasy world, imagining the fulfillment of their desires."
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 6 February 2021 16: 36
        +3
        Old man Freud would have found it to be a phalos
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 6 February 2021 17: 44
          +3
          Quote: vladcub
          Old man Freud would have found it to be a phalos

          That's right. )))
  • ver_
    ver_ 6 February 2021 12: 30
    +1
    .. to break - not to build ..
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 6 February 2021 17: 09
      +3
      It doesn't take much mind
  • BAI
    BAI 6 February 2021 14: 39
    +6
    In my opinion, the towers of Svaneti are somehow better known.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 6 February 2021 15: 28
    +7
    But later in the mountains of Ingushetia in the Middle Ages, villages appeared, which consisted of a kind of knightly castles. They consisted of stone towers intended for habitation, as well as semi-combat and combat towers, united into one single family complex.
    In the Middle Ages, they appeared not only in the mountains of Ingushetia - they appeared almost everywhere where people lived in the mountains or in remote places.

    Smileholm Tower, Scotland, XNUMXth century.

    Tower of Kurt Pasha, Bulgaria, XNUMXth century.
    1. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov 7 February 2021 10: 09
      +3
      Quote: Undecim
      In the Middle Ages, they appeared not only in the mountains of Ingushetia - they appeared almost everywhere where people lived in the mountains or in remote places.

      House-tower p-island Mani Peloponnese:
  • mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 6 February 2021 15: 30
    +4
    As a child, the writer Nikolai Tikhonov read, in my opinion, as a red partisan, in the ancestral tower he held back the offensive of the whites, his mother charged, he shot. And the white cannon could not be used, like it would fall into the river, so they only frightened him.
    Well, in general, ours won.
    A strange thing memory, suddenly took and remembered, and with details.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 6 February 2021 16: 48
    +5
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, hello colleagues. Just now I found time to visit the site
    1. kalibr
      6 February 2021 17: 00
      +4
      The main thing is that you like it!
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 6 February 2021 18: 06
        +4
        If I didn't like it, I would not read
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 7 February 2021 02: 20
          +5
          If I didn't like it, I would not read

          Vera, you have voiced our motives - for the whole company. Although here it is not even important what Vyacheslav Olegovich writes, but how we run every day to communicate with each other under his articles. drinks Exactly, exactly so! yes
          1. Malyuta
            Malyuta 7 February 2021 02: 31
            +10
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Although here it is not even important what Vyacheslav Olegovich writes, but how we run every day to communicate with each other under his articles. drinks Exactly, exactly!

            Likewise, politics is sick of it! am drinks
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 7 February 2021 17: 54
              +5
              Likewise, politics is sick of it!

              You see ... what Here on our site people have gathered, for the most part - just that good. yes But we are all different, with our own beliefs and feelings. stop I made a discovery for myself - if you remove politics and ideological currents from the conversation, there are many more topics for communication! fellow We ourselves remove some "blinders" that grip us, and are carried precisely by the discussion of who is right and who is not ... negative do we need it? there is enough feces in life. request
              And on our branch (which we all created with you for five years!), As Igor "Leader of the Redskins" aptly put it (he has a KV-2 on his avatar) - "People seem to have gathered once again to drink tea". drinks No politics, no swearing. Of the comments, 20% are history, 80% are friendly chat about everything, with pictures and jokes. Is not that great? I would like to emphasize once again that WE did it. Just because we respect and accept each other. good
              What is your name? I'm used to addressing respected interlocutors by name! drinks
              With respect, Nicholai hi
          2. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 7 February 2021 08: 09
            +4
            Agree with you
  • vladcub
    vladcub 6 February 2021 17: 41
    +5
    "one has to be afraid of earthquakes, and avalanches, and landslides" if it is not very difficult with avalanches and landslides, but earthquakes. Respect for those builders.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 6 February 2021 18: 04
    +4
    Vyacheslav Olegovich, you mentioned the Vovnushka tower, or maybe there is some legend?
    1. kalibr
      6 February 2021 18: 19
      +3
      Dear Astra, I don’t know. There are legends, there are songs ... but I was always interested only in the military component of such buildings. It has been reproduced in sufficient detail. I got the photos I could. My daughter did not undertake an expedition to the towers. I went to one in Adjara ... so I don't know anything else about them.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 6 February 2021 19: 28
    +4
    Comrades, we have a good guide: he collects materials himself and adapted his daughter to this. And most importantly, he does not ask for a tip
  • kalibr
    6 February 2021 21: 49
    +3
    [quote = Undecim] Filmstrip 1957 "The Legend of Dahanago".
    Favorite filmstrip!
  • depressant
    depressant 7 February 2021 12: 53
    +3
    Greetings to the participants in the Decameron format and the King Arthur Round Table! ))))
    Many summers to all !!! ))))
    We have minus 13. It feels like minus 23. And after some reflection, the source of the sensations became clear - the soil finally cooled down, so much so that it can only take cold - how much they give, and give it to the houses located on it through their foundations ... At home, too, we have cooled down. Taking the cold from the soil, they require heat from the batteries and gas burners, and no matter how much you give them, everything is not enough.
    And so I think about how people lived in these Ingush, Svaneti, Dagestan and other towers, fleeing from enemies at least for a short period. Well, it's not warm in those towers! The stones keep only cool in any weather and season. The same can be said about European castles and palaces.
  • kalibr
    7 February 2021 16: 26
    +2
    Quote: depressant
    Well, it's not warm in those towers!

    And where did the cloaks and hats come from? And what about cloth caftans and 8 tunics per body in Europe? And hay on the floor and skins ???
    1. depressant
      depressant 7 February 2021 17: 18
      +3
      And I read about this: the lower room of the castle was very hot, and in the upper hall in the center of the floor there were holes through which heated air passed into the hall. There was no central heating even in the late Middle Ages)))
      1. kalibr
        7 February 2021 17: 29
        +2
        And also curtains around the bed to the ceiling and undressed under the covers! And dressed ...
        1. depressant
          depressant 7 February 2021 18: 04
          +3
          So they say, in order to heat the royal chambers, carts with firewood went to the palaces of St. Petersburg day and night.
          As for the Caucasus, I don’t know how in the mountains, but it’s very cold on the coast since autumn. Due to dampness. It sneaks right through. Here, in Russia, you come from the street, and in the apartment there is steam heating, the air is dry. He turned on the gas, the kettle boiled, and now you are warming up, and then the chills come again. And, most importantly, the water from the taps in severe frosts flows rusty. Because the outer pipes are compressed from the cold and dumped inward, that is, into the water, surface salt and mud build-ups from the inner surfaces. Therefore, in relatively warm weather, I stock up on several five-liter cylinders with clean water.
          In Abkhazia, I managed to catch old people in cloaks))) I don't think that now there is someone wearing something like that. Down jackets.
  • Miner
    Miner 9 March 2021 18: 55
    +1
    What this article is about - nothing.
    Bullshit.
    Ask those who lived there about the hospitable people, and especially during the period between the two Chechen wars. Theft of people and the "business" of selling them - you call this hospitality ?! Only a strong government is a guarantee of stability in this region, like in no other.
    As for the towers, I will say the following: no one held the defenses in them, this is suicide. Read VA Potto for examples of storming such "fortresses" without weapons. Only brushwood at the base and the tower burns out completely with all the defenders, according to the law of traction. The towers were originally built obviously for other purposes, and later, by the newly arrived population, they were adapted for anything. And the fact that they were built by the Ingush ask the Chimerians and other real indigenous nationalities. And the Ingush can come up with anything about the historical roots and their ancestors, I am sure that after 6-7 generations they have no ancestors on this land, read Laudaev. Although everyone has the right to think in their own way ...
    Minus as much as you want, I write what I know, sorry.