Military Review

Fall of the Ottoman Empire

128

In previous articles, it was told about the situation of various communities of Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, the evolution of the situation of people who refuse to practice Islam, and the independence of the countries of the Balkan Peninsula. In the next two we will talk about the last years of the Ottoman Empire and the painful birth of a new state - the Republic of Turkey.


The last years of the Ottoman Empire


The weakness of the Ottoman Empire, which Nicholas I called the "Sick Man of Europe" in the middle of the 1830th century, was no longer a secret. On this map, you can see how Turkey lost its possessions since XNUMX:


This weakness was especially evident at the beginning of the 1911th century, when the Ottoman Empire suffered two defeats in wars with by no means the most powerful opponents. The first such war was the Italo-Turkish 1912-XNUMX. (in Italy it is called Libyan, in Turkey - Tripolitan). The Italians then seized from the Turks two Libyan provinces (Cyrenaica and Tripolitania) and the Dodecanese archipelago (including the island of Rhodes).

Fall of the Ottoman Empire
Italian airships bomb Turkish positions in Libya

4 days before the end of this war, a new one began - I Balkan (September 25, 1912 - May 17, 1913), during which the former Rumelian Sandjaks of the Ottomans (Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece) quickly defeated the previous masters, literally placing Turkey on knees.


Caricature of the First Balkan War


Bulgarian artillery during the Balkan wars

By the way, it was after the start of the First Balkan War - in October 1912, that Vasily Agapkin (the future senior conductor of the Dzerzhinsky division and colonel of the Soviet army), who sympathized with the "brothers", head trumpeter of the reserve cavalry regiment, wrote the famous march "Farewell of a Slav."


Cover of the first edition of The March of the Slav


V. Agapkin and notes of his march

In the circumstances of a permanent crisis, Turkey's entry into the war against Russia in October 1914 (and, therefore, against all Entente states) was a disaster for this country. The fact that this war turned out to be fatal for three more great empires (Russian, German and Austro-Hungarian) can hardly serve as a consolation.

In the German cartoon below, the Ottoman Empire appears as a giant who laughs at the attempts of its neighbors to attack it:


Alas, the real situation was exactly the opposite. For Turkey, the war ended in de facto surrender.

On October 31, 1918, the Mudros Truce was signed on board the British ship Agamemnon (after the name of the port city on the island of Lemnos).


HMS Agamemnon

The terms of this agreement turned out to be more than humiliating. Under the control of the Entente, the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits with all their fortifications were transferred, which the allies were never able to capture during the bloody Gallipoli operation, which lasted from February 19, 1915 to January 9, 1916 (this was described in the article Battle of the Straits. Allied Gallipoli operation). The Turkish army was to be demobilized, and the warships were to be transferred. Turkey was ordered to withdraw its troops from Persia, Transcaucasia, Cilicia, Arabia, Eastern Thrace and the coastal regions of Asia Minor. British, French, Italian and Greek ships entered the harbor of Constantinople - "Allied squadron of the Aegean Sea": 14 battleships, 14 cruisers, 11 gunboats and monitors, 17 destroyers and auxiliary ships.


French warship in the harbor of Constantinople

The forts in the straits were occupied by the British, Greek troops were brought into Smyrna, the Italians occupied southwestern Anatolia, and the French occupied Cilicia.

The terms of the "truce" were so shameful and humiliating for the Ottoman Empire that the leaders of the Turkish delegation did not dare to return to Constantinople.

Already on November 1, 1918 (the day after the signing of the Mudross Armistice), the British newspaper "Times" triumphantly stated:

Access to the Straits will give us not only power over the Black Sea, but also the best opportunity to influence Russian affairs. While the Black and Baltic Seas are closed to our fleet, our sea power cannot influence the future of Russia. Siberia, Murmansk - an inconvenient back door at best. But when the British fleet is in the Black Sea, the front door is open. The close rule of the Allies over the Black Sea will sound the death knell for the rule of the Bolsheviks in Russia.

The Entente ships entered the harbor of Constantinople on November 18, 1918, and on November 23, the English cruiser "Canterbury" arrived in Sevastopol. Two days later, it was joined by four battleships (two British, one French and one Italian), two cruisers and nine destroyers.

Now do you understand why Lenin and the Bolsheviks so willingly cooperated with Ataturk and helped him restore the sovereignty of his country and control over the Straits? And how important are good relations with Turkey, Crimea and Sevastopol for modern Russia? But more on that later.

The commander-in-chief of the allied forces in the Balkans was Louis Félix Marie François Franche d'Espere, in the future the High Commissioner of France in the South of Russia (on March 25, 1919, upon learning of the approach of the Red Army, he fled from Odessa to Sevastopol, leaving the White Guard allies). Imitating Sultan Mehmed Fatih (the Conqueror), Espere solemnly rode into Constantinople on horseback, which provoked the indignation of the Turks, but the Greeks, Armenians and Jews greeted him with flowers and applause - very soon they would have to regret it.


D'Espere's entrance to Constantinople

Constantinople was controlled by the Entente army of 49 soldiers and 516 officers, supported by 1759 military and auxiliary ships of various ranks.


British sailors and soldiers at the Galata Tower


British cavalrymen on Galata street


British marines walk down a street in Beyoglu district


French tank in Constantinople

These troops were withdrawn only 5 years later - in 1923, when the army of Mustafa Kemal approached the city - already Gazi, but not yet Ataturk.

Treaty of Sèvres


The terms of the armistice signed by the Young Turk government were so monstrous that the leaders of this party, led by Enver Pasha, fled to Germany on the night of November 3, 1918. Former top leaders of the state Talaat Pasha, Ismail Enver (Enver Pasha), Jemal Pasha, Behaetdin Shakir and some others were accused of involving Turkey in the war, organizing the Armenian massacre and sentenced to death in absentia by the decree of the Ottoman Empire on December 16, 1918 executions.

But Turkey no longer had the strength to resist. And therefore, on August 10, 1920, a peace treaty was signed in the city of Sevres, which not only eliminated the imperial possessions of the Ottomans, but consolidated the dismemberment of this country and the loss of a number of indigenous territories of Asia Minor.


Members of the Turkish delegation on the Entente warship on the way to Sevres

The victors left Turkey with a small section of European territory around Constantinople and part of Asia Minor without Cilicia. Turkey's African possessions were transferred to Great Britain and France, the Dodecadenes Islands (part of the Southern Sporades archipelago) to Italy, a new state was created on the territory of Turkey - Kurdistan, and even the capital, Constantinople, was transferred under international control.


Signing ceremony of the Treaty of Sevres:


Excessive and excessive demands of the winners caused an explosion of indignation in all strata of Turkish society, and the Turkish Grand National Assembly, which proclaimed itself the only legitimate authority in the country, refused to ratify the treaty. Mustafa Kemal Pasha and his supporters, who were at the head of the new parliament, began to look for allies to fight the Entente and found them in the new Soviet Russia.

Mustafa Kemal seeks allies


On April 23, 1920, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was convened in Ankara, the chairman of which was elected Mustafa Kemal - a combat general, a participant in the Italo-Turkish (1911), Balkan (1912-1913) and World War I, who was born in Soluni (Thessaloniki), and began to study military affairs in the city of Monastir (Macedonia).


Mustafa Kemal. Kemal - "Smart" is a nickname he received at school for his academic success. And for military operations against British troops on the Galipoli Peninsula in April 1915, he was nicknamed the "Savior of Constantinople"


On April 25, a provisional government was created here, which decided that the orders of the Sultan and his officials were no longer subject to execution.

On April 26, Kemal turned to V. I. Lenin as the head of the Russian government with a proposal to establish diplomatic relations and a request for help in the struggle "against imperialist governments." As a result, two agreements were signed: "On cooperation" (August 24, 1920) and "On friendship and brotherhood between the RSFSR and Turkey" (March 16, 1921).


People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the RSFSR G.V. Chicherin and the representative of the government of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, Yusuf Kemal-bey exchange the texts of the signed Treaty of Friendship and Brotherhood. Moscow, March 16, 1921

But what happened at that time on the lands of the former Russian Empire?

Armenia in 1918-1920: troubles with neighbors


After the collapse of the Russian Empire, the Georgians decided to profit from Armenia at that time, who seized the Lori region in the north of this country.

Georgia signed a treaty with Germany on May 16, 1918, hoping that the German occupation would prevent the Ottomans from seizing their territory. Since the Dashnaks were guided by the Entente countries, the German authorities demanded that the Georgians block the railway connecting Armenia with Russia and the port of Batumi, which caused famine in this country. In October 1918, clashes between Armenians and German and Georgian units began, on December 5 they escalated into a full-fledged war, during which the Armenian army occupied many settlements of the disputed region.

On January 17, 1919, the Supreme Council of the Entente decided to transfer the northern part of the Lori region to Armenia, the southern part to Georgia, but after the start of the Armenian-Turkish war, Georgia occupied the entire territory.

In 1918-1920. there were also bloody clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. In 24 villages of the Shemakha district, 17 thousand Armenians were killed, in 20 villages of the Nukha district - 20 thousand Armenians. Armenians were also massacred in Agdam and Ganja. Azerbaijanis and Kurds moved to the territories that were previously inhabited by Armenians.

In Armenia, the Dashnaks (members of the Dashnaktsutyun party) and the troops under their control "cleared" the Novobayazet, Erivan, Echmiadzin and Sharuro-Daralagez districts from Azerbaijanis. Clashes also took place in Nagorno-Karabakh, which the Armenians usually call Artsakh. In the Russian Empire, it was part of the Elizavetpol province, part of which was inhabited by Armenians (about 35% of the total population), part by Azerbaijanis (who were then called "Caucasian Tatars" - almost 56%). Kurds (up to 4,7%), Russians (1,11%), Udins (1%) also lived here. The number of people of other nationalities (Germans, Lezgins, Tats, Jews, some others) was less than 1 percent.


Elizavetpol province. Currently, the city of Elizavetpol is called Ganja

Now Azerbaijan claimed the entire territory of this province, the Armenians living in Nagorno-Karabakh wanted independence or the annexation of their lands to Armenia. We will talk more about this in an article dedicated to Operation Nemesis, during which some high-ranking Turkish officials were killed, who were responsible for organizing the massacres of Armenians in 1915, as well as the leaders of Azerbaijan, involved in the massacre of Armenians in 1918-1920.

War of Armenia and Turkey


But the main troubles for independent Armenia were ahead. Its rulers took the terms of the Treaty of Sevres too literally and hoped too much for the help of the Entente states, which almost led to another national catastrophe, and only Russia's help again saved the Armenians from another massacre.

Everyone in Turkey was especially outraged by the claims of the Kurds (whom Kemal later ordered to call "mountain Turks") and Armenia, supported (more in words) by the leaders of the Entente countries. The Armenian leaders, who did not adequately assess the situation, confidently pushed their country towards war with Turkey.

At that time, delegations of these countries were in Moscow, and the People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of Russia G. Chicherin suggested that the Armenian delegation transfer the resolution of the Armenian-Turkish dispute to Moscow. However, the new Armenian government was fully oriented towards the Entente countries. Ambartsum Terteryan, a member of the Armenian delegation at the talks in Moscow, later wrote:

There was a fear that any untimely attempt at rapprochement with Soviet Russia would inevitably lead to the loss of economic and political support for the allied forces.

Meanwhile, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George spoke about the prospects of military assistance to the Armenians:

If the Armenians cannot defend their borders, then ... there is no benefit from such a people, and not a single union state will be ready to help them, even with one battalion.

In addition, oil was produced in Baku, and therefore the British flirted with the new authorities of Azerbaijan, not paying special attention to their friendly relations with Turkey, which fought on the side of Germany.

On September 24, 1920, the war between Turkey and Armenia nevertheless began, and Armenia turned out to be the attacking party. The Treaty of Sevres was supposed to come into force on August 10, but the Armenians did not want to wait and at the end of June they began to occupy Turkish territories in the Oltinsky district (the boundaries of which US President Wilson had not even had time to determine). Another Armenian army moved towards Nakhichevan. Both of these armies were defeated. None other than O. Kachaznuni, the leader of the Dashnaktsutyun party and the Prime Minister of Armenia, recalled that the soldiers of his troops fled to the villages. As Lloyd George believed, for the Armenians this adventure ended with a crushing defeat, and only at the request of the Soviet government did the Turkish army stop a few kilometers from Erivan. On the night of December 2 to 3, 1920, the Alexandropol Peace Treaty, humiliating for Armenia, was concluded (now the city of Alexandropol is called Gyumri). Hovhannes Kajaznuni, member of the Dashnaktsutyun Party and Prime Minister of Armenia in 1918-1919, recalled:

The Treaty of Sevres dazzled our eyes, fettered thought, eclipsed the awareness of reality. Today we understand how we would have won if in the fall of 1920 we came to a direct agreement with the Turks on the Treaty of Sevres. But then we did not understand this. The fact, and the unforgivable fact, was that we did nothing to avoid war. On the contrary, they themselves gave an immediate reason for it.

Soviet period in the history of Transcaucasia


The Alexandropol Treaty of Armenia with Turkey was annulled immediately after the Red Army units entered Yerevan on December 4, 1920. Red commanders and commissars were very serious people, they put things in order in the areas they occupied very quickly - without wordy speeches, long meetings and long resolutions. Therefore, very soon, both Armenians and Azerbaijanis were forced to abandon the mutual massacre, not without regret.

According to the new Moscow Treaty of March 16, 1921 (its terms were confirmed by the Kars Treaty of December 13 of the same year), Turkey returned to Russia the previously captured Batumi, Nakhichevan and Alexandropol (Gyumri), leaving behind the Kars region.

On March 12, 1922, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan became part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic with the capital in Tbilisi (the first head was Sergo Ordzhonikidze), which existed until December 5, 1936 and, along with Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, became a co-founder of the USSR (agreement from December 30, 1922). And on December 5, 1936, Armenia became a republic within the USSR.


Map of Armenia according to the Servian Peace Treaty, the Republic of Armenia (1918-1920) and Soviet Armenia in the background historical Armenia

"Old rake"


The inept and unwise policy of the last general secretary of the USSR M. Gorbachev led to a new aggravation of the situation in the places where Azerbaijanis and Armenians live together. Pogroms began in Sumgait (February 27-29, 1988) and Baku (January 13-14, 1990), Armenians were expelled from Ganja (November 1988), Goranboy (Shahumyan) and Khanlar regions of Azerbaijan (January 11, 1990 g.). During the bloody war that began over Nagorno-Karabakh, by 1994, Armenian troops occupied approximately 20% of the territory of Azerbaijan. In September 2020, hostilities resumed, and the Azerbaijani army (not without the help of Turkey) managed to take a fairly convincing revenge for the defeat in the first war.

In the next article we will return to Turkey, which was dying after the defeat in World War I, which had to fight not only with Armenia, but also with Greece. It will tell about the Second Greco-Turkish War, the abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate and Caliphate and the birth of the Turkish Republic. And also about Soviet economic and military assistance to the new Turkish state and how Mustafa Kemal became “Gazi” and “Ataturk”.
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 31 January 2021 05: 19
    +4
    Thank you, Valery.

    How close already: both in time and in distance from us. And how it echoes with today's events.

    Still, there is a certain cyclicality. But neither the genius of Chizhevsky, nor Kondratyev will fully reveal this harmonic.
    1. Hunter 2
      Hunter 2 31 January 2021 07: 47
      +10
      Just a huge amount of work is being done to write articles, Perfectly stated, A huge number of illustrations ... thank you very much for the work Valery Ryzhov hi + + +
      It is interesting to look at old Photos ...
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 31 January 2021 10: 44
      -6
      about the fall of the Turkish Empire should be written not from the 20th century, but at least from the 19th century, from the Janissary suppression of 1826. when the main forces of the ataman empire, the Janissaries, were defeated and destroyed. After the Janissary suppression, the Turkish Empire lost all its independence and began to decline, and the whole policy was reoriented to Europe.
      1. VLR
        31 January 2021 11: 16
        +8
        I wrote about the Janissaries in the article:
        https://topwar.ru/164960-janychary-i-bektashi.html
        And almost all historians in Turkey and abroad are sure that they (the Janissaries) did not represent any military force at the time of the defeat, but they were a factor destabilizing the empire.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 31 January 2021 11: 20
          -12%
          Quote: VlR
          And almost all historians - in Turkey and abroad are sure that they (the Janissaries) did not represent any military force at the time of the defeat


          Turkey and this Russia are conquered countries and do not have their own independent policy. And therefore, the policy directed to the past is so false.
  2. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 31 January 2021 05: 40
    +5
    Thank you Valery for your brief informative article ... I'm worried about the fate of Russia, whether the Kremlin leadership took these lessons of history into account in their plans for the Caucasus.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 31 January 2021 07: 00
      +3
      Curiously, than the comment above caused a negative and, accordingly, a minus in the piggy bank?
      Or does the word "Kremlin" or "feeling for the raging Motherland without a mantra addressed to liberals" cause hatred among hamsters and their ilk? what
      And I understood the word Caucasus !!! It's like in old American movies - say "cheez". And a reflex reaction begins.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 31 January 2021 07: 45
        +1
        Or maybe it's a good idea to prevent the devaluation of the stars?

        For example, start sequestering the "generals". Instead of charging. The version is not worse than others.
        1. Hunter 2
          Hunter 2 31 January 2021 08: 27
          +3
          Quote: Korsar4
          Or maybe it's a good idea to prevent the devaluation of the stars?

          This is to go from 7 stars to 5 stars drinks laughing although times are hard - you need to be more modest recourse
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 31 January 2021 08: 35
            +3
            It depends on which barrel to pour.
            1. Hunter 2
              Hunter 2 31 January 2021 08: 37
              +2
              So "globally" I did not even think ... what remembered !!!
              Load oranges in Barrels (s) laughing
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 31 January 2021 08: 40
                +2
                Why did I think that Shaov's songs got caught in the morning:

                “Every sport has
                Rules of their own. "

                To dialogue, however.
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 31 January 2021 18: 22
          +4
          "Prevent the devaluation of stars" - we have already gone through the devaluation of the ruble and it was on the site.
          And I would not say that it was good. Of course there were those you played, but the bulk. Left on the sidelines
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 31 January 2021 22: 42
            +1
            The ruble and virtual points are still different things.
            Who will figure out what benefit or pleasure you can get from them?
    2. Doliva63
      Doliva63 31 January 2021 20: 50
      -1
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Thank you Valery for your brief informative article ... I'm worried about the fate of Russia, whether the Kremlin leadership took these lessons of history into account in their plans for the Caucasus.

      Of course I took into account, everything is privatized by the Rotenbergs laughing
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 31 January 2021 08: 01
    +7
    I read it in one breath. Excellent!
    The Turks, okay, God bless them, but from the whole huge cycle one thing was postponed: That the Caucasus, that the Balkans - like a snake cuboid, constantly cut each other with varying degrees of success, and, obviously, until they are completely cut out, this will not stop.
    Well at least the Balkans are far from us.
    1. Hunter 2
      Hunter 2 31 January 2021 08: 41
      +2
      Konstantin hi In fact, both World Wars began from the Balkans, but the Caucasus, in fact, is at war from the moment a person appears there!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 31 January 2021 08: 44
        +5
        ... from the moment a person appeared there!

        It seems to me that this is some kind of special subspecies of homo sapiens, stuck already in the Stone Age.
        Hi Aleksey. hi
        1. Hunter 2
          Hunter 2 31 January 2021 08: 48
          +4
          Everything is very prosaic Constantine, there is little land there - and there are many who want to possess it! Actually, they usually did not wage wars for mutual destruction ... so - another "pasture" was tying each other laughing
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 31 January 2021 09: 06
            +5
            ... so - another "pasture" was tyrily to each other

            If only that ... Their main business was always robbery, and then they were offended at Paskevich. negative
            1. Hunter 2
              Hunter 2 31 January 2021 09: 13
              +3
              Quote: Sea Cat

              If only that ... Their main business was always robbery, and then they were offended at Paskevich. negative

              Again, the scarcity of one's own resources gives rise to a desire to appropriate others!
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 31 January 2021 09: 15
                +9
                Then why am I not going to rob? Pension = then we have not very good. what
                1. Hunter 2
                  Hunter 2 31 January 2021 09: 24
                  +5
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  Then why am I not going to rob? Pension = then we have not very good. what

                  Can you think more globally? There ... post office, telegraph request
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 31 January 2021 09: 32
                    +3
                    Or maybe I just live in my time and not soured in the remnants?

                    And let others clean the telegraph with the mail, I looked at this left-handedness, and relatively recently, on the Smolenskaya embankment.
                    Into the dupu.
                    1. Hunter 2
                      Hunter 2 31 January 2021 09: 37
                      +3
                      These only Instagram and tik-tok can wipe after themselves laughing
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 31 January 2021 09: 52
                        +7
                        My mother used to say: "Do not wish Brezhnev any harm, it will only get worse." This is what life experience means - like looking into the water.
                        As the Strugatskys wrote in "It's Difficult to Be God" - After the "grays", as a rule, "blacks" come to power.
                        Horseradish - radishes are not sweeter, and when the gentlemen fight, the forelocks of the slaves crackle. request
                      2. Astra wild2
                        Astra wild2 31 January 2021 19: 17
                        +1
                        Alas, it is.
                    2. Fat
                      Fat 31 January 2021 14: 58
                      +2
                      hi After the words of Eric Schmidt about "the largest experiment in the field of anarchy", something has changed. People began to at least slightly understand, didn't they? yes
                    3. Hunter 2
                      Hunter 2 31 January 2021 15: 19
                      +2
                      And how life goes on without the Internet now - the majority of young people simply cannot imagine! hi
                    4. Fat
                      Fat 31 January 2021 15: 36
                      +2
                      And there is. From 3-5 years on a smartphone in YouTube they confidently "spar", more often than not even being able to read and not being able to ride a "bike"
                    5. Hunter 2
                      Hunter 2 31 January 2021 15: 40
                      +1
                      Come on Children, the majority of Pensioners no longer understand - how did they live up to the Pension without Google? wassat
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 31 January 2021 08: 49
    +8
    Good morning, Constantine! hi
    Duc Europe stopped the massacre, which was not comparable to the Caucasian massacre in the number of victims, only 75 years ago, and we flew in so that my mother did not grieve. It's just a matter of time - if there is a serious economic strengthening of Russia and Turkey, there will be peace there.
    1. Hunter 2
      Hunter 2 31 January 2021 09: 01
      +4
      Albert hi A little about something else, there is war as a family tradition - at the same time All could fight with All within their tribe and with neighbors at the same time.
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 31 January 2021 09: 24
        +6
        Quote: Hunter 2
        Albert hi A little about something else, there is war as a family tradition - at the same time All could fight with All within their tribe and with neighbors at the same time.

        Glad to see Alexey! hi I agree with everything you write about the Caucasus, but in Europe, at least in the fertile part of it, most likely, it all started the same way. The problem is that in this regard, for these several thousand years, nothing, by and large, has changed. laughing
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 31 January 2021 09: 12
      +3
      ... there will be peace.

      Nah, until everyone is cut out. They cannot do otherwise, because they are stuck in the clan-tribal system.

      "We do not need a railway, the old regime, the new regime - we will cut everyone out!" (C)
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 31 January 2021 09: 44
        +1
        Or will not fall under Turkish or Russian occupation
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 31 January 2021 09: 47
          +5
          Under the Russian were already, the most frisky were promoted, it did not help, as they were bandits, they remained. The tradition is ... national.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 31 January 2021 10: 31
            +5
            In my opinion, everything is a function of the standard of living and employment. For a start, the Swiss united for the sake of fighting their neighbors, then snatched it off on the snatch when they tried to squeeze something from Italy, and then realized that without crafts and study they would remain on the periphery of civilization. As a result, they became one of the best countries in the world for life. ))
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 31 January 2021 10: 43
              +5
              So the Swiss UNDERSTOOD, it means there was something to understand, and these brain functions are clearly absent. It's easier to rob someone than to bother the gyrus with empty thoughts.
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 31 January 2021 11: 54
                +2
                Well, I think they are more pastoralists than bandits)).
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 31 January 2021 12: 51
                  +4
                  In this case, rather sheep breeders, but ... still bandits.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 31 January 2021 13: 21
                    +4
                    "This is as natural as pasta and a goat, like a woman and a mustache, like a child and a pomegranate, like love and a sheep" (c)
                    Quote, Film Viva France
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 31 January 2021 13: 36
                      +3
                      What can you do, reality, at times, makes you forget about what seemed natural yesterday.
                  2. ANB
                    ANB 31 January 2021 14: 01
                    +2
                    ... In this case, rather sheep breeders

                    I am directly amazed at your tolerance. Written so softly :)
                    Experience is not spent on drink. (marine proverb)
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 31 January 2021 14: 56
                      +3
                      By the way, if you approach it wisely, it's a good business with a large livestock. And cashmere goats too.
                    2. Catfish
                      Catfish 31 January 2021 20: 32
                      +3
                      You can drink everything, but you cannot disgrace the fleet. (also from marine folklore)
                    3. ANB
                      ANB 31 January 2021 21: 20
                      +1
                      ... You can drink everything, but you cannot disgrace the fleet. (also from marine folklore)

                      This is from the song.
                    4. Catfish
                      Catfish 31 January 2021 22: 05
                      +1
                      Well said anyway. smile
                    5. ANB
                      ANB 31 January 2021 22: 16
                      +2
                      ... Where did the stars that fell into the seas go
                      The lighthouse screams anxiously, I speak seriously
                      It’s not too late to get off the ship.
                      But we have met dawns more than once in the seas
                      And drank alcohol, dangling between the ice floes.
                      We will all pass, but we will not disgrace the fleet,
                      We'll drink it all, but we won't shame the fleet.
                      Layy-layy, layy-layy,
                      Music louder, play louder

                      Our ship has a pipe and reverse gear.
                      The pipe smokes dangerously, the screws creak terribly,
                      And nobody knows how the campaign will end.

                      But we have met dawns more than once in the seas
                      And drank alcohol, dangling between the ice floes.
                      We will all pass, but we will not disgrace the fleet,
                      We'll drink it all, but we won't shame the fleet.
                      Layy-layy, layy-layy,
                      Music louder, play louder

                      But, nevertheless, there is no sadness, even no annoyance.
                      You have hardly seen everything that we have seen.
                      You guys can't get enough of cigarettes.

                      But we have met dawns more than once in the seas
                      And drank alcohol, dangling between the ice floes.
                      We will all pass, but we will not disgrace the fleet,
                      We'll drink it all, but we won't shame the fleet.
                      Layy-layy, layy-layy,
                      Music louder, play louder

                      Yuri Vizbor.
                    6. ANB
                      ANB 31 January 2021 22: 20
                      0
                      That is, it is still not folklore.
                      But the navy loves the song. Although not many people know. Basically, it was dispersed in pieces, therefore it is perceived by folk art.
                    7. Catfish
                      Catfish 31 January 2021 23: 09
                      +2
                      Thanks for reminding the whole song.
                      good But with regard to folklore, I disagree, bardic song, it is folklore.
                      At one time, amateur song contests were held, as a rule, somewhere in nature, far from Moscow, that's where the people broke away from the gray metropolitan everyday life. The chairman of the competition was Bulat Okudzhava, and a gray "twenty-four-station wagon" from the beloved Office was constantly present.)) drinks
                    8. ANB
                      ANB 31 January 2021 23: 17
                      +2
                      ... But with regard to folklore, I disagree, bardic song, it is folklore.

                      Well, let's assume that we disagreed in terms. The main thing is that we understood each other.
                    9. Catfish
                      Catfish 31 January 2021 23: 19
                      +2
                      This is by far the most important thing. smile drinks
                  3. PilotS37
                    PilotS37 1 February 2021 14: 31
                    +1
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    Thanks for reminding the whole song.
                    But with regard to folklore, I disagree, bardic song, it is folklore.
                    At one time, amateur song contests were held, as a rule, somewhere in nature, far from Moscow, that's where the people broke away from the gray metropolitan everyday life. The chairman of the competition was Bulat Okudzhava, and a gray "twenty-four-station wagon" from the beloved Office was constantly present.))

                    Well, why "before" - and now all this is also there: people go somewhere around Yegoryevka every weekend (in the summer, of course) ...
    3. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 31 January 2021 15: 58
      +3
      In my opinion, "part-time" has not been canceled
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 31 January 2021 19: 34
    +2
    "We will cut everyone out" Constantine, you know, and for some time now I envy you: you live in a quieter region. Although we have sunshine and resorts, the region is restless
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 31 January 2021 20: 35
      +2
      Quote: Astra wild2
      "We will cut everyone out" Constantine, you know, and for some time now I envy you: you live in a quieter region. Although we have sunshine and resorts, the region is restless

      Are you talking about Ridna Krasnodarshina or Stavropol Territory? ))
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 31 January 2021 21: 05
        +1
        Both Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories are the Caucasus, and the Caucasus is a restless region. Of course, it cannot be compared with the Gaza Strip, but there are still quieter regions than the Caucasus
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 31 January 2021 21: 28
          +2
          At the beginning of 2020, most crimes were committed:
          A) Moscow
          B) Moscow region
          C) Krasnodar Territory
          Ingushetia is one of the most peaceful regions of the Russian Federation. Along with the Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Chukotka))
          The Gaza Strip is calm there. It's just that the level of corruption is off the charts and hostilities with Israel are conducted quite often. laughing
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 1 February 2021 08: 17
            +1
            Do you recommend Chukotka for permanent residence, and yourself in the Nenets Autonomous District?
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 1 February 2021 09: 31
              +1
              Yes, I'm well fed here too laughing
              No, I would recommend Moscow
              1. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 1 February 2021 14: 12
                +1
                I'm scared in Moscow. Suddenly they will hurt me
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 1 February 2021 15: 24
                  +1
                  Hurt Them First angry
                2. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 1 February 2021 16: 37
                  +2
                  I can't do that. I'm white and fluffy
                3. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 1 February 2021 16: 39
                  +2
                  Then you are in Iceland. Zero crime, white snow and fluffy is not cold))
  • icant007
    icant007 31 January 2021 08: 23
    +1
    In 1918-1920. there were also bloody clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. In 24 villages of the Shemakha district, 17 thousand Armenians were killed, in 20 villages of the Nukha district - 20 thousand Armenians. Armenians were also massacred in Agdam and Ganja. Azerbaijanis and Kurds moved to the territories that were previously inhabited by Armenians.



    I would like to ask the author - Did they kill some Armenians?

    And don't we see the massacre of Muslims in Baku in March 1918?

    I like the way the author writes, but I still have to be more objective.
    1. VLR
      31 January 2021 08: 51
      +6
      The article also contains the following lines:
      "In Armenia, the Dashnaks (members of the Dashnaktsutyun party) and the troops under their control" cleared "the Novobayazet, Erivan, Echmiadzin and Sharur-Daralagez districts from Azerbaijanis. Clashes also took place in Nagorno-Karabakh, which the Armenians usually call Artsakh."
      1. icant007
        icant007 31 January 2021 09: 11
        +1
        Quote: VlR
        "Cleared" of Azerbaijanis


        Yes, but there are no numbers, so there is an impression of the terrible bloodthirstiness of Azerbaijanis.
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 31 January 2021 15: 55
        +1
        Valery, in all fairness, the "Dashnaks" are of course cattle, but still the Turks slaughtered the Armenians more.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 31 January 2021 08: 34
    0
    Entente ships entered the harbor of Constantinople November 18, 1918, Now do you understand why Lenin and the Bolsheviks so willingly cooperated with Ataturk and helped him restore the sovereignty of his country and control over the Straits?

    We certainly understand why else long before November 18, 1918 r, namely in March 1918 Bolsheviks sold (betrayed) to Turkish aggressors Russian possessions in Transcaucasia Kars, Batum, Ardahan, demobilized the Russian army in the Caucasus. At such a terrible price, they bought from Turkey the opportunity to calmly crush the resistance of the Russian people to the usurpers of power. The author does not have a word about such a significant episode: apparently does not fit into his concept of the beneficial alliance of the Bolsheviks with the Turks.

    The arguments of the article about the profitability of an alliance with Turkey in 1921 are ridiculous: why is the possession of the straits by the eternal enemy and rival Turkey better for Russia than the possession of them by the Entente? Let me remind you, yes, that not the Bolsheviks, but the Entente, canceled the Bolshevik gifts to the Turks.

    What was the benefit of Russia as a result of the wild massacre and the expulsion of millions of Greeks, Armenians from Asia Minor and Armenia, committed including. Bolshevik weapons and Russian gold (and this at a time when OWN citizens were dying of starvation en masse)?

    Why would Christian Armenia be bad for Russia within the boundaries of the Treaty of Sevres, destroyed with the help of the resources of the Bolsheviks, as a result of which a pitiful stub in the form of owls remained. Armenia? Yes, if she were, there would not be a huge Turkey today, and the conversation with her would be different, more beneficial to Russia.

    And there would be no trace of the Karabakh conflict.

    And yes, by its existence Russophobic Patriarchate of Constantinople is entirely obliged to the intercession of the Bolsheviks - it was they who begged the Turks to leave him (they planned to throw him out of Turkey)
    1. VLR
      31 January 2021 09: 10
      +15
      You still have to be more objective.
      The army was destroyed not by the Bolsheviks, but by the "Februaryists" before them. And the Bolsheviks later managed, during the negotiations, to return part of the territory that was lost not by them, but by the proclaimed independence of Georgia and Armenia.
      If it were not for the Bolsheviks, Armenia probably would not exist at all at the present time. And there was no Karabakh conflict precisely because of the absence of Armenians in Karabakh.
      It was the Bolsheviks who stopped the mutual massacre of Armenians and Azerbaijanis and thus saved tens of thousands (if not hundreds of thousands) of people on both sides.
      Further development of historical events showed the correctness of the position of the Bolsheviks. Turkey, headed by Ataturk, grateful to Russia, and then - Ismail Pasha Inenu, unlike Bulgaria and Romania liberated by Russia, did not enter World War II on the side of Germany. Turkey's control over the Straits also turned out to be extremely beneficial to Russia, because otherwise the Black Sea was now a gateway for US and NATO warships.
      As for the "eviction of Greeks from Asia Minor" - there is no need to idealize the Greeks, they are also Balkans. I already wrote about what they were doing in Cyprus during "Bloody Christmas" - already in 1963. And in the next article I will write a little about what they did on the territory of modern Turkey in 1919-1922. And about the expulsion from the territory of Greece of more than half a million Turks, Bulgarians, Vlachs and others. "White and fluffy" then was not. And to declare the Greeks as such on the grounds that they are Orthodox is wrong.
      1. icant007
        icant007 31 January 2021 09: 48
        -2
        Quote: VlR
        And to declare the Greeks as such on the grounds that they are Orthodox is wrong.


        I completely agree with you. It was the exclusive reliance of the tsarist government in the Caucasus on fellow Christians that led to the infringement of the rights of the Muslim population. This subsequently caused a negative attitude of Muslims towards Armenians.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 31 January 2021 11: 35
        -1
        Quote: VlR
        The army was destroyed not by the Bolsheviks, but by the "Februaryists" before them.

        The real collapse of the VOR with her official call to fraternize, the blunt promise of peace and an immediate truce, everyone went home.
        Quote: VlR
        ... And the Bolsheviks then managed to negotiate return part of the territory that they did not lose, but who proclaimed independence Georgia and Armenia.

        Those who proclaimed independence exclusively AFTER THE THIEF , which became her treacherous result .. And it was much later than the Brest betrayal.

        2. During the negotiations of 1918, the Bolsheviks were able to lose (to sell to the aggressor) Russian territories, from which they "returned" a pitiful part and, mind you, they returned them NOT to Russia at all — we look out the window.
        Quote: VlR
        If it were not for the Bolsheviks, Armenia probably would not exist at all at the present time. And there was no Karabakh conflict precisely because of the absence of Armenians in Karabakh

        If it were not for the help of the Bolsheviks to Turkey, it would have been in twice less. And there would be no Karabakh conflict.


        Quote: VlR
        Further development of historical events showed right positions of the Bolsheviks.

        Let me remind you that it was at this time that Russia was raging with might and main terrible catastrophe of hunger with MILLION agonizing deaths, mass cannibalism, unseen in Russia. And, allegedly, precisely to overcome it, the Bolsheviks robbed the churches of Russia and people, but the gold collected to save the starving went ... to the Turkish enemy.
        For you this is correct, but for many it is wildness.
        Quote: VlR
        ... Turkey led by thankful Russia Ataturk, and then - Ismail Pasha Inenu, unlike Bulgaria and Romania liberated by Russia, did not enter World War II on the side of Germany.

        Look, HOW MANY troops the USSR held against the "grateful" one (how could this be said? belay ) Turkey in WWII: everyone, apparently, was waiting for "gratitude" ...
        Quote: VlR
        Turkey's control over the Straits also turned out to be extremely beneficial to Russia, because otherwise the Black Sea was now a gateway for US warships and НАТО.

        Let me remind you that Turkey IS NATO and will let anyone in and when needed. Are you in doubt? Funny ....
        Quote: VlR
        As for the "eviction of Greeks from Asia Minor" - there is no need to idealize the Greeks, they are also Balkans.

        As for the slaughter and eviction of the Greeks from the places where they lived for millennia BEFORE the Turks. then nothing like that massacre of the Greeks in Smyrna was not in Greece ..
        Quote: VlR
        And in the next article I will write a little about what they did on the territory of modern Turkey in 1919 - 1922 Years

        Just do not forget to mention the mass CUTTING of Armenians, Assyrians and others by the Turks before that time.
        And what did they expect in return? And the answer is yes, incomparable.
      3. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 31 January 2021 19: 27
        +2
        “It was not the Bolsheviks who destroyed the army” I heard on TV, after the Great October Revolution, Kerensky said, in order to prevent all troubles, “it was necessary to shoot only one person - Kerensky”. By the way, this is another example of "afterthought" for a colleague of Ryazanets
    2. icant007
      icant007 31 January 2021 09: 43
      -5
      Quote: Olgovich
      And there would be no trace of the Karabakh conflict.


      The roots of the Karabakh conflict in particular, and the Armenian-Azerbaijani enmity in general, should be sought not in the actions of the Bolsheviks, but in the policy of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus.
      1. bk0010
        bk0010 31 January 2021 16: 58
        +2
        Quote: icant007
        and in the policy of the Russian Empire in the Caucasus
        Seriously? Can you explain why the Armenians and Azerbaijanis started cutting each other then?
        1. icant007
          icant007 31 January 2021 17: 17
          -1
          [/ Quote]
          Quote: bk0010
          Can you explain why the Armenians and Azerbaijanis started cutting each other then?


          Here is one of the versions

          [quote] Viktor Makarenko, Doctor of Political Science from Southern Federal University, writes that the Armenian-Tatar massacre was the result of a complex manipulative policy of "divide and rule" that the tsarist government pursued for decades between nationalities in the region, the massacre itself began on February 6, 1905, after “the Armenians in the center of Baku shot a Muslim oil worker. After that, a five-day mutual massacre began in the city. " Makarenko also notes that the police openly sided with the Muslims: “The police behaved passively, the police chief, accompanied by 50 Cossacks, rode on horseback through the city engulfed in fires, without interfering with what was happening. The Cossacks handed over the Armenians for reprisal to the Muslim persecutors. At the same time, at the police station, Turkic workers were given rifles and revolvers on the security of passports ”[16].
    3. Bar1
      Bar1 31 January 2021 10: 51
      -7
      The Bolsheviks are generally strange people, they took Finland back, although the Finns themselves did not ask for it. Comrade Stalin gave Manchuria, the same person who asked him to do this, but Harbin was a Russian city?
      1. VLR
        31 January 2021 11: 36
        +7
        Well, Finland in general is a separate "song": it has always been subordinate to Russia only nominally, had its own parliament, its own currency, until 1901 - even its own troops. Finnish volunteers during World War I fought against Russia on the side of Germany. Only in 1 were attempts made to translate the business into Russian.
        Harbin was not even formally part of the Russian Empire, so no one would recognize its accession to the USSR.
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 31 January 2021 11: 50
          -7
          Quote: VlR
          Harbin was not even formally a member of the Sogstav of the Russian Empire, since no one would have recognized its accession to the USSR.


          but there lived Russian people, and not newcomers, but from time immemorial, Chinese Tartaria. Stalin did not recognize the same thing in real history.
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 31 January 2021 15: 46
        +2
        Bar, you read Fomenko and Zadornov well, but apart from humor and history you need to read
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 31 January 2021 15: 51
          +1
          I don't like Zadornov, but I haven't read Fomenko for a long time, there are already better authors.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 31 January 2021 18: 28
            +5
            Wow: "authors and better" Fomenko will be very offended
          2. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 31 January 2021 19: 13
            +2
            Colleague Bar, but did Fomenko set a minus?
        2. pmkemcity
          pmkemcity 1 February 2021 06: 58
          +1
          Quote: Astra wild2
          Bar, you read Fomenko and Zadornov well, but apart from humor and history you need to read

          You’re talking about Foma, and I’m talking about Yeryoma — my classmate is the grandson of immigrants from Harbin, my grandfather, his father, and his three aunts. They left under Stalin. Unfortunately, my aunt's husband is already dead; he was born in Port Arthur. His family left under Khrushchev. And this is already statistics. I don't like alternative history, but Harbin is a Russian city. As well as the Chinese Eastern Railway and Port Arthur ... The Manchus never considered themselves to be Chinese, and Comrade Stalin should have established the Manchurian Socialist Republic in the place of Manchzhur and included it in the RSFSR.
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 1 February 2021 08: 25
            0
            I'm sorry about Yerema, but you read the words of Bar, Valery's commentary.
            And then I have a claim. With equal success, I can also address you to Thomas
            1. pmkemcity
              pmkemcity 1 February 2021 09: 06
              0
              Quote: Astra wild2
              I'm sorry about Yerema, but you read the words of Bar, Valery's commentary.
              And then I have a claim. With equal success, I can also address you to Thomas

              God forbid you claims! Foma is Fomenko. And Erema is, by the way, not to you.
          2. VLR
            1 February 2021 08: 42
            +2
            In the same way, purely Russian cities were, for example, Odessa, Kherson, Nikolaev, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Atyrau (Guryev), Almaty (Verny) and many others.
  • kalibr
    kalibr 31 January 2021 13: 48
    +6
    What happened in occupied Istanbul is very well described by A. Tolstoy in the book "The Adventures of Neurozov or Ibicus"
  • ANB
    ANB 31 January 2021 14: 03
    +4
    Great article cycle. From the available textbooks I could not understand why Lenin needed Turkey's support. Now the puzzle is complete.
    Thanks to the author. I look forward to continuing.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 31 January 2021 15: 29
    +1
    "when the British fleet is in the Black Sea, the front door is open" has always believed that the Baltic Sea is geographically closer to Petrograd.
    True, there is a constant guard - Kronstad. When they pushed into the Baltic Sea, it ended in a pitiable end for the submarine L 55. It was sunk by artillerymen of 2 Soviet ships: "Gabriel" and *** (forgot the name). I told about this in history. The headmaster praised me very much. Then he took me to the district committee of the party and there they sat admiring: a smart girl ... As a reward they gave me: a big cake and a gorgeous cookery.
    I gave it to my future father-in-law, (we prepared the material together)
    1. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 31 January 2021 16: 16
      0
      and *** (forgot the name).

      Destroyer Azard. However, the British acted against the decomposed Baltic Fleet much more efficiently: one shame with the surrender of "Spartak" and "Avtroil" is worth it.
      As for the author's conclusions about the thoughtfulness of Soviet foreign policy towards Turkey - very funny, yes. And about the "brotherly friend" Inenu is funny. However, the USSR and then gulped Turkish gratitude with a full spoon, it is enough to remember that, for example:
      "... The Cuban Missile Crisis was caused by the deployment in 1961 by the United States in Turkey (a NATO member state) of medium-range Jupiter missiles, which could easily (due to short flight times) reach cities in the western part of the Soviet Union, including Moscow and the main industrial centers of the USSR ... "(c)
      It was a "genius" move to preserve and save a state deeply hostile to Russia. However, the current leaders are still persistently trying to play some games with the Turks. Kemal was still much more decent than Erdogan, if only for the fact that for a short time he turned Turkey into a relatively secular state.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 31 January 2021 19: 11
        0
        Ryazanets, thanks for the tip. It's just that "Azard" is not so memorable as: "Gabriel", this name is still used, and Azard does not cause any associations in me.
        "about a brotherly friend". It’s funny, “Do you not think that everyone is strong by“ afterthought? ”In that case, let's blame the“ Rapallo Treaty ”- in the future it led to the creation of the Reich.
        Why "why do we need the" Prut campaign "and a lot of similar examples
        "Not for a long time turned Turkey into a relatively secular state" - Turkey is the keeper of Islamic shrines and everyone wears a burqa
    2. Seal
      Seal 1 February 2021 13: 05
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      We certainly understand why long before November 18, 1918, namely in March 1918, the Bolsheviks sold (betrayed) the Russian possessions in Transcaucasia Kars, Batum, Ardahan to Turkish aggressors, demobilized the Russian army in the Caucasus. At such a terrible price, they bought from Turkey the opportunity to calmly crush the resistance of the Russian people to the usurpers of power. The author does not have a word about such a significant episode: apparently does not fit into his concept of the beneficial alliance of the Bolsheviks with the Turks.

      Soviet Russia concluded the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk because it lost the war to Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey. And she was forced to give all the winners (well, with the exception of Bulgaria - that, due to the absence of common borders, did not receive anything) millions of square kilometers of primordially Russian territory with millions of inhabitants. Including Soviet Russia recognized for Turkey in the Transcaucasia some piece of mountains we did not need, an area of ​​several tens of thousands of square kilometers, where by that time not a single Russian lived. And even before that, our Russians lived in Kars Province .... yes, the cat cried how many lived.
      So now some are constantly annoying that Soviet Russia had to continue the First World War for that pair of mountains.
      They don't care that we have already lost millions of our native square kilometers of territory inhabited by millions of our Russians. We lost huge cities (Warsaw, Tallinn, Riga, Vilno), we lost seaports, we lost forest eels, arable land, forests, we lost thousands of factories and factories ... .. And if we continued the First World War to please your ambitions, we would have lost even more.
      Quote: Olgovich
      The arguments of the article about the profitability of an alliance with Turkey in 1921 are ridiculous: why is the possession of the straits by the eternal enemy and rival Turkey better for Russia than the possession of them by the Entente? Let me remind you, yes, that not the Bolsheviks, but the Entente, canceled the Bolshevik gifts to the Turks.

      Yes, at least the fact that if England had straits, the Germans in 1940 would have kicked England out of the straits. And they themselves would have sat on them. That would be a disaster for us after 22.06.1941/XNUMX/XNUMX.
      Quote: Olgovich
      What was the benefit of Russia as a result of the wild massacre and the expulsion of millions of Greeks, Armenians from Asia Minor and Armenia, committed including. Bolshevik weapons and Russian gold (and this at a time when OWN citizens were dying of starvation en masse)?

      You will decide on your millions. Again. Mustafa Kemal's emissaries handed over Azerbaijan to us with WORKING oil fields. Without Baku oil, Soviet Russia would not have held out until 1925. Since we did not have any other oil, except for the thin North Caucasian fields, which were 1/10 of the capacity of the Baku ones. From the word in general.
      Quote: Olgovich
      Why would Christian Armenia be bad for Russia within the boundaries of the Treaty of Sevres, destroyed with the help of the resources of the Bolsheviks, as a result of which a pitiful stub in the form of owls remained. Armenia? Yes, if she were, there would not be a huge Turkey today, and the conversation with her would be different, more beneficial to Russia.
      And what has religion to do with it? Especially in the country at the time of the victorious atheism? Well, plus the historical memory. The Christian West has brought us incomparably more misery and suffering than the Muslim East.
      Quote: Olgovich
      And yes, the Russophobic Patriarchate of Constantinople owes its existence entirely to the intercession of the Bolsheviks - it was they who begged the Turks to leave him (they planned to throw him out of Turkey)
      God be with you. Who planned it? For this, did Mehmet the Conqueror sanction the establishment of this patriarchy in 1461, which neither the Greeks nor the Latins (during the period of their possession of Constantinople) admitted categorically earlier.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 31 January 2021 15: 42
    +2
    Valery, hello. I am happy: the Samsoniada is finally over. There is an interesting material
  • vladcub
    vladcub 31 January 2021 17: 01
    +3
    "Then we didn't understand it" a good thrashing brightened Kajaznuni's head.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 31 January 2021 18: 24
    +2
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Then why am I not going to rob? Pension = then we have not very good. what

    You have a different mentality
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 31 January 2021 19: 19
    +2
    Quote: Hunter 2
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Then why am I not going to rob? Pension = then we have not very good. what

    Can you think more globally? There ... post office, telegraph request

    "Love the queen like that, and steal a million like that"
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 31 January 2021 20: 09
    0
    Valery, what other stories await us. Maybe something romantic or mysterious?
    1. VLR
      31 January 2021 20: 32
      +2
      "Romantics" will be, though from Italy and "from the high road" smile


      But the guys are dashing and daring. And the girls, by the way, too.
      And then - mysterious, similar to "The Great Mysteries of the Labyrinths".
      But first, one more article, already announced, about Turkey. And articles about the massacre of Armenians and the retaliatory punitive terrorist "Operation Nemesis"
  • raki-uzo
    raki-uzo 1 February 2021 09: 39
    +4
    Thank you very much!
    Very interesting!
    My 2 kopecks ---
    The decay began at the end of the 16th century.
    It all depends on the Economy. Yes, and big wars ... these wars are based on economic reasons.
    Economic reasons for the collapse:
    -The tax system (Tımar Sistemi) has been violated.
    -The population has increased, but the tax has not. Accordingly, the education system was violated - inadequate government officials broke the people's trust in the state. That is why there were Jelali Rebellions against the state. Because of the high taxes that were invented by inadequate government officials. The rebels suppressed for a long time, bloody, and the people were not spared either. See Kuyuju Murat Pasha and his "adventures".
    -Geographic discoveries changed trade routes. This was very bad for the Ottomans.
    -The padishahs were often changed. Each new padishah had to distribute "julus bakhshishi". That is, he had to thank him in gold. For this reason, the Janichari tried to change the padishahs more often.
    -Nakhimov. He attacked Sinop. The Ottomans agreed with the Western countries to take revenge. There was a victory in the Crimea, but from an economic point of view, it was a disaster for the Ottomans.
    Religious reasons for the breakup:
    -Despite the fact that the Ottomans treated the people of the conquered countries quite well, at the state level, Western and other countries cherished revenge. This continues to this day. There is always a double standard of Western countries towards Turkey.
    -For religious reasons, typing was a difficult process for the Ottomans. Education and cultural development lagged behind. Stupidly believed that everything is bad in Evopa, what to take from them? They lagged behind in the economy, in education, in military technology and tactics, in social life.
    And there are probably 1000 reasons. Here comes the decay.
    ---
    * Mudross truce - October 30, 1918 and not the 31st.
    * Mustafa Kemal was sent to Samsun by an inspector on the initiative of Padishah to check whether the provisions of the Sevre Treaty were being observed. And there he started the beginning of the liberation movement.
    * As for the USSR - on April 28, 1920, the Red Army entered Baku without an obstacle, although it was repulsed from there 2 years ago. Azerbaijan became part of the USSR. I understand that it was they (the Red Army men) who received the city from the British and Denikin, but Mustafa Kemal kept silent, although he could have mobilized the Kafkaz Army with the locals. The reason is probably clear to everyone.
  • Rufat
    Rufat 1 February 2021 10: 54
    -5
    Delusional publication of pro-Armenian orientation. Again the Turks slaughtered the Armenians. And in Azerbaijan everything was just the opposite. Armenian Dashnaks staged a massacre of Azerbaijanis. Read archived data, not these paid authors
    1. Seal
      Seal 1 February 2021 12: 28
      +2
      But why ? The author also mentions that
      In 1918-1920. there were also bloody clashes between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. In 24 villages of the Shemakha district, 17 thousand Armenians were killed, in 20 villages of the Nukha district - 20 thousand Armenians. Armenians were also massacred in Agdam and Ganja. Azerbaijanis and Kurds moved to the territories that were previously inhabited by Armenians.
      In Armenia, the Dashnaks (members of the Dashnaktsutyun party) and the troops under their control "cleared" the Novobayazet, Erivan, Echmiadzin and Sharuro-Daralagez districts from Azerbaijanis.
      He just did not dare to reveal what the term "purified" still means? Especially in quotes ???
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Seal
    Seal 1 February 2021 12: 34
    +1
    Quote: raki-uzo
    I understand that it was they (the Red Army men) who received the city from the British and Denikin, but Mustafa Kemal kept silent, although he could have mobilized the Kafkaz Army with the locals. The reason is probably clear to everyone.

    Let's go back to the fact that as soon as Herr. Diesel invented its engine on that fuel, which later became known as "diesel fuel", the whole civilized world understood the importance of oil. And there was a saying that: "If oil is the queen, then Baku is her throne." Now we look at the beginning of 1920. Young Soviet Russia seems to have become stronger. Kolchak, Yudenich and Denikin are defeated. But the royal reserves have come to an end. And oil in Soviet Russia, except for the North Caucasian fields, the capacity of which did not exceed 1/10 of the capacity of the Baku fields. But at the beginning of 1920, Azerbaijan was a sovereign state. But the former part of the Russian Empire and ... and a very necessary part for us.
    And then Mustafa Kemal entered the historical stage, who turned to us for help in repelling the aggression of the Entente countries (mainly Greece) against Turkey.
    And we took advantage of his request for help. By asking him first to do us some favor. Namely, to obtain intact operating Baku oil fields for Soviet Russia. We, of course, understood that even without Turkish help Azerbaijan would not be able to resist us for a long time. But he will have plenty of time to blow up the Baku oil fields, even if he resists us for only three days. And we need the oil fields functioning, undamaged.
    Mustafa Kemal undertook to help us. His emissaries in Azerbaijan announced to the Azerbaijani leadership and generals that our 11th Army was in transit through Azerbaijan to help Turkey fight the Entente crusaders. And the Azerbaijanis, as Muslims, must help Muslim Turkey in this holy cause and let the 11th Red Army pass through the territory of Azerbaijan. Perhaps Azerbaijan had suspicions that the Turks were deceiving them, but Ataturk, who was already the master of the entire eastern part of Turkey, was for the Azerbaijanis the only hope for help against us. And the Azerbaijanis pretended to believe. As a result, we occupied the whole of Azerbaijan almost without a fight for 2 days. Moreover, all the oil fields fell into our hands safe and sound. The Turks followed this.

    As the Azerbaijani M.E. Rasulzade wrote:
    “A part of the Ottoman Turks operating in Baku involuntarily misled people with these words:“ The approaching Red Army is led by a Turk named Nijat-bek. The regiments of this army are made up of Turks. A large number of soldiers come from the Turks of the Volga region. This Army goes to the aid of Anatolia, fighting against deadly enemies. The resistance shown to this Army will be tantamount to hampering the salvation of Turkey. From the point of view of great Turkic unity and the Muslim community, this is tantamount to betrayal. " A day later, it turned out that all these high words were a bluff. It was just a political ploy. ”

    The former head of the organization to combat the counter-revolution of Azerbaijan, Nagy Sheikhzamanli, in his memoirs evaluated the role of the Turks in this way:
    “When the Red Army approached our northern borders, the Azerbaijani authorities ordered the governor of the city of Cuba to dismantle the rails for at least one kilometer. The governor executed this order the next day. However, the lying Khalil Bey deceived our general, saying: “My Pasha, the government dismantled the rails on the border. The Red Army will not be able to proceed from here to Anatolia to assist Ataturk. Please take appropriate action. ” The deceived Azerbaijani general ordered the restoration of the railway. "

    That is, in fact, we bought all Azerbaijan from Ataturk for 10 million rubles in gold, which "cost" a million times more expensive. The young Soviet republic received a source of oil that we badly needed, without which Soviet Russia would most likely not have survived. And then, relying on Azerbaijan, we occupied both Armenia and Georgia, restoring the borders of the Russian Empire in Transcaucasia in almost its original form.
  • Seal
    Seal 1 February 2021 12: 43
    +2
    Quote: raki-uzo
    Nakhimov. He attacked Sinop. The Ottomans agreed with the Western countries to take revenge.
    Nakhimov did not "attack Sinop" by himself. Let's see what happened at the beginning. Crimean War 1853-1855
    In the Ottoman Empire, and specifically in Bethlehem, Orthodox and Catholics clashed (well, the Armenians also ran between their legs and interfered with both) over who would be honored to block the rotted roof of the Temple of the Lord.
    Instead of sitting down and agreeing, yielding to each other in everything, as befits good Christians, good Christians began to complain to the Sultan and gave the question to his decision. The Sultan wanted to get off the topic and said that he himself would block the roof of the temple in Bethlehem at the expense of the budget of the Ottoman Empire. But then the Orthodox and Catholics found a new reason for squabbles in the Holy Places and again gave it to the Sultan for decision. Since the Sultan was financially dependent on France, he gave the Catholics a little bit more advantage. Nicholas I was outraged by this and he ordered Menshikov to go to Constantinople and declare an ultimatum to Turkey, and so that the Sultan thought better, Nicholas I sent troops into the Turkish provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia.
    The Sultan demanded that our troops withdraw from the Turkish provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia within half a year. The Sultan was supported by France and England.
    In short, the war began essentially from scratch.
  • Seal
    Seal 1 February 2021 13: 10
    +2
    Quote: Ryazanets87
    one shame with the surrender of "Spartacus" and "Avtroil" is worth it.
    Two and the death of Gabriel, Svoboda and Constantine by mines is also not the most glorious milestone in the history of our fleet.
  • Seal
    Seal 1 February 2021 13: 16
    +2
    Quote: icant007
    At the same time, at the police station, Turkic workers were given rifles and revolvers on the security of passports. "
    Where did the workers, especially the Turkic, in 1905 get passports ??? Let me remind you that universal certification in the USSR was completely completed only in 1981.
    1. icant007
      icant007 2 February 2021 13: 31
      -3
      Quote: Seal
      Where did the workers, especially the Turkic, in 1905 get passports ??? Let me remind you that universal certification in the USSR was completely completed only in 1981.


      Yes, the phrase "on the security of passports" seems too modern, but there were passports in tsarist Russia.
      Let's recall the film "Formula of Love", a phrase from it:
      “We had a clerk in the county. In the patchport, the year of birth was indicated with only one number - ink, rogue, saved. Then the matter became clear - he was sent to prison. But the patchport did not begin to be altered - the document after all." And in the film, 1780.

      The passport system in Russia began to take shape even under Peter I.
      And by the time of the first Russian revolution, almost all workers were required to have passports.
      1. Seal
        Seal 2 February 2021 15: 08
        +1
        In 1861, after the abolition of serfdom, the Passport Commission was created, one of whose proposals was the introduction of a "residence permit".
        According to him, passports were canceled: for absences within their county, as well as outside their county, but no further than 50 versts from their permanent place of residence for up to six months; for persons hired for agricultural work, regardless of place and term; for persons who have been absent for more than six months, but to an adjacent rural municipality or adjacent county. It was not necessary to have a passport at the place of permanent residence - no one even had the right to demand it there. In all other cases of absences from a permanent place of residence, obtaining a passport (or as it has since been called - a residence permit) has become mandatory for all categories of the population, including the nobles.
        1. icant007
          icant007 2 February 2021 16: 24
          -1
          I don’t mind. But you study the topic further)

          In almost all large industrial cities, in particular provincial ones, workers were required to have passports
          "In places of permanent residence, a passport was not required, except for cities declared under a state of emergency and enhanced security. Where there were rules for the supervision of industrial establishments, workers were also required to have passports. Passports were not required for absences within the county and beyond - no more than 50 versts and no more than 6 months, and from persons hired for agricultural work - and for a longer period, but only in volosts adjacent to the uyezd of permanent residence. "
          1. Seal
            Seal 2 February 2021 16: 30
            +1
            It remains for you to prove that Baku belonged to the list of cities declared under the state of emergency and enhanced security, where the rules of supervision over industrial establishments were in effect. hi
            1. icant007
              icant007 2 February 2021 16: 39
              -2
              And I'm not going to prove))) Why?
            2. icant007
              icant007 2 February 2021 18: 48
              -2
              Quote: Seal
              It remains for you to prove that Baku belonged to the list of cities declared under the state of emergency and enhanced security, where the rules of supervision over industrial establishments were in effect.



              However, if you please, dear.

              hesse in m exceptional position spb law 1908


              1. Seal
                Seal 3 February 2021 16: 57
                +1
                Okay. If you want so much, let the Turkic workers all be with passports crying
                1. icant007
                  icant007 3 February 2021 17: 53
                  -1
                  Quote: Seal
                  Okay. If you want so much, let the Turkic workers all be with passports


                  Just don't need me any favors. Descended, the same to me.
                  And simply admitting your ignorance is already weak.

                  I am not here to impose false information, and not to uncompromisingly assert that I am right.
                  I am here to acquire new knowledge, to convey to others what I know, and to express my opinion, if I have one on a specific issue.

                  Here I never deliberately tell a lie, I can only be sincerely mistaken in my ignorance.
                  1. Seal
                    Seal 4 February 2021 10: 48
                    +1
                    You see:
                    1. Baku province was included in the list of provinces in a state of enhanced security in 1901. In total, 23 provinces were in a state of "enhanced security" (if I counted correctly) at the same time.
                    2. The adopted Regulation of 1895 divided the entire population of the Empire into two groups. The first consisted of nobles, officers, honorary citizens, merchants and commoners. They were given unlimited passport books. The second group includes the bourgeoisie, artisans and rural inhabitants, that is, people of tax-paying estates. For the second group, three residence permits were provided:
                    - passport books (issued for five years, provided that there were no arrears in fees and payments. They indicated the annual amount of fees. The police took passports from those if their owners did not pay the installation fee on time);
                    - passports (issued for up to one year, regardless of the presence of arrears and the consent of other persons);
                    - free forms for absence (issued for up to one year to victims of crop failure).

                    Consequently, in 1905, workers could have passports valid for up to 1 year.
                    I deeply doubtthat our Imperial bureaucratic machine at the beginning of the 20th century managed to establish the uninterrupted issuance and timely replacement of these essentially disposable annual passports for all workers. Especially for unskilled workers, which were mainly workers of Tatar nationality in Baku. Taking into account the fact that in the USSR, full certification of all citizens of the USSR, without exception, began only in 1974 and ended in 1981.
                    Is this clear ???
                    1. icant007
                      icant007 4 February 2021 11: 06
                      -1
                      Quote: Seal
                      I deeply doubt


                      Well, you can't sew a doubt to the point.

                      Everything that we have briefly studied on the topic is just a first approximation to the issue of passports. There are a lot of nuances that are unknown to us.

                      But you initially questioned the existence of passports for workers in tsarist Russia. Meanwhile, passports for workers was one of the issues that Lenin also touched upon, advocating their abolition even before the first Russian revolution.
                      In addition, the Transcaucasian region had its own peculiarities of population registration. I have not yet found the specifics.

                      Moreover, speaking about the confiscation of passports from Baku workers, I did not rely on my own research. And to the work of a doctor of sciences SFedU. That, in turn, on the German Iorg Baberovsky. The personality is rather ambiguous, but it does not follow from this that he was wrong on a particular issue.

                      In general, unfortunately, there are more works of foreign researchers on the history of Transcaucasia of the XNUMXth century than ours.
                      1. Seal
                        Seal 4 February 2021 15: 56
                        +1
                        I may not have expressed myself quite correctly. From what you have drawn not entirely correct conclusion. I did not question the fact that the workers in the Russian Empire at that time had passports. Since we all remember (I hope that we all), what we were told at the "Leninist lessons", how the Bolsheviks, for the purpose of conspiracy, used the workers' passports, pasting their photographs there.
                        I meant this. I show. Was written:
                        At the same time, at the police station, Turkic workers were given rifles and revolvers on the security of passports. "
                        To which I answered not quite correctly:
                        Where did the workers, especially the Turkic, in 1905 get passports ??? Let me remind you that universal certification in the USSR was completely completed only in 1981.
                        I meant that if in St. Petersburg, Moscow and, for example, in Ivanovo, the working class in 1905 could still more or less be somehow certified (and I doubt that the whole thing, since even much later Lenin's photo was not pasted into the worker's passport, but in the worker's pass to the Sestroretsk plant, which could put the leader in danger, since in which case he had to somehow explain why he, a worker of a defense enterprise, during the war during working hours, not at the plant, but somewhere then in another place), then in Baku in 1905, and even the workers of Tatar nationality hardly had passports. It is possible that at Baku factories and factories, skilled workers, usually of Slavic nationality and to some extent of Armenian nationality, had passports. But just this category of workers did not exactly fall under the definition of "Turkic workers who are given weapons on the security of their passports." And if some part of the Turkic workers from among the most qualified and had passports, then they most likely did not take part in such street events.
                        Perhaps Iorg Baberovsky had in mind precisely the passes to the factories, and not the passports.
                        However, both (passports) and the other (passes) in this context
                        At the same time, at the police station, Turkic workers were given rifles and revolvers on the security of passports (passes)
                        only GOSSIP.
                        On this, I believe, our discussion can be considered exhausted. drinks
                      2. icant007
                        icant007 4 February 2021 17: 14
                        0
                        Quote: Seal
                        Perhaps Iorg Baberovsky had in mind precisely the passes to the factories, and not the passports.


                        Well, it doesn't matter what the name of this document was.
                        For workers, it was generally called a residence permit. And in general, it's not about the passport). But was it the fact that the weapon was issued? And what did the procedure look like technically, question two drinks
                      3. Seal
                        Seal 5 February 2021 12: 12
                        0
                        Good. Yes, the main thing is whether the very fact of the weapon was issued.
                        PS Someone gave you a minus. I removed it with my plus. drinks
                      4. icant007
                        icant007 5 February 2021 12: 42
                        -1
                        Thank you, mutual)
  • Seal
    Seal 1 February 2021 13: 28
    +1
    Quote: Olgovich
    Look, HOW MANY troops the USSR held against "grateful" (how could you say that? Belay) Turkey in WWII: apparently everyone was waiting for "gratitude".
    Forgive me, but having said "a", you need to say "b". And when you say "look" and don't say exactly where to look, it turns out completely unconvincing. For example, where did you "look"? How many divisions in your opinion the USSR kept on the border with Turkey "at the height of the Battle of Stalingrad", can you explain ??? Just don't drag our divisions stationed in Iran by the ears. They had their own task. Yes, of course, we could attract them if we ourselves decided to strike at Turkey. But you are not talking about our threat to Turkey, but about the Turkish threat to us.
  • Seal
    Seal 2 February 2021 09: 38
    0
    Quote: Astra wild2
    Kronstad
    KronstadТ !!
  • Rauf
    Rauf 4 February 2021 13: 08
    -1
    Some facts indicated by the author in the article are surprising. For example, the massacre of the Azerbaijani population in the 1918-1920s is known and confirmed by facts. Unfortunately, these circumstances are presented absolutely incorrectly and contradict the materials available, including in the Russian archives. And also, I want to recommend to other "analysts" - leave the Armenian and Azerbaijani peoples alone, do not incite discord.
  • Seal
    Seal 4 February 2021 17: 09
    0
    The map is incomplete. It does not include all the possessions of the Ottoman Empire along the Black Sea coast. The Caucasus (and not only the Caucasus), which came into our possession only to the Adrianople peace of September 14, 1828. According to which the Ottoman Empire ceded to Russia The Black Sea coast of the Caucasus from the mouth of the Kuban to the fort of St. Nicholas, Akhaltsikhe Pashalyk and islands in the Danube Delta,
  • Boris Ivanov
    Boris Ivanov 17 February 2021 22: 38
    0
    However, the new Armenian government was fully oriented towards the Entente countries. Ambartsum Terteryan,

    Both of these armies were defeated. None other than O. Kachaznuni, the leader of the Dashnaktsutyun party and the prime minister of Armenia, recalled that the soldiers of his troops fled to the villages. As Lloyd George believed, for the Armenians this adventure ended in crushing defeat.

    somewhere I saw it .. 2020
  • Goral
    Goral 28 March 2021 00: 23
    0
    Sometimes I am simply amazed at the bias of the authors .... It turns out that Georgia "occupied" its own Lori region, which had been a part of the East Georgian kingdom for centuries. And then, after the abolition of this kingdom by the Russian Empire in 1801, it remained part of the Tiflis Province, until the proclamation of independence by Georgia in 1918, after which it became part of Georgia. On the other hand, the author successfully silences Armenia's dastardly attack on unsuspecting Georgia in 1918 in order to tear the Lori region away from the country. As a result, the author's picture is turned upside down and the Georgians are already "bad". You are a worthless historian.
  • SANITAR LESA
    SANITAR LESA April 18 2021 15: 40
    0
    another failure of Soviet diplomacy ... they gave up Kars and Ararat for the sake of a future alliance, and the Turks, don't be fools, "threw" ...