Military Review

Aviation spacesuit "Falcon": created for aircraft, became an "astronaut"

14

One of the calling cards of the national cosmonautics and, in particular, of JSC NPP Zvezda, is the Sokol space rescue suit. However, few people know that this spacesuit had a direct descendant - aviation spacesuit "Falcon", developed in the second half of the 60s - early 70s.


Like the Vorkuta spacesuit, the Sokol aviation SC was manufactured with two separate shells: the outer one was power (made of durable types of fabric) and the inner one was sealed. Unlike SK Vorkuta, which had a spongy hermetic shell 3–5 mm thick, rubberized sheet fabric was used for Sokol.

The Falcon was the last aircraft suit made at the beginning of the space age. In this spacesuit, unlike the previous ones, it was provided for the use of a gas mask, which provides protection for the pilot before boarding the plane or after landing in the event of a chemical contamination of the area.


The aircraft SC "Sokol" was used in a set with the GSH-9 pressure helmet, the ШЛ-4Д helmet, the VKS-2 ventilating suit, the GP-4 and GP-5 pressure gloves, and the PPK-1AS anti-overload suit.

The aircraft "Falcon" had an overpressure operating mode of 0,25 kgf / sq. see. However, in the event of signs of altitude-decompression sickness, a temporary transition to the "emergency" mode of 0,4 kgf / sq. was allowed. cm.

The practical height of the spacesuit was up to 50 km. The permissible indicated flight speed during ejection was 1400 km / h.

In addition, the spacesuit provided a residence time in cold water up to 12 hours.

The high-altitude spacesuit was supposed to be used on the T-4 ("weaving") product.


Despite the fact that the Sokol aviation SC did not receive mass distribution, it became a kind of "standard".

He collected all the successful solutions and developments, among which were:

- Use of a two-layer shell with separate power and sealed layers.
- System of standard sizes of the shell.

And also the constructions are successful:

- power systems and hinges of the soft shell,
- hermetic gloves,
- hermetic bearings,
- a pressure helmet.

All of the above systems were subsequently used on soft-type space suits. Thanks to this, the first space suits were created in a short time.

And in the early seventies, it was urgent to develop on the basis of the existing reserve of aviation SC "Sokol" a rescue suit for the SC "Soyuz", called "Sokol-K" (space).
Author:
Photos used:
https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5ec81fa81c6c0b05eff079c2/aviacionnyi-skafandr-sokol-5ffde3c4d65541786bcb8ad5
14 comments
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  1. Ros 56
    Ros 56 28 January 2021 11: 25
    0
    An interesting topic, but I think that one does not interfere with the other, the main thing is to save people.
  2. slowpokemonkey
    slowpokemonkey 28 January 2021 11: 50
    0
    can it somehow correlate with high-altitude suits for the moment-25 \ 31?

    any reason not to replace the "Falcon" high-rise suits of the USSR / RF Air Force
    1. Bshkaus
      28 January 2021 13: 32
      +3
      can it somehow correlate with high-altitude suits for the moment-25 \ 31?

      At altitudes over 18 km, there are two types of protection against hypoxia: 1 - this is a spacesuit, inside which constant pressure is created and an oxygen gas environment in which a person is completely located. 2-height compensating suit. The problem with all spacesuits is that they are extremely uncomfortable, limit movement, field of vision, etc. therefore, they are not particularly liked. Why be there a sin to conceal, they do not really like it and a helmet too. it is bulky and gets in the way. As a result, given that the planes fly at a maximum altitude of 25 km, then where it is possible to do without a spacesuit, the pilots try to use VKK and a pressure helmet, since up to 25 km it provides protection. But even to this altitude, our planes rarely rise and not all, therefore, if flights take place at altitudes up to 18-20 km, then the pilots prefer the usual CM because of the ease of use.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 28 January 2021 15: 55
        +2
        Quote: Bshkaus
        But what a sin to conceal, they do not really like it and a helmet too. it is bulky and gets in the way
        The view downward (on the devices) is really terrible. And the article is tasty, but not enough. )))
        1. Intruder
          Intruder 28 January 2021 16: 39
          +1
          it is necessary to massively ask the author to continue on the topic .... :)
          1. Bshkaus
            28 January 2021 18: 23
            +4
            you need to ask the author to continue on the topic

            If in chronological order, then the next is Gagarin's spacesuit. There, too, the field is not plowed: at first they did one, in February 60th they completely abandoned the spacesuit and made a protective suit like Moscow time. Then they darted again and started work on the SK-1 7 months before the flight !!! It will be interesting, I will also write about the inflatable cuffs, thanks to which the air tightness was maintained in the SC in the case of depressurization if the astronaut took off his gloves. But I thought of starting to publish the topic with Gagarin's spacecraft in March, closer to the 60th anniversary of the flight
            1. Intruder
              Intruder 29 January 2021 06: 34
              0
              We are waiting with great ..., patience repeat
            2. beeper
              beeper 30 January 2021 07: 35
              0
              Quote: Bshkaus
              you need to ask the author to continue on the topic

              .But the topic with the Gagarin SC I thought to start publishing in March, closer to the 60th anniversary of the flight

              hi Well, yes, and after such a tasty, enticing and promising "spoiler", you, dear Author, now (
              still almost in the middle of winter winked ) doom us, your grateful readers, to the torment of patiently waiting for the start of "March publications" ??! wink
              I liked the article! good
              1. Bshkaus
                30 January 2021 14: 12
                +2
                Well, yes, and after such a tasty, enticing and promising "spoiler", you, dear Author, now (

                Well, why so? I publish about once a week, tomorrow we have Navalny's rallies, so for two or three days, or even a week, everyone will only talk about them))))).
                Then February will begin: there will be an article about the VMSK-2, which was still green with the GSh-4 pressure helmet, again, there were complaints that the article about the UPMK did not cover the topic of 21KS and "Seifer", here's another continuation, and there you already see March with Gagarin's continuation, Berkut, Hawk, Lunar Eagle and Lunar Gyrfalcon, one "Falcon" is worth it: there is about VKK-47, which they wanted instead of a spacesuit, and the history of the development of the Falcon, and its modifications ... begs, Mars-500. And the aviation Baklan, and the "Strizh" for the snowstorm? ))) In general, it will still get bored)) In general, before moving on to a space suit, it would be correct to publish two articles, one of which is devoted to the types of space suit design (soft, hard, semi-rigid), in order to understand what are the advantages and disadvantages and where is it better to use and about their types of sealing, otherwise space suits say a lot about this.
                1. beeper
                  beeper 30 January 2021 15: 42
                  +1
                  hi Oooh, you have such cool blueprints! good It's great!!! fellow I look forward to! yes
                  I still remember as a junior schoolboy (in my dreams, a future fighter pilot and Soviet cosmonaut winked ), while attending an aviation school, suddenly discovered (on the stands and posters of one of the training "cycles") and was delighted with the ingenious expediency of life support complexes for aircraft crews! yes
                  Successful implementation of your most interesting Creative Plans and Good Health, dear aka Bshkaus! good hi
      2. kytx
        kytx 29 January 2021 07: 41
        +2
        and what is CM?
        1. Bshkaus
          29 January 2021 09: 29
          +2
          and what is CM?
          KM - a term abbreviated as "oxygen mask", and then its model is written through a hyphen, etc. KM-34, KM-35, KM-36M, etc. "SK" - a spacesuit, "ZSH" - protective helmet, "GSh"- a helmet, "VKK" - high-altitude compensating suit, "PPK" - anti-overload suit, but it is worth remembering that the VKK has anti-overload cameras "PU" )))))))), which allow you to use the VKK as a PPK.
          1. kytx
            kytx 29 January 2021 23: 39
            +1
            thank you
            I knew about VKK
            I didn't know everything else
            I ask you if you give specific abbreviations - let's decrypt
            here one Damantsev is enough :)
            1. Bshkaus
              30 January 2021 12: 03
              +3
              I ask you if you give specific abbreviations - let's decrypt
              OK, I will try to explain more carefully. Usually, at the first mention, I try to give the full name and explain in brackets what will be further abbreviated. But if it is still difficult to navigate, then I will often write the full names. I understand perfectly well that for an unprepared reader it is hard - it is like that in other areas_)))