Military Review

Secrets of the South African nuclear bomb

71

Multipurpose attack aircraft Blackburn Buccaneer South African Air Force


Throughout most of the Cold War, South Africa was a rogue state due to its apartheid policy, the official policy of racial segregation pursued by the ruling far-right National Party from 1948 to 1994. Various sanctions were in effect against the country, which peaked by the late 1980s. The most active policy of tough sanctions against South Africa was carried out by the USSR and the USA, both countries, naturally, were guided by their own motives.

Despite the sanctions pressure, which lasted almost a quarter of a century, and in many respects due to the imposed restrictions, the Republic of South Africa was able to create and develop its own military-industrial complex. Ultimately, this allowed South Africa to acquire its own nuclear bomb and develop a means of delivering nuclear weapons... At the same time, South Africa remains the only country in the world that, having created nuclear weapons, voluntarily renounced them.

Prerequisites for the development of nuclear weapons in South Africa


South Africa initially focused on the development of peaceful nuclear energy. In fact, the nuclear program started already in 1948, when the South African Atomic Energy Corporation was formed. Until the end of the 1960s, the program developed according to a peaceful scenario. Until that time, the country worked closely with the United States in the framework of the official Atoms for Peace program. The program was sanctioned and included the sale of an American research nuclear reactor to South Africa. The SAFARI-1 research nuclear reactor was delivered to the country in 1965.

Paying attention to the military potential of South African nuclear research pushed numerous military conflicts and the border war, which the country was drawn into in 1966. The South African Border War, or the War of Independence of Namibia, lasted 23 years from 1966 to 1989 and took place in what is now Namibia and Angola. During the conflict, the South African army faced not only rebels, but also well-trained forces supported by the USSR, including units of the Cuban army.


Test of a 23 kt nuclear bomb in Nevada, 1954

The South African armed forces decided to acquire their own nuclear weapons precisely in the light of their possible use in this conflict that has grown over the years. To do this, the country had all four necessary components: raw materials, the ability to enrich the extracted materials to a weapon state, trained and trained personnel, and the ability to produce or acquire components for nuclear weapons.

The easiest solution was the issue of raw materials. South Africa has one of the largest uranium reserves on the planet, ranking among the top ten countries for this indicator. According to various estimates, the reserves of natural uranium in South Africa are estimated at 6-8 percent of the world's total. Back at the end of World War II, it was South Africa that became the supplier of raw materials for the nuclear programs of Washington and London. At that time, about 40 thousand tons of uranium oxide were supplied to the United States alone.

In exchange for the supply of uranium to the United States, specialists and scientists from South Africa were given the opportunity to work at American nuclear facilities. In total, more than 90 technical specialists and scientists from an African country worked in America. This backlog helped South Africa already in the 1970s to start creating its own nuclear weapons. The complete cessation of cooperation with the United States in the nuclear field in 1976 could no longer interfere with the implementation of the South African nuclear program. In addition, the country has found new partners. It is believed that the country was actively developing joint nuclear weapons and delivery vehicles with Israel and Pakistan.

What kind of nuclear weapons were available to South Africa?


The nuclear weapons developed in South Africa were quite primitive and belonged to the models of the first generation of nuclear weapons. The engineers of the Republic of South Africa have implemented the "cannon scheme". This method of detonation is applicable only to uranium ammunition. A classic example of a cannon scheme is the infamous American Kid bomb, which was dropped on Hiroshima at the end of World War II. The power of such bombs is limited to tens of kilotons in TNT equivalent. It is believed that the power of South African nuclear charges did not exceed 6-20 kt.

The essence of the "cannon scheme" of nuclear weapons consists in firing a powder charge of one of the blocks of fissile material of subcritical mass (the so-called "bullet") into another fixed block - the "target". The blocks are calculated in such a way that when they are connected at the design speed, the total mass becomes supercritical, and the massive shell of the charge guarantees the release of a significant amount of energy before the blocks can evaporate. The design of such charges ensured the prevention of evaporation of the "projectile" and "target" until they collided with the required speed.

Secrets of the South African nuclear bomb
The Raptor I gliding bomb, on the basis of which the HAMERKOP nuclear weapon was created in South Africa

It is believed that a total of six nuclear charges were assembled in South Africa, including the first experimental one. The first sample, codenamed "Hobo", was assembled in 1982, then the device was renamed "Cabot". The power of the experimental charge was 6 kilotons in TNT equivalent, for five serial samples created later - up to 20 kilotons. One more ammunition remained unfinished until the nuclear program was phased out.

Nuclear weapons delivery vehicles South Africa


Working on the means of delivery of nuclear weapons, South Africa, in fact, was guaranteed to rely only on the simplest aviation way. At the same time, they tried to create their nuclear devices in South Africa with an eye to using various delivery methods, including medium-range ballistic missiles.

But the main stake was made on a nuclear gliding bomb with a television guidance system, codenamed HAMERKOP. From Afrikaans it is translated as "hammerhead", one of the birds of the pelican family. According to local myths, the appearance of this bird was considered a harbinger of imminent death.

The British two-seater deck attack aircraft Blackburn Buccaneer were considered as a carrier of nuclear warheads. The South African Air Force began receiving these aircraft in 1965, despite the fact that a year earlier the UK imposed an arms embargo on the country. The South African Ministry of Defense has ordered 16 ground-based Buccaneer S50 aircraft from London. These multipurpose attack aircraft were adapted for use in hot climates, additionally received a pair of Bristol Siddeley BS.605 auxiliary engines and did not have folding wings.

The delivery was carried out on the condition that the aircraft will be used exclusively for defensive purposes, including for the protection of sea communications. In reality, the aircraft took an active part in the hostilities in Angola, and were also considered carriers of nuclear weapons. For this reason, the UK later canceled the option to supply South Africa with 14 more similar combat aircraft.


Multipurpose attack aircraft Blackburn Buccaneer S2B Royal Air Force

Together with this aircraft, the South African H-2 guided bomb could be used, which later received the designation Raptor I. The basic version of such a TV-guided gliding bomb had a range of up to 37 miles (59,55 km). After the bomb aiming unit had captured the target, control of the ammunition could be transferred to another aircraft located within a 125-mile radius of the bomb.

It was on the basis of the Raptor I that an ammunition with a nuclear warhead was created, dubbed HAMERKOP. This ammunition allowed the use of Blackburn Buccaneer aircraft, also known as Hawker Siddeley Buccaneer, out of the reach of Soviet-made Cuban air defense systems. Later, on the basis of this ammunition, already in the 1990s, a Denel Raptor II guided gliding bomb was created, which was exported to Algeria and Pakistan. It is also believed that South African specialists could help Pakistan to create its own Ra'ad cruise missile, equipped with a nuclear warhead.

They also tried to create their own ballistic missiles in South Africa for the delivery of nuclear weapons. South African engineers worked closely with Israel. For this, it was planned to use the RSA-3 and RSA-4 launch vehicles. Israeli Shavit rockets were built under these brands as part of the South African space program.

At the same time, the missiles turned out to be incompatible with rather large nuclear warheads. And the capabilities of the scientific and industrial complex of South Africa did not allow bringing this project to its logical conclusion in the 1980s. Ultimately, the preference was given to simpler and more affordable aviation ammunition.

South Africa's renunciation of nuclear weapons


The decision to abandon nuclear weapons was made by South Africa in 1989, even before the abolition of the policy of apartheid and the coming to power of Nelson Mandela. All six collected bombs and ammunition in the assembly stage were disposed of. In 1991, the country signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. On August 19, 1994, the IAEA mission completed its work in the country, which confirmed the fact of the destruction of all nuclear weapons, and also expressed satisfaction with the transition of South Africa's nuclear program exclusively to a peaceful channel.


Launch of the Israeli Shavit missile (RSA-3)

The decision to renounce nuclear weapons was made, among other things, taking into account the opinion of the country's military circles, which, based on many years of experience in transborder military conflicts, did not reveal the need and need for the use of such weapons. The actual end of the 23-year-old South African border war also played a role.

The New York Agreements signed in 1988 ordered the withdrawal of South African and Cuban troops from Angola and the granting of independence to Namibia. The military need for possession of nuclear weapons was completely eliminated, and it could take decades and huge financial investments to develop effective means of delivering weapons outside the African continent.

The advantage of the voluntary renunciation of nuclear weapons was the process of restoring stability in the region, as well as returning confidence in the country and improving relations with South Africa in the international arena. A country whose image was thoroughly damaged by years of oppression of the indigenous population and the secret development of nuclear weapons, which at the same time never claimed the role of a world superpower, such a political decision was only in hand.
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  1. polpot
    polpot 28 January 2021 18: 05
    +19
    Thank you, very interesting, not much has been written about South African nuclear weapons.
    1. nnm
      nnm 28 January 2021 19: 03
      +12
      Only the role of Israel is modestly reflected, it is "considered" neutral.
      No, it's very real - from technologies, joint development of mines to Israel testing its products in South Africa.
      1. Krasnoyarsk
        Krasnoyarsk 28 January 2021 21: 55
        +2
        Quote: nnm
        Only the role of Israel is modestly reflected, it is "considered" neutral.
        No, it's very real - from technologies, joint development of mines to Israel testing its products in South Africa.

        As far as I know, Israel created its own nuclear weapons in cooperation with France. And the tests were carried out at nuclear test sites in France. Of course, this does not negate Israel's participation in the South African nuclear program.
        1. Sergey M. Karasev
          Sergey M. Karasev 30 January 2021 08: 16
          +1
          As far as I know, Israel created its own nuclear weapons in cooperation with France. And the tests were carried out at nuclear test sites in France.

          In 1986, Israel carried out nuclear tests in the area of ​​about. Prince Edward, owned by South Africa, i.e. not only on French landfills.
  2. apro
    apro 28 January 2021 18: 12
    +9
    An interesting country South Africa. In fact, they destroyed the white civilization. And the main violin was played by the Anglo-Saxons.
    1. nsm1
      nsm1 28 January 2021 18: 19
      -23%
      The civilization was from the European.
      Destroyed and okay.
      There she is dear.
      1. Deniska999
        Deniska999 28 January 2021 18: 25
        +26
        Oh, and the current civilization in South Africa is so progressive ...
        1. nsm1
          nsm1 28 January 2021 18: 27
          -14%
          I somehow both are parallel ...
          You have to think about your land, and not lament over foreigners.
          1. Deniska999
            Deniska999 28 January 2021 19: 51
            +8
            Nobody cries. Or to study the history of other countries unpatched?
        2. paul3390
          paul3390 28 January 2021 22: 26
          +6
          Hmm ... And just imagine for a second the blacks with a nuclear bomb ... This horror is worse than Saddam and Kims ...

          But in general - I still did not understand who the Boers were going to vitrify there .. What about the Zulus in the savannah, what shit with a vigorous loaf?
          1. Sancho_SP
            Sancho_SP 29 January 2021 07: 55
            +2
            They wrote about the Cubans, if that.
  3. 210ox
    210ox 28 January 2021 18: 27
    +18
    I wonder how science and technology are developing in South Africa under the control of blacks?
    1. Eldorado
      Eldorado 28 January 2021 18: 35
      +22
      No way. Only fossils are exported from the country.
      1. Professor
        Professor 28 January 2021 19: 44
        +4
        Quote: El Dorado
        No way. Only fossils are exported from the country.

        What country are you talking about?
    2. nnm
      nnm 28 January 2021 19: 04
      +6
      Have you seen Ukraine ?!
      - South Africa in the first years after apartheid.
      1. Cowbra
        Cowbra 28 January 2021 19: 12
        +3
        Tyk, neighbors in mentality. Tsegabon
      2. ccsr
        ccsr 28 January 2021 19: 12
        +1
        Quote: nnm
        Have you seen Ukraine ?!
        - South Africa in the first years after apartheid.

        That is why they took atomic weapons from them, otherwise they, like Africans with them, would have run along our borders ...
        1. Kildin
          Kildin 29 January 2021 11: 24
          -12%
          It's a pity that the RF was not taken away at one time
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 29 January 2021 13: 03
            +4
            Quote: Kildin
            It's a pity that the RF was not taken away at one time

            Why didn't you try? Scared for your teeth?
          2. Plate
            Plate 29 January 2021 15: 49
            +1
            It's a pity that the RF was not taken away at one time

            And what good would come of it for us?
    3. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 28 January 2021 19: 34
      +16
      I wonder how science and technology are developing in South Africa under the control of blacks?

      They have a government program to pull the country out of the hole. Investments in schools and universities. School teachers are gathered all over Africa, and university professors too. One thing is bad - the state is poor, all the income from diamonds, gold, uranium and coal goes to transnational corporations. A separate difficulty - 10 different tribes live on the territory with completely different languages ​​(Swahili, Zulu ...) English is the language of interethnic communication (as in the USSR there was Russian). Was there in 2012 at the ICHSIP conference. In the aviation center, I watched experimental installations. There are about a dozen of them, but only two are worthy of attention, a small supersonic wind tunnel and a transonic one, built in 1986. The organization of the conference was very good - the poorer the country, the better it holds the conference.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 28 January 2021 20: 28
        +22
        Almost all tribes are from the Bantu group. Khosa, sutu, zulu.
        They understand each other. Few Bushmen - they have a different language.
        At the very least, Bantu understands either English or Afrikaans.
        But they still have a million guest workers from Angola and Mozambique.
        White is just as divided as black. British, Boers, "pora" (Portuguese), Germans,
        Greeks, Jews - all separately.
        There are also a lot of Indians and mulattoes (colored). A racist madhouse, in short.
        I worked there for a year and a half at the beginning of 90 ...
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 28 January 2021 20: 33
          +7
          Well, they know English somehow, I got that impression, at least in Pretoria.
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 28 January 2021 20: 38
            +10
            But the country is beautiful, the climate is perfect ...
            What a highway between Johannesburg and Pretoria ...
            And the descent to Durban is 300 km smoothly down, and Cape Town ...
            Who got it? sad
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 28 January 2021 20: 50
              +9
              There was little time, less than a week, so I was nowhere. One day was allocated to the national park. The steppe is like we have in the Crimea or Orenburg, only the trees and bushes are different. The Australians have stated that their steppe is the same.
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 28 January 2021 21: 11
                +6
                Exactly. good Steppe of the middle zone.
                Only among cows sometimes ostriches graze.
        2. ccsr
          ccsr 28 January 2021 22: 20
          -3
          Quote: voyaka uh
          I worked there for a year and a half at the beginning of 90 ...

          Well, how, in your opinion, could this zoo create a nuclear industry to create nuclear weapons?
    4. Svarog
      Svarog 28 January 2021 20: 03
      +6
      Quote: 210ox
      I wonder how science and technology are developing in South Africa under the control of blacks?

      Just like we are under the control of .. "white"
    5. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 28 January 2021 20: 11
      +12
      I forgot to add - those who work are normal people, but loafers are uniform monkeys. This also applies to whites. The rector of the University of Pretoria is a white aunt, the chief aerodynamicist is an Indian (in the 5th generation lives in South Africa)
    6. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 28 January 2021 20: 30
      +11


      Animals on the way from the airport

      Victor Shchelyev and Rector of the University of Pretoria

      family of lions in the national park

      From left to right - Viktor Shchelyev (IOFAN), graduate student of a German from DRL, Indian, chief aerodynamicist of South Africa (Kavendra Naidoo), German from DRL
  4. LAWNER
    LAWNER 28 January 2021 18: 44
    0
    Deeper need to open the topic ... And then- "It is believed that the main role ...." It seems like the author Himself in doubt. The emergence of Pakistan, the fruit of British diplomacy. Israel played practically the first violin in the creation of nuclear weapons. Can you imagine that England, the United States or Israel in 2021 supplies South Africa with delivery vehicles for such ammunition? And why are they afraid, there is no such ammunition ... Magate confirmed this.
    And the tests of the finished ammunition were carried out in the Arctic region. Such information leaked somewhere.
    1. nsm1
      nsm1 28 January 2021 18: 57
      +6
      Quote: LAWNER
      It seems that the tests were carried out in the Arctic region ..
      Together with Israel, only in Antarctica, in the area of ​​Bouvet Island.
      American satellite spotted.
      1. Sergey M. Karasev
        Sergey M. Karasev 30 January 2021 08: 21
        0
        Quote: nsm1
        Quote: LAWNER
        It seems that the tests were carried out in the Arctic region ..
        Together with Israel, only in Antarctica, in the area of ​​Bouvet Island.
        American satellite spotted.

        Not Bouvet, but Prince Edward.
  5. ccsr
    ccsr 28 January 2021 18: 47
    0
    The official version is, of course, interesting, but whether it was really so, we do not know and will hardly find out in the near future.
    Another no less plausible version was that the South Africans could not create any bomb on their own, if only because they did not have personnel for this. The Israelis showed an active interest in the subsoil of South Africa, who did not care about apartheid, because they wanted to snatch a fat piece not only in uranium ores, but also in diamond pipes. That is why they promised the South Africans to make them a bomb, and at the same time to carry out field tests themselves in order to make sure of the correctness of their decisions. After the trials, when there was an uproar all over the world, they quickly curtailed their program in order to distance themselves from it and not lose the US's favor. The fate of the South African bomb was, of course, decided by the United States and European countries, which were afraid that after expelling the whites, the atomic bomb might end up in the hands of Africans, and this could seriously hit the economic interests of the West in Africa. So only naive people can believe that the South African authorities could create an atomic bomb on their own, especially since they did not even have their own carrier for this.
    Which version to believe, everyone decides for himself.
    1. nsm1
      nsm1 28 January 2021 19: 00
      0
      Yeah, they don't have physicists ...
      Fairy tales.
      In practice, even the most underdeveloped countries are capable of this, there would be a desire.
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 28 January 2021 19: 09
        -3
        Quote: nsm1
        Yeah, they don't have physicists ...

        The point is not even the theoretical physicists themselves, but the fact that it is necessary to have a huge number of engineering and technical personnel, and most of them are not even from the nuclear field. And we also need specialized production facilities for various tests, and this was not in the required nomenclature in South Africa either.
        All this was not in South Africa, but in your opinion this is such a trifle - well, well ...
        Quote: nsm1
        In practice, even the most underdeveloped countries are capable of this, there would be a desire.

        You are a great "theoretical physicist" - why then they still do not do it?
        1. nsm1
          nsm1 28 January 2021 19: 17
          -2
          Quote: ccsr
          and this in South Africa was also not in the right nomenclature
          Why?
          Normal country, heaps of money, everything can be solved and decided.
          Quote: ccsr
          You are a great "theoretical physicist" - why then haven't they done it up to now?

          You overslept already ...
          North Korea, Pakistan ...
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 28 January 2021 19: 28
            -4
            Quote: nsm1
            Why?

            There was no scientific school for such projects.
            Quote: nsm1
            Normal country, heaps of money, everything can be solved and decided.

            Well, why then has Saudi Arabia still not acquired its own nuclear weapons, they have even more money?
            Quote: nsm1
            You overslept already ...
            North Korea,

            So this country made a bet on the creation of an atomic bomb and threw all its efforts into this, sending its students and scientists to China and the USSR. And Koreans by education and intellect are not Africans or Boers who are engaged in agriculture on their farms.
            Quote: nsm1
            Pakistan...

            And these have relied on nuclear weapons, because their neighbors have acquired them. Did South Africa have neighbors with a nuclear bomb?
            1. nsm1
              nsm1 28 January 2021 19: 34
              -1
              Quote: ccsr
              There was no scientific school for such projects.
              Nonsense.
              This is exactly what the article says.
              Quote: ccsr
              Well, why then Saudi Arabia still hasn’t acquired its own nuclear weapons
              Are you serious ?!
              Any schoolchild knows that a Saudi camel has two humps, one of its own, the other American.
              Quote: ccsr
              sending their students and scholars
              You have not read the article.
              I sent.
              Quote: ccsr
              Did South Africa have neighbors with a nuclear bomb?
              Yes.
              The contingent of the USSR in Angola.
              It doesn't matter, it's more important that their opponents had and still have a numerical superiority.
              1. ccsr
                ccsr 28 January 2021 22: 13
                -2
                Quote: nsm1
                This is exactly what the article says.

                They present it in such a way that naive people would believe it.
                Quote: nsm1
                Are you serious ?!

                Naturally, Turkey, Brazil, Indonesia and a dozen more countries could have created an atomic bomb long ago, if you believe your version. But somehow they don't succeed ...
                Quote: nsm1
                The contingent of the USSR in Angola.

                This is generally beyond reason - it is unlikely that anyone would have had to arm our advisers with nuclear weapons. You, as I understand it, are a great dreamer on military topics, but you'd better come down to earth.
                1. nsm1
                  nsm1 29 January 2021 05: 37
                  -6
                  Quote: ccsr
                  They present it in such a way that naive people would believe it.
                  Why not believe?
                  The design is well known, it is not difficult ...
                  It is better to believe a reasoned position than a stupid "can't be because it can't."
                  Quote: ccsr
                  But somehow they don't succeed ...
                  Wonderfully they will succeed as soon as there is a need.
                  Taro Aso once said that Japan needs six months for this.
                  Quote: ccsr
                  arm our advisers
                  This is generally beyond reason, did you serve in the Army?
                  What advisors, what kind of fantasies and nonsense ?!
                  What for?!!
                  Are the advisors on their own?
                  Behind them is the country, the USSR!
                  Aviation and other delivery vehicles have already been canceled?
                  No matter how small the probability, it could not be dismissed.
                  PS: you have no arguments, you haven't read the article, I think further bickering is pointless ...
                  1. ccsr
                    ccsr 29 January 2021 13: 02
                    0
                    Quote: nsm1
                    The design is well known,

                    Will you also create technology, production facilities, trained personnel using pictures from the Internet?
                    Quote: nsm1
                    Wonderfully they will succeed as soon as there is a need.

                    Tell these tales to the naive - even Iran is still unable to create anything, and they have already studied the entire Internet.
                    Quote: nsm1
                    Taro Aso once said that Japan needs six months for this.

                    At one time, only two countries were able to create nuclear submarines such as Typhoon and Ohio. As the calculations of Western economists have shown (there was even some kind of report by a luminary), the economies of Japan, Germany, Great Britain and other countries of the world will simply collapse if they try to make such a nuclear submarine. That is why we don’t need to push the idea that creating nuclear weapons is very simple. It is even difficult to store it, as well as to deliver it, and experts know this.
                    Quote: nsm1
                    Behind them is the country, the USSR!

                    You will also tell that our regular troops were in that region during the war.
                    Quote: nsm1
                    You have no arguments, you have not read the article, I believe further bickering is pointless ...

                    Relax if overworked ...
                    1. nsm1
                      nsm1 29 January 2021 13: 11
                      -3
                      Quote: ccsr
                      And the technology, the production base,
                      On a cola, start over!
                      Read article in the end!
                      Pakistan, North Korea - created.
                      This is a fact.
                      And you idle chatter, no arguments at all.
                      "They can't, they can't, I can't" - and why listen to this nonsense?
                      Why can't they, when they could?
                      And they are not alone.
                      Where are the arguments?
      2. paul3390
        paul3390 28 January 2021 22: 32
        +2
        Well, okay - and on what did they spin the uranium to the weapons grade? Hardly on centrifuges - where can they get them? What then? The diffusion method is, to put it mildly, not an easy and cheap one, they obviously did not have an accelerator either.
    2. Simargl
      Simargl 28 January 2021 20: 02
      0
      Quote: ccsr
      the South Africans could not create any bomb on their own, if only because they did not have personnel for this.
      What frames? Any competent engineer graduating from the school can create a cannon-type bomb! There is only one problem: uranium enrichment, which is either energy-intensive or very tricky from a technical point of view.
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 28 January 2021 22: 14
        -5
        Quote: Simargl
        What frames? Any competent engineer graduating from the school can create a cannon-type bomb!

        Then why hasn't South Korea, Brazil, Turkey, Italy, Spain and others created it so far?
        1. Simargl
          Simargl 28 January 2021 22: 21
          +1
          Quote: ccsr
          Then why hasn't South Korea, Brazil, Turkey, Italy, Spain and others created it so far?
          It is very expensive (enrichment, maintenance of the life cycle) - firstly, it is very troublesome (to prove to the edrichesky club that it is necessary), and secondly.
          The DPRK, with virtually a bare bottom and under sanctions, have.
          The nuclear charge itself is not very complicated. "Fat Man" is not classified as difficult to manufacture, but "Kid" is still secret. But, as I said, a more or less competent engineer can reproduce it - the point is in the U235 concentrate.
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 28 January 2021 22: 26
            -4
            Quote: Simargl
            It is very expensive (enrichment, maintenance of the life cycle) - firstly, it is very troublesome (to prove to the edrichesky club that it is necessary), and secondly.

            And how is it that the poor citizens of Israel took it so easily and learned how to support it, spitting on all the nuclear clubs?
            1. Simargl
              Simargl 29 January 2021 18: 45
              +2
              Quote: ccsr
              And how is it that the poor citizens of Israel took it so easily and learned how to support it, spitting on all the nuclear clubs?
              As long as there is a "roof", they can do everything, within the limits allowed by the "roof", and therefore ...
              Israel has never officially announced that it possesses nuclear weapons; it does not confirm or deny that it possesses nuclear weapons. At the same time, Israel did not sign the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
              1. Snail N9
                Snail N9 April 24 2021 14: 00
                0
                Another thing is funny. Something everyone is keeping quiet about the fact that the South African and Israeli programs for the creation of nuclear weapons and means of their carriers were interconnected. Actually, it was a joint development program between Israel and South Africa. John Boole at a certain stage also played for Israel with South Africa. True, I ended up with a few bullets in my skull from the Mossad when I decided to make some more money in Iraq.
  6. Thrifty
    Thrifty 28 January 2021 19: 11
    +4
    Yes, and then Mandela came to power, and destroyed the country's economy, starting an African genocide massively expelling the white population from South Africa, primarily teachers and people with higher education. The local defense scientists also got it, but that's a completely different story ...
    crying lol
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 28 January 2021 20: 47
      +5
      Not true. Mandela did not expel whites. He was not a stupid guy
      I understood that without the whites, they were the black ones.
      But the whites with the education themselves pushed someone out of the country,
      without waiting for a kick.
      Blacks started graters with white Boer farmers.
      They began to shoot and squeeze them already in the 90s.
      1. OgnennyiKotik
        OgnennyiKotik 28 January 2021 20: 49
        +2
        Quote: voyaka uh
        But the whites with the education themselves pushed someone out of the country,
        without waiting for a kick.

        And sometimes very successfully. Elon Musk from South Africa.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 28 January 2021 21: 06
          +7
          And where from South Africa - from Pretoria, from a very conservative environment.
          I somehow got lost in the wealthy suburbs of Pretoria. Navigators
          then it was not. I see an old man in the garden behind a high fence.
          I got out of Toyota, came up: "where to go on the highway?" ... He's getting closer.
          I didn’t immediately realize that with a shotgun at my belt. Me: "lost".
          He is aiming a double-barreled gun like that ... I - hands up and slowly, slowly to the car ... laughing
          Pretoria ...
          Musk is a fine fellow for dumping with one suitcase from there.
          1. Nagaibak
            Nagaibak 30 January 2021 12: 39
            0
            Well, there, as elsewhere, people are different. I correspond with one in Port Elizabeth lives, works at a local university. Perfect perfectly. A lover of military history. Respects the Red Army.)))
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 28 January 2021 19: 42
    +8
    The British two-seater deck attack aircraft Blackburn Buccaneer were considered as a carrier of nuclear warheads.
    Not only. British Canberra B12 were also considered.
  8. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 28 January 2021 19: 44
    +2
    The only country which all this turned out to be incredibly profitable and needed is Israel)
  9. venik
    venik 28 January 2021 21: 00
    +2
    "... It is believed that the country was actively developing joint nuclear weapons and delivery vehicles with Israel and Pakistan.... "
    ========
    And here is the author (Sergey Yuferev), just "fundamentally wrong"(with regard to Pakistan)! Pakistani nuclear program lagged behind South Africa's - by about a decade and a half !!!!
    If the first "South African bomb" dates back to 1982, then Pakistan, at that moment, had just started uranium enrichment ..... And tested its own bomb only in 1998! Ie, 16 years later !!!
    PS Something "does not fit" here .... It looks like the author has not studied the problem seriously!
    PPS Well, about Israel - that's absolutely all right! At the same time, some tension arose between the "general allies" in the Middle East. Ultimately, the United States still achieved Israel's "withdrawal" from the "South African program", which, by the way, contributed a lot to its (program) curtailment ... request
    1. ccsr
      ccsr 28 January 2021 22: 24
      -1
      Quote: venik
      PS Something "does not fit" here ....

      All of you correctly noted, and our military experts adhered to the same point of view.
  10. APASUS
    APASUS 28 January 2021 21: 24
    +1
    Good material. In South Africa, a fairly high level of education was maintained under apartheid. Even if this education was not for everyone, the level allowed to develop technology, build a nuclear industry.
  11. CommanderDIVA
    CommanderDIVA 28 January 2021 21: 58
    +1
    Although South Africa refused nuclear weapons, they have their own nuclear power plant Koberg - the operating first and only nuclear power plant in South Africa and Africa. The NPP has two reactors of the French type CP1 PWR with a total NPP capacity of 1 MW. The construction of the Koberg NPP was started in 880, and completed with the launch of the first power unit in 1976. The second power unit was launched a year later, if the South African people feel it, they can resume the nuclear weapons program.
  12. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 29 January 2021 00: 01
    +3
    Yes, South Africa was under sanctions only on paper. Almost everything was produced. USSR Stolichnaya vodka is everywhere, the price is $ 10, the same Stolichnaya but with a green overprint in the upper right corner (made in South Africa) $ 5. There is no difference. Why pay more. KWV company had the second wine cellars in the world after France. That's who perestroika bambanula. The South African people themselves said that our president wanted fame and the Nobel Prize, like your Gorbachev. Moreover, all this perniciousness was immediately understood. The country disappeared. There they (whites) are simply cut out, the rest live only due to the protection of PMCs and the fact that blacks cannot produce anything, they lack intelligence. Whites have a problem with emigration, no one wants to take them. You understand, you have had an aporteid. Among the police there was an unofficial competition who would fill the blacks up to retirement, the steepest crossed over a thousand.
  13. garik77
    garik77 29 January 2021 00: 05
    0
    I don’t remember that the United States put pressure on the white government of South Africa. Some kind of crap. Rather helped them
    1. spech
      spech 29 January 2021 06: 17
      0
      Such terrible sanctions laughing
      The program was sanctioned and included the sale of an American research nuclear reactor to South Africa. The SAFARI-1 research nuclear reactor was delivered to the country in 1965.
  14. Doctor Evil
    Doctor Evil 29 January 2021 13: 37
    0
    How can you not remember the "Vel Incident"? There was an explosion, the owners of the charge are unknown.
    1. Kruglov
      Kruglov 30 January 2021 08: 06
      +1
      Why the unknown? The Jews tested the charge bypassing the French. For the frogs had no faith to the end. They also leaked the most primitive technology to the Yuarists. Barter. And if the satellite had not happened "by accident" in orbit, no one would have known what and how ... Somehow ...
  15. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
    Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 29 January 2021 17: 30
    0
    Interesting! Thanks a lot! Now I would like to read about Pakistani nuclear weapons. We wait!
  16. Alex1949
    Alex1949 30 January 2021 14: 09
    +1
    The author maximally diverted Israel's participation from the South African nuclear program. One can feel the author's bias and dishonesty in this matter. South Africa is no longer needed by Israel, because Israeli nuclear weapons have been tested and adopted by Israel.
  17. Kildin
    Kildin 1 February 2021 16: 00
    0
    Quote: Plate
    It's a pity that the RF was not taken away at one time

    And what good would come of it for us?

    Perhaps the authorities would have behaved more prudently
  18. Adolph Novak De Peskovski
    Adolph Novak De Peskovski 1 February 2021 19: 46
    0
    Brussels-class environmental nuclear device: https://nspap.livejournal.com/89062.html
    In a split second, it can heat the entire Brussels to 10 million degrees.
    More at: https://kwfs.livejournal.com/765.html
  19. Basarev
    Basarev 15 March 2021 10: 41
    0
    Ditching nuclear weapons was a wise decision. It is scary to think what the consequences could be if it fell into the hands of blacks: as you can see from the foulness of a once prosperous country, the policy of apartheid was not unreasonable cruelty. They were not ready for a civilized lifestyle, so there was an urgent need to protect society from them.