Military Review

The earliest firearms: wheeled and multi-barreled ...

71
The earliest firearms: wheeled and multi-barreled ...
A multiple rocket launcher (pictured left) designed by James Wilson in 1779. Henry Knock produced these guns for the British fleet... All seven barrels had a common fuse and fired in a volley. When fired, bullets flew to the sides several times, so one shot into the crowd could hit several people at once. However, it was possible to load only one central barrel and shoot like a single-shot rifle. A scene from one of the films about the adventures of the King Sharp


We got into a fight on Silver Street ...
We would fight now
Why, unfortunately, one of us grabbed the revolver.
"Badges" Rudyard Kipling

History firearms weapons. Last time we stopped at the fact that the wick lock became the main mechanism for igniting the powder charge in the barrel, and this mechanism in the same Japan, as well as in Tibet, existed for a very long time. Until 1868! Well, hunters - they could even use matches! Remember N.A. Nekrasov:

Kuzya broke the trigger at the gun,
Matchesk carries a box with him,
Sits behind a bush - lure a grouse,
Attach a match to the seed - and it will break out!

However, human thought did not stand still, and very soon a wheel lock was invented to ignite the powder charge. Where and by whom? Impossible to say. A diagram of the device of such a lock was discovered in the book by Leonardo da Vinci "Codex Atlanticus" 1505. And this is essentially his only invention, which became widespread during his lifetime. But there is also a manuscript by Martin Löfelholz dating from the same year, which also shows a very similar incendiary device. So which of them was the very first is hard to say. Again, there is nothing surprising in the fact that we do not know for sure the author of this invention.

An ordinary lighter - that's what it is!


The fact is that, since matches did not exist at that time, people constantly had to deal with a variety of devices for making fire. Here you have a chair, and a tinder (a piece of linen cloth burnt on a fire), and, most likely, the banal wheel lighter that appeared already then (only without a can of gas, of course), in which the toothed wheel was twisted with a finger, and the pyrite pressed against it, or the flint gave a sheaf of sparks that fell on the tinder and ignited it. And it didn't take a lot of mind to come up with the idea of ​​putting the same thing on a musket or arquebus and connecting it to the trigger. True, it was necessary to do something - not with a finger, of course - to turn the wheel itself. But this was already a purely technical solution: a wheel with teeth was connected to a spring through a short chain and a stopper was attached to it - and so the wheel lock was born!


Diagram of Leonardo da Vinci's wheel castle from the Codex Atlanticus 1505 Library of Ambrosian, Milan

First of all, the new lock surpassed wick locks in reliability. He was not so sensitive to moisture and could be cocked for a long time. If it used hard flint, then the notch on the wheel quickly wore out. Soft pyrite did not spoil it like that, but it crumbled itself, and its particles contaminated the lock mechanism. In addition, it had a lot of details (at least 25!), And therefore it was very expensive. So, in 1580, an arquebus with a wick lock could be bought for 350 francs, but the same arquebus, but with a wheel lock, cost no less than 1500 francs. In addition, a key was required to wind up its mechanism - if the shooter lost it, then his weapon also became useless. But the fact that such a weapon could be carried covertly and just as suddenly and unexpectedly caused a completely predictable reaction of rejection (so great was the fear of this novelty!), So in 1506 wheel locks were banned in Geislingen, and in Hamburg and In a number of other German cities, carrying pistols with such a lock without the permission of the magistrate was punished by cutting off the hand.


The inner structure of the wheel lock. Drawing from the book "Small Arms" by Christopher Hunt. P. 9

By the way, it was thanks to the wheel lock that the pistols appeared. The wick-lock pistol was very inconvenient, although it was used in Japan. But the new castle immediately raised military affairs in Europe to a completely new level. Now it was possible to arm the cavalry with such a weapon, and ... riders-pistoliers - reitars and cuirassiers - who replaced the former knightly cavalry, immediately entered the battlefields.


This was the key that should be used to wind the spring of the wheel lock. Lost the key - left unarmed! Moreover, this key itself is not simple, but is combined with a powder flask-natrus for seed powder. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Accordingly, this led to the last most serious thickening and weighting of the rider's armor, which now counted on protection from a bullet fired from a wheeled pistol almost point-blank! However, there was a whole series of articles about what the cavalry of the New Time was like, so we will not develop this topic here, but we will continue to get acquainted with the changes that the wheel castle made to military affairs.

Without a key - nowhere!


But the Japanese samurai riders used match pistols and did not complain. One can only imagine how much attention the jump demanded from them with a lit fuse in their hands or already in the weapon, so that it would not burn out from the headwind, so that it would not fall out of the serpentine, and the horse, too, could not be ignored. And then you still had to shoot at the enemy and then jump back. He simply could not have a second pistol ready to fire, while a European rider could have quite a lot of wheeled pistols!


Baijutsu is a Japanese match pistol. Edo period, 1615-1868 Anne and Gabrielle Barbier-Muller Museum, Dallas

And, by the way, again, we note that these changes mainly affected the cavalry, but the infantry still continued to use the match lock. It was simple and cheap, and then the military took the quantity, leaving the quality to the cavalry!


European arquebusiers and musketeers of the 2002th century with match weapons in their hands. It is easy to distinguish the former from the latter: arquebusiers wore helmets and did not have stands for shooting. Illustration from the book by Liliana and Fred Funkenov “Encyclopedia of weapons and military clothing. Middle Ages. Renaissance: Infantry. Cavalry. Artillery "M .: Astrel, 50, S. XNUMX

The wheel lock began to be widely used in hunting weapons - since at that time only the nobility was hunting with firearms, and she could afford the most modern weapons at that time, as well as in weapons for target shooting - here God himself ordered the use of this lock, because it really made it possible to turn gun shooting into real entertainment.

Weapons for hunting and shooting fun



Wheeled hunting musket, approx. 1640-1650 Master Kaspar Spaat. Material: steel, gold, pear wood, antler, bone. Dimensions: total length 106,4 cm; barrel length 77,6 cm; caliber .46 (11,7 mm); weight 3350 g. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The Dukes of Bavaria were keen collectors who collected exotic objects and works of art in a special gallery called the Kunstkamera. In the capital of Munich, they opened various workshops, where the most skilled artists and craftsmen produced objects of art for the princely collection or for gifts to foreign dignitaries. Among the artists employed by the Munich court were steel carvers Emanuel Sadeler (active 1594-1610), his brother Daniel (recorded 1602-1632) and Kaspar Speth (circa 1611-1691). Unlike other artists, they did not try to achieve a decorative effect using a large amount of gold, but used it mainly as a background to emphasize the blued steel ornament, carved in high relief. They usually took plots and patterns of decor from drawings by Flemish and French artists of the second half of the 1597th century, made in the style of mannerism. Craftsmen of wood, ivory and horn carving and engraving, such as Jerome Borstorfer (1637-1633) and Elias Becker (1674-XNUMX), have been called upon to create ornate armory boxes of the highest quality to match magnificent barrels and weapons. The locks were made by Sadeler and Spaat.

But the most interesting thing is that, although the first "multi-barreled" weapons appeared in the era of absolute domination of the matchlock, it was the wheel lock that made it possible to create effective multi-barreled - usually double-barreled types of such weapons. However, the match weapon was also improved. True, mostly hunting - here the masters could not limit themselves to anything. They did not limit, so that even the wicked muskets-revolvers they created have come down to us!


Hunting revolver musket, eight-round, with a match lock. Germany. 1600-1610 Steel, wood, bone, copper alloy; forging, carving, engraving, inlay. Total length: 139,0 cm; barrel length: 94,4 cm; caliber: 18,3 mm. Inv. No. 3.0.-6305. Photo of the State Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

But double-barreled pistols with wheel locks began to be used by cuirassiers and reitars. And no wonder! After all, the pistols of that time were large and heavy. Two pistols were placed in saddle holsters, since they had a length of half a meter, two more could be tucked into the tops of boots, and two more were somehow tucked into a belt or placed on a special harness. That is, six barrels to the maximum, and each weighing at least one and a half kilograms, or even more. And also a cuirass, legguards, a helmet, a sword, a powder flask, natruska, a bag with bullets ... But all these problems were solved by the presence of just a double-barreled pistol: two of these pistols were already four shots, and four - eight, while their total weight increased slightly.

Two trunks are better than one!



Double-barreled wheeled pistol from Augsburg, approx. 1580 Material: iron, brass, velvet. Dimensions: total length 54 cm; the length of the upper trunk is 31,6 cm; lower barrel length 27,3 cm; upper barrel caliber 12,1 mm; lower barrel caliber 12,7 mm; weight 2401,2 g. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

It is interesting that the "ball" ("apple") at the end of the pistol grip did not serve at all in order to hit the opponent on the head in hand-to-hand combat, although this also happened. Usually it was hollow, unscrewed and served as a container for spare flints or pyrites.


Another double-barreled pistol with a wheel lock, 1612. Also from Germany. Material: steel, wood, antler. Dimensions: length 51,75 cm; upper trunk length 24,1 cm; lower barrel length 23,8 cm; upper barrel caliber 10,8 mm; lower barrel caliber 13,6 mm); weight 1800,2 g. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The "secret door" (a small case on the right side with a sliding lid) was a fashionable fixture on the butts of wheeled muskets. It was customary to store bullets there, ready for use, that is, wrapped in an oiled cloth or just paper.


A pencil case on the butt of a wheeled gun. Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore


One of three bullets, wrapped in a paper wad. Found in this pencil case. Penza Regional Museum of Local Lore

But it turned out so strange that the era, one might say, the heyday of weapons with wheel locks simultaneously became the era of the emergence of exceptionally perfect samples of much older weapons, for which this time became at the same time the end of its existence. But we will talk about what kind of weapon it was next time ...


The Book of Costumes by Christoph Weiditz (1498-1559), c. 1530 Basque warriors. German National Library. Nuremberg

To be continued ...
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  1. Crowe
    Crowe 3 February 2021 05: 35
    +12
    Thank you! Looking forward to continuing!
    1. RealPilot
      RealPilot 3 February 2021 06: 45
      +6
      Vyacheslav Olegovich!
      You delight and inspire, your historical articles are not only interesting, they are informative and deep.

      We are waiting for new revelations from the world of the forgotten weapon! You will not find such a variety of systems now ... Beauty good
      1. kalibr
        3 February 2021 07: 58
        +9
        Everything is ready! This material was released, now I will give its continuation for moderation.
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 3 February 2021 09: 25
          +6
          Thank you for another article! I never knew that a gun had to be started with a special key!
        2. Crowe
          Crowe 3 February 2021 10: 10
          +9
          Vyacheslav Olegovich, where is the promised work about Crow, I remember everything !!!
          1. kalibr
            3 February 2021 10: 37
            +8
            Quote: Crowe
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, where is the promised work about Crow, I remember everything !!!

            I remember too. But there are 6 articles on moderation and they are not there. There are 6 more in my archive and they are not there either. But the article will be required. In general, I think to make a cycle on Indian tribes and their culture. And the material is being collected, but how best to present it for now ... thoughts. But it will be, I promise.
        3. Civil
          Civil 3 February 2021 10: 53
          +5
          Quote: kalibr
          Everything is ready! This material was released, now I will give its continuation for moderation.

          Thanks for the article, very interesting. We wait. good
        4. Mihaylov
          Mihaylov 3 February 2021 10: 55
          +5
          Quote: kalibr
          now I will give moderation

          Vyacheslav Olegovich, it seems to me that the dash is missing in the phrase, it should be like this:
          "now - I will give you the moderation" wassat
          (just in case - a joke)
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 14: 11
            +4
            (just in case - a joke)

            Moderation of the ladies is more about the Sea Cat, give this tanker free rein, he will moderate all the ladies, and I won't give it either. laughing Joke! drinks
            The cycle is very good. Nice, easy, visual. We look forward to continuing. yes
            It was customary to store bullets there, ready for use, that is, wrapped in an oiled cloth or just paper.

            EMNIP, Phillipson, in his notes on the Caucasian War, wrote that the highlanders sometimes fired bullets wrapped in an oiled rag. It seems he even checked ... what How it looked - I have little idea. Well, by the way, I read this back in 2009. hi I can lie, do not judge strictly!
            1. Mihaylov
              Mihaylov 3 February 2021 14: 23
              +3
              Quote: Pane Kohanku
              MNIP, Phillipson, in notes about the Caucasian War, wrote that the highlanders sometimes fired bullets wrapped in an oiled rag

              Or maybe it was just wads?
              Or were the rags used to hammer the bullet into the barrel tighter? hi
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 14: 27
                +3
                Or were the rags used to hammer the bullet into the barrel tighter?

                It must be called very tight Santa Claus Viktor Nikolaevich, he will definitely enlighten! drinks
                1. Mihaylov
                  Mihaylov 3 February 2021 14: 30
                  +3
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  call Santa Claus Viktor Nikolaevich

                  Will there be gifts? wassat
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 14: 36
                    +4
                    Will there be gifts?

                    Yes, yes, he will distribute to everyone. yes All sisters - in earrings, all brothers - in balls, and each dunduk will try to correct the brains personally. good Over the past five years, Viktor Nikolaevich has not changed at all! drinks By the way, I bow to him for yesterday's tip on the book!
                2. Undecim
                  Undecim 3 February 2021 21: 53
                  +4

                  With the proliferation of paper cartridges, cartridge paper was used as wad.
                  As for loading a rifled muzzle-loading weapon and using oiled cloth and leather, it is best described in this book, starting on page 328.
                  1. Mihaylov
                    Mihaylov 4 February 2021 10: 29
                    +2
                    Quote: Undecim
                    As for loading a rifled muzzle-loading weapon and using oiled cloth and leather, it is best described in this book, starting on page 328.

                    Thank you!
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 10: 51
                      +3
                      Thank you!

                      Sergei, well, tell me, my friend, am I right? wink Am I right? If you cannot find the materials, contact Viktor Nikolaevich - he somehow succeeds in doing it by itself. A gift, apparently! good with the utmost respect! drinks
                      1. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 4 February 2021 11: 07
                        +1
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        Sergei, well, tell me, my friend, am I right? wink Am I right?

                        So I did not argue! hi
                  2. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 10: 49
                    +3
                    Victor Nikolaevich - Bravo! good
  2. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 3 February 2021 05: 39
    +8
    in saddle holsters
    In olstrakh.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 3 February 2021 06: 32
      +10
      Hello Anton.
      Maybe in the Holsters? smile
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 February 2021 06: 56
        +6
        Hi Uncle Kostya!
        In Russian - olstra. What you have given is also true, but the voiceless consonant at the beginning of a word is often not audible.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 February 2021 07: 10
          +8
          Well, I don’t know, my ears do not hurt. True, I don't have it at all, the bear stepped on the ear, and, most likely, not even one. request
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 3 February 2021 07: 50
            +6
            Greetings Konstantin hi ! If the eye is like an eagle, the presence of a musical ear can be neglected. wink
            Excellent, well-illustrated Article, Thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich! Impressed Me Hunting musket revolver, eight !!! charger with wick lock belay I want this crying
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 3 February 2021 08: 15
              +7
              Hi Aleksey hi !
              "A scent like a dog, and an eye like an eagle" (c) laughing
              I just envy those for good who can sing normally without distorting the melodies.
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 3 February 2021 08: 19
                +6
                Constantine, do you want to Sing - Drink ... ugh - Sing laughing Lack of hearing and voice - Always a problem for the surrounding listeners laughing
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 3 February 2021 08: 32
                  +6
                  And I drink when everyone is singing, well, one of those who can sing. smile drinks
    2. kalibr
      3 February 2021 07: 57
      +8
      It's good that you wrote, Anton! But ... the reason is not forgetfulness. Now laugh ... I just read one of the reviews of my own on the web. the book "Atlas of the Samurai" and there is a remark - too many terms. Well, when I was writing this, I stumbled over this word, remembered it, and decided to write it in Russian. Our consciousness does strange things to us, and I'm not talking about the subconscious!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 February 2021 08: 20
        +4
        in Russian
        So "olstra" is the Russian phoneme of what Uncle Kostya wrote.
        As for Japanese studies, I think that a book on this topic, devoid of authentic terms, turns into anime.
        1. kalibr
          3 February 2021 08: 49
          +4
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          As for Japanese studies, I think that a book on this topic, devoid of authentic terms, turns into anime

          Well, I remembered ... and thought "we need to simplify."
  3. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 3 February 2021 05: 53
    +1
    The new lock, first of all, surpassed the wick locks in reliability. He was not so sensitive to moisture and could be cocked for a long time. If it used hard flint, then the notch on the wheel wore out quickly... Soft pyrite did not spoil it like that, but it itself crumbled, and its particles contaminated the lock mechanism.In addition, it had a lot of details (at least 25!), and therefore it was very expensive. ..... In addition, for the plant of its mechanism a key was required - if the shooter lost it, then his weapon also became useless
    Reliability and convenience are completely different things.
    1. kalibr
      3 February 2021 07: 54
      +9
      Without any doubt!
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Reliability and convenience are completely different things.
      ... But chickpeas are specific to the application. The rider of the pistolier had to shoot at close range, seeing the whites of the enemy's eyes. Here, reliability is paramount. And then having made a volt, he could peacefully drive back, clean the pistol, blow through the lock, charge. For an hour or more, the captains gathered the scattered squadrons, built them up again and again drove into the attack. The battles went on for hours, or even days! Think of the Battle of Rocroix, for example, or the "Battle of the Dunes". Everything went very slowly! People then were in no hurry in life at all.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 3 February 2021 08: 06
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        But chickpeas are specific to the application. The rider of the pistolier had to shoot at close range, seeing the whites of the enemy's eyes. Here, reliability is paramount.
        Only it was originally not about pistols, but about guns, the wheel mechanism, in principle, made it possible to create sane pistols. And the reliability of the wheel mechanism was higher against the trigger flint, due to a long continuous spark, well, here you are already in the know.
      2. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov 3 February 2021 10: 38
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        The battles went on for hours, or even days! Think of the Battle of Rocroix, for example, or the "Battle of the Dunes". Everything went very slowly! People then did not rush through life at all.

        But they became bloodier: I recall the words of one captain who said that when we fought with "white weapons", the battle lasted half a day and hardly a dozen corpses lay on the ground, and now in half an hour the whole field is strewn with corpses. hi
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 14: 19
          +5
          Remember the Battle of Rocroix

          Stupidly ended. Stupidly bloody, and all because of some dundu with a nervous strain. negative
          1. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 3 February 2021 14: 22
            +5
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Stupidly ended. Stupidly bloody, and all because of some dunce with a nervous strain

            As it was in the film: "This is the Spanish infantry, they do not surrender!" Or somehow, I don't remember.
            But beautiful! even if not very reliable. drinks
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 14: 34
              +4
              "This is the Spanish infantry, it does not surrender!"

              Yeah, something like that. But this is in the film. stop In fact, the last third has already agreed to surrender. Condé rode off with his magnificent retinue to receive her. fellow Some of the Spaniards lost their nerves - they say, took it for another cavalry attack, and banged towards the prince, aka "Captain Allatriste". Maybe, by inertia, a few more people fired. request The French, on the other hand, got hot from "such meanness", rushed at the Spaniards, and simply crushed them with numbers. angry In general, when the officers somehow tore off their subordinates by the ears from the extermination of the Spaniards, almost a quarter of them remained alive. recourse
              Denis Brig wrote well about Rocroix. It is a pity that he is not writing now. drinks
              https://topwar.ru/95635-porazhenie-nepobedimyh-terciy-ili-bitva-pri-rokrua.html
              1. Mihaylov
                Mihaylov 3 February 2021 14: 42
                +3
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                But this is in the film.

                That's what the movie is for!
                And I like this film, although there are many complaints about it. hi
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 14: 49
                  +6
                  And I like this film, although there are many complaints about it.

                  I liked it too! good
                  There are only two questions. The first - the Battle of Rocroix was played by one and a half reenactors. Moreover, the riders do not shoot pistols - apparently, the horses are not accustomed. what In short, this is not Bondarchuk with his inexhaustible reserve of battle in the face of the Soviet Army. laughing
                  Question two. What the hell are you, dashing captain Allatriste, at the end of the film, stuck out in the first row with a skewer? laughing There the peaks should form it! stop Apparently, he had managed to get acquainted with the samurai before - he decided to die at the zenith of glory. fellow
                  1. Mihaylov
                    Mihaylov 3 February 2021 15: 00
                    +4
                    Quote: Pane Kohanku
                    Question two.

                    Yes, I think there is much more typed ..
                    The first - the Battle of Rocroix was played by one and a half reenactors.
                    Not one and a half, but 24 and a half, but what to do The Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation did not pay for this film, tea is not "Viking" drinks
                    Apparently, he had managed to get acquainted with the samurai before - he decided to die at the zenith of glory.

                    And what is he with a bare heel on a checker? wassat
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 15: 05
                      +5
                      Yes, I think there is much more typed ..

                      Yes, that’s clear ... yes
                      did not pay for this film, tea is not "Viking"

                      Hmm ... I wonder, but did the Ministry of Culture invest in Skif? I just don't know.
                      And what is he with a bare heel on a checker?

                      Allatriste just managed to visit Japan - he was preparing the foundations for the future uprising in Shimabara, which took place six years after Rokrua. There I got into it. laughing Joke.. repeat
                      1. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 3 February 2021 15: 15
                        +3
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        Hmm ... interesting, but the Ministry of Culture invested in "Skif"

                        I have never heard of such a thing, and so I understand that for the better ...
                        Allatriste just managed to visit Japan - he was preparing the foundations for the future uprising in Shimabara, which took place six years after Rokrua.

                        Alatriste survived the Battle of Rokrua, left for Japan, where he mastered Eastern wisdom and longevity, lived another 350 years and became the prototype for the film "Samurai" drinks
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 15: 38
                        +5
                        Alatriste survived the Battle of Rokrua, left for Japan, where he mastered Eastern wisdom and longevity, lived another 350 years and became the prototype for the film "Samurai"

                        Exactly! He also drowned the Prince of Wales and the Repals. Personally. One torpedo. yes by the way, he also trained 47 ronin. drinks
                      3. Mihaylov
                        Mihaylov 3 February 2021 15: 43
                        +3
                        Quote: Pane Kohanku
                        Exactly! He also drowned the Prince of Wales and the Repals. Personally.

                        And ruined the chapel, 14th century wassat
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 15: 49
                        +5
                        And ruined the chapel, 14th century

                        No, it was before him, the great Khan Kublai came with a horde. stop Although .. some kind of khan? request There were no Mongols, there were only Aztec-Hyperboreans. wink In short, some great haM with accomplices ruined! lol
                    2. Mihaylov
                      Mihaylov 3 February 2021 15: 53
                      +3
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      Exactly! He also drowned the Prince of Wales and the Repals. Personally. One torpedo

                      Nothing unusual: passed right through wassat
                    3. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 3 February 2021 16: 00
                      +4
                      Nothing unusual: passed right through

                      Yes, from bow to stern! fellow
                      And for the first time Allatriste visited Japan a hundred years before Rocrua, when he accompanied Francis Xavier there. yes
                    4. Mihaylov
                      Mihaylov 3 February 2021 16: 07
                      +2
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      And for the first time Allatriste visited Japan a hundred years before Rocrua, when he accompanied Francis Xavier there.

                      After which they "closed" for 300 years from the Europeans: and exclusively voluntarily. lol
                      I feel that the origin of intelligence agent Isaev has begun to become clearer. wassat
                    5. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 14: 30
                      +1
                      I feel that the origin of intelligence agent Isaev has begun to become clearer.

                      The Allatriste is still alive! wink
                    6. Mihaylov
                      Mihaylov 4 February 2021 14: 35
                      +1
                      Quote: Pane Kohanku
                      Allatriste is still alive

                      I wonder how no one has noticed this yet? drinks
                    7. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 4 February 2021 14: 44
                      +1
                      I wonder how no one has noticed this yet?

                      I noticed. So, start studying portraits ... wink
                      By the way, in the middle of the 19th century, Allatriste was having fun in the Wild West. He was Colonel Caster. Also survived!
                      At the same time, he masterfully studied revolvers, as well as samurai weapons and armor, as before. Compare - one face! wink
  • Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 3 February 2021 06: 04
    +4
    The beautiful weapon in the photo ... hung it on the wall and admire its beauty.
    For the rabble, it was probably simpler and heavier weapon ... made a shot and then like a club of several kg ... in hand-to-hand combat.
  • viktor_ui
    viktor_ui 3 February 2021 06: 57
    +4
    A gorgeous article like "The Adventures of Sharpe's Royal Archers" - I watched the series avidly. WAITING FOR CONTINUATION! To the author of RESPECT it is unique drinks
    1. Alex013
      Alex013 3 February 2021 08: 36
      +3
      As a child, I also looked! I especially liked Patrick Harper (who is in the title illustration with a seven-barreled one) performed by the Irishman Dara O'Malley. And the series seems to be filmed in Crimea.
  • Catfish
    Catfish 3 February 2021 07: 06
    +9
    Nice article, thanks to Vyacheslav. smile
    The most luxurious in our department were wheeled muskets from the Vienna Arsenal, a brass oval on the stock with the inscription "Arsenal Vienna", in Latin, of course. We, among other things, had a closed exhibition, we called it "Bioncourt" after the founder, Count Bioncourt, very small groups were taken there and extremely rarely. So, as soon as some foreigners came, our ladies began to entertain the guests with a lecture on history, and we men rushed to the Bioncourt and in armfuls dragged all the Viennese trunks out of sight into the pantry. God forbid, they see and questions begin, in theory all this should have been returned to Austria, at the same time when the Dresden Gallery was returned, but ... I hope that they are still in complete safety in the storeroom.
    1. kalibr
      3 February 2021 07: 48
      +7
      I was in the Vienna Arsenal, which was moved to the New Castle of the Hovburg Palace. This is, of course, something. In addition to weapons proper, there is a hunting department, musical instruments and an ethnographic department. It was amazing to see live illustrations from V. Beheim, D. Nicolas and others ... We spent 4 hours there and barely had time to get back to the tour bus. The gift shop sold some great knightly gloves ... a remake, but ... very cool. Expensive though. Directly the slogan should be thrown: "All lovers of armor and weapons in the Vienna Arsenal!" But there is also a military history museum, but I did not get there. As in the Graz arsenal, although it passed by ...
      1. Fat
        Fat 3 February 2021 09: 14
        +4
        hi Oh, these "tour buses" ... we will pass by - we will pass No.
  • Alex013
    Alex013 3 February 2021 07: 28
    +3
    Thanks for the article, interesting! Each weapon is a work of art.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 3 February 2021 08: 16
    +6
    and, most likely, the banal wheel lighter that appeared already then (only without a can of gas, of course), in which the toothed wheel was twisted with a finger, and the pyrite or flint pressed against it gave a sheaf of sparks that fell on the tinder and ignited it.
    This is how historical fakes appear, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Everything is not so simple, but the history of the lighter is just as interesting as the history of the pistol, from which, in fact, the lighter originated, only not from the wheel, but from the flint one. And this was not earlier than the XNUMXth century. The sparks in the first lighters set fire to the resinous wood.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 4 February 2021 05: 36
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      the history of the lighter is as interesting as the history of the pistol, from which, in fact, the lighter originated, only not from the wheel, but from the flint one. And this was not earlier than the XNUMXth century.

      Well, why not from the wheel? request Basically ... one thing! And so ... lighters in the "design of a flintlock pistol" are found, sometimes, in the cinema ("historical film" ... the events of the early 19th century ...), a "shock-flint" lighter was sold at a certain auction .. .18 century !
  • Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 3 February 2021 08: 46
    +4
    I can't sleep ... the mood is lousy ... I want to sarcast! What? Any whim of our choice!
    1. "Shishak" is not for scuffle! But why does it disappear at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century? When do pistols shrink and become less like carbines? Although, as before, "are" in the saddle holsters! And is there at least one description where the "apple" is unscrewed and these flints are shown hidden in the "knob"?
    Nok's 2.7-barrel shotguns show how dumb Nok was! For at the present time. in the USA they made a multi-barreled Nok shotgun with no more recoil when fired than a "single-shot" one! (Simply, the shots are fired sequentially, and not all at once! Moreover, this principle (method) was already known at that time! There were also multi-barreled guns shooting according to this principle!
    3.Leonardo da Vinci is credited so much, as well as Nostradamus, that I want to say according to Stanislavsky .... "I do not believe!" I doubt at all whether at least one technical "proposal" of "our Leo" has been implemented! And, most likely, the wheel castle really appeared thanks not to da Vinci, but to another "tovarischu"! Yes, the first wheel locks were with a key (which makes them more related to the clockwork ....) and with one turn of the "wheel"! The reliability of such locks was very low! "But there were no others," as Dr. Bormental said (!) And ... had to be improved! There are wheel locks with a platoon without a key and with the rotation of the wheel in 3 turns! Then they became so reliable enough that they were preserved in hunting weapons in the 18th century ... the century of the reign of the shock-flint castle! "Wild" Asians did not invent watches! And against their will, they had to make a shock-flint lock! There is an opinion that shock-flint locks appeared in Asia, about ... "plus or minus", at the same time as wheel locks in Europe! At least approximately, during this period the Spaniards, who had to coexist and fight with the "Moors" most of all, got acquainted with it!
    4. I don’t know about you, but the old warriors were not very fond of all the wicks, wheel locks, flint locks ...! And they wanted something different ... maybe something new! Here otsedov, experiments were carried out with the possibility of igniting a powder charge with heated compressed air, a red-hot needle and with a burner hidden in the receiver ... (in the 19th century, attention came to "lyctricity"!) By the way, there is a project of a 2-barrel rifle ... the 4,5-mm barrel turns - the PPP-type air rifle is ready ... the 6-mm barrel turns ... the firearm with a caseless cartridge is ready and the powder charge is ignited from heated compressed air!
    Who knows that it was possible to create a unitary cartridge in the era of flintlock weapons? Huh?
    1. kalibr
      3 February 2021 08: 53
      +6
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      Who knows that it was possible to create a unitary cartridge in the era of flintlock weapons? Huh?

      There was no initiating cast! But more on that in the next (even through one) material.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 3 February 2021 09: 13
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        There was no initiating cast!

        I wish you good health, Vyacheslav! But I have a diagram of a unitary patron with a kind of "initiating composition" in the spirit of the 18th century! wink
        1. kalibr
          3 February 2021 10: 40
          +6
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          But I have a diagram of a unitary patron with a kind of "initiating composition" in the spirit of the 18th century!

          So post it when the article comes out ... the next article in this series will be about ... crossbows!
  • tank66
    tank66 3 February 2021 10: 38
    +3
    Thank you so much for the article. Direct buzz. And here is a link to the collection of one Ural billionaire. He has very interesting samples on the topic in his exposition ... Maybe someone will be interested
    https://www.ural.kp.ru/daily/21712097/4334798/?utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fzen.yandex.com&utm_campaign=dbr
    1. kalibr
      3 February 2021 12: 19
      +7
      Well, I looked at the article, looked at the photo. And conclusions: A - all this is not for us, mere mortals. B - the photos belong to the journalist of the Komsomolskaya Pravda, so I cannot post them here. To visit this museum and write a book based on its exhibits ... is also unlikely. I don't see the point of going this way. But ... fortunately in the "bad" USA, "bad" France, Spain, England, Italy, there are museums and private collections that are available to me personally, the collections of which are not hidden underground on two floors. And where can I get a photo for VO readers without looking back at anyone. And I ABOUT EVERYTHING that is in this "museum" ... I will write. But based on the exhibits "from there". And the photo will not be through glass. They will be from Delhi, Jakarta, Madrid and Lisbon, Leeds, and the Cody Museum in the States, and the Tokyo National Museum ... Fortunately, the world did not converge on Russia and its billionaires like a wedge!
    2. Mihaylov
      Mihaylov 3 February 2021 14: 29
      +5
      Quote: tank66
      Thank you so much for the article. Direct buzz. And here is a link to the collection of one Ural billionaire. He has very interesting samples on the topic in his exposition ... Maybe someone will be interested

      Yes, interesting, it's good to be rich and collect weapons ... laughing
      Ksati, a pair of pistols donated to Nicholas I by the prince of Serbia, Alexander Karageorgievich, is indeed kept in the "Eastern Hall" of the Hermitage:
  • Undecim
    Undecim 3 February 2021 12: 16
    +7
    However, human thought did not stand still, and very soon a wheel lock was invented to ignite the powder charge. Where and by whom? Impossible to say. A diagram of the device of such a lock was discovered in the book by Leonardo da Vinci "Codex Atlanticus" 1505. And this is essentially his only invention, which became widespread during his lifetime. But there is also a manuscript by Martin Löfelholz dating from the same year, which also shows a very similar incendiary device. So which of them was the very first is hard to say. Again, there is nothing surprising in the fact that we do not know for sure the author of this invention.
    This historical detective story itself is quite an article. The authorship in the invention of Da Vinci's wheel castle is seriously questioned. An attempt to translate his drawing into metal ended in failure and it took major improvements to the design to make the sample work. Therefore, many weapons experts express the version that Da Vinci drew a ready-made sample, which he saw somewhere, while making a number of mistakes.
    By the way, all the earliest surviving wheel locks (1520-1530) were made in Germany. And the most "ancient" of the wheel locks made in Italy dates back to 1592.

    A combination of an arquebus and a crossbow, made in the Marquardt workshop in Augsburg in 1530. The weapon has a wheel lock, the oldest surviving one. The weapon belonged to Ferdinand the First, Holy Roman Emperor.
    The arquebus was found in the armory of the Abras castle.
    1. kalibr
      3 February 2021 12: 35
      +6
      You have unearthed a good piece, Viktor Nikolaevich! Thank you very much!
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 3 February 2021 13: 53
      +4
      Quote: Undecim
      A combination of an arquebus and a crossbow, made in the Marquardt workshop in Augsburg in 1530.

      Yes ... I've come across descriptions of such "hybrids"! For example:At the time, the bow and crossbow were more practical and familiar. In terms of efficiency, they were not inferior to the first guns, or even surpassed them, and in terms of rate of fire they left the latter far behind. For this reason, they even looked for ways to combine firearms and throwing weapons, as was done with spears and firearms. Barrels with wheel locks were also placed on crossbows. People were trying to create a kind of universal hybrid of a crossbow and a gun. Among them there were quite complex designs in which a single trigger mechanism served the bowstring and the wheel lock at the same time. However, such experimental models were abandoned due to their high cost and impractical use. The crossbow and bow continued to exist alongside early firearms, giving it serious competition.
      Along with this, there were also "special crossbows" shooting: 1. bullets and arrows (bolts); 2. only with bullets ... Their names in different countries, at different times were different, therefore these names now and do not "sound". Once I even met a multiply charged "bullet bow" (of course, a "remake"!) ...
      1. kalibr
        3 February 2021 14: 09
        +3
        The next article will be just about that!
      2. Fat
        Fat 3 February 2021 15: 44
        +5
        Vladimir hi The moment that "bullets" are quite successfully launched from the crossbow, in addition to the bolts, well, is never news.
        Quote: Nikolaevich I

        Along with this, there were also "special crossbows" shooting: 1. bullets and arrows (bolts); 2. only with bullets ... Their names in different countries, at different times were different, therefore these names now and do not "sound". Once I even met a multiply charged "bullet bow" (of course, a "remake"!) ...

        Their names were different in different countries, at different times. Sure! a bad thought never comes to one, separately taken head smile