Military Review

"Penicillin" goes to the troops

42

1B75 "Penicillin" in position. Photo: © Research Institute "Vector"


But the armament of the Russian army arrives at a promising automated sound-thermal complex (AZTK) of artillery reconnaissance 1B75 "Penicillin". One of the training centers already has such equipment, and now serial products are going to the troops. The first batch of new complexes was handed over to the troops in December last year.

From trials to troops


The first official reports on the development of a promising AZTK appeared in the spring of 2017. At the same time, the Zvezda TV channel openly demonstrated the main assets of the complex and the principle of their operation. Later, the development organization revealed new details and plans for the future. Then it was reported that the product "Penicillin" will go into series in 2019.

Against the background of the necessary tests, in the summer of 2018, AZTK 1B75 was shown at the Army forum. However, within the framework of the exhibition, only the layout of the complex was demonstrated, while the real equipment remained at the test site.

In April 2020, it became known that by the end of the year the Penicillin complex will be transferred to the 631st training center for the combat use of ground forces artillery in the Saratov region. After receiving the equipment, the center had to master it and ensure the preparation of new calculations for the subsequent deployment of AZTK in the troops.

Already in May, it was reported that the training center had already received its AZTK 1B75. In addition, the army made a fundamental decision on the procurement and deployment of new reconnaissance complexes. Deliveries were supposed to begin in 2021. The first Penicillin filling stations were planned to be put into service with artillery regiments and ground forces brigades. Then such equipment will begin to be transferred to coastal troops. fleet.


Mast with the Penicillin-OEM module. Photo: TC "Star"

On January 22, 2021, the development organization announced the start of deliveries of serial products. As it became known, the first batch of the Penicillin complex was handed over to the customer back in December last year. The volume of the batch and the operator of this equipment are not specified. It should be noted, however, that the acceptance of the first batch took place somewhat ahead of the previously planned schedule.

Intelligence tools


Product 1B75 was developed by the Vector Research Institute of the Vega Concern (part of Ruselectronics) as part of the Penicillin R&D Center. The task of the project was to create an artillery reconnaissance complex capable of determining the coordinates of the enemy's artillery and issuing target designations to its fire weapons. It was also planned to use the complex to adjust the fire of its artillery.

"Penicillin" is made on a serial four-axle automobile chassis, providing high mobility. Behind the cockpit there is an equipment block with a lifting mast and a KUNG with equipment and crew workstations. Jacks are provided for leveling in position. The complex also includes a remote generator for power supply of operating systems.

The mobile optoelectronic module "Penicillin-OEM" is located on the lifting mast. 6 television and 6 thermal imaging cameras are located in a single module case. The signal from all cameras is simultaneously transmitted to the processing means and used for the necessary calculations.

The complex also includes a set of sound receivers. They are made in the form of separate modules installed directly on the ground according to a given scheme. The receivers record sound waves spreading along the ground and transmit signals to the computer complex via wire communication, supplementing the data from the optoelectronic module.


Installation of a sound receiver. Photo: TC "Star"

During operation, the "Penicillin-OEM" product monitors the surrounding area and monitors flashes from cannon shots or missile launches. Break detection is also possible. In parallel, the sound receivers monitor the ground vibrations generated by firing or explosion of shells. Using optics, the direction to the flash is determined, and the distance is calculated from the time difference between the optical and sound signals. Then this data is converted into coordinates and transmitted to the command post.

One complex 1B75 is capable of controlling a section 25 km wide. It is designed to detect enemy artillery batteries and issue target designation to fire weapons. Also, "Penicillin" can calculate the coordinates of the fall of shells and adjust the fire of its artillery. Calculating the coordinates of a single target takes no more than 5 seconds. The error of such calculations is not specified.

Main advantages


The Russian army already has a number of artillery reconnaissance complexes and spotters of one kind or another. The new "Penicillin" is similar in function to them, but it has a number of important differences that give it noticeable advantages. Basically, the benefits are associated with different operating principles.

Like other artillery reconnaissance complexes, the new Penicillin is self-propelled and highly mobile. At the same time, it uses a wheeled chassis, which has well-known advantages over tracked platforms. First of all, it reduces the cost of operation and simplifies transportation over long distances.

Older reconnaissance complexes used the radar detection principle and, accordingly, unmasked themselves with radiation, risking becoming another target for artillery. The 1B75 product works only for reception and does not send any radiation towards the enemy, which sharply complicates or makes it impossible to detect it.


Workplace interface of one of the operators. Photo: TC "Star"

Sound-thermal detection means are fundamentally invulnerable to electronic warfare. Theoretically, the enemy can suppress the optics by appropriate means, but for this it is necessary to know the coordinates of "Penicillin". Effective and specialized means of jamming receivers do not yet exist.

Optical and acoustic detection means, combined with modern computing facilities, ensure high accuracy and speed. Due to modern means of communication, AZTK "Penicillin" is fully included in the artillery control loops, which speeds up the transfer of data and the solution of combat missions.

The only noticeable drawback of the complex is the relatively long time to determine the coordinates of the enemy - from a shot to the issuance of data. This interval is determined by the range to the gun and the speed of the sound wave in the ground. Further processing of the received signals is performed by a high-speed computer and takes minimal time. However, even with all objective limitations, the target detection period does not exceed 5 s and does not interfere with effective work.

Future systems


According to news Last year, AZTK 1B75 "Penicillin" will be put into service with brigades and regiments of missile forces and artillery of land and coastal forces. Each such formation requires at least one intelligence complex, which makes it possible to present the required production volumes.

According to open data, now the ground forces have more than 30 regiments and brigades of cannon and rocket artillery. Coastal troops include 8 brigades, regiments and divisions. Thus, to cover all the needs of our artillery, at least 40 new reconnaissance systems are needed.

To date, the army has received one Penicillin complex for training personnel and an unnamed number of serial products for deployment in the army. It can be assumed that the procurement of such complexes will continue for more than one year and will end with the re-equipment of most of the formations or all available parts. This lengthy process always begins with the delivery of the first product - and this step was taken in December.
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  1. Insurgent
    Insurgent 25 January 2021 05: 25
    +12
    Good antibiotic yes good Goodness yes
    We are waiting on its base, developments like - " Bitsilin -№ ...... "X" "
    1. lucul
      lucul 25 January 2021 12: 24
      +3
      Good antibiotic yes good Goodness yes
      We are waiting on its base, developments of the type - "Bitsilin -№ ......" X ""

      Well, they said that Russia does not have the necessary technologies to create such weapons. ))))
      1. Boris ⁣ Shaver
        Boris ⁣ Shaver 26 January 2021 00: 59
        +2
        Quote: lucul
        they said that Russia does not have the necessary technologies

        What technologies? )
        Not many thought, but that beautiful picture from school textbooks with the Earth "cut" like a watermelon, where its structure (cores, mantles, earth's crust) is depicted, was obtained precisely thanks to nuclear weapons. Underground nuclear explosions in the 70s gave geophysicists around the world a unique chance to "enlighten" our planet through and through. In parallel, data was obtained on the place of the explosion and the power of the detonated charge.
        What am I for? Seismic sensors (the author calls them microphones that stick into the ground) and acoustic sensors were invented a long time ago. They learned to receive and process information with the help of them, too, far from yesterday. The only question was how to collect all this into a single complex and write the appropriate software that allows you to automatically process the information received. I think the software in this complex is the most difficult task that its creators faced. Everything else is "invented before us" and has been produced for a long time, including in Russia.
        Moreover, I believe that on the basis of copies of the mentioned measuring instruments available on the civilian market (sensible noise and vibration meter + sensible seismic station + camera with good resolution) it would be possible to create a very good complex for such reconnaissance. By combining all of the above into a single system by creating the appropriate software. Although, of course, a civilian DIY would have had some difficulties with software, because a series of experiments would have to be carried out with real shots from various guns at different distances to create the necessary "filters", etc. But in terms of hardware, such a complex can be assembled even "in civilian life".
        1. nsm1
          nsm1 26 January 2021 17: 47
          0
          Rather, you can even use a conventional seismic streamer.
          1. Boris ⁣ Shaver
            Boris ⁣ Shaver 26 January 2021 22: 18
            0
            The scythe is stupid sensors. Indicators from them also need to be read with the help of something.

            PS: something strange is going on with your rating. Either minus 2500, then plus 1500. In just a few minutes. And all your posts are right there in a row +2, +2, +2 ... Are you a bot?
            1. nsm1
              nsm1 27 January 2021 01: 45
              +1
              Do you mean a program?
              It seems not, I don't feel like a program! laughing
              I have no idea about the rating and if something is going on with it, then without my participation ...
    2. Mister X
      Mister X 25 January 2021 22: 10
      0
      hi
      I remembered the company "01dB", which is considered to be the founder of
      shot detection acoustic systems
      They specialized in detecting small arms.
      2012 presentation
  2. Far B
    Far B 25 January 2021 05: 28
    +6
    "Penicillin" is a test, this is five laughing In the 90s, I remember that baseball bats were called analgin. From the same series. Gunsmiths have a sense of humor, which pleases.
  3. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 25 January 2021 06: 09
    +3
    Theoretically, the enemy can suppress the optics by appropriate means, but for this it is necessary to know the coordinates of "Penicillin". Effective and specialized means of jamming receivers do not yet exist.
    Yeah, explosives and simulators of shooting at false positions have not yet been invented.
    1. nsm1
      nsm1 25 January 2021 07: 05
      +11
      To create a seismic wave in the ground as from a weapon, a simple explosive package will not work, you need something more powerful.
      And it is not a fact that it will not be possible to filter by the spectrum.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 25 January 2021 07: 06
        +1
        Quote: nsm1
        To create a seismic wave in the ground as from a weapon, a simple explosive package will not work, you need something more powerful.
        Vzryvpaket in a broad sense, maybe more powerful and with some kind of "whistle".
        1. Hagen
          Hagen 25 January 2021 08: 38
          +6
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          Vzryvpaket in a broad sense, maybe more powerful and with some kind of "whistle".

          Even two people with approximately the same acoustic capabilities are easily distinguished by the spectral layout of the voice vibrations. I think it will be difficult to deceive the modern "electronic ear" with various whistles.
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 25 January 2021 09: 09
            +2
            Quote: Hagen
            I think it will be difficult to deceive the modern "electronic ear" with various whistles.
            It is on the GAK submarine that developed acoustic antennas have powerful computers, and here is a truck with seismic sensors:
            In parallel, sound receivers monitor ground vibrations
            Why for ground vibrations, but because acoustic microphones are easily clogged with extraneous noise, shots and explosions. What kind of ground motion is monitored? Yes, recoil and, to a lesser extent, muzzle gases. And what, in your opinion, is it difficult to create a simulator of a shot and recoil based on a sophisticated explosive package for a specific weapon?
            1. Ka-52
              Ka-52 25 January 2021 09: 21
              +2
              And what, in your opinion, is it difficult to create a simulator of a shot and recoil based on a sophisticated explosive package for a specific weapon?

              if interference put an end to the work of the radar, then the latter would cease to exist. And so long ago, filters and algorithms appeared that can weed out interference from the target. Portraits of radar signatures are in the databases of any ICS. So something like that is possible here.
              1. Vladimir_2U
                Vladimir_2U 25 January 2021 09: 27
                +2
                Quote: Ka-52
                if interference put an end to the work of the radar, then the latter would cease to exist.
                Here is an imitation of a single action - a shot.
                1. nsm1
                  nsm1 26 January 2021 17: 47
                  0
                  No, battery life.
                  1. Vladimir_2U
                    Vladimir_2U 27 January 2021 05: 19
                    +1
                    Quote: nsm1
                    No, battery life.

                    Do you think the batteries last long in a modern war? 1-2 volleys and the fastest retreat, and that's what would give time to retreat and increase its success and we need shooting simulators. The radar detects the trajectory of the projectile, but the direction finder is only the place of the shot, but if there are two or three of these places?
          2. Momotomba
            Momotomba 27 January 2021 16: 25
            0
            Quote: Hagen
            I think it will be difficult to deceive the modern "electronic ear" with various whistles

            And if not to deceive, but to blow up something during 5 minutes while firing from guns? To hammer the sensors in such a way that they could not make out anything ...
  4. Runway
    Runway 25 January 2021 06: 18
    +1
    And how to weed out the "false"? The front of control, 25 km away, is a divisional facility. As an additional element to snars - well, as a unit (cpc), the task will not work out.
    How will it work on naval targets if radar reconnaissance is canceled?
    1. dvina71
      dvina71 25 January 2021 12: 42
      0
      Quote: WFP
      And how to weed out the "false"?

      This technology is more than 100 years old. 1909.
      During the Great Patriotic War, soundometric artillery stations worked like this.

      Vibrations of the air generated by the muzzle wave are captured by a special device - a sound receiver. This device is designed in such a way that the vibrations of the air perceived by it are converted into vibrations of the electric current, which are fed through wires to the so-called recording device. The role of the "recorder" is performed by the writing mechanism: it automatically records all incoming signals in ink on paper tape.
      Now everything is automated, filtering algorithms have been added.
      1. Runway
        Runway 25 January 2021 13: 32
        +1
        Those. the station is able to distinguish the sound impulse of the gun shot from the sound impulse when detonating the simulator of the shot? Provided that the impulses are the same in value? Is there a real OM or a battery in alignment with the "battery" of simulators?
        We are talking about this, however.
        1. dvina71
          dvina71 25 January 2021 17: 27
          0
          Quote: WFP
          Those. the station is able to distinguish the sound impulse of the gun shot from the sound impulse when the shot simulator is detonated

          Are you reading carefully? The article ... also captures the sound of a flying projectile ..
          The charm of such stations is that they work in a passive mode. There is one on the OBD section .. there is no one .. you know, the Zoo is glowing ..
          I'm wondering .. assuming the presence of such stations .. the enemy will use camouflage detonation of explosives and blank shots on all batteries?
          Or it will still use a counter-battery algorithm .. I shot a pack and tear it up ..
          1. Runway
            Runway 25 January 2021 23: 35
            0
            I read it carefully ... doesn't it seem strange to you that the projectile leaves the bore at a minimum speed of 2M and the sound pulse behind it, shall we say, is late?

            And the noise on the flight / fall, excuse me, is from the series "late doctor, I'm already dead."
            The station, I repeat, will effectively work in a complex with radar equipment and other tcr and RO connection data.
            Alone, it seems to me, he can work on mortars.
            The probability that the adversary will discover that such a station is operating in his sector is quite high. In addition to reconnaissance at all levels, a simple analysis of the activity of the TSR (radar at all levels, etc.) will force the enemy to adopt passive and active methods of protecting their weapons.
  5. Mikhail Zakharov
    Mikhail Zakharov 25 January 2021 07: 49
    -8
    all this is outdated for a long time. drones need to be done. drones are everything
    1. Foxnova
      Foxnova 25 January 2021 08: 07
      +4
      City drones take
    2. Andrey VOV
      Andrey VOV 25 January 2021 08: 28
      +15
      And the drones will go to the shykovaya and the tailbone will be dug and fed and given to the drones ... one friend at one time decided that everything would be decided by rockets and ships and planes under the knife ...
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 25 January 2021 09: 29
        +4
        Quote: Andrey VOV
        drones and tailbone will dig

        You have a typo: you must either "dig a trench" or "rip out a tailbone"!

        A joke! laughing
        1. Andrey VOV
          Andrey VOV 25 January 2021 09: 48
          +5
          Well, yes, a typo, although it's also good about the tailbone))
      2. Santa Fe
        Santa Fe 25 January 2021 12: 52
        0
        one comrade at one time decided that everything would be solved by rockets and under the knife ships and planes ...

        There was no such
    3. Winnie76
      Winnie76 25 January 2021 17: 20
      +1
      Quote: Mikhail Zakharov
      all this is outdated for a long time. drones need to be done. drones are everything

  6. storm
    storm 25 January 2021 09: 32
    +4
    Modern artillery gets the opportunity to "work" at a distance of 70-80 km, and promising developments claim a maximum firing range of up to 100 km.
    Will Penicillin be able to provide the artillery headquarters and command post of the RF Armed Forces with full information about the deployment of enemy artillery and MLRS at such a distance for their guaranteed destruction and counter-battery warfare ???
    1. lucul
      lucul 25 January 2021 12: 20
      0
      Modern artillery gets the opportunity to "work" at a distance of 70-80 km, and promising developments claim a maximum firing range of up to 100 km.
      Will Penicillin be able to provide the artillery headquarters and command post of the RF Armed Forces with full information about the deployment of enemy artillery and MLRS at such a distance for their guaranteed destruction and counter-battery warfare ???

      At a distance of 100 km, it makes no sense to use artillery, there is a MLRS for this)))
      1. V.I.P.
        V.I.P. 25 January 2021 20: 09
        0
        Why then? Foreigners are developing active rockets 40-70km. The Americans are already testing a new weapon and ammunition for 100 km ... well, they have a type of accuracy in priority, and we have MLRS in terms of area)))) ................ So it seems there is MLRS for 20,40,90 km with us. Why artillery?)))
  7. Esaul
    Esaul 25 January 2021 09: 46
    +1
    We are really looking forward to the appearance of ascorbic acid!
  8. prior
    prior 25 January 2021 10: 59
    0
    "Penicillin" goes to the troops"

    Why is it? Kamaz is broken or they learned to walk what ?
  9. Slipper 2
    Slipper 2 25 January 2021 13: 07
    -4
    xox if it cries, if it goes to the troops, it also coils with us lol
  10. Usher
    Usher 25 January 2021 21: 31
    0
    The third photo is of course tin, as the signalman will say. What kind of coil is that, ancient Greek?
    1. Momotomba
      Momotomba 27 January 2021 16: 34
      0
      Quote: Usher
      The third photo is of course tin, as the signalman will say. What kind of coil is that, ancient Greek?

      Do you have others? Maybe you don't have any more tapiks? laughing
  11. Sibguest
    Sibguest 26 January 2021 10: 53
    +1
    I'm afraid to guess what kind of miracle technique will be hiding under the code name "Purgen".
  12. yehat2
    yehat2 28 January 2021 17: 11
    +1
    with these names I would not be surprised if an enema torpedo, a polar fox submarine and an electronic warfare system "hangover" appear
  13. yehat2
    yehat2 28 January 2021 17: 14
    +2
    Quote: assault
    Will Penicillin provide artillery headquarters

    the intersection is based on extrapolation (and possibly triangulation) of the trajectory of the projectile
    The launch distance is not important, the detection distance is important, and that the projectile is without the options for pre-aiming or the reactive part (changing the trajectory parameters). Then the coordinates can be given.
    In addition, performance and target selection are important, because several tens or even hundreds of shells can be simultaneously in the air. Well, the vector is quite simple to issue.
  14. czes
    czes 20 March 2021 00: 29
    0
    He just served as a decoder of the sound-metric complex. The processing was carried out with the help of a ruler and calculations in a column - there was not even a felix (and there were already calculators in the thrift shops). In short, the deployment of the complex and the processing of data took a long time, one advantage - secrecy. You will be tormented by the snow in the field to carry sound receivers. I see that the RFP and telephone cable reels are still being dragged - the last century. The high mast unmasks. Oak solutions, I think, will not find application in modern dynamic warfare. The way I see it: quickly deploying and assembling the receivers is the main problem; should be solved automatically using quadrocopters or ground robots, communication - such as WiFi or a laser beam; data processing is no longer a problem even for a smartphone ...