Military Review

Ottoman period in the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina

154
Ottoman period in the history of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Herzegovinians in ambush, illustration from the magazine "Srbadija", 1876


It is believed that the ancestors of the Bosnians appeared in the Balkans along with other Slavic tribes around 600 AD. e. The first mention of the Bosnians in a written source was recorded in 877: this document speaks of the Bosnian Catholic diocese, subordinate to the Archbishop of Split. The lands of Bosnia and Herzegovina were part of the states of Serbs, Croats, Bulgarians, Byzantines, the Duchy of Duklja (a Serbian state on the territory of Montenegro). Then, for a long time, Bosnia was a vassal of Hungary.

As for the names of these regions, "Bosnia" is associated with the river of the same name, "Herzegovina" comes from the title that Stefan Vukčić Kosaca (great governor of Huma, Duke of Huma, Duke of Saint Sava) had in the XNUMXth century.

The Ottomans inflicted the first blows on Bosnia back in 1384, the conquest of the main part of this territory was completed by them in 1463, but the western regions with the center in the city of Yayce held out until 1527.


Yaetska fortress

And Herzegovina fell in 1482. She was joined to the Ottoman Empire by the younger son of the above-mentioned Stefan Vukchich - Stefan, who converted to Islam and became famous under the name of Hersekli Ahmed Pasha, who defeated the troops of his older brother Vladislav. Ahmed became the son-in-law of Sultan Bayezid II, held the post of Grand Vizier five times and was appointed Kapudan Pasha three times. In the inscription on his scimitar, he is called "Rustam of the era, the help of armies, Alexander among the generals."

So Herzegovina became the Bosnian Pashalyk sanjak. And the use of the name "Bosnia and Herzegovina" was first noted in 1853.


Islamization of Bosnia and Herzegovina


The population of these regions at that time professed Orthodoxy and Catholicism, and at the end of the XNUMXth century the "Bosan Church" (Crkva bosanska) appeared here, originally close to Bogomilism, whose parishioners called themselves "good Bosnians" or "good people". Unlike the Cathars-Albigensians, the "Bosane" allowed the veneration of Christian shrines.


Abandoned Bogomil cell on the territory of modern Serbia


Gravestones of the parishioners of the "Bosan Church"

The "Bosan Church" was anathematized by the Catholic hierarchs, who called its parishioners "patarens" (like the Cathars of Northern Italy), and the Orthodox - they called them "evil heretics, damned baboons" (originally, by the name of the mountain range, Bogomils were called , who settled near the city of Prilep in Macedonia, where the founder of the doctrine Bogomil preached).


On this map of Macedonia, Babuna is indicated by a red arrow

However, the main enemy of the "Bosan Church" was still Catholics. The monks of the Franciscan and Dominican orders fought against the "heretics"; from time to time they even organized small crusades against them. During one of them - in 1248, several thousand "bosan" were captured, which "good Catholics" then sold into slavery. On the eve of the Ottoman conquest, the "Bosan Church" was driven underground, many of its adherents were forcibly baptized according to the Catholic rite.

In Bosnia, unlike other Balkan countries, the upper strata of society accepted Islam without much hesitation, thus preserving their privileges. The Islamization of the townspeople was also very successful.

In rural areas, the forcibly baptized parishioners of the "Bosan Church" were most willing to accept Islam (they, as you understand, did not have a special adherence to the Christian faith imposed on them), but back in the mid-1870s. the majority of Bosnians professed Christianity: about 42% belonged to the Orthodox Church, 18% were Catholics. Islam was practiced by about 40% of the inhabitants of Bosnia.

Unlike the Albanians, who paid little attention to questions of faith and therefore survived as a single ethnic group, the Muslim Bosnians and the Christian Bosnians differed greatly. They spoke the same language (modern Bosnian has common features with Serbian and Croatian, but Montenegrin is closest to it, which is considered by many to be a dialect of Serbian), but they were very hostile to each other, which increased tensions in the region.

Even more Orthodox Christians (mostly Serbs) were in Herzegovina - over 49%. Another 15% of the inhabitants of this region were Catholics, about 34% were Muslims.

The noble people of Herzegovina, as in Bosnia, were also mostly Muslims. The peasants of Bosnia Herzegovina then gave a third of the harvest to local landowners (Muslims), and Ottoman tax collectors took another 10%. Thus, the situation of the peasants of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the most difficult in the Balkans, besides, religious discord was superimposed on social contradictions. Accordingly, the uprisings here were not only social, but also religious confrontation, since the peasants who took part in them were Christians, and their opponents, regardless of nationality, were Muslims.

It is curious that in the Ottoman period only the children of Bosnian Muslims were allowed to be taken under the "devshirme" system, which was considered a great privilege: all other "foreign boys" were exclusively Christians, who were converted to Islam after being enrolled in the corps of "Ajemi-oglans."

In November 1872, the Christians of Bosnia appealed to the Consul of Austria-Hungary in Banja Luka with a request to convey to the emperor a petition for protection. In 1873, Bosnian Catholics began to move to the territory of the Habsburg state adjacent to their lands.

In Austria-Hungary, the idea of ​​protecting Christians in Bosnia and Herzegovina was taken seriously, as it gave rise to the annexation of these territories. In April-May 1875, Emperor Franz Joseph visited the empire-controlled regions of Dalmatia: he met with delegations from Bosnia and Herzegovina, promising them support in the fight against the Ottomans. As a first step, in June 1875, 8 rifles and 2 million rounds of ammunition were delivered to Cattaro Bay to arm the rebels.

The actions of the Austrians were jealously watched by the Serbs and Montenegrins, who themselves were not averse to annexing part of these territories.

Anti-Ottoman uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina 1875-1878


In the summer of 1875, when the Ottoman authorities increased the traditional tax from 10% to 20% against the background of last year's poor harvest, many villages in Bosnia and Herzegovina revolted. At first, rural communities simply refused to pay the increased tax, but the Ottoman wali (governor) Ibrahim Dervish Pasha gathered detachments of Muslims who began to attack Christian villages, robbing them and killing the residents. This seems highly counterintuitive: why should you destroy your own territory? The fact is that the ambitious Ibrahim thus tried to provoke local Christians into an open uprising, which he was going to quickly suppress, thereby earning a good reputation in Constantinople.

In principle, everything turned out like that: Christians began to create couples (detachments) who defended their villages, or went into the forests or mountains. But Ibrahim did not succeed in defeating them. Moreover, on July 10, 1875, the rebels defeated 4 Ottoman camps (units close to the battalion) near Mostar. This victory inspired Christians in both Bosnia and Herzegovina, and soon the revolt swept over both areas. Ibrahim Dervish Pasha was removed from his post, regular Ottoman troops of 30 thousand people were sent to the rebellious provinces. They were opposed by up to 25 thousand insurgents who avoided "correct" battles, acting on the principle of "fight and flight".


Serbian rebels in Herzegovina

The tactics of partisan warfare turned out to be very effective: the Turks suffered heavy losses and controlled only large settlements, which were often besieged by the rebels, and were forced to allocate significant forces to guard their carts.

Against this background, in April 1876, an uprising also broke out in Bulgaria, but a month later it was brutally suppressed by the Ottomans, in the course of punitive actions then up to 30 thousand people were killed.

Serbia and Montenegro against the Ottoman Empire, Russian volunteers


In June 1876, Serbia and Montenegro declared war on the Ottoman Empire: Montenegrins entered Herzegovina, Serbs - into eastern Bosnia.

This war aroused great sympathy in Russian society: significant sums of money were collected to help the rebellious Slavs and a total of about 4 thousand volunteers from Russia (200 of whom were officers) went to fight in the Balkans. Not all of them were ideological and "fiery" Slavophiles: there were outright adventurers who were bored at home, as well as people who tried to "run away" from their own problems. By the way, the latter include Erast Fandorin, the hero of B. Akunin's novels, who left for Serbia (and, therefore, fought in Bosnia, where he was captured) after the death of his young and beloved wife.


This is how the audience of the film "Turkish Gambit" saw Erast Fandorin, who escaped from Ottoman captivity

But even without literary volunteers, there were enough famous people. Then the Russian general M. Chernyaev became the commander of the Serbian army.


Major General M.G. Chernyaev, Commander-in-Chief of the Serbian Army, 1876

He was a very authoritative and popular general, a participant in the Hungarian campaign of 1849 and the Crimean War (Danube campaign of 1853 and defense of Sevastopol in 1854-1855). For the defense of Sevastopol, he was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir IV degree and a gold weapons, led the evacuation of Russian troops across the Northern Bay, leaving the city in the last boat. In 1864, he took Chimkent and was awarded the Order of St. George, III degree (bypassing IV degree). And in 1865, Chernyaev became the hero of an international scandal, arbitrarily capturing Tashkent (he then had less than 2 thousand soldiers and 12 cannons, while the enemy garrison numbered 15 thousand people with 63 guns). This caused a hysterical reaction in Great Britain, and this time Chernyaev did not wait for the approval of his superiors; on the contrary, he received a reprimand from the military department. But he became widely known both in Russia and abroad, journalists called him "the Tashkent lion" and "Ermak of the XIX century".


N. Karazin. "The capture of Tashkent by General Chernyaev"

Chernyaev also left for Serbia against the will of the Russian government. As a result, during the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. Although he was re-enrolled in the service, he remained "out of the state", without waiting for the appointment to a post in the army. Otherwise, it was he, and not M. Skobelev, who could become the main hero of that war.

Among the Russian volunteers was also the grandson of the famous General N. Raevsky (after whom the battery of 18 cannons was named, located at a barrow height during the Battle of Borodino) - also Nikolai, a colonel of the Russian army. He died in 1876 during the Battle of Aleksinats.

The revolutionary populist S.M. Stepnyak-Kravchinsky, who in 1878 will become famous all over Europe for the murder of the chief of the gendarme corps N. Mezentsev and will become the prototype of the heroes E. Zola (the novel "Germinal") and E. Voynich ( "Gadfly").


S. M. Stepnyak-Kravchinsky

Among the Russian volunteers was also the famous Russian artist V.D. now in the museum-estate "Polenovo").


V.D. Polenov. "Herzegovinka in ambush", 1876

In his diary, talking about his arrival in Belgrade, Polenov left the following lines:

From the Danube, Belgrade presents a rather majestic view ... One thing seemed strange to me - there are several mosques with minarets. There are, I think, six of them in Belgrade ... It's a strange thing: we are going to fight for Christianity, against Islam, and here are the mosques.

This surprise clearly shows how little, in fact, even educated Russian volunteers knew history the country for which they went to fight, and the complex relationship between the peoples of the Balkan Peninsula. Russian Slavophiles-idealists went to the Balkans invented by them and to Serbia invented by them. In the history of this Serbia, there was no despot Stefan Lazarevich - the son of a prince who died in the Kosovo field, who faithfully served the murderer of his father Bayezid I, married his sister to him and was canonized by the Serbian Orthodox Church. There was no father-in-law of Sultan Murad I Georgy Brankovich, who did not lead his troops either to Varna, where King of Poland and Hungary Vladislav III Varnenchik died, or to the Kosovo field, where the great Hungarian commander Janos Hunyadi was defeated (but he captured the retreating Hunyadi and demanded a ransom for him). There was no "century of Serbian viziers" and there was no pure-blooded Serb Mehmed Pasha Sokkolu, who served as the Grand Vizier under three sultans, during whose reign the Ottoman Empire reached the limits of its power. And in Bulgaria, the soldiers and officers of the Russian army were later very surprised that the local peasants oppressed by the Turks live better than their compatriots, for whose welfare the Orthodox tsar and the Christian landowners are "concerned" for the welfare of all.

From October 1877 to February 1878 Polenov, already as an artist, was at the headquarters of the Tsarevich (the future Emperor Alexander III) on the Bulgarian front of the Russian-Turkish war.


V. Polenov, "Study from the Balkan War", Kaluga State Art Museum

And in the headquarters of the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich - the commander-in-chief of the Russian Danube army, there was the battle painter V.V. Vereshchagin, who in June 1877 on board the destroyer "Joke" received a severe hip wound (his brother S.V. Vereshchagin, died during time of the siege of Plevna).


V. Vereshchagin. “After the attack. Dressing station near Plevna "


V. Polenov. "Cart with the wounded"

The famous surgeon N.V. Sklifosovsky went to the Balkans and headed one of the sanitary detachments there.


N.V. Sklifosovsky

He also worked in a field hospital during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. - like N. Pirogov and S. Botkin.

Russian "sisters of mercy" also worked in field hospitals and sanitary detachments of that war.

During the Russian-Turkish war, 50 Russian "sisters of mercy" died in Bulgaria from typhus. Among them was Yulia Petrovna Vrevskaya, the widow of a Russian general, one of M. Yu. Lermontov's friends, who organized her own sanitary detachment. I. Turgenev dedicated a poem to her memory.


Yulia Vrevskaya to the left of the only man in this photo - Prince V. Cherkassky, authorized by the Russian Red Cross

In the town of Byala (Varna region), where Vrevskaya is buried, one of the streets is named after her.


Grave of Maria Neyelova and Yulia Vrevskaya

I. S. Turgenev made the Bulgarian patriot Insarov the hero of his novel "On the Eve", he said that he would certainly go to this war if he were a little younger.

The uprising in Bosnia and Herzegovina was defeated, Serbia and Montenegro were also on the brink of a military catastrophe, but the Russian ultimatum of October 18 (30), 1876, stopped the Turkish troops. From December 11, 1876 to January 20, 1877, an international Constantinople conference was held, at which Turkey was proposed to grant autonomy to Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina. But even before its completion, an agreement was reached between Russia and Austria-Hungary, in which the Austrians, in exchange for neutrality in a future war, recognized the right to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina


On April 12 (24), 1877, a new Russian-Turkish war began, as a result of which Serbia, Montenegro and Romania gained independence, an autonomous Bulgarian principality was formed. And Austrian troops entered the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but Turkey recognized the annexation of these territories only in 1908 (having received compensation of 2,5 million pounds sterling).

The peasants of Bosnia and Herzegovina, whose situation practically did not improve (even many Ottoman officials remained in their places, including the mayor of Sarajevo, Mehmed-Beg-Kapetanovich Lyubushak), were disappointed. Already in January 1882, an anti-Austrian uprising began here, the reason for which was the introduction of military service. It was completely suppressed in April of the same year, and the Austrian authorities then actively used the so-called strifkors - detachments of local Muslims who brutally massacred the Christian population. These units were then disbanded, but re-established after the final annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908. They participated in World War I, fighting against Serbia. And during World War II, the Serbs called the punitive Ustasha units, which were engaged in the massacre of the civilian population, as strifkors.

From 1883 to 1903 Bosnia and Herzegovina was ruled by Benjamin von Kallai, the former Consul General in Belgrade and the Reich Minister of Finance. His activity is assessed controversially. On the one hand, under him, industry and the banking sector actively developed, railways were built, cities were improved. On the other hand, he treated local residents like natives, did not trust them and relied on Austro-Hungarian officials in his activities.

On October 5, 1908, Austria-Hungary finally annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, paying the Ottomans 2,5 million pounds in compensation. Serbia and Montenegro declared mobilization and almost provoked a major war. Germany declared its support for its allies, the Italians were satisfied with the Austrian promise of non-intervention in the event of their war with Turkey over Libya (which began in 1911). Britain and France limited themselves to notes of protest. Russia, still not recovering from a heavy and humiliating defeat in the war with Japan, then went literally on the razor's edge. P. Stolypin played a major role in preventing a new and absolutely unnecessary war. Austria-Hungary in exchange promised to recognize the right to pass Russian warships through the Black Sea straits.

The acquisition of Bosnia and Herzegovina was fatal for Austria-Hungary and the Habsburg dynasty. It was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 that caused World War I, which ended with the fall of four great empires - Russian, German, Austrian and Ottoman. There were no longer any politicians in our country capable of keeping Russia from this disastrous adventure for her.

In the next article we will continue our story about Bosnia and Herzegovina and talk about the history of this country in the XX and XXI centuries.
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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 24 January 2021 05: 52
    +14
    ++ to the author, well written and illustrated. Thank you.
    Yaetska fortress
    Surprisingly preserved. And it seems like digging glanders and there will be a victory, but no.
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 January 2021 06: 22
    +11
    How often crop failure was that match: from which everything flared!
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 January 2021 07: 18
      +8
      Hello!
      Quote: Korsar4
      How often crop failure was that match: from which everything flared!

      Dancing - dancing, you always want to eat!
      Good day to all !!!
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 24 January 2021 09: 42
        +6
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        I always want!

        Vlad! Greetings! Something inspires me, some feeling, that inspires me and that's it. What does it inspire? Banal. Seryoga? Do you have canned food? And buckwheat? And pasta? Tea? Vodka? The list is long! Something is foreseen. Not good. It would be nice to be mistaken, but ...? what
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 24 January 2021 10: 01
          +4
          "How scary to live!" (FROM) crying
          Seryoga, don't push it!
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 24 January 2021 10: 04
            +4
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Seryoga, don't push it!

            I ???? I'm not the first in the * superchargers * list! Who is the first? Good question! laughingDamn! Masks, too, have I invented? And the collapse of the world, the familiar, old, world-without MASKS !!!, also me? That's me! laughing
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 24 January 2021 10: 10
              +4
              Well, probably me! wassat
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 24 January 2021 10: 16
                +2
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Well, probably me!

                Anton! Are you sure? The error can be fatal? Why? laughing
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 24 January 2021 10: 18
                  +4
                  I’m no stranger, I’ve been wrong all my life.
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 24 January 2021 10: 20
                    +2
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    I’m no stranger, I’ve been wrong all my life.

                    I do not believe it! wink
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 24 January 2021 10: 31
                      +5
                      Pancake! Another Stanislavsky!
                      Again. Our network "alter ego" by no means reflects the essence of each, separately taken, individual. I, in the understanding of the same "Pane Kohanku", is not at all the person whom I imagine myself to be. And this is the only person from our party with whom we know personally.
                      1. Phil77
                        Phil77 24 January 2021 10: 35
                        +3
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        know personally

                        I am I! And I will not let someone else's! Exactly? * My poet *? Ha-ha-ha !!!! Just kidding, just kidding, just kidding! Eh! There is no faith yet, sorry. laughing
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 January 2021 10: 39
                        +4
                        Women have their own worries. They are multitasking creatures, unlike us. request
                      3. Phil77
                        Phil77 24 January 2021 10: 42
                        +5
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        multitasking

                        That is, that is! I'm joking !!!!
                        laughing
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 January 2021 10: 49
                        +7
                        But not me! Watch your spouse while she is cooking dinner, talking on the phone, and watching a movie. And this is the minimum set. Can you do it yourself?
                      5. Phil77
                        Phil77 24 January 2021 10: 57
                        +5
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        Can you do it yourself?

                        Exactly no. Difficult. Is this minimal? And shampooing? Curling? * Seryozha, where is my / this crap for curling my hair /? at home, I constantly do not fall into the schedule! *, * And what is the weather today? * And this is the minimum !!! laughing
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 January 2021 11: 08
                        +8
                        And just count, she keeps it all in her head at the same time! And a dozen or two more questions that are not voiced to you. And you, having heard one set task, start purposefully looking for this crap (the curling iron is called). And even if you yourself are late, even if "the whole world is in dust" - you have been assigned a task and you physically cannot think about something else.
                      7. Catfish
                        Catfish 24 January 2021 17: 23
                        +1
                        ... you physically cannot think of anything else.

                        Can. Like that Private Sidorov - about "bricks".
                        Hello Anton. drinks
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 January 2021 17: 27
                        +1
                        Hi Uncle Kostya!
                        Well, this is an imperative!
                      9. Catfish
                        Catfish 24 January 2021 17: 49
                        +2
                        I ask you not to express yourself in all sorts of words, a decent society has gathered here ... relatively. laughing

                        How does he himself, like a claw, not bother about the change in the weather? drinks
                      10. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 January 2021 17: 57
                        +2
                        So I'm a miserable, did you forget?
                        The plaster cast was removed a week ago, the fingers still do not bend. As soon as they got the plaster cast, he began to live a rich cultural life.
                      11. Catfish
                        Catfish 24 January 2021 18: 00
                        +1
                        As soon as they got the plaster cast, he began to live a rich cultural life.

                        laughing Again to beat the blacks muzzle? You, this, be careful, after all, there are many blacks, and you are alone and you have only two hands, however, you can go to your feet. smile
                      12. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 January 2021 18: 14
                        +1
                        Last Sunday I was in the Hermitage, on Friday I wandered around the Decembrist places, tomorrow I will probably wander around again.
                        Are we fucking a cultural capital, or where ?! laughing
                      13. Catfish
                        Catfish 24 January 2021 18: 33
                        +2
                        For a week I didn't get out, everything was covered with snow, the Internet on my computer was covered. I didn't drink vodka. Masha has adjusted her old laptop, it loads a teaspoon per hour, but even so, on Tuesday the master should drive up.
                        Two hours ago, the men drove the "Belorus" and cleared the snow out of the garden, it was already knee-deep, cleared the back road and now I'm back on horseback. I will go, but we have only one cultural center in the face of a local club, though with a very sickly library. I am silent about the store, tk. I'm not going to take anything for the collar until May.
                        So my only window into the world is communication with you, my good friends. smile drinks
                        Only here again insomnia lifted.
                      14. Phil77
                        Phil77 24 January 2021 18: 38
                        +2
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        my only window into the world is communication with you, my good friends.

                        So that's great !!! No?
                      15. Catfish
                        Catfish 24 January 2021 18: 44
                        +2
                        Well, of course, that's what I live with. drinks
                      16. Phil77
                        Phil77 24 January 2021 18: 46
                        +3
                        Well, ... and we are glad to communicate with you!
                      17. Catfish
                        Catfish 24 January 2021 18: 49
                        +2
                        If I was in Moscow now, I would suggest having a glass. smile drinks
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 24 January 2021 18: 40
                  +3
                  Throw off your phone number, otherwise I have worried about you for the last ten days ...
                3. Catfish
                  Catfish 24 January 2021 18: 43
                  +2
                  I'll throw it off, but I can't stand long conversations on the phone, it feels like after the first minute my ear just swells up. I was always amazed at the ability of women to hang on a wire for two hours.
                4. Phil77
                  Phil77 24 January 2021 18: 50
                  +2
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  women for two hours

                  Training, buddy!
                5. Catfish
                  Catfish 24 January 2021 19: 09
                  +2
                  Hockey is definitely better.
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 24 January 2021 18: 53
                +2
                To the post office, please. And, at the same time, Maria's phone.
              3. Catfish
                Catfish 24 January 2021 19: 11
                +2
                I threw it off in a personal. Now I'll try to download the mail. I say, the laptop is old, it loads almost an hour.
              4. Phil77
                Phil77 24 January 2021 19: 15
                +1
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                mail please

                Don't bother! Pliz !!!
              5. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 24 January 2021 19: 22
                0
                So I actually didn't try ... request
                What's the problem?
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 24 January 2021 18: 47
          +2
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          worried

          It was!!! I confirm!
  3. Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 January 2021 18: 16
    +1
    And then brag.
  4. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 24 January 2021 18: 25
    +2
    On the first, I bragged before, you missed the point. Now I am stating a fact.
    Second, this is a work for all history lovers on the forum, initiated by me. "Follow the posters."
  5. Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 January 2021 19: 26
    +1
    We became a traveling circus troupe?
  6. Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 January 2021 11: 43
    +5
    Even in shops they go differently. Immediately into everything that is relative along the road.

    But we are capable of thinking one thought.
    And often it is borscht.
  7. Phil77
    Phil77 24 January 2021 13: 23
    +4
    Quote: Korsar4
    borscht

    Hello, Sergey!
    Shchi? As an option? wink
  8. Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 January 2021 13: 27
    +3
    Cabbage soup is grandmother's time. Mom is dominated by soups. My wife has borsch.

    In general, variations on the theme of lentil stew.
    And Tom-Yan gave it - already a one-time exotic. When I meet with a colleague, I don't eat meat.
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 January 2021 11: 41
    +3
    Not so much. In my relatively large family, everything is eaten up quickly. But spring is already close.
  • Fat
    Fat 25 January 2021 15: 46
    0
    Thank you. I've been worrying for a week. But we must leave. The matches are produced by "union Belarus", are you waiting for the embargo? Don't worry Bro, won't pass us by laughing
    Take "easy" ....
    And most importantly - matches. when Gazprom is gone ... Relax, Sergei.
    "Before you are the tops of the pyramids, soldier. They look at us from a height of thousands of years." (C)
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 January 2021 11: 38
    +4
    This Sparrow was dancing at Mamin-Sibiryak's: from hunger and cold.
  • VLR
    24 January 2021 07: 18
    +13
    "There is a king in the world: this king is merciless,
    Famine is his name.
    He leads the army; at sea by ships
    Rules ... "
    Well, and so on (Nekrasov, "Railroad").
    Now, most people find it difficult to understand what real hunger is.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 09: 33
      +3
      Quote: VlR
      what is real hunger.

      You know, Valery, it's difficult to understand. Now. But tomorrow? After all, it is clear that the planet has gone haywire. Is this a plan? Whose? And why are the keepers of human rights silent? In the share? Participate? Oh, how difficult it is, right.
      1. VLR
        24 January 2021 09: 39
        +7
        Now, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as a result of measures taken to "fight the pandemic", famine threatens the citizens of 27 countries. Among them are Haiti, Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Mozambique and others. The main reasons are “disruption of labor force availability and supply chain”.
        But, on the other hand, not from Covid, but people will die there, but “just” from hunger.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 24 January 2021 09: 46
          +3
          Quote: VlR

          But, on the other hand, not from Covid, but people will die there, but “just” from hunger.

          Here !!!! Exactly! After all, according to Madame Golikova, we have no flu !!!!! In general! And these * people * run * the country? The world? Scary!
          1. VLR
            24 January 2021 09: 50
            +6
            There is still no matter: anyone can get infected, and the elderly "rich Buratino", God forbid, will die a couple of months earlier. But hunger does not threaten the "rich Buratins".
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 24 January 2021 11: 45
              +2
              On the scale of eternity, this does not matter. 50 or 150 years of life. The difference is small.
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 24 January 2021 15: 20
                +2
                Quote: Korsar4
                The difference is small

                Ha, ha, ha! And on the scale of a specific person, eh?
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 24 January 2021 17: 12
                  +3
                  The question is what you have time to do. Lermontov, for example, did a lot.
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 24 January 2021 17: 17
                    +2
                    Quote: Korsar4
                    Lermontov

                    Oh, Sergei, you're talking about geniuses. No, I don't even want to discuss / can't /. Why? For not a genius! laughing
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 24 January 2021 17: 25
                      +2
                      And children can be left by both a 50-year-old and a 150-year-old. Or maybe not.
              2. Phil77
                Phil77 24 January 2021 15: 26
                +3
                Quote: Korsar4
                50 or

                An example with these masks that have set the teeth on edge! Who wears them with pleasure? Youngsters! Well ... and people over 60 who have joined them. I-no! Only on demand. Well, I don’t want to pay a fine with this * u.r.o.dam *!
                We are not slaves. We are not slaves. I doubt it very well!
                1. VLR
                  24 January 2021 15: 41
                  +3
                  Actually, in theory, masks should be put on like shoe covers: if you go somewhere - put it on, go out - throw it away. If you wear a mask on your chin or pull it out of your pocket - what kind of sterility? And what does a person breathe, what microbes and viruses?
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 24 January 2021 15: 46
                    +1
                    Valery! Well, we lived without masks. We lived. And more, I will say more specifically. Without them, we will live more! Business. And WHO has no faith at all, as well as all these nongovernmental organizations. UN? . Who paid, and will fall under. No?
                    1. VLR
                      24 January 2021 16: 10
                      +2
                      Actually, masks are just for the sick, and it always has been. And for the healthy they are useless, because there are still eyes. That is, you also need to wear glasses with them, or here are the foreheads like that of this Turkish woman in a restaurant:


                      Therefore, I am also skeptical about masks.
                    2. Phil77
                      Phil77 24 January 2021 16: 14
                      +1
                      Quote: VlR
                      masks

                      I'm only interested in one question. How long? Well, really .... is the population of the planet dumbfounded ????? Or are there no ide carriers left?
                    3. VLR
                      24 January 2021 16: 27
                      +2
                      Incidentally, I am here - in this hotel, during a break between sailing, I wrote articles "The Great Mysteries of the Labyrinths", "Catherine's Eagles" and about the prototypes of the "Count of Monte Cristo".


                      Based on prepared materials, of course.
                      I like to write when I am swimming: while I am swimming I think, I get out - I write. The Internet was good, we managed to find pictures for illustrations, and then post articles on the site for publication.
                    4. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 24 January 2021 18: 18
                      +2
                      40% of the last dissertation in the train was written and rules.

                      1,5 - 2 hours one way can take many useful things.
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 January 2021 10: 19
    +3
    Good afternoon guys! Valery thanks for the article!
    Now, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as a result of measures taken to "fight the pandemic", famine threatens the citizens of 27 countries. Among them are Haiti, Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Sudan, Mozambique and others.

    The most interesting thing is that most of the listed countries do not know the real cold! In fact, if not potatoes, then bananas with pineapples can be grown without straining, but ...
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 10: 29
      +3
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      if not potatoes, then bananas with pineapples

      You don't even need to grow them. They CREATE BY THEMSELVES! laughing
    2. Korsar4
      Korsar4 24 January 2021 11: 46
      +4
      I don't know - what's in Sudan or Somalia? Tuareg life is not easy. And they have no time for bananas.
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 24 January 2021 15: 31
        +3
        Quote: Korsar4
        Tuareg life is not easy.

        The lot of the Tuareg is simple. Live. Just live your life. No? And here * Volkswagen * intervened In their life. Tuareg, simple, deserted. Bastards. Capitalists. Never Tuareg! laughing
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 24 January 2021 17: 19
          +2
          I came across a book with this name "Tuareg". Interesting.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 24 January 2021 17: 30
            +2
            Quote: Korsar4
            Tuareg

            I will add to the list. Who is Fomin? Gennady?
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 24 January 2021 18: 09
              +1
              The author of the book is Alberto Vasquez-Figuerio.
              Where Fomin came from - I don't know.
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 January 2021 15: 45
        +3
        Quote: Korsar4
        I don't know - what's in Sudan or Somalia? Tuareg life is not easy. And they have no time for bananas.

        Sergey, do you think it is easier for our Chukchi and Kamchadals living in a traditional way?
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 24 January 2021 17: 20
          +3
          No. I don’t think so. Any extreme is far from the optimum.
  • Phil77
    Phil77 24 January 2021 09: 59
    +5
    Quote: VlR
    hunger

    And most importantly, how can I explain it to him?

    No! Tomorrow, I'm going to the store.
    1. VLR
      24 January 2021 10: 08
      +6


      Shop tomorrow? Why not today ?!
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 24 January 2021 10: 12
        +4
        Quote: VlR
        not today?

        For today, this representative of the fluffy people has ten cans of * Gourmet * in the refrigerator! Damn, I don't eat so much! laughing
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 January 2021 10: 23
          +4
          Quote: Phil77
          Quote: VlR
          not today?

          For today, this representative of the fluffy people has ten cans of * Gourmet * in the refrigerator! Damn, I don't eat so much! laughing

          "We are responsible for those whom we have tamed," or

          The cat is sleeping, work is in progress !!! smile
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 24 January 2021 10: 26
            +3
            Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
            so or

            Are they for us? Vlad! Good morning! Although ... you have a day. laughing
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 24 January 2021 17: 20
            +2
            "We are responsible for those we have tamed"


            This thesis does not apply to cats, rather, everything is exactly the opposite.))

            Hello Vladislav! hi
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 24 January 2021 15: 32
        +2
        Quote: VlR
        Today?

        Handsome! Yours? Green-eyed!
        1. VLR
          24 January 2021 15: 35
          +2
          No, I found it with a face suitable for such a question smile
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 24 January 2021 15: 37
            +1
            Quote: VlR
            issue

            It's time, it's time to make yourself a friend from the furry people. They love friendship. Accurately and honestly.
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 January 2021 15: 50
              0
              Quote: Phil77
              Quote: VlR
              issue

              It's time, it's time to make yourself a friend from the furry people. They love friendship. Accurately and honestly.

              Sometimes they even put it above the refrigerator !!! laughing
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 24 January 2021 15: 53
                +1
                Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                above the refrigerator !!!

                Well, Vlad, your beauty in general ... No words! For praise! Amazing! good
      3. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 24 January 2021 15: 54
        +2
        Go to the pet store for mice?
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 January 2021 19: 50
          +2
          Quote: Aviator_
          Go to the pet store for mice?

          Yeah, run - march !!! laughing
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 24 January 2021 11: 40
    +5
    I constantly remember this. By the way, and in relation to most of the articles from the slightly more distant past.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 24 January 2021 07: 46
    +9
    They spoke the same language (modern Bosnian has common features with Serbian and Croatian, but Montenegrin is closest to it, which is considered by many to be a dialect of Serbian)
    ... The modern language of the Belgorod region has common features with the Russian language, but the language of the inhabitants of the Kursk region is closest to it, which is considered by many to be a dialect of the Russian language. This is, as it were, in the realities of Russia. smile Thanks, the article is definitely, many advantages ..
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 09: 52
      +4
      Quote: parusnik
      the language of the inhabitants of the Kursk region is close to it, which many consider to be a dialect of the Russian language.

      Many believe that the most correct dialect of the Russian language was characteristic of the natives of the Vladimir region. Was it! Now? Well ... there is a field for discussion, no?
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 24 January 2021 11: 48
        +3
        The Suzdal-Vladimir principality is the fundamental principle of many. This is the Moscow outskirts of Zalesye.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 24 January 2021 15: 57
          +2
          Quote: Korsar4
          This is the Moscow outskirts of Zalesye.

          But now Sobyanin and Putin live in it. Sarcasm. Gorky. If anything. And it would be better if these * rulers * and their pack .... far! Very far!
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 24 January 2021 17: 14
            +2
            Many good people live. And you can even get acquainted with some.
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 24 January 2021 17: 33
              +2
              Quote: Korsar4
              become acquainted

              Are we about the good ones?
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 24 January 2021 18: 10
                +1
                Of course. People are interesting.
      2. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 24 January 2021 16: 38
        +2
        Quote: Phil77
        there is a field for discussion, no?

        Po-ole ... Russian-o-ole ...
        Well, I will try to outline the problem areas of the discussion ... smile
        First. What is Russian or Old Russian? If "rus" is believed to be a concept that initially determined not ethnicity, but social status, then initially Russian is the language of the state elite, and here, whatever one may say, there will be a fair amount of Scandinavian, a kind of surzhik. smile
        Second. The Slavic language, which was the basis of Russian, is the language of the Novgorod Slovenes and Krivichi, and these, as you know, are the tribes of the Western Slavs, and not the Eastern, who came to their habitats from the West. The modern Russian language is unambiguously related to the East Slavic.
        Third. The main region, in which the Eastern Slavs originally lived, is almost all located on the territory of modern Ukraine, only in a small part invading the modern territory of the Russian Federation (Bryansk, Kaluga, partly Smolensk regions).
        Fourth. The territory of Rostov-Vladimir-Suzdal land is the territory of residence of the Finno-Ugric tribes, the colonization of this land by the Slavs began in the XNUMXth century, but they received a dominant position in it only in the XNUMXth century, when immigrants from the south poured into it - they fled from the Polovtsian threat. They formed their own dialect, different from Novgorod and South Russian.
        Fifth. In fact, in Russia during the XIII - XV centuries. spoke three, even four significantly different dialects: South Russian, which was formed under the strong influence of the Turkic languages, West Russian - under the influence of the Balts, Novgorod - which developed somewhat in isolation and retained Scandinavian influence, and East Russian with Finno-Ugric influence. Which one will we choose as "native Russian" and why?
        Sixth. The modern Russian language was formed at the turn of the XNUMXth - first half of the XNUMXth centuries, the center of the state, primarily a cultural center, then St. Petersburg was subject to powerful European influence, as a result of which the language underwent a strong transformation, but we are now speaking it.
        We choose any topic and you can start Sunday holivar. smile
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 24 January 2021 17: 18
          +2
          How does Novgorod differ from Eastern Russian? There are areas in the Tver region where the language is still different.

          And which is better - the Vologda-Kostroma, Ryazan okanie, where "mushrooms are looking," or a Moscow chant?

          We also omit this southern "Gekanye".

          And so - where youth passed, there the language was formed.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 24 January 2021 17: 36
            +1
            Quote: Korsar4
            Gekanye ”is omitted.

            Because it IS DOWNLOADED! Differs from ordinary Russian.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 24 January 2021 18: 11
              +1
              No. Just south. Bryansk residents, even kuryans.
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 24 January 2021 19: 26
                +1
                Quote: Korsar4
                Inhabitants

                Don't ... just rest!
          2. gsev
            gsev 25 January 2021 21: 08
            +2
            Quote: Korsar4
            There are areas in the Tver region where the language is still different.

            And these villages are not inhabited by descendants of Finnish tribes? The language of the Novgorodians and Kievans before Grushevsky developed synchronously, therefore, the Ukrainian, Novgorod, and Moscow dialects until the 19th and 20th centuries can be considered one language.
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 25 January 2021 21: 27
              0
              Tver dialect of Karelian. Both Maksatiha and Vesyegonsk. And not only.
              And how everything got intertwined there - philologists would tell.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 24 January 2021 17: 31
          +2
          We choose any topic and you can start Sunday holivar.
          "I look at this matter in old Russian anguish." (FROM)
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 24 January 2021 18: 12
            +1
            You can isolate a piece of boiled pork from any beastly.

            On the road - a nice thing.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 24 January 2021 18: 17
              +1
              Not halal, but on the road you can.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 24 January 2021 19: 03
                +1
                Oh, some kind of imbecile minus.
              2. Korsar4
                Korsar4 24 January 2021 19: 23
                +2
                Yes. Much can be attributed to the road.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 24 January 2021 19: 35
                  +2
                  In Islam, it is so. A person is free in his actions, you cannot atone for sins, you will be rewarded according to your actions.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 24 January 2021 19: 40
                    +1
                    The power of prayer should not be underestimated.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 24 January 2021 20: 11
                      +2
                      You can't overdo it either. Lord, he's still a humorist.
                      Moreover, "black humor" is in his favor.
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 24 January 2021 20: 43
                        +1
                        For a time, the world has been generous to man. But this is dangerous to get used to.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 January 2021 20: 52
                        +3
                        He is generous to the point of taking it off the boob. I didn't get it.
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 24 January 2021 21: 00
                        +1
                        Do you admit to some extent that up to 28 years old? Although, of course, this is not an absolute truth.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 January 2021 21: 11
                        +2
                        No, I don't. The human baby learns the world through motherhood up to six months, then himself.
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 24 January 2021 21: 19
                        +1
                        Himself. But this does not exclude support.

                        You know, there is a famous parable about a chain of footprints: a man and the Lord. In difficult times, the Creator carried a person in his arms.
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 24 January 2021 21: 32
                        +3
                        Humanity is violet to the Demiurge. Another strain in a test tube. Curious, but no more.
                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 24 January 2021 21: 48
                        +1
                        I believe in feedback: in the image and likeness.
  • Phil77
    Phil77 24 January 2021 19: 28
    +2
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    We choose any topic and you can start Sunday holivar.
    "I look at this matter in old Russian anguish." (FROM)

    Quote: 3x3zsave
    longing

    Guys! How nice that I am in your ranks !!!!!
  • Marine engineer
    Marine engineer 24 January 2021 19: 14
    +2
    ".... What is Russian or Old Russian language? ...."

    "Pskov (Skophar) language" is not indicated)))).
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 24 January 2021 20: 31
      +2
      Pskov, Vologda, Arkhangelsk, Karelian, Vyatka ... These are the subtleties, one might say, varieties, dialects of the original Novgorod. Many Finnish and Scandinavian words, slightly different phonetics. In some places in the outback, even ...
      But, of course, we must first decide which Russian is considered a reference.
      If by proximity to the "primary source", that is, to the language of the XNUMXth century, then one should look in the area of ​​Arkhangelsk - there the language has undergone the least changes.
      If by "average" pronunciation, then this is Moscow. They speak like everyone else, you can hear enough of everything.
      If on a "geographical" basis, then we are shifting to the south, to the Ukraine, to its northern regions, up to Kiev - there is the cradle of the Slavs.
      If we are supporters of modernity and believe that antiquity is not for us, but the newest is the most correct, then, of course, we are looking at St. Petersburg - the birthplace of the youngest version of the literary Russian language.
      In short, men, you have to decide.
      Vote?
      smile
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 24 January 2021 21: 26
        +2
        So I thought: which singer or singer to choose as a standard.

        Ruslanov? There is something from Nizhny Novgorod.
        Chaliapin? Already records with 'rustle'
        Rasteryaev? Youth, but not all.
        Kharitonov? So there is a black-eyed Cossack.

        Maybe a good performance of Yesenin's songs can be taken as a standard.
        Maybe the songs of Kamburova.
      2. Marine engineer
        Marine engineer 24 January 2021 22: 02
        +1
        I am for Arkhangelsk))).
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 24 January 2021 07: 51
    +6
    as a result of which Serbia, Montenegro and Romania gained independence, an autonomous Bulgarian principality was formed. And Austrian troops entered the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
    And RI, following the results of the war, which it won, received "ears from a dead donkey"
    Thank you, Valery!
  • Crowe
    Crowe 24 January 2021 08: 25
    +10
    Quote: Mavrikiy
    + the author, well written and illustrated. Thank you.

    Neither add nor subtract! I join entirely - it was very interesting!
  • Phil77
    Phil77 24 January 2021 08: 58
    +6
    Thank you Valery! Thank you for the series of articles! Informative, interesting, well presented! Where the Balkans are, there is war. It would be better to play football, the right word! Just kidding! In football, they are two orders of magnitude better than ours ... Alas! laughing
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 24 January 2021 13: 09
    +3
    When you are in Samara, be sure to go to the local museum, there is an exhibit of cufflinks, glasses - all that remains of an idealist student. It is worth noting the difficulties encountered by the Volga volunteers who came to Serbia. Volunteers in Serbia were disorganized and often without funds. Volunteers were not met upon arrival and did not indicate their further actions. Therefore, many “… wandered around the“ kafans ”to no avail, eating all their money in anticipation. But nobody cared about them. And how to go without an escort, without food, without carts, without weapons, and where? I still see the gentleman in a top hat, in a coat lined with air, shivering from the cold and asking to share a piece of bread ... "" Brothers "- Ept. laughing It would be better if they became Turks.


    Shepeleva, A. Yu. Volunteer movement from the Volga provinces in the Serbo-Montenegrin-Turkish war
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 24 January 2021 13: 29
    0
    Let's ask everyone in each of their villages how much they love us, but we miss it so much. laughing
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 24 January 2021 13: 55
    -3
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    as a result of which Serbia, Montenegro and Romania gained independence, an autonomous Bulgarian principality was formed. And Austrian troops entered the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
    And RI, following the results of the war, which it won, received "ears from a dead donkey"
    Thank you, Valery!

    laughing Something like this: Yes, and they are not new friends. They do not decide anything, just talk - why not talk, if this does not oblige you to anything? Do we need it? For every Bosnia and Herzegovina, you won't have enough binoculars to see them.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 24 January 2021 14: 25
      +4
      RI started this war in accordance with the first treaty of the "Union of Three Emperors", the interests of the oppressed "brothers" were deeply violet to her. Public opinion has been preparing for more than one year to justify the start of this war within the country. It is from here that all these noble impulses of volunteer volunteers come from.
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 16: 09
      +1
      Quote: Gennady Fomkin
      to see them

      So they don't seem to ask. To be ... examined ... through binoculars. It’s not better to look at the Kremlin, eh?
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 24 January 2021 15: 23
    -2
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    RI started this war in accordance with the first treaty of the "Union of Three Emperors", the interests of the oppressed "brothers" were deeply violet to her. Public opinion has been preparing for more than one year to justify the start of this war within the country. It is from here that all these noble impulses of volunteer volunteers come from.

    Public opinion, challenge the opinions of some kind of "ideas of the Slavophiles" marginalized over whom mocked in Russia? I wonder why in the USSR the opposition and dissidents were chased with pissing slippers? As they began in 1921, they drove until sunset. The approach to them should be simple and pragmatic: whoever is not with us is against us. And it is imperative to compensate for the damage they caused.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 16: 04
      +3
      Quote: Gennady Fomkin
      dissidents

      The question is controversial. And now? Who will you classify as dissidents? Me? Yes, I am against what Putin and his gang are doing to our country. You got rich under his rule? And now and specifically in my pocket they got / masks-fine /. But. ..for some reason his * sidekick * is getting rich quite well. Why?
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 24 January 2021 16: 00
    +3
    Good article. Respect to the author. I did not know that the conqueror of Central Asia M.G. Chernyaev also fought in the Balkans. Well, the then head of the Russian Foreign Ministry, Prince Gorchakov (the last of the Pushkin edition of the Lyceum) was afraid to disturb the subjects of Queen Victoria to terrible diarrhea.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 24 January 2021 18: 30
      +2
      I would not be so categorical about Gorchakov. It wasn't he who made the decisions.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 24 January 2021 20: 10
        +2
        Estessno, the last word was for Emperor Alexander II, nicknamed the "liberator" for the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-78. But if it were not for the initiatives of Perovsky, Skobelev and Chernyaev, the border of Russia with the territories under British mandate would pass through the Urals (well, roughly, like now). But he prepared the material upstairs, if it went against his principles, he would have resigned. By the way, at the same time (60-70s of the XIX century) the development of the Far East was going on, also almost due to the initiative on the ground.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 24 January 2021 20: 15
          0
          Exaggerating the problem.
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 24 January 2021 16: 29
    -6
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Gennady Fomkin
    to see them

    So they don't seem to ask. To be ... examined ... through binoculars. It’s not better to look at the Kremlin, eh?

    That's when they will be something in the economy then and you can talk And where does the Kremlin? laughing Another "brother-phile"? Catch a minus for illiteracy.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 16: 56
      +2
      Quote: Gennady Fomkin
      Another "brother-phile"? Catch a minus for illiteracy.
      Reply

      * Minus * I won’t answer. Why? I’ll explain my position. No, not a * brother-in-law *. I never felt any sympathy for the Balkans, never. They live and live on their own health /? /. But ... Russia! Isn't it time to think about your own peoples, eh? Illiteracy? Mine? What is, that is. Sinned.
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 17: 00
      +3
      Quote: Gennady Fomkin
      Catch the minus

      All the more so. When did we drink at * broodershaft *? With friends I am * you *, you? For now, to my greatest regret, I cannot classify you as one. Let's wait, study, * sniff *. No?
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 24 January 2021 16: 31
    -6
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Gennady Fomkin
    dissidents

    The question is controversial. And now? Who will you classify as dissidents? Me? Yes, I am against what Putin and his gang are doing to our country. You got rich under his rule? And now and specifically in my pocket they got / masks-fine /. But. ..for some reason his * sidekick * is getting rich quite well. Why?

    I would have walked away, sick all over the head. laughing
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 17: 03
      +3
      Quote: Gennady Fomkin

      I would have walked away, sick all over the head

      Quote: Gennady Fomkin
      .Why?

      I would have walked away, sick all over the head.

      Are you confident in your confidence? I will notice, despite the insult / personal / I will not minus you.
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 17: 20
      +3
      Quote: Gennady Fomkin
      sick in the head.

      Your vocabulary, * dear *? I know completely. Will there be any problems? Please, Gennady.
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 24 January 2021 17: 18
    -5
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Gennady Fomkin

    I would have walked away, sick all over the head

    Quote: Gennady Fomkin
    .Why?

    I would have walked away, sick all over the head.

    Are you confident in your confidence? I will notice, despite the insult / personal / I will not minus you.

    And you minus for illiteracy.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 24 January 2021 17: 23
      +3
      Quote: Gennady Fomkin
      And you minus for illiteracy

      Is it a hard day? hi
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 25 January 2021 12: 47
      0
      Quote: Gennady Fomkin
      illiteracy

      You? ** minus **? For what? Gennady?
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 January 2021 10: 25
    +1
    "who defeated the troops of his elder brother Vladislav" they had "brotherly love" with such brothers it is better to be an orphan at all!
    I have two boys: a native and an adopted one, but they only fought once. I whipped them without mercy. They no longer found out who of them was native and who was a stranger.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 January 2021 11: 34
    0
    Valery, thanks to you, I am learning a lot of new things. I did not know about Sklifassovsky's participation in the Balkan War.
    "was on board the destroyer:" Joke "I had no idea that the ships of the Black Sea Fleet participated in that war.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 25 January 2021 12: 10
      0
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Sklifassovsky

      Grrr! And he also checked in in Moscow, eh? laughing wink laughing
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 25 January 2021 12: 20
        -1
        And how did he manage?
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 25 January 2021 12: 41
          0
          Quote: Astra wild2
          how did he manage?

          Yes, good.

          Here is the confirmation.
          Vera, you’re a medic, don’t you know this building? wink
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 25 January 2021 16: 29
    -5
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Gennady Fomkin
    to see them

    So they don't seem to ask. To be ... examined ... through binoculars. It’s not better to look at the Kremlin, eh?

    Do you talk to your loved ones? laughingWhy did the Kremlin dragged in? Are you friends with your head? Take a closer look at this small fry, so to speak, in a real environment. You will learn a lot for your wretched, conclusions laughingTo do this, live there. laughingOnce there, you will be surprised with the abundance of Ottoman Turkey flags and squares like Istanbul. laughing
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 26 January 2021 20: 11
      +1
      Quote: Gennady Fomkin
      Do you talk to your loved ones? Why did the Kremlin dragged in? Are you friends with your head? Take a closer look at this small fry, so to speak in a real habitat. You will learn a lot for your wretched, conclusions D

      Another portion of nonsense? What happened to you, eh? Did you get fired from your job? No money to pay off the loan? * Coronovirus *? Brain? And don't * poke * strangers. It's just impolite.
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 25 January 2021 16: 47
    -2
    Quote: Gennady Fomkin
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    as a result of which Serbia, Montenegro and Romania gained independence, an autonomous Bulgarian principality was formed. And Austrian troops entered the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina,
    And RI, following the results of the war, which it won, received "ears from a dead donkey"
    Thank you, Valery!

    laughing Something like this: Yes, and they are not new friends. They do not decide anything, just talk - why not talk, if this does not oblige you to anything? Do we need it? For every Bosnia and Herzegovina, you won't have enough binoculars to see them.

    And even smarter ones fled from this madhouse even earlier, who went to the Hungarians, who went to the Austrians, but especially violent ones moved to Mother Russia. laughing
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 25 January 2021 17: 21
    -1
    The Serbs even laugh at the Bosnians that the Asians are actively seizing them
    None of this exists in the Serbian Republic. laughing
  • gsev
    gsev 25 January 2021 21: 11
    +1
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    But, of course, we must first decide which Russian is considered a reference.

    And the language is constantly changing. Then you will have to determine when it was the reference in the 12th, 18th or 20th century. In addition, the language of sailors, programmers, mechanics and thieves is also very different.
  • Gennady Fomkin
    Gennady Fomkin 26 January 2021 21: 34
    -3
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Gennady Fomkin
    Do you talk to your loved ones? Why did the Kremlin dragged in? Are you friends with your head? Take a closer look at this small fry, so to speak in a real habitat. You will learn a lot for your wretched, conclusions D

    Another portion of nonsense? What happened to you, eh? Did you get fired from your job? No money to pay off the loan? * Coronovirus *? Brain? And don't * poke * strangers. It's just impolite.

    With your freaks go to another place, here is a place for decent people.