Military Review

How False Dmitry II almost became the Russian Tsar

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How False Dmitry II almost became the Russian Tsar
Arrival of Dmitry the impostor to Kaluga after fleeing from Tushino. Painting by N. Dmitriev-Orenburgsky


The "good king" looked more and more like a formidable autocrat. The boyars and nobles were suspected of betrayal. His "guardsmen" seized the courtiers and executed them. The Polish prisoners were tortured and drowned.

Swedish help


Tsar Vasily Ivanovich understood that he would not defeat the Tushino thieves on his own. The people's liberation war, which was already blazing in Russia, frightened the boyars.

Shuisky's government did not follow the path of supporting and forming popular militias led by popular voivods. Shuisky preferred foreigners. The choice fell on Sweden. The Swedes were the enemies of the Poles. And King Charles IX was the uncle of the Polish monarch Sigismund and took the Swedish throne from his nephew.

Sweden sought to use the difficulties of Russia, round up its possessions at our expense and prevent the Commonwealth from occupying Moscow.

Negotiations in Veliky Novgorod with the Swedes were led by a relative of the tsar, who had already distinguished himself in the war against the Bolotnikovites, Skopin-Shuisky.

In February 1609 the Vyborg Treaty was signed. Sweden provided an army under the command of De la Gardie. These were mainly mercenaries from Europe - all sorts of Germans, Scots, etc. The Shuisky government was inferior to Korel with the district, paid the mercenaries high salaries.

Skopin-Shuisky gathered a militia in the north. And on May 10, a campaign began with the aim of cleansing the Russian state of thieves. In the summer, the prince defeated the Tushins in several battles. But further progress towards Moscow was delayed due to disputes with the mercenaries. They demanded the promised money. The Swedes were waiting for the transfer of the Korela fortress. Only by the fall did Delagardie receive new confirmation of the terms of the Vyborg treatise from the tsar and Skopin.

Skopin defeated the troops of Sapieha and Zborovsky in October 1609. And he settled in the Aleksandrovskaya Sloboda. In November, the boyar Sheremetev joined him, who led the militia of the lower towns (Lower and Middle Volga). On the way, he suppressed a revolt of the non-Russian peoples of the Volga region. In December, Skopin and De la Gardie restored the alliance. Hetman Sapieha, fearing the significantly stronger army of Skopin-Shuisky, at the beginning of 1610 lifted the siege from the Trinity-Sergius Monastery.

In March 1610 Skopin solemnly entered Moscow.


The Round Tower in Vyborg, where an agreement was signed in February 1609.

The collapse of the Tushino mill


The people's war against thieves, failures in the siege of Moscow, the successes of Skopin in the north and other tsarist governors (Sheremetev, Pozharsky, etc.) led to the decomposition of the Tushino camp (How the Poles divided Russia). But the main blow to the Tushinians was dealt by Poland.

The Polish king Sigismund decided that the time had come. Enough for the Poles to hide behind an impostor, it's time to go and take the fruits of victory over Russia. The Polish army invaded the Russian state and laid siege to Smolensk (The heroic defense of Smolensk; How the Polish army stormed Smolensk).

The king called on the Polish troops that "served" the Tushino thief to march under his banner. At first, the Tushino Poles rebelled, they considered Russia their prey. They formed a confederation and demanded that the king leave Russia. However, one of the leading commanders Jan Sapega did not join the confederation and demanded negotiations with Sigismund.

Poles and Tushino boyars began negotiations with the king. An embassy arrived from the king, headed by Stanislav Stadnitsky. The Poles were promised a generous reward at the expense of the Russian treasury and in Poland itself. The Russians were also promised a generous reward, the preservation of the faith.

In February 1610, an agreement was concluded to call the Polish prince Vladislav to the Moscow table.

The impostor's attempt to remind him of his rights made Hetman Ruzhinsky laugh. In December 1609, False Dmitry tried to escape with the help of the Cossacks, but was arrested. He was placed under house arrest. However, with the help of loyal people at the end of December, the Tushinsky thief was still able to escape. He disguised himself as a simple man and hid in an ordinary cart.

The impostor fled to Kaluga, where he created a new courtyard. This led to the collapse of the Tushino camp. Cossacks and part of the Poles led by Tyshkevich, who did not want to obey Sigismund, followed to Kaluga. The Russian nobility decided to support the position of the Polish king. In February, Marina Mnishek fled to Dmitrov to Sapega, and then to Kaluga.

Rozhinsky (Ruzhinsky) with the Poles loyal to him decided to join the king. It no longer made sense to stay in Tushino. Skopin was advancing from Sevr, whom Sapega could hardly restrain. In the south, in Kaluga, a new army of the impostor was gathering. Rozhinsky moved to Volokolamsk, to the Iosifo-Volotsky monastery. In March, his soldiers burned down the camp and left.

On the way, most of the Russian thieves fled, Rozhinsky himself fell ill and died. Shuisky's troops scattered the remains of the thieves in the Tushino area.

Kaluga yard


In the Kaluga period, False Dmitry II received full independence. At this time, he took up patriotic positions. He called for the killing of Polish and Lithuanian thieves. He tormented the Russian people with Sigismund's desire for the complete enslavement of Russia and its Catholicization.

Tsar "Dmitry" swore that he would not give up an inch of the Russian land and would die for the Orthodox faith. This impulse was supported by many. Many cities again swore allegiance to False Dmitry. A new army was formed around the impostor, in which the Russian element already prevailed. Later, many of the impostor's supporters became active members of the First and Second Militias. In Kaluga, as before in Tushino, its own system of government was created.

The Kaluga thief ordered all the cities that were on his side to seize the Poles, themselves and bring goodness to Kaluga. In a short time, "Dmitry" collected a large treasury, filled the dungeons with foreign hostages. The impostor was distinguished by great suspicion, suspected treason in the environment. He surrounded himself with a convoy of Tatars and Germans. Many Poles and his former supporters were tortured and executed. Executed Skotnitsky, the former captain of the guard False Dmitry I and the governor of Bolotnikov.

In the spring of 1610, the army of the impostor grew considerably stronger and recaptured Arzamas and Staraya Russa from Shuisky. Sapega, having visited the king's camp near Smolensk and achieved nothing, in June again joined the tsar "Dmitry".

In the summer, the Polish army under the command of Hetman Zolkiewski moved to Moscow. The Russian army was destroyed at the Battle of Klushino (Klushinskaya catastrophe of the Russian army). Poles approached Moscow from the west. In July, Sapega moved the troops of the Kaluga tsar to Moscow.

Supporters of "Dmitry" suggested the Muscovites to overthrow Shuisky. Then it was proposed to elect a new king.

On July 17, Vasily Ivanovich was overthrown and forcibly tonsured into a monk.

Having deposed Vasily, the Muscovites sent a delegation to the False Dmitry's camp near the Danilov Monastery. The boyar duma of the "tsarka" did not fulfill its promises regarding the removal from power and "Dmitry". Muscovites were offered to open the gates and meet the "legitimate sovereign". On August 2, the impostor settled in Kolomenskoye. On August 3, a detachment of Zholkevsky appeared near Moscow. Moscow boyars preferred to take the oath to Tsar Vladislav.

The Moscow oath pushed most of the Russian land away from the Seven Boyars. The apogee of anarchy has come in Russia. Many cities and villages preferred the power of the "true Tsar Dmitry" to the Polish prince with the bony rump of Moscow boyars. The patriotic propaganda of the Kaluga tsar also worked well. In the capital itself, many prominent people again began to establish ties with the impostor.

The myth of the "good tsar" was again circulating in Russia. Many cities swore allegiance to him, which used to oppose the Tushino thieves. Kolomna, Kashira, Suzdal, Vladimir and Galich took the side of False Dmitry. Cossacks, representatives of the urban poor and slaves poured into his troops in droves.

The nobles who were in the Kaluga court, on the contrary, fled to Moscow. A new wave of violence against the nobility began. The threat from the camp of False Dmitry forced the Semboyarshchina to let Zholkevsky's Poles into the capital. Pan Zholkevsky drove the Kaluga thieves away from Moscow. The impostor returned to Kaluga.


House in Kaluga, where False Dmitry II and Marina Mnishek lived. Engraving by M. Rashevsky after fig. I. Suslova. 1884 year

Death


The Kaluga Tsar continued to expand his sphere of influence. His troops began to occupy cities in the south and southwest - Kozelsk, Meshchovsk, Pochep and Starodub. Kazan and Vyatka swore allegiance to "Dmitry". It became the center of the crystallization of Russian resistance to foreign intervention. His envoys openly campaigned for "the son of Ivan the Terrible." The guards and nobles could do nothing, the common people listened attentively to the envoys of "Dmitry".

The "good tsar" himself looked more and more like a formidable autocrat. The boyars suspected of betrayal. His "guardsmen" seized the courtiers and executed them. The Polish prisoners were tortured and drowned. Sapega again went over to the side of the enemy.

Semboyarshina organized an offensive. Government forces recaptured Serpukhov and Tula and created a threat to Kaluga. "Dmitry" was going to retreat to Voronezh, closer to the Cossack regions. The impostor planned to involve the Crimea and Turkey in the war, to replenish the army with the Cossacks to launch a new major offensive against Moscow.

However, ataman Zarutsky and prince Urusov defeated the enemy and captured many Poles. Zarutsky from the Tushino camp followed to the royal camp near Smolensk (apparently decided that the star of the "king" had sunk down), then with Zholkevsky arrived in Moscow. But relations with the masters did not work out, and Zarutsky returned to the impostor.

On December 11 (22), 1610 False Dmitry was hacked to death by Prince Urusov and his brother.

Pyotr Urusov avenged the Kasimov king Uraz-Muhammad, who was killed by the impostor. The Kasimov Tsar first fought on the side of Tsar Vasily, in 1608, together with his friend Prince Urusov, he went over to the side of False Dmitry II. He commanded a large detachment of Kasimov, Romanov and Astrakhan Tatars.

In April 1610, after a series of defeats and the capture of Kasimov by the boyar Sheremetev, they decided to go over to the side of the Polish king. The Khan arrived at the Smolensk camp. In the fall, Uraz-Mohammed returned to the camp of the impostor. There is information that the khan wanted to kill "Dmitry". But the khan's son reported to the king of Kaluga about the conspiracy. The Kasimov king was killed while hunting. Urusov was thrown into prison, but released after a while.

In December, during a walk, taking advantage of the fact that the impostor had only a guard of Tatars and several boyars, Urusov killed "Dmitry". After that the Urusovs and the Tatar guards fled.

In Kaluga, people loved the “good tsar:

“In Kaluga, however, has lost the fact that Prince. Peter Urusov killed the thief, agitated by the hail of all and the Tatars beat everyone who were in Kolug; I took his thief and honestly buried it in the cathedral church at the Trinity. "

The heir to the impostor was his son (or son of Zarutsky) Ivan Dmitrievich, who was born in Kaluga in December 1610 or early 1611.

Marina Mnishek for some time in Kaluga was considered the queen. Her rights and Ivan Vorenka were supported by the ataman Zarutsky with his saber.

The turmoil continued.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
35 comments
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  1. pmkemcity
    pmkemcity 25 January 2021 05: 26
    +6
    A confusing story in the truest sense of the word - the same paragraphs appear at the beginning of the article and at the end.
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 25 January 2021 12: 28
      +5
      Are you the first to see this? Perhaps the article was written by 2 people at once. Like Ilf and Petrov: "Twelve Chairs"?
      1. pmkemcity
        pmkemcity 25 January 2021 13: 00
        +3
        Quote: Astra wild2
        Perhaps the article was written by 2 people at once. Like Ilf and Petrov: "Twelve Chairs"?

        Moreover, from different ends at the same time.
        The theme is eternal. After Paul's murder, his little wife, Empress Dowager Maria Feodorovna, ran through the palace corridors and shouted in German: "I also want to reign." It was just that in those years there were many more who wanted to reign.
  2. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 25 January 2021 05: 27
    -3
    A weak and weak-willed government always leads to confusion ... I read the article kindly presented by Alexander to the readers of VO and try to imagine who Navalny and his accomplices would have been in those days, which side would they have switched to ?.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 25 January 2021 08: 58
      +2
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      was Navalny and his accomplices in those days, on whose side would they have gone over ?.

      Greetings Alexey! There is a small but! There was no Internet then. Absolutely. Navalny without the Internet? Something big doubts about the publicity of this person. wink
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 25 January 2021 09: 07
        0
        They would be executed immediately: for speech and beardlessness. More respectable people presented themselves as demons.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 25 January 2021 09: 09
          0
          Yes !!!! Without a beard ???? Who would listen to him at all? laughing Execute a foreigner! For crafty speech! wink
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 25 January 2021 09: 13
            0
            But what option: “The Tsar built a palace in the Aleksandrovskaya Sloboda! And the guardsmen are completely unbelted! "

            And all the same, some Sigismund would have to attract and pay with land.
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 25 January 2021 09: 19
              +1
              Quote: Korsar4
              Sigismund would have to be attracted and paid with land.

              So it was then - SIGISMUNDS! And now? Some. Kaczynski. laughing
      2. Konstantin Shevchenko
        Konstantin Shevchenko 25 January 2021 19: 37
        0
        Well, if we compare that there is strong support from foreign media outlets on the Internet, it would not be lost.
    2. lis-ik
      lis-ik 25 January 2021 11: 05
      +1
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Weak and weak-willed power always leads to confusion ..

      This is not Navalny, here they resemble direct analogies with the current government.
    3. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 25 January 2021 14: 40
      0
      "which side they will go over to" who will pay more
    4. Galleon
      Galleon 25 January 2021 15: 56
      +1
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Weak and weak-willed power always leads to confusion

      A categorically wrong conclusion. Tyranny always leads to ensuing turmoil, because it gives birth to a generation of hypocritical opportunists. Ivan the 4th died in 1584. - 30 years later we got a time of troubles, the collapse of the country. What did you get in 30 and a little bit after the death of another tyrant, J.V. Stalin ?? - the collapse of the country and the time of troubles.
  3. nsm1
    nsm1 25 January 2021 08: 09
    +5
    The Russian nobility decided to support the position of the Polish king.
    Moscow boyars preferred to take the oath to Tsar Vladislav.
    As usual.
    Betrayal is constant.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 25 January 2021 09: 05
      +1
      Quote: nsm1
      Betrayal is constant.

      Exactly! It was, is and will be. As long as there is ... man. Alas, for us! But another thought comes. They are few and they are. They are despised. Is not it?
      1. pmkemcity
        pmkemcity 25 January 2021 12: 54
        +1
        Quote: Phil77
        They are few, and they are despised. Aren't they?

        They live one day - now everything is good. And the fact that the descendants will spit on the grave, they don't care. All this from the fact that they do not believe in God and do not be afraid of anything except the bullpen.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 25 January 2021 13: 29
          0
          Quote: pmkemcity
          bullpen

          There are few of them. It warms the soul!
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 25 January 2021 13: 34
          -2
          Quote: pmkemcity
          Quote: Phil77
          They are few, and they are despised. Aren't they?

          They live one day - now everything is good. And the fact that the descendants will spit on the grave, they don't care. All this from the fact that they do not believe in God and do not be afraid of anything except the bullpen.

          Quote: pmkemcity
          be afraid.

          And in general ??? You know, while there were such guys, I was sure of the WORLD! Today? No!
          We've all become different ..... And not in the best way. No?
          1. pmkemcity
            pmkemcity 25 January 2021 15: 33
            0
            Quote: Phil77
            You know, while there were such guys, I was sure of the WORLD! Today? No!

            Here is now offended someone! There is no need to speak for all the youth ... they will grow up and remember!
          2. vladcub
            vladcub 25 January 2021 16: 05
            +1
            Tretiak was from CSKA. From "wings" Myshkin or Sidelnikov? I don't remember anymore.
            In fact, we had three excellent goalkeepers: Tretyak, Myshkin and Sidelnikov
    2. Galleon
      Galleon 25 January 2021 15: 59
      +1
      The Russian nobility decided to support the position of the Polish king.
      Moscow boyars preferred to take the oath to Tsar Vladislav.
      As usual.
      Betrayal is constant.

      And among others, among the first, the boyars Romanovs were found there, which the author does not write about. And also under the expression "Russian thieves" disguises the Cossack bandits. Therefore, the Romanovs did not have a reverse move. If someone else's power came and opened the investigation, Fyodor / Filaret would have to go with his relatives on foot to some Tobolsk.
  4. Phil77
    Phil77 25 January 2021 13: 26
    0
    Quote: Astra wild2

    Astra wild2
    Today, 12: 28
    NEW

    0
    Are you the first to see this? Perhaps the article was written by 2 people at once. Like Ilf and Petrov: "Twelve Chairs"?
    Reply

    Vera! Once again! And without emotion, eh? I like you, and I .... I ... monitor you!
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 25 January 2021 21: 25
      0
      Do you work as a moderator? And what did you miss Vyacheslav Olegovich's mistakes in your work about "bulldog"? He allowed himself not to be attentive and I. So "all in a bunch" (the husband sometimes said so). Actually, I have a sin: "inattention" is called, but it is not the most serious
  5. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 January 2021 14: 11
    0
    Quote: lis-ik
    Quote: Lech from Android.
    Weak and weak-willed power always leads to confusion ..

    This is not Navalny, here they resemble direct analogies with the current government.

    In fact, if you carefully read the history, you can find many analogies.
    How do you
    - The conspiracy and murder of Boris Godunov's son led to anarchy in the Russian state. - Treason in the CPSU Central Committee led to the collapse of the Union.
    February 1917 the army betrayed Nicholas 2.- December 1991 power structures betrayed the state
    1. BAI
      BAI 25 January 2021 15: 35
      +2
      December 1991 power structures betrayed the state

      Here it is rather the opposite. The security forces found themselves in a situation where any of their actions is bad. Protecting and preserving the state means using weapons against its own population, and it was obvious to everyone that the ruling elite was leading the state to the death and complete sale of the United States (this by inertia (in the ruling elite of the Russian Federation) continued in the early 90s, it is difficult to get off from the grain track). Go to the side of the protesters - treason, not fulfilling the oath. Here's what to do here? Best of all, nothing.
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 25 January 2021 18: 22
        +1
        Excuse me: "go to the side of the protesters" we are talking about different historical periods or I don't remember anything
        What kind of protesters could be in December 1991? THEN IT WAS EVERYTHING, and on December 1, 1991 there was the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS. Yes, there were some contradictions, but these contradictions could be resolved.
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 25 January 2021 21: 06
        +1
        "to protect and preserve the state means to use weapons against its own population."
        Perhaps someone will slap me a minus and without arguments, this often happens here, but I'll tell you. GKChPists cowards.
        The overwhelming majority in the army and the internal affairs bodies was ready to do anything in the name of the Motherland, but they said "once" and that's it.
        In our unit, there was a command in: "combat alert. Take ammunition and wait for the command to march" and the officers and privates understood the importance. I arranged with the chief of staff to go in his car. He treated me like a loving uncle. I wanted to make history.
        There was no order to speak, and the regiment commander himself ordered: "readiness2", and then the alarm was completely cleared
        If the State Emergency Committee had brought the matter to the end, this outrage would not have happened. They even accelerated the collapse: who needs to understand that the government is already without teeth.
        This, if you allow an analogy, wolves penetrated the fence, there was a pack of strong wolfhounds, there were experienced beaters, but there was no command: "face"! If they commanded, then only shreds of wolves would remain
  6. vladcub
    vladcub 25 January 2021 15: 33
    0
    Quote: Korsar4
    But what option: “The Tsar built a palace in the Aleksandrovskaya Sloboda! And the guardsmen are completely unbelted! "

    And all the same, some Sigismund would have to attract and pay with land.

    "Kemsky volost"? When was the first time I looked and thought, where is this Kemsky volost? Probably the current Pskov region
    1. frog
      frog 25 January 2021 15: 56
      +1
      Kemskaya volost is an administrative-territorial unit within the Russian Kingdom and the Russian Empire. The administrative center is the city of Kem.
      The Kemsky volost was located on the Kem River and had access to the Kemsky Bay of the White Sea.

    2. Galleon
      Galleon 25 January 2021 16: 02
      +1
      Quote: vladcub
      where is this Kemsky volost?

      Forgot the city of Kem? On the White Sea ..
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 25 January 2021 16: 18
        +3
        Completely forgot
  7. vladcub
    vladcub 25 January 2021 16: 58
    +1
    "The son of the khan reported to the king of Kaluga about the conspiracy," but the "good" son.
    -Hope, the Tsar, villains want to kill you: the princes of Urusov and my folder "
  8. vladcub
    vladcub 25 January 2021 18: 09
    +1
    "after that the Urusovs and the Tatar guards fled" there is a muddy story: Uraz Mukhamed was killed, and he continued to trust the Tatar guards. And this "was distinguished by great suspicion. He suspected treason in his entourage."
    It looks like the Urusovs were in cahoots with the Tatar guards
  9. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 25 January 2021 21: 12
    0
    Quote: Konstantin Shevchenko
    Well, if we compare that there is strong support from foreign media outlets on the Internet, it would not be lost.

    There was no internet then
  10. Maks1995
    Maks1995 26 January 2021 09: 28
    0
    Something endlessly called all thieves.
    But they were recognized as boyars and Tsvr relatives, they were sworn in, proclaimed tsars ...

    And then the oath-breakers boyars simply killed everyone and sat on the throne themselves.