Military Review

"UPMK" - Soviet installation for movement and maneuvering in space (1968)

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In February 1984, during the space shuttle flight (STS 41B), the separation of a person from a spacecraft was first carried out with a distance of 91 m using an MMU movement unit.


In February 1990, our cosmonauts A.A. Serebrov and A.S. Viktorenko carried out "flights", moving away from the Mir station at a distance of 33 m and 45 m, respectively, with the help of the installation for moving "21KS".

However, in the mid-60s. successful work was carried out on the creation of a UMPK product - an installation for moving and maneuvering in space.

Initially, the UMPK was developed for the promising SLE spacesuit and was provided for by the terms of reference since 1961. The main purpose of the UPMK was to provide an opportunity for an astronaut in a spacesuit to perform work with separation from the surface of the spacecraft / orbital station (for example, to repair the payload flying next to the spacecraft) and fly around the spacecraft for its inspection and inspection, as well as transport cargo and carry out rescue operations etc.

"UPMK" - Soviet installation for movement and maneuvering in space (1968)

To do this, the installation had to meet a number of specific requirements. So, the UPMK had to go well with the spacesuit. Its design scheme had to take into account the features and limitations imposed by the spacesuit, especially in terms of working with the controls and review. It was considered advisable that the controls of the installation were similar to those of the spacecraft, to which the astronauts were accustomed. The dimensions were not supposed to prevent its removal through the KK hatches.


With the arrival of G.I. Severin, the work on the creation of the UPMK was accelerated already in relation to those developed in 1964-1966. "Soft" space suits (see link) for spacewalk.


First, this work was carried out for operation on ships of the "Voskhod" type using the "Volga" locks for spacewalk, on which the use of the "Yastreb" spacesuit was planned.

After the termination of work on these ships, the creation of the UPMK continued within the framework of the Almaz program, where it was also planned to use the Yastreb SC and the RVR-1 knapsack.


The creation of the first prototype of the UPMK installation was completed in 1968. And it could be used in spacewalks.

The installation was made in the form of a "horseshoe", embracing the astronaut in a spacesuit from the front, and included a combination of two systems of executive organs.

The first consisted of the sustainer and brake blocks of powder rocket micromotors (42 in each block) for linear movements back and forth.

And the second of 14 air jet engines, providing linear and angular movements of the astronaut in six degrees of freedom.

The units with single propellant engines were arranged in such a way that the line of action of the thrust of each of the engines passed through the center of mass of the man in the spacesuit / UPMK system. The inclusion of single powder engines was carried out from the control panel.




When replacing SC "Yastreb" with "Orlan" to carry out off-ship activities (EVA) on OS "Almaz", it was planned to develop an UPMK for SC "Orlan".

Unfortunately, further work was discontinued due to the absence at that time of specific tasks to be solved using the installation and appropriate equipment of manned objects.
Author:
Photos used:
https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5ec81fa81c6c0b05eff079c2/upmk-sovetskaia-ustanovka-dlia-peremesceniia-i-manevrirovaniia-v-kosmose-1968-g-5fc7e285aa857937980b8b4c
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  1. I do not care
    I do not care 23 January 2021 11: 08
    +17
    everyone knows perfectly well that apart from galoshes in the Soviet Union they could not do anything. You are lying.
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent 23 January 2021 11: 16
      +6
      Quote: me by
      everyone knows perfectly well that apart from galoshes in the Soviet Union they could not do anything. You are lying.

      But WHAT galoshes were good !!! Everybody knows about the priest and the bell tower yes
    2. Titus_2
      Titus_2 23 January 2021 11: 25
      +2
      They removed it from the language ..... and so informative, well, everything looks quite unusual.
    3. aybolyt678
      aybolyt678 23 January 2021 11: 57
      +5
      Quote: me by
      everyone knows perfectly well that apart from galoshes in the Soviet Union they could not do anything.

      and also planes, ships, spaceships, tanks, and Kalashnikov assault rifles. Tell me that nothing has been done for people? - and what are the Kalashnikovs for? laughing
      1. Doliva63
        Doliva63 24 January 2021 18: 04
        +1
        Quote: aybolyt678
        Quote: me by
        everyone knows perfectly well that apart from galoshes in the Soviet Union they could not do anything.

        and also planes, ships, spaceships, tanks, and Kalashnikov assault rifles. Tell me that nothing has been done for people? - and what are the Kalashnikovs for? laughing

        But I liked Starka. Now in the daytime you can't find with fire sad
    4. 210ox
      210ox 23 January 2021 14: 26
      +3
      That's interesting. I look through the VO and see the following. Achievements of a more developed civilization are not in trend today, but everyone was horny for anal.
      1. Doliva63
        Doliva63 24 January 2021 18: 05
        +1
        Quote: 210ox
        That's interesting. I look through the VO and see the following. Achievements of a more developed civilization are not in trend today, but everyone was horny for anal.

        Excuse me, what kind of civilization are you talking about?
        1. 210ox
          210ox 24 January 2021 18: 07
          +2
          Weird question. About the Soviet, of course.
          1. Doliva63
            Doliva63 24 January 2021 18: 11
            +1
            Quote: 210ox
            Weird question. About the Soviet, of course.

            Ah, I got it. I probably drank Lishka. Sorry drinks
            1. 210ox
              210ox 24 January 2021 18: 48
              +1
              Colleague, don't get carried away. Tomorrow is Monday. Well, and I have to work today ... hi winked
      2. Roman123567
        Roman123567 27 January 2021 11: 49
        +1
        Achievements more advanced civilization not in trend today, but all were excited by the anal.


        The trend of the last 20 years has not been dictated by some kind of anal.

        Although .. if we are talking about that anal, which said that he did not have a palace, but if they wanted to build, they did it .. Well, he is not interested in any achievements, except for the royal chair ..
        1. 210ox
          210ox 27 January 2021 12: 23
          0
          I meant just one day. And about Lesha, then yes. He is only interested in power. Nothing more. And what, will he be mindful of the needs of hard workers? This is wow then!
    5. Cosm22
      Cosm22 23 January 2021 16: 21
      -4
      Apart from galoshes, they did not know how to do anything ...
      Well, why?
      Something, as follows from the article, were able to do.
      For what? What for?
      And hell knows ...
      For "further work was discontinued due to the absence at that time of specific tasks to be solved using the installation and appropriate equipment of manned objects."
    6. MORDVIN13rus
      MORDVIN13rus 24 January 2021 20: 12
      0
      and where it was said that in the USSR, some galoshes were made?
  2. Avior
    Avior 23 January 2021 11: 14
    -2
    Didn't quite understand, did you go out into open space in boots with laces? And the legs were up too ...
    1. BDRM 667
      BDRM 667 23 January 2021 11: 34
      +6
      Quote: Avior
      I don't quite understand, did you go out into open space in boots with laces?

      Boots are the outer protective layer of the suit's feet.
      Quote: Avior
      Also the legs were lifted up ...

      What do you want from a layout in a museum exposition?
      1. Avior
        Avior 23 January 2021 13: 16
        +1
        Yes, thanks, I figured it out already, the outer layer is leaking
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Bshkaus
      23 January 2021 16: 36
      +8
      Didn't quite understand, did you go out into open space in boots with laces? And the legs were up too ...

      No, spacesuits and Hawk and Berkut were used both as rescue and as for spacewalk. The spacesuit has a sealed and power shell: an inner sealed rubberized fabric, a power outer one. The legs of the suit are made with a stocking i.e. are sealed, and boots are worn over the sealed shell of the spacesuit. The fact that the "pant leg is raised" is an additional protective shell that protects the power (the spacesuit itself) from mechanical influences (if it snags and breaks, it is the outer one that is protective. The second purpose of the protective shell is to hide the spacesuit itself from "prying western eyes". ))))) So everything is fine, for a mannequin in a museum it will do)))). If you have any questions about the design of the spacesuit, etc., ask, I will answer with great pleasure.
      1. Avior
        Avior 23 January 2021 17: 14
        +1
        Yes, thank you very much for the clarification, and at first glance you look strange, I could not imagine the tightness in this type of boots.
        1. Bshkaus
          23 January 2021 18: 17
          +4
          I could not imagine the tightness in this type of boots.

          If hands reach, I will tell you about the VKK-47 high-altitude compensating suit, which was considered as an alternative to the Sokol spacesuit for the Soyuz spacecraft after the death of the Soyuz-11. Everything was harsh there: a helmet, and everything else under a compensating suit (not hermetically sealed), some gloves of which they only cost - inspire natural fear and despair, and boots were already being worn on bare feet, well, in the sense not on bare feet, there were compensating socks, but they are also not sealed.
      2. Intruder
        Intruder 24 January 2021 04: 09
        -1
        I have one, such a small question ... how did I get into the table: "thrust of air jet engines" ??? belay I hope that unconsciously and completely by accident !? fool
      3. Narak-zempo
        Narak-zempo 24 January 2021 09: 26
        0
        It would be interesting to see an article with, so to speak, a layer-by-layer comparison of Soviet and American spacesuits of different generations.
        1. Bshkaus
          24 January 2021 13: 08
          +4
          It would be interesting to see an article with, so to speak, a layer-by-layer comparison of Soviet and American spacesuits of different generations.
          I agree, this is really interesting: I am now comparing Gagarin's SK-1 and Shepard's and Glenn's "Navi Mark-4", I also want to issue it in the form of a publication, but this is long-playing
  3. Intruder
    Intruder 23 January 2021 11: 26
    -1
    Very briefly, somehow I expected more ... to be honest!
    About the installation of the rescue of the cosmonaut USK, produced by NPP "Zvezda", to the Orlan-M spacesuit and subsequent modifications, what will happen?
    Or about Western counterparts, such as: Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue and Manned Maneuvering Unit !?
    1. Bshkaus
      23 January 2021 16: 46
      +8
      Very briefly, somehow I expected more ... to be honest!

      You want my friend very much and very immediately;)
      I conceived this article not as an overview of the existing installations (although I will have such a lecture-report in the spring at a scientific and technical seminar in Hamburg, but online), but as a series of articles devoted to installations for maneuvering and this is only the first self-contained part about a specific installation in the image and likeness of articles about aviation spacesuits, which began to be published on VO from the end of December and I hope I will continue further, smoothly moving on to space. So be patient: you will have 21KS and a Seifer for Orlan. But Orlan-M is already the last century, after it there were already a lot of modifications, now Orlan-MKS2 is in operation. I don’t know about American installations yet !!! To begin with, I want to clarify how this topic fits into the site's policy))))). But on both the MMU and the installation for Gemini, I also have published materials on the blog, and on Monday I will post about the pistol for moving in space, which was used on Gemini, tried on Skylab and made upgrades for Apollo.
      1. Intruder
        Intruder 24 January 2021 04: 03
        -1
        Only Orlan-M is already the last century
        Well, why are you so !? :) An excellent system for its time, literally on its basis a whole galaxy of subsequent generations was created ... :)
      2. merkava-2bet
        merkava-2bet 6 February 2021 14: 53
        +1
        And also a huge request, more diagrams, drawings and drawings.
        And now a question for you, were there any developments in the USSR or programs for emergency rescue / evacuation of astronauts from the space shuttle, that is, to another spacecraft or from orbit to the Earth. I just read about an emergency balloon / spacesuit for use on the Space Shuttle in an emergency case.
        1. Bshkaus
          6 February 2021 16: 12
          +1
          Just read about an emergency inflatable balloon / spacesuit for use on the MTKK Space Shuttle in an emergency.
          It's nice to hear that my article about the PRS rescue capsules is also being read;) The Americans had this need due to the fact that the Shuttle was both an orbital station and a spacecraft in one bottle, so any breakdown was a breakdown of the descent vehicle. In the domestic cosmonautics, the orbital station has always been separate from the SA (Union), and the Union itself had the possibility of multi-day autonomous flights. So in the event of an accident, the OS crew simply left it at the Union. The exception is Buran, but I have not come across materials describing rescue options, as, for example, the Americans worked on for the Shuttle (I also wrote a separate article on this topic). In addition, Buran was not planned as a full replacement for the existing OS.
  4. VOENOBOZ
    VOENOBOZ 23 January 2021 13: 05
    +1
    Space, but everything is simple and clear, taps, buttons, levers.
  5. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 23 January 2021 14: 03
    -2
    An extremely bulky device with a huge amount of unnecessarily hefty elements, such levers in the style of "IS-2". Because of this, for some kind of rescue missions it would fit vryatli - would dress too long and the advancement of the operator would also be a long process. Although the functionality is good, this direction was essentially a technological dead end and nothing more than a technology demonstrator.
    1. Bshkaus
      23 January 2021 16: 47
      +13
      Extremely bulky device with a huge number of unnecessarily hefty elements

      And don't tell me, it's a mystery to me how I grew up using a rotary dial on my phone))))
    2. Intruder
      Intruder 24 January 2021 04: 05
      +1
      An extremely bulky device with a huge amount of unnecessarily hefty elements, such levers in the style of "IS-2".
      everything is brutal and reliable, without any "touch interfaces" and other pampering ...
  6. evgen1221
    evgen1221 23 January 2021 17: 16
    -1
    I saw this thing in the Young Technician magazine.
    1. evgen1221
      evgen1221 23 January 2021 17: 51
      +1
      The magazine of the year was that way 88-89 and it looked then to the kid, extremely high-tech. But the fact that this is a development of 60 years and generally not cut, I did not know. Thanks for the enlightenment.
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 23 January 2021 18: 21
    +6
    Quote: Bshkaus
    I don’t know about American installations yet !!! First, I want to clarify how this topic fits into the site's policy

    A strange thought. Does Samson's superethnos fit into the site's policy, haraluzhnost fit into, and space theme does not fit?
    1. Bshkaus
      23 January 2021 22: 56
      +4
      Does Samson's superethnos fit into the site's policy, haraluzhnost fit into, and space theme does not fit?

      I hope that it fits into the policy of the site, but how will the public react? In short, it will be seen, I will definitely go through the domestic ones.
  8. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 23 January 2021 19: 39
    +2
    Interesting stuff! Author plus good yes
  9. Falcon5555
    Falcon5555 24 January 2021 20: 47
    0
    Earlier, a long time ago, there was such a TV show - "Around Laughter", and in it there was a heading "What would that mean?", Where various strange photographs were shown and it was proposed to come up with an explanation for them. The rear view is just for this section. laughing
  10. Edvid
    Edvid 28 January 2021 02: 38
    0
    Device for changing orientation in unsupported space. Consists of two parallel gyro rotors on a common axis of rotation. In this case, a cardan or a ball joint is made on the axis, located between the rotors. Four load-bearing elements (levers, cams, jacks ...) are placed along the perimeter of the rotors with the possibility of applying a lateral pressure force to the plane of the rotors ... The application of opposite moments to oppositely rotating gyroscopes causes their general rotation perpendicular to the pressure force. The device can be small-sized and does not require the release of the working substance.