Military Review

"Lokhanki" on the battlefield - armored vehicles of the First World War

48

What were the first Tanksthat appeared on the battlefield?


The British are considered "pioneers" in this matter, but in fact they were inspired by their military allies - the French - to produce tanks. Many experts today consider the Renault FT the most successful tank of the First World War. Moreover, the armed forces of several countries, including the United States, acquired licenses for the production of this machine and used various modifications of it until World War II.

France


By 1917, the French had made a prototype, which was put into mass production at lightning speed. By the end of the war, 4500 were delivered to the battlefields with little or no additional improvements. And why?

The Renault FT in its lightweight division was almost perfect. The tank's crew consisted of two people, who were one after the other in a space that had a width slightly less than the shoulders of an adult man. Ahead is the driver, immediately behind him is the commander-gunner.

The rear "tail" was designed in such a way that the car could easily overcome trenches, and the modern chassis worked well on almost any ground and relief. However, being in the car was still a "pleasure": almost all the free space was occupied by the equipment. The four-cylinder engine at the rear, growling and rumble like a hellish forge, was separated from the crew only by a thin partition.

The driver is literally "stuck" in the control levers. The commander loomed over him so close that the only way to communicate or control was a good kick in the back. Pavda, while a whole system of "code" kicks was being developed ...

The point is not at all in the inhumanity of the designers, but in the fact that at first they planned to use the FT only for short attacks, and therefore did not care much about the comfort of the crew. Well, the commander of this vehicle had to stand all the time ... Suffer!

However, life has made its own adjustments, and over time, Renault developers were forced to add some changes to its design, at least somehow alleviating the torment of the unfortunate crew members.

The FT armament originally consisted of a 37mm semi-automatic short-barreled gun or a 7,92mm machine gun. Sorry French

"Tank of success"

proved to be technically unreliable.

A third of fresh specimens leaving factories had to be returned immediately for repair. Due to the constant lack of parts, maintenance on the battlefield was quite difficult. The situation was exacerbated by the poor quality of the fuel filters and fan belts. In the last months of the First World War, 10% of the cars on the front lines were waiting for spare parts.

Germany


At first, no matter how terrible the Entente tanks were for the Germans, they found it cheaper and more efficient to focus their energy on the development of anti-tank artillery, and not on the construction of their own similar machines. However, over time, it came to the Teutons that without "armor" in the modern theater of military operations - nowhere. With a fair delay, but they also began to move in this direction.

The only German tank of the First World War was, rather, a well-armed vehicle than a tank in the modern sense - albeit with an amendment for that distant time. Its cheap steel armor 20-30 millimeters thick protected only from enemy bullets, but not from grenades.

But inside the smoky and thundering "womb" of this miracle of technology, the thrifty Germans managed to cram as many as 17 soldiers! In addition, thirty tons of weight and low ground clearance made the A7V suitable for use only on decent European roads. On the other hand, he was armed with what he needed.

Also, the German A7V gave a head start to its competitors in something else: two Daimler gasoline engines of 200 horsepower made it the most powerful combat vehicle of its time.

As a result, it turned out to be unsurpassed in terms of speed, although this characteristic was never used due to its high fuel consumption, and in reality it did not exceed 5 kilometers per hour. At the same time, the power reserve was 60 kilometers - despite the 500-liter fuel tank.

What is definitely worth noting about the A7V is its incredibly high quality workmanship, which was terribly expensive as it was done by hand. Because of the latter, standardization was almost impossible. No two parts were alike ...

Italy


Like the French and the Germans, the Italians abandoned the trapezoidal design of British tanks.

Working hard, they, albeit with some delay, also put into service the armored representatives of the new army. In 1917, only plans were ready, the Fiat prototype itself appeared only in 1918. What makes us think of their creation, the Fiat 2000, is its weight, armament and armor.

In the rotating turret of the 40-ton monster was the most powerful cannon at that time with a caliber of 65 millimeters. The on-board weapons system, in addition to it, included eight 6,5-mm machine guns. Its twenty-millimeter armor was made of the highest quality armor plate that surpassed all modern models in its properties.

However, in 1917-1918, the Italians had no choice but to use the "licensed" French FT for their troops.

USA


The United States, which entered the war in its final months, also appeared on the European battlefield with a "secondary" version of the Renault FT. But practically at the same time, Ford Motor Company (the first in the United States) presented a project of an entirely American tank.

It was only 3 tons lighter than the FT, and was wider, which made it more stable than the French. The shooter and the commander were no longer one after the other, but next to each other. However, the engine was not separated from the passenger compartment, so being in a fetid, hot and noisy interior space, according to numerous reviews, greatly reduced the fighting qualities of the crew ...

Another serious drawback of this 3-ton tank was the lack of a turntable. Thus, it could only be considered as a self-propelled 7,62 mm machine gun, although at one time it was considered quite maneuverable with its 90-horsepower engine and a maximum speed of 12 kilometers per hour.

However, Ford did not have time to acquire serious combat experience because of the 15000 units ordered by the army, by the end of the war only two had arrived at the US troops stationed in France.

This is how they were - the first combat "pelvis".

Composite armor, super-powerful engines, computerized fire control systems, powerful weapons - it was all yet to come.

This was the beginning of the tank era of humanity.
Author:
Photos used:
Photo from Wikipedia French tank Renault FT overcomes a trench
48 comments
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  1. Alexander Morozov
    Alexander Morozov 19 January 2021 18: 11
    +24
    A strange article, the British were still the first to mention MK 1. Yes, and the French first had Saint-Chamond and Schneeder.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 January 2021 18: 41
      +24
      Quote: Alexander Morozov
      Strange article

      Considering who the author is - nothing strange. Kharaluzhny knows perfectly well that the "tank" theme will gather a lot of views, and he will still scrape together a little trifle for his sickening writing. It is a pity that this Mitrofanushka will not spend it on specialized literature. Maybe then he would not have taken revenge on the blizzard that the British were inspired to create the tank by Renault FT17.
    2. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 19 January 2021 18: 41
      +19
      Quote: Alexander Morozov
      Strange article

      Really ... weird! fool "Blah blah blah" patter ... and truncated! request And the "author" does not give a damn that in the "article" there are flaws in the lines, like "horse apples" from an old gelding (as an option: "nuts" from an old goat .... wink )! What new and interesting things did the "author" tell us? Yes, no ... XXX!
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 19 January 2021 18: 46
        +18
        Amazing! Even such a fruitful topic can be spoiled! You can create dissertations right there!
        Honestly, I don’t understand the editorial policy - only the illiterate don’t criticize the author, but they persistently publish him. Maybe write a collective letter - a request to at least reduce the number of his articles?
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 January 2021 18: 52
          +13
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          Maybe write a collective letter - a request to at least reduce the number of his articles?

          Well, maybe so. After all, for the advice "to kill yourself against the wall" can be banned ...
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 19 January 2021 18: 54
            +10
            Yes, it is not recommended to openly criticize the authors. Even if there are iron arguments. Well, you probably need to think about how to create such an appeal to Smirnov.
            1. Nikolaevich I
              Nikolaevich I 19 January 2021 19: 21
              +8
              Quote: Leader of the Redskins
              Well, you probably need to think about how to create such an appeal to Smirnov.

              I don't think it will help ... but idea ! There is a line at the bottom: Answer. Quote. A complaint If not one or two, but more ... in general, a group of comrades will write, then ... really, in this case, the moderators will make "sponges a tube"?
        2. English tarantas
          English tarantas 20 January 2021 17: 37
          +3
          I have already suggested somehow in the comments to move the author's name to the very beginning of the article. Let them publish, I just won't read, it will immediately be clear who needs to be driven. And then you see, I opened it, saw nonsense, flipped to the comments, but it seems like I saw an advertisement, so the money was spent.
      2. Crowe
        Crowe 19 January 2021 19: 04
        +17
        Quote: Nikolaevich I
        What new and interesting things did the "author" tell us? Yes, no ... XXX!

        Well, why is there nothing interesting, I just learned that
        The British are considered "pioneers" in this matter, but in fact, the production of tanks they were inspired military allies - French people.

        Quote: Alexander Morozov
        about MK 1 could be mentioned.

        Well, or at least post a photo, I think he deserves it ...

        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Given who the author is

        It's high time to get used to his peculiar, to put it mildly, manner of presenting material to readers)))
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 19 January 2021 19: 31
          +6
          Quote: Crowe
          considered the British, but in fact, they were inspired by their military allies - the French - to produce tanks.

          what How is this? belay
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 19 January 2021 21: 26
            +4
            PS The prototype of the British tank "Little Willy" appeared in September 1915 .... the first French tanks "Schneider" and "Saint-Chamond" - in 1916. A little later, Renault appeared ... Who Inspired Whom?
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 10: 16
              +4
              ... The prototype of the British tank "Little Willie" appeared in September 1915 .... the first French tanks "Schneider" and "Saint-Chamon" - in 1916. A little later, Renault appeared ... Who Inspired Whom?

              Vladimir, we'd better not say anything .... You can also mention that everything is "wrapped up .." from the tests of the Holt tractor, but the "author" clearly does not know about it.
              1. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I 20 January 2021 15: 52
                +1
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                better keep quiet

                Ok ... I agree! yes
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 54
                  +1
                  Ok ... agree

                  Let's go talk to Bubalik about submarines! There is an article - so an article. drinks
                  https://topwar.ru/179071-podvodnaja-vojna-u-beregov-juzhnoj-afriki.html
    3. Mister X
      Mister X 20 January 2021 21: 52
      +1
      hi
      Wasted my time reading half of the article.
      Then the same number of comments.

      Renault FT
      having a width slightly less than the shoulders of an adult male
      Author: Alexander Kharaluzhny

      How's that?
      The tanks were driven by children, since the adults did not fit?

      the commander of this vehicle had to stand all the time ... Suffer!

      Author, have you ever opened Wikipedia?


      A7V
      armor 20-30 millimeters thick only protected from enemy bullets, but not from grenades.

      Is there no mistake?
      Adrian's helmet (1915) was made of 0,7 mm steel
      She protected the soldier from shrapnel and shrapnel.
      Couldn't the armor of the tank be 20-30 mm?
  2. hohol95
    hohol95 19 January 2021 18: 24
    +24
    It's a pity that they canceled the "-" for the quality of the published material. Oh sorry.
    1. Pike
      Pike 20 January 2021 11: 50
      +2
      Quote: hohol95
      It's a pity that they canceled the "-" for the quality of the published material. Oh sorry.

      Excuse me, I have a button "!" Under your comment. clicked, indicated "Other" and the text of the complaint:
      "This is not a complaint about the comment, but support for this comment. We want to complain about the uninformative and illiterate article by the author Alexander Kharaluzhny. Inaccurate information, lack of illustrations."
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 20 January 2021 12: 00
        +2
        With my 6 warnings ... Banned forever - I will change the "suit and skin"! Or I’ll spit on everything and “go barefoot in the dew”!
    2. Mister X
      Mister X 21 January 2021 13: 50
      0
      Quote: hohol95
      quality of published material

      hi
      Crack? Why are you surprised?
      Author only 1 year on the site,
      and publications last longer than days a year
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 21 January 2021 14: 12
        +1
        Mr. Kharaluzhny has a craving for graphomania ...
  3. Gvardeetz77
    Gvardeetz77 19 January 2021 18: 34
    +14
    Auto every day figures out article after article and every day in many comments it is criticized for the lowest quality of these articles, but things are still there, apparently a masochist ...
    It’s better not to do it than badly.
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 19 January 2021 19: 48
      +15
      An absolutely clear associative row with Lyapis-Trubitsky and his "Gavriliada"
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 January 2021 23: 19
        +14
        Quote: mr.ZinGer
        An absolutely clear associative row with Lyapis-Trubitsky and his "Gavriliada"

        laughing It's +100!
        Lapis-Kharaluzhny!

        Gavrila served on topvar,
        He's no big deal
        Easily sucked out of your finger
        Ten or two articles a day ...
        1. mr.ZinGer
          mr.ZinGer 20 January 2021 00: 06
          +4
          Before going to bed it is harmful to laugh, you will sleep badly. laughing
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 10: 13
        +6
        An absolutely clear associative row with Lyapis-Trubitsky and his "Gavriliada"

        Guys, this is awful to be honest. recourse I answer all at once. drinks
        Vladimir, I have a feeling that there is nothing about English tanks in this craft for a simple reason - there were so many nuances and modifications that at least some knowledge is needed to describe them. The "author" does not have them. From the word "absolutely". That is why he skipped the British tank building branch.
        Colleagues, I understand that for the second time in a row I run up against the administration (with respect to it!), But I will say sedition. When Mr. Samsonov writes about the fact that "there was no Mongol, there were Scythian-Aryans and Slavic-Negroes", this is already called the capacious word "Samsonovism". I propose to introduce one more term - "haraluzhestvo". To designate such here ... ... I do not know how to call this "creation" with a cultural word!
        Auto every day figures out article after article and every day in many comments it is criticized for the lowest quality of these articles, but things are still there, apparently a masochist ...
        It’s better not to do it than badly.

        I completely agree.
        It's a pity that they canceled the "-" for the quality of the published material. Oh sorry.

        Alexey, I'm with you.
        Thanks to all the participants, we are of the same opinion. soldier Ayda Bubalika read about submarines off the coast of Africa! drinks
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 20 January 2021 14: 10
          +3
          soldier Glad to soldier submarines - cool good
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 12
            +3
            submarines - cool

            Yes, Sergey "saddled his favorite skate"! good
            Glad to

            Will live! drinks
            1. hohol95
              hohol95 20 January 2021 14: 29
              +2
              Skate? If the article about submarines means the horse is not a hunchback, but the sea horse itself! laughing
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 38
                +2
                If the article about submarines means the horse is not a hunchback, but the sea horse itself!

                He loves this topic! good
      3. Mister X
        Mister X 21 January 2021 13: 56
        +1
        Quote: mr.ZinGer
        associative row with Lyapis-Trubitsky and his "Gavriliada"

        hi
        A very smart author: he publishes wherever possible.
        People's journalist ...
  4. BAI
    BAI 19 January 2021 18: 44
    +7
    Renault FT the most successful tank of the First World War

    Renault FT laid the foundation for the tank design, which became generally accepted and is still used today. Other schemes do not apply. The Swedes tried once to make a reckless tank, but it worked.
    1. MORDVIN13rus
      MORDVIN13rus 19 January 2021 20: 35
      -3
      as this is not used, and the German schemes of the Second World War, and the Merkava, is somewhat different.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 January 2021 22: 34
      +3
      Quote: BAI
      Renault FT laid the scheme for building a tank

      That's right, he became a reference. I would call it successful, but not
      Quote: BAI
      the most successful tank
      ... If we analyze his combat work in WWI from the first battle at Ploisy to the American offensive in the Scheldt (that is, from March to November 1918), then, of course, nothing particularly triumphant can be seen - BUT! he was a pioneer - technically imperfect (for obvious reasons), without a coherent application doctrine (also understandable), but, nevertheless, a small great tank (sorry for the pathos)). In general, I would devote a separate cycle to this "style icon". And certainly not for the authorship of Kharaluzhny. This very place is only near the propaganda trough.
    3. kalibr
      kalibr 20 January 2021 09: 16
      +2
      Renault's rival was just the reckless Peugeot tank, but Renault was chosen.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 10: 20
        +3
        Renault's rival was just the reckless Peugeot tank, but Renault was chosen.

        are you educating the "author", Vyacheslav Olegovich? hi He will soon start writing about samurai at such a pace, or about knights ... how many clicks do you think he will get? Purely out of condemnation? negative
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 20 January 2021 16: 21
          +3
          You know what, dear, sir - it was not me who said "to teach a scientist is only to spoil". On the contrary: he had bad material about bayonets - as a result, 4 materials are already ready now, too, about bayonets and ... a lot of the best, in all respects! And the photo ... I like it myself. And if it hadn't been for his article, when would I have taken up bayonets? Here he wrote about ... "this" - I immediately got into the "bins", and there ... now I'm writing and I'm happy. I want to say thank you for the help!
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 16: 24
            +2
            I want to say thanks to the person for the hint!

            Well, I will not say that, sir, but if a bad example of one serves as an incentive to good activities of others, this is also a benefit. hi We are waiting!
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 20 January 2021 16: 33
              +2
              Two are already under moderation and have even passed it, two are in my archive ... the fifth is ready to go ...
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 16: 37
                +3
                Two are already under moderation, two are in my archive ... the fifth is ready to go ...

                We are waiting. By the way, on Friday I mentioned your cycle about the "three-line". VicNik then wrote a good addition. In general, the paradox, Vyacheslav Olegovich - there are literate authors, there are savvy readers (many of whom write - take at least Mikhail and Bubalik), and we are stuffed with inadequate crafts from the amateur Kharaluzhny. recourse
  5. cobalt
    cobalt 19 January 2021 20: 29
    +6
    When I was in Kubinka, I noticed that on FT 17 the front large roller was wooden, upholstered with iron.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 January 2021 05: 10
      +6
      Correctly drawn! yes
      And there is! Technologies of the early twentieth century!
  6. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz 19 January 2021 21: 09
    +10
    Prosba trudyashchikhsa, vishshe "shedevri" etogo avtora nepublikovat.
  7. Constanty
    Constanty 19 January 2021 21: 55
    +2
    ... Its cheap steel armor 20-30 millimeters thick protected only from enemy bullets, but not from grenades.


    I will only note that the maximum thickness of the FT-17 armor described above is 22 mm, and this is only in a small area.
  8. Bormanxnumx
    Bormanxnumx 19 January 2021 22: 08
    +6
    This article confidently surpassed even Skomorokhov's opuses. Straight anti-record negative
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 19 January 2021 23: 25
      +7
      Quote: BORMAN82
      This article confidently surpassed even Skomorokhov's opuses. Straight anti-record negative

      Well, you are in vain, I think ... Skomorokhov is still interesting to read from time to time. Even in spite of some of his stylistic pearls. And the writings of X's are consistently poor. Regardless of the topic.
  9. Sergey M. Karasev
    Sergey M. Karasev 20 January 2021 02: 07
    +5
    It would be nice to indicate the author on the main page in the click area next to the title of the article in order to know in advance whether it is worth reading or not.
  10. kalibr
    kalibr 20 January 2021 06: 28
    +9
    Oh, Lord, everything seems to be there, everything was ... and again this is a kindergarten ... How long, Lord?
  11. dragon_13364
    dragon_13364 20 January 2021 10: 32
    +2
    It's sad that there are no pictures. now you have to search Google for a display of these fiatofs and German transports.