Military Review

Submarine warfare off the coast of South Africa

207
Cape Town Harbor in 1937

In the second half of 1942, the high command of the German submarines Befehlshaber der Unterseeboote (BdU) acknowledged that the results of victories in the North Atlantic had dropped significantly.



The successes of the Allied anti-submarine operations in the North Atlantic precluded the successful use of German submarines in these waters. Enemy counteraction to the growing threat from German submarines increased significantly in the second half of 1942, thanks to the gained experience of convoy and escort commanders, the availability of new reliable means of detecting submarines and significant improvements in anti-submarine weapons... The reading of German naval ciphers after the Enigma codes were cracked (combined with more escort and reduced air gap in the North Atlantic) reduced Karl Dönitz's successful use of his wolf packs.

In the spring of 1941, the command of the Kriegsmarine already appreciated the fact that the Cape Town-Freetown convoy route would be an excellent target for submarine attacks. The port of Freetown in Sierra Leone served as a gathering point for all merchant ships sailing to Europe, the Middle East and the Far East. This route passed along a strategic naval nodal point - the Cape of Good Hope. This ensured that all vessels passing along this route had to stop at one of the key South African ports of Saldanha, Cape Town, East London, Port Elizabeth or Durban.

Submarine warfare off the coast of South Africa

In Freetown, the slower merchant ships formed convoys for onward travel, while the faster ships sailed on their own. The German command, realizing the logistics difficulties associated with remote operations in the Central and South Atlantic, experimented with the use of supply submarines (dairy cows) during 1941. With multiple rendezvous points with supply ships or (cash cows), submarines in the Central and South Atlantic could stay at sea twice as long as before.

One of the first groups of German submarines, the Eisbär wolf pack (Polar Bear), in South African waters in 1942 was aimed at inflicting a crushing blow on shipping off the coast of southern Africa. By the end of December 1942, ships with a total tonnage of 310 brt were sunk by German submariners in that area. The success of Operation Eisbär led the BdU to undertake two more major submarine operations in South African waters before the end of World War II.

In February 1942, the German Naval Intelligence Service (B-Dienst) reported that British transatlantic traffic off Freetown had increased significantly.

The ineffectiveness of the Pan American Safety Zone, which ceased to exist after America entered the war in December 1941, forced merchant shipping to use a route along the west coast of Africa and around the Cape of Good Hope. By ordering his packs to move south, Doenitz hoped for a distraction that would force the enemy to split his forces between the defense of the North Atlantic, the East American coast and the vast African coast.

In the second half of 1942, Cape Town's waters were devoid of any significant underwater activity. However, before 1942, there were cases when lone submarines dared to go south to Cape Town and attacked ships. In October-November 1941, U-68 succeeded in sinking two British ships, the Hazelside and Bradford City, off the coast of South West Africa.

Bradford City

However, the high command of the German submarines did not approve of the entry of single submarines so far, since their independent actions could alert the enemy and force them to take tough anti-submarine measures. In addition, the actions of one submarine would be ineffective. Operations at Cape Town are only possible after a large enough submarine force has been formed to initiate an operation. And it must be carried out for a long period to achieve high results.

In the second half of 1942, Germany's opponents concentrated most of their escort fleets to protect North African and Mediterranean waters due to the North African campaign, thereby pushing Doenitz to strike at

"Soft underbelly"

South Africa.

The SAU (Union of South Africa until May 31, 1961) declaration of war on Germany on September 6, 1939 guaranteed the safe passage of all friendly ships sailing along the South African coast and their protection when visiting ports.

The South African coast at that time stretched from the mouth of the Kunene River in the Atlantic Ocean to the Kosi Bay in the Indian Ocean and included an important maritime hub - the Cape of Good Hope. All merchant ships that traveled along the coast of South Africa during the war called at one of several ports: Walvis Bay, Saldanha Bay, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban.

The uninterrupted operation of the sea trade route around the South African coast provided critical military supplies from all over the British Commonwealth to Great Britain.

The protection of South Africa's maritime trade routes was divided into two zones, taking into account the various maritime threats prevailing in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

The maritime threat off the Atlantic coast of South Africa was assessed by the possibility of attacks by German submarines and surface raiders, when they acted together far to the south, all the way to the South Atlantic Ocean.

The maritime threat along the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa was limited to Japanese submarines operating in the area. Japanese submarines, despite the distance to the nearest base of 5 miles, operated in the south as far as the Mozambique Channel. By their actions, they posed a threat to the merchant shipping of the entire east coast of South Africa.

The presence of Japanese and German surface warships in the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean was considered but considered unlikely.

The British Naval Intelligence Division and, in particular, the Chief of Staff of the Union Defense Forces (South Africa, Union Defense Force, UDF), General Rineveld, assumed that the main threat to the sea trade routes around the coast of South Africa would come from Japanese and Italian submarines operating in the Indian Ocean.

General Sir Hesperus Andrias van Rineveld

Military action by Germany was considered but considered unlikely. Due to the huge distances from the Bay of Biscay, where German submarines were based, to the Indian Ocean.

The likely threat to South Africa in 1940 was Italian submarines based in the Red Sea at the port of Massawa, just 3 miles from the strategic port of Durban.

Italian ships Flotillas Red Sea in Massawa (Eritrea). Spring 1940

British intelligence believed that if Italian submarines could use the port city of Kismayu in Somalia as a base of operations, shipping all the way to Cape Town could be in direct danger of disruption. However, this did not happen due to the successful Allied campaign in East Africa, which by 1941 eliminated the Italian naval threat in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

In late December 1941, the Chief of Staff of the Seekriegsleitung (SKL) Naval Operations Command, Vice Admiral Kurt Frike, met with the Japanese naval attaché in Berlin, Naokuni Nomura, to discuss joint Japanese and German action around the world.

Kurt Frike

In March 1942, Frike and Nomura met again. This time they discussed the strategic importance of the Indian Ocean and the sea trade routes passing through it.

On April 8, Nomura accepted Fricke's offer to launch a Japanese submarine offensive in the Indian Ocean. Subsequently, the Japanese fleet will provide four to five submarines and two support cruisers for offensive operations in the Indian Ocean between the Gulf of Aden and the Cape of Good Hope.

Within a month (from June 5 to July 8, 1942) after the start of Operation Battleship, Japanese submarines managed to sink 19 merchant ships off the coast of Mozambique (with a total tonnage of 86 brt). The most southerly attack occurred just 571 miles northeast of Durban when I-95 torpedoed and sank the British merchant ship Mandra on 6 July 1942.


By convincing the Japanese to launch a submarine offensive in the Indian Ocean by mid-1942 with a focus on operations around the Seychelles, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Madagascar, Doenitz actually created the distraction he hoped for.

The attention of Germany's adversaries was now divided between campaigns in North Africa, the invasion of Madagascar, and the protection of shipping off the coast of West Africa and America. Due to the growing Japanese threat off the country's east coast during 1942, van Rineveld and his headquarters were forced to prepare for every opportunity, even a full-scale Japanese invasion.

Thus, all attention was directed to the east coast of South Africa.

Продолжение следует ...
Author:
Photos used:
https://vk.com/@123602292-italyanskii-flot-v-krasnom-more-chast-pervaya-nozh-u-gorla-s https://maritimesa.org/grade-10/the-history-of-cape-town-harbour/ https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Fricke https://www.wrecksite.eu/wreck.aspx?58515 https://ru.qaz.wiki/wiki/Pierre_van_Ryneveld https://uboat.net
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  1. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 19 January 2021 18: 16
    +11
    Thank you, Sergey!
    Indeed, it is better about submarines than about the history of cannibalism! wink
    1. bubalik
      19 January 2021 18: 23
      +13
      ,,, so the site is with a military bias, and cannibals to what kind of troops should be attributed laughing ?.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 19 January 2021 18: 26
        +10
        What about Navalny? wassat
        1. bubalik
          19 January 2021 18: 39
          +8
          ,,, do you equate him with the subject of the above comments? belay
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 19 January 2021 18: 42
            +8
            No, on "opinions" today there is an article about Sunday events in Vnukovo
      2. Avior
        Avior 19 January 2021 18: 39
        +16
        Home front service. Quartermaster :)))
        1. bubalik
          19 January 2021 18: 42
          +8
          Quartermaster :))
          laughing good sensibly.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 11: 10
            +9
            sensibly.

            A deep bow to the dashing Warrior from the failed samurai! With a complete and unconditional "arigato"! yes In my opinion, this is your best material at the moment. good I really, really look forward to continuing. I put pluses to all the participants - people were good. drinks With respect, Nicholai. yes
            From the joint operations of raiders and submarines, I’ll recall "Wonderland" offhand - when the Germans "foolishly" in our Arctic Circle, and the "Admiral Scheer", as a result, retreated from Dixon after the risk of being hit from antediluvian guns. Your theme! soldier
            I will offer you another topic, Sergey! wink Not a submarine fleet, but little-known ships - "trucks of the Great Lakes". From the wiki:

            Photo from 2006, two lake motor ships: JB Ford (left) being used as a floating cement warehouse at the age of 102, on the right is JAW Iglehart, who was at the end of his 70-year career. during which this ship survived a submarine attack in the Atlantic during World War II.
            Try it! Under the wikipedia article there are links to the sites of the ship-museums. drinks
            1. bubalik
              20 January 2021 13: 28
              +8
              Pane Kohanku (Pane Kohanku)

              ,,, "kudasai". drinks
              from a failed samurai

              bully laughing
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 13: 33
                +5
                "Death to the Samurai" ...

                Good man, you dare not!
                You are not living in the service of a diver! laughing drinks
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 20 January 2021 17: 48
                  +3
                  It is difficult to look at point-blank in the given conditions of discussion.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 22 January 2021 00: 40
                +2
                "DEATH TO THE SAMURAI" - the contribution of an unknown artist to the victory over imperialist Japan. )))
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 19 January 2021 18: 43
          +10
          That's right! "And by morning the mammoth was gone ..."
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 20 January 2021 17: 50
            +3
            Alcor put the song as an epigraph to the sweep.

            Everyone knows the classics. And the modern sometimes sounds good.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 20 January 2021 17: 52
              +3
              Ok. I'm waiting!
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 20 January 2021 17: 59
                +4
                On February 10, you can start claiming.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 20 January 2021 18: 03
                  +4
                  The Lord is with you! What are the requirements?
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 20 January 2021 18: 11
                    +4
                    Shouldn't I be urged on? Magic deadline, or magic kick.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 January 2021 18: 12
                      +3
                      Okay, whatever you say, I'll remind you tactfully.
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 January 2021 18: 16
                        +3
                        Favorite Parkinson's Law: "Work takes all the time allotted for it."
              2. Korsar4
                Korsar4 20 January 2021 18: 00
                +3
                It feels like he started an advertising campaign.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 20 January 2021 18: 07
                  +3
                  Here, confidence in the completion of what has been started is probably important, which, alas, is not burdened with
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 20 January 2021 18: 13
                    +3
                    Just retell the slides in human language. Three times a week for half an hour a day.

                    A real challenge.

                    There is no need to measure anything and carry out statistical processing.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 January 2021 18: 18
                      +3
                      It's harder for me. By the same Priyutino, I can already lead excursions myself, but write ... I started and rubbed it twice.
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 January 2021 18: 21
                        +4
                        It's a skill. It's easier to speak. Especially if it is closer to Italians than to Swedes.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 18: 25
                        +4
                        I'm more likely to Estonians
                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 January 2021 18: 52
                        +4
                        Of the Balts, in my opinion, the most solid.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 18: 56
                        +3
                        It's hard for me to judge, I didn't communicate with the others.
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 January 2021 19: 17
                        +3
                        Close your eyes: cities are presented in the following sequence: Riga, Tallinn, Klaipeda.
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 19: 48
                        +3
                        Further than Tallinn was nowhere. And also funny. I was in Estonia in November 89, almost a few days before the disconnection. I communicated with Estonians much later.
                      7. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 January 2021 19: 56
                        +5
                        It’s like that for me, Georgia - 1987. But two years in that life is a long distance.
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 20: 05
                        +4
                        Then yes, now no.
                      9. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 January 2021 20: 44
                        +3
                        Yes. If you use interpolation.
                      10. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 20: 59
                        +2
                        What is "interpolation" in this case? Acquired benefit?
                      11. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 January 2021 21: 24
                        +2
                        No. Comparison of 2019 and 2021. And if you project to the year 2023, there will be an extrapolation.

                        The only question is what factors to take into account, and how to express it mathematically.
                      12. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 21: 33
                        +2
                        It makes sense to first agree on terms and then build a model.
                      13. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 20 January 2021 21: 43
                        +2
                        Of course. We originally talked about distance
                    2. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 January 2021 21: 38
                      +2
                      It became interesting who is so mercilessly adding to our, in general, private dialogue ...
                      Hey? Mask, do I know you?
                    3. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 20 January 2021 21: 44
                      +3
                      Do you want to assess the degree of our popularity?

                      "The most powerful
                      The best "(c).
                    4. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 21 January 2021 09: 35
                      +2
                      Hey? Mask, do I know you?

                      There are many kind people, and our company is expanding, which cannot but rejoice. But I have now added mine to the pluses of a kind person. drinks
                      It's harder for me. By the same Priyutino, I can already lead excursions myself, but write ... I started and rubbed it twice.

                      The esponton is crying for you! There are some photos turned out - shine! And you... recourse
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 20 January 2021 18: 17
    +5
    By the way, it feels like you miss it.

    Can you find a recipe for gummy berry juice?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 20 January 2021 18: 23
      +4
      Yes Yes Yes!
      Everyone knows gammi bears
      Even poop upside down!
      Better novoopasita, otherwise I have already jumped.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 January 2021 18: 50
        +4
        Do you prefer Felix Felicis?
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 18: 51
        +3
        But I'm not familiar with this
      3. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 January 2021 18: 54
        +4
        My older daughters grew up in Rowling's information time.
        In the book about the Half-Blood Prince. A present from Slughorn.
      4. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 19: 00
        +3
        Mine grew up on Lukyanenko and Dyachenko.
      5. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 January 2021 19: 18
        +4
        There were two "Patrols". I like the "draft". And Dyachenko did not come across.
      6. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 19: 44
        +3
        These are the spouses Sergey and Marina Dyachenko. Laureates of all kinds of Russian-language funkons. I recommend, at least for familiarization.
      7. Korsar4
        Korsar4 20 January 2021 19: 54
        +4
        Thank you. It feels like I heard it vaguely. I'll put a tick.
      8. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 20: 02
        +3
        It's worth starting with "The Witch's Age". By the way, suggest it to your wife and older daughters.
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 January 2021 15: 27
    +6
    Quote: bubalik
    ,,, so the site is with a military bias, and cannibals to what kind of troops should be attributed laughing ?.

    Quote: 3x3zsave
    What about Navalny? wassat

    Quote: Avior
    Home front service. Quartermaster :)))

    The main thing is to take the iPhones from the first, otherwise they will read the news about poisoning and will not eat it !!! laughing
    Sergey thanks for the article !!! Liked!!!
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 20 January 2021 17: 47
    +4
    To the infantry.
    Nobody canceled the field kitchen.
  • Catfish
    Catfish 22 January 2021 00: 35
    +3
    Seryozha, thank you, it's a balm for the soul. smile
    And then everything about the North Atlantic, well, or almost everything is known, but about these southern "nooks" little has been left in the memory. drinks
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 20 January 2021 13: 27
    +5
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Thank you, Sergey!
    Indeed, it is better about submarines than about the history of cannibalism! wink

    Why? Also very curious. And recipes. fellow
    1. bubalik
      20 January 2021 13: 30
      +7
      ,,, and you are a gourmet laughing
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 13: 37
        +5
        ,,, and you are a gourmet

        Albert is an enviable theorist. Yesterday Mikhail scribbled a minimum program for captivating the masses, with the attraction of "the beauty and pride of the Revolution." laughing
        1. bubalik
          20 January 2021 13: 41
          +6
          enviable theorist

          ,,, theory without practice is dead (C), you must always focus on application acquired knowledge and skills. repeat
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 13: 44
            +5
            on the application of the acquired knowledge and skills

            Knowledge of anatomy and physiology will be enough for him! yes
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 03
              +6
              Quote: Pan Kohanku
              on the application of the acquired knowledge and skills

              Knowledge of anatomy and physiology will be enough for him! yes

              The taste of a human is a layman repeat
          2. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 02
            +5
            Quote: bubalik
            enviable theorist

            ,,, theory without practice is dead (C), you must always focus on application acquired knowledge and skills. repeat

            The question is who to eat ... repeat
        2. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 01
          +5
          Quote: Pan Kohanku
          ,,, and you are a gourmet

          Albert is an enviable theorist. Yesterday Mikhail scribbled a minimum program for captivating the masses, with the attraction of "the beauty and pride of the Revolution." laughing

          We are ours, we will build a new world
          Who was nothing, that will be all fellow
          Actually I'm a liberal conservative hi Like more rights at the expense of a better economy. And without any revolutions - shmevolutions am
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 04
            +5
            liberal conservative

            More variety in canned food? lol
            And without any revolutions - shmevolutions

            You are right.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 08
              +5
              Burgess has about canned food with human flesh - the Lusting Seed
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 11
                +6
                Burgess has about canned food with human flesh - the Lusting Seed

                in St. Petersburg, in the mid-90s, they caught this - he also rolled canned food ... I don't remember his last name, and I don't need to.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 12
                  +5
                  Anton or Timur said that in the 90s in St. Petersburg, some yard dogs ate. But cannibalism ..
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 20
                    +5
                    But cannibalism ..

                    This one did not eat because of hunger ...
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 22
                      +5
                      St. Petersburg Hannibal Lecter? ))
                    2. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 26
                      +6
                      St. Petersburg Hannibal Lecter? ))

                      It's just the climate! stop
                    3. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 27
                      +5
                      Night, street, lantern, pharmacy. And the wine glass sad
                    4. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 28
                      +5
                      Night, street, lantern, pharmacy. And the wine glass

                      First, a wine-room, then, for those who have distinguished themselves, a pharmacy. And then, and "trauma". request
                    5. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 30
                      +5
                      Soon they will introduce a sobering-up station again - commercial))
                    6. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 40
                      +6
                      Soon they will introduce a sobering-up station again - commercial))

                      Maybe this is correct? what Once the money will be ripped off, and they will forever discourage the hunt to get there ... request It's like parking in the wrong place - I was dragged away once in 2012, and now I obey the signs sacredly! soldier
                      And it is better to leave the topic of "canned food" to Shpakovsky. The Volga region is not far from him, and he really likes to leaf through Soviet newspapers of the 20-30s! wink
                    7. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 02
                      +5
                      I read about cannibalism in the Volga region - horror
                    8. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 08
                      +5
                      I read about cannibalism in the Volga region - horror

                      Exactly what. No. I read about the famine in Ireland over the weekend. No joke - when the potato crop failed, there was nothing to eat, although the grain was regularly exported to England. request It got to the point that the Turkish sultan (!) Sent several ships with provisions, and the Choctaw Indians collected a couple of hundred dollars of "humanitarian aid"! fellow But the Irish began to regularly move to the United States!
                    9. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 21
                      +5
                      Quote: Pan Kohanku
                      I read about cannibalism in the Volga region - horror

                      Exactly what. No. I read about the famine in Ireland over the weekend. No joke - when the potato crop failed, there was nothing to eat, although the grain was regularly exported to England. request It got to the point that the Turkish sultan (!) Sent several ships with provisions, and the Choctaw Indians collected a couple of hundred dollars of "humanitarian aid"! fellow But the Irish began to regularly move to the United States!

                      In my opinion, there are more of them now than in Ireland itself
                    10. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 23
                      +3
                      In my opinion, there are more of them now than in Ireland itself

                      And so it happened! They might not have gone, but the British "created conditions for them."
                    11. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 26
                      +3
                      Most of the mass emigration is caused by the unskilled actions of their own government / leaders - and then by external factors.
                    12. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 27
                      +4
                      and then by external factors.

                      For these two years the potatoes were rotting due to illness. Then cholera.
                    13. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 30
                      +3
                      Force majeure, in short
                    14. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 35
                      +3
                      Force majeure, in short

                      Something like that. All at once and wholesale.
                    15. bubalik
                      20 January 2021 15: 38
                      +5
                      Force majeure, in short
                      Something like that. All at once and wholesale.

                      ,,,money.
                      It would have been enough to prohibit the export of grain from the "Emerald Isle" - there was even more of it than was needed to save the hungry. But the grain was exported by English landlords, and the government in London did not consider it necessary to prohibit this. Under a military escort, food was delivered to ports and from there to Britain. Yields of all crops except potatoes during the famine years were excellent. Farmers paid the rent with grain, and then they themselves caught game and domestic animals, ate bark and nettles.
                      Albert said correctly: ,,, caused by the unskilled actions of their own government / leaders + add external factors.
                    16. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 40
                      +3
                      It would have been enough to prohibit the export of grain from the "Emerald Isle" - there was even more of it than was needed to save the hungry.

                      Exactly, exactly so! request
                      Sergey, your altruism has a fifth theme for inspiration! good
                    17. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 January 2021 15: 47
                      +5
                      It has already been written by Ryzhov.
                    18. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 49
                      +6
                      It has already been written by Ryzhov.

                      You callous, Anton! wink Our thoughts just flooded, and you ... crying besides .. if Ryzhov wrote about it, we do not claim his materials, but we will write our own, with bacchantes and backgammon! bully
                    19. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 January 2021 16: 44
                      +5
                      "And Captain Mikhailov is very eager for mental conversations with the regimental doctor Fridman. It happens that they get together and let's talk about all sorts of high studies: about medieval piits, about the culinary intricacies of the Papuan peoples, about fraternal lack of spirituality, about women and gambling games."
                    20. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 16: 48
                      +4
                      And captain Mikhailov

                      .. it happens that he takes out an esponton and starts twirling over his head ...
                      about broads and gambling

                      -... yes a fashionable disease, she -
                      Recently presented to you ....

                      (AS Pushkin)
                    21. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 January 2021 17: 43
                      +4
                      Be careful, tambour major! And then you will run into the espadon with the staff.
                    22. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 17: 45
                      +4
                      And then you will run into the espadon with the staff.

                      I will grease it with oil. I will ask Vlad - he has a lot. yes Not everything is slippery for you alone. drinks
                    23. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 20 January 2021 17: 54
                      +3
                      "And even smear a frog with sugar for me, but I will not eat it all alone!"
            2. Korsar4
              Korsar4 20 January 2021 17: 53
              +5
              This is already an ancient Greek theme. And pictures of maenads are in abundance.

              “So that not a chorus of maenads,
              And the chorus is girlish ”(c).
            3. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 21 January 2021 14: 32
              +3
              And the chorus is girlish

              There is no chorus. stop There is a screaming retired cowboy. laughing
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 20 January 2021 17: 52
    +5
    And the Headless Horseman appeared.
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 21 January 2021 11: 29
    +2
    And the Headless Horseman appeared.

    And later - Irish organized crime, which was the main competitor for Al Capone.
  • Catfish
    Catfish 22 January 2021 00: 52
    +3
    Precisely, the Russian Guard will not miss this piece of the pie. laughing

    Hi Albert. drinks
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 22 January 2021 08: 04
    +3
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Precisely, the Russian Guard will not miss this piece of the pie. laughing

    Hi Albert. drinks

    Glad to see Constantine! hi
    That's right )).
  • bubalik
    20 January 2021 15: 03
    +4
    It's just the climate
    ,,, does it affect many people living there?
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 09
    +3
    ,,, does it affect many people living there?

    I haven't tried it, I can't vouch for the minstrel (Anton)! lol
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 January 2021 15: 59
    +3
    I can't vouch for the minstrel (Anton)!
    In rain we trust
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 January 2021 15: 01
    +3
    or Timur told
    What details are being clarified! I never thought that Timur Anatolyevich is so knowledgeable about the life of the St. Petersburg marginals. It's just some kind of Gilyarovsky!
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 03
      +3
      Timur is aware of any topic - and you know it laughing
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 20 January 2021 15: 12
      +3
      No, I do not know. Due to the limitations of my outlook, he mostly talks to me about work.
    3. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 20
      +4
      Due to the lack of a grateful listener, you are callous older brother negative
    4. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 25
      +6
      you are callous older brother

      You know, Albert ... considering our previous conversation about cooking and canned food, the expression "stale you brother "takes on a somewhat ambiguous coloration ... belay
    5. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 29
      +4
      laughing
      Stale bread is a rusk.
      Stale meat is ... for broth?
    6. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 32
      +4
      Stale meat is ... for broth?

      Lyudmila Yakovlevna (Depressant) yesterday called our minnesinger-lute player a "slippery type". repeat She probably knows a lot about cooking ... what
    7. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 35
      +3
      Lyudmila Yakovlevna is the conscience of this site. Tatra is mind, and Tatyana is honor soldier
    8. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 39
      +3
      Lyudmila Yakovlevna is the conscience of this site. Tatra is mind, and Tatyana is honor

      You're right! And in "beauty" and "pride" will we look for drunken sailors, according to a hundred-year tradition from Lev Davydych? wink
    9. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 20 January 2021 16: 09
      +4
      What for? There is Mr. Kharaluzhny
    10. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 16: 13
      +4
      There is Mr. Kharaluzhny

      Oh, don't mention it by tonight! wassat By the way, yesterday everyone was unanimous about his last opus. which is good news. drinks
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 January 2021 16: 27
    +3
    Tatra - mind
    With such a mind, you need to stock up on haloperidol.
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 20 January 2021 16: 50
    +3
    From the enemies of the communists? laughing
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 January 2021 17: 00
    +4
    Another carlson with an espoton will be more terrible than the enemies of the communists!
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 January 2021 16: 24
    +5
    lute player
    Wow, I remember, a connoisseur of Stradivari mandolins!
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 16: 27
    +6
    Wow, I remember, a connoisseur of Stradivari mandolins!

    Thank you, Kind Man, I am remembered! wink And with a kind word and esponton, I will achieve much more than just a kind word! fellow Special thanks to Sergey Mikhailov - "Mihaylov" - for the photo provided. drinks
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 20 January 2021 17: 56
    +4
    Napoleon. Canned food. "You just don't know how to cook them"

    Does it hurt the soul if there is human meat no higher than the ankles?
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 21 January 2021 09: 32
    +2
    Does it hurt the soul if there is human meat no higher than the ankles?

    This is already worthy of a philosophical treatise! wink
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 21 January 2021 17: 32
    +2
    Mor Yokai mentioned this. "The Adventures of the Adventurer Hugo von Habenicht".
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 21 January 2021 17: 33
    +2
    Mor Yokai mentioned this. "The Adventures of the Adventurer Hugo von Habenicht".

    And what conclusion did you come to? ... belay A plot for Stephen King. laughing
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 21 January 2021 17: 36
    +3
    They were acquitted on all counts. And then they were executed.
  • Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 21 January 2021 20: 38
    +2
    They were acquitted on all counts. And then they were executed.

    It is also an option... wink drinks
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 22 January 2021 06: 35
    +2
    Something like the "Shirley-Myrley" of the old days.
  • Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 20 January 2021 14: 45
    +4
    Quote: Pane Kohanku
    More variety in canned food?

    "Here is Petka, the war is over, we will go to the conservatory, we have canned food ..." hi
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 47
      +5
      "Here is Petka, the war is over, we will go to the conservatory, we have canned food ..."

      Let's beat all the whites - and we will have a good life! drinks
      My first associations with canned food - Franklin's polar expedition in the 40s of the 19th century. They all began to die there because of poor-quality solder. what By the way, one more topic for the esteemed Bubalik! good money - in half! stop As a "muse" I have already suggested three articles to him! fellow
      1. Mihaylov
        Mihaylov 20 January 2021 15: 03
        +5
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        My first associations with canned food - Franklin's polar expedition in the 40s of the 19th century. They all began to die there because of poor-quality solder.

        Which is "Terror" and "Erebus"?
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 11
          +3
          Which is "Terror" and "Erebus"?

          Exactly! But then they drew several psychological pictures. fellow One of the ships, EMNIP, was found several years ago.
          1. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 20 January 2021 15: 13
            +4
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            Some of the ships, EMNIP, were found several years ago.

            In my opinion, both found, and they found them after Dan Simmons wrote the book, so he has "inaccuracies" there: at the end of the book the ships burn out, but in reality they did not burn down, they just sank.
          2. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 14
            +4
            how Dan Simmons wrote the book

            I ought to read it, but my hands do not reach.
            but in reality they did not burn, they simply sank.

            Yes, yes. And they found both - yes. yes
          3. Mihaylov
            Mihaylov 20 January 2021 15: 16
            +4
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            I ought to read it, but my hands do not reach.

            I read, but I haven't watched the film, I should have seen it, they say - nothing hi
  • bubalik
    20 January 2021 15: 05
    +5
    in half

    ,,, this is a hobby. You can consider me an altruist. yes
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 11
      +4
      ,, it is a hobby. You can consider me an altruist.

      And if altruism is halved, then semi-altruist? wink drinks
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 January 2021 16: 05
    +3
    I am like a "muse" to him,
    Somehow I imagined muses a little differently ...
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 16: 11
      +3
      Somehow I imagined muses a little differently ...

      Such a normal muse. Like Carlson. To play naughty, play tricks, grimace ... drinks
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 20 January 2021 13: 58
    +6
    Quote: bubalik
    ,,, and you are a gourmet laughing

    In fact, yes. From exotic I tried crocodile, porcupine, kangaroo. Bears-deer-moose are not exotic in Russia. But little men - still not. Not kosher from the word at all fellow
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 03
      +5
      But little men - still not. Not kosher from the word at all

      There is a historical story under Nikolai Pavlovich. What human flesh "no, no"! lol
      Nicholas I had vague (sometimes just anecdotal) ideas about the countries of the world. Thus, authorizing a scientific trip to the United States of America for a professor of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, he demanded from the scientist subject a receipt that he would not take human flesh into his mouth overseas.
      It is noteworthy that the professor was not heading to the "Wild West", but to the university cities of "New England." Needless to say, the Russian monarch had a "good opinion" about "the best houses in Philadelphia."

      More anecdotes about him are here:
      http://friends.nnov.org/aneki/3240397.html
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 04
        +4
        America, Africa - what's the difference if non-Russians fellow However, Nicolas had no idea about the Ivy League
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 06
          +6
          America, Africa - what's the difference if non-Russians

          Don't tell Samsonov. For Afro-Russians and Indaria. wink
          However, Nicolas had no idea about the Ivy League

          If you hadn’t mentioned her now, I wouldn’t have suspected her either ... recourse
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 11
            +4
            Just New England laughing
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 13
              +5
              Just New England

              Yes, I looked. Heaped up ... what
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 14
                +4
                When you find out how much sessions in Russian universities are sold for, you will involuntarily think about it
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 24
                  +4
                  When you find out how much sessions in Russian universities are sold for, you will involuntarily think about it

                  Is it cheaper to learn from the capitalists? wink
                2. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 25
                  +5
                  No, but there you have to LEARN. There was a scandal - they took $ 5 million for admission to Harvard (the 70-year-old organizer received 25 years for this), without a guarantee of its completion)).
                3. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 27
                  +5
                  There was a scandal - for admission to Harvard they took $ 5 million

                  Yes, for such a price, I would also throw a scandal. wassat
                4. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 20 January 2021 14: 28
                  +4
                  It's a matter of prestige))
                  Someone from us buys red diplomas-certificates for children, from them - admission to Harvard fellow
                5. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 42
                  +3
                  Someone buys red diplomas from us for children

                  And someone will immediately shove children into the deputies, and overgrow all your diplomas with feces! laughing
                6. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 04
                  +3
                  Quote: Pan Kohanku
                  Someone buys red diplomas from us for children

                  And someone will immediately shove children into the deputies, and overgrow all your diplomas with feces! laughing

                  This is already with a diploma lol
                7. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 13
                  +3
                  This is already with a diploma

                  Do you really need a diploma to become a deputy? It seems that the certificate of maturity and active citizenship is enough? laughing
                8. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 18
                  +2
                  I don’t know, but Russian Dream includes a kindergarten near the house, a school attended by a child of a local oligarch or governor, and a Red Diploma from the local State University. But after that - even to the deputies, even to the prosecutors, even to the Investigative Committee)).
                9. bubalik
                  20 January 2021 15: 21
                  +6
                  Investigative committee

                  -Dober Sr., the best detective with a diploma!
                  -Pinscher Jr., the best detective without a diploma! (C)
                10. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 20 January 2021 15: 32
                  +4
                  Wai, why Baz Diploma, red, shiny, just like real fellow
                11. hohol95
                  hohol95 20 January 2021 16: 54
                  +5
                  Why did you buy it? You offend! Padaryli !!!
                12. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 20 January 2021 16: 59
                  +4
                  And then the Dagnals and felled grazing at Moscow State University - Maikop State University of Science and Technology fellow
                13. hohol95
                  hohol95 20 January 2021 17: 14
                  +4
                  The only way. The only way. good
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 20 January 2021 16: 09
    +4
    "From every hippo cutlet,
    I will recover two kilograms at once! "(C)
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 20 January 2021 16: 53
      +4
      Tcm was also about the use of hippopotamus skin. hi
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 20 January 2021 17: 29
        +3
        I guess I don't remember. I have to ask Nikolai, he is a big fan of hippos with one espoton to walk.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 20 January 2021 17: 36
          +3
          A cartoon is not easier to watch? lol
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 20 January 2021 17: 37
            +4
            We are not looking for easy solutions! laughing
        2. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 21 January 2021 09: 49
          +1
          I have to ask Nikolai, he is a big fan of hippos with one espoton to walk.

          "Let him not lie ..." (Berthier). laughing
  • hohol95
    hohol95 20 January 2021 14: 38
    +6
    Disaster of 1972 in the Andes. Aircraft of the Uruguayan Air Force.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 14: 52
      +6
      Disaster of 1972 in the Andes. Aircraft of the Uruguayan Air Force.

      They even made a feature film about them and watched them. hi
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 20 January 2021 15: 18
        +5
        Or just a movie with a colorful title "The Cannibal"!
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 15: 21
          +6
          Or just a movie with a colorful title "The Cannibal"!

          Oh, yes! good Although I remember the performer of the cannibal more from the films "Slaughter Haircut" and "Hitler - The Rise of the Devil".
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 20 January 2021 16: 50
            +3
            Then I can offer one more film with the same colorful title "Dead Man". Johnny Depp plays the role of a modest accountant. Wild West in black and gray!
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 20 January 2021 16: 51
              +3
              with the same colorful name "Dead Man". Johnny Depp plays the role of a modest accountant. Wild West in black and gray!

              aaaa, I heard something, read the description, but did not look. Like a philosophical parable film.
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 20 January 2021 17: 13
                +3
                Perhaps, but I'm not good at philosophy. But the cannibal is there. At the same time, vesma is of the coloite type.
  • andrewkor
    andrewkor 19 January 2021 18: 42
    +5
    Once I read two books by Samuel Morrison "Battle for the Atlantic". The map of the sunk U-bots of the Kriegsmarinen was especially striking.
    Of course, the Atlantic, and also the Indian Ocean! "Doenitsa Chicks" are the best!
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 January 2021 21: 32
      +1
      Quote: andrewkor
      Once I read two books by Samuel Morrison "Battle for the Atlantic". The map of the sunk U-bots of the Kriegsmarinen was especially striking.
      Of course, the Atlantic, and also the Indian Ocean! "Doenitsa Chicks" are the best!

      Congratulations, the first comment close to the topic of the article !!! hi
  • Avior
    Avior 19 January 2021 18: 45
    +10
    It is surprising that the Germans had the idea to operate at such a great distance from the bases. The boats of that time were not so much underwater as sometimes submerged.
    In Steel Coffins, numerous cases of attacks by convoys from the surface are described, for boats it was Rather the main option.
    To travel such a distance from France to South Africa, the boat would have to go on the surface almost all the time. For aviation with radar, they were in full view in open space.
    It is not surprising that the Germans carefully prepared a red herring.
    1. Usher
      Usher 19 January 2021 23: 17
      +5
      Quote: Avior
      It is surprising that the Germans had the idea to operate at such a great distance from the bases. The boats of that time were not so much underwater as sometimes submerged.
      In Steel Coffins, numerous cases of attacks by convoys from the surface are described, for boats it was Rather the main option.
      To travel such a distance from France to South Africa, the boat would have to go on the surface almost all the time. For aviation with radar, they were in full view in open space.
      It is not surprising that the Germans carefully prepared a red herring.

      Don't overestimate the radar. The spaces are gigantic.
      1. Avior
        Avior 19 January 2021 23: 22
        +8
        gigantic. and the boat will have to go to the surface all the time because of this
        allies just need to organize a couple of interception lines and it will be very difficult to pass
        Although the radar of that time, of course, is not like the present, here you are right
        1. Usher
          Usher 19 January 2021 23: 25
          +5
          Quote: Avior
          gigantic. and the boat will have to go to the surface all the time because of this
          allies just need to organize a couple of interception lines and it will be very difficult to pass
          Although the radar of that time, of course, is not like the present, here you are right

          why didn't they organize
          1. Avior
            Avior 19 January 2021 23: 33
            +8
            Organized at the exit from the bases, near France. Described in Steel Coffins, left the base as death row.
            1. Usher
              Usher 20 January 2021 01: 54
              +5
              Quote: Avior
              Organized at the exit from the bases, near France. Described in Steel Coffins, left the base as death row.

              Yes, I read this book 15 years ago. Why are you writing obvious things?
              1. Avior
                Avior 20 January 2021 01: 57
                +7
                obvious, because you do not take into account the obvious.
                besides, it is not entirely clear what you are arguing about.
                I did not write that the Allies organized this.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 20 January 2021 10: 38
      +6
      Quote: Avior
      To travel such a distance from France to South Africa, the boat would have to go on the surface almost all the time. For aviation with radar, they were in full view in open space.

      So this is 1942. The Allies with ASW are already better, but its main forces are concentrated in the North Atlantic. Plus, there are quite large uncovered areas between the air patrol zones.
      Full coverage is EMNIP, 1943. At the same time, the line of interception of submarines was brought to the bases (before that, the same Biscay patrol for PLO aircraft was a Russian roulette).
      1. Avior
        Avior 20 January 2021 12: 02
        +5
        its main forces are concentrated in the North Atlantic

        Germans too
        will go south - the allies will reach for them
        again, if the vessels going to Europe were actually going to intercept, then why so far?
        They will come closer anyway.
        There is no point in drowning coasters there either.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 20 January 2021 17: 01
          +3
          Quote: Avior
          Germans too
          will go south - the allies will reach for them

          Perhaps the British, and even then only partially. Because all submarines will not leave, and the Allies need to keep the main transatlantic line from the United States. And the departure of part of the German submarines to the south will allow the PLO arr. 1942 only to reduce the level of ship losses to an acceptable level.
          In addition, on the southern route with the infrastructure for the deployment of ASW forces, everything is rather sad.
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 20 January 2021 17: 17
            +2
            No one thought or guessed that the boats of the German and the Japanese would get right up to the south of the African continent. The shores are still wild. Little inhabited.
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 20 January 2021 17: 52
              +4
              Quote: hohol95
              No one thought or guessed that the boats of the German and the Japanese would get right up to the south of the African continent. The shores are still wild. Little inhabited.

              So for the submarine, this is only a plus: the wilder the coast, the more difficult it is to base the PLO forces there.
              And the flow of transports will not go anywhere: Mediterranean was closed until 1944, so you can only go to India, Egypt and the BV only around Africa.
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 20 January 2021 18: 31
                +2
                A plus for divers. But the seamen of cargo ships and tankers "fat minus". The Germans "were bored alone in the naval blockade," so they tried to attract the Japanese. The Italians lost their entire base outside of "their Middle-earth" and were also on a "short leash" in the Mediterranean.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 19 January 2021 18: 50
    +10
    One of the first groups of German submarines, the Eisbär wolf pack (Polar Bear), in South African waters in 1942 was aimed at inflicting a crushing blow on shipping off the coast of southern Africa. By the end of December 1942, ships with a total tonnage of 310 brt were sunk by German submariners in that area. The success of Operation Eisbär led the BdU to undertake two more major submarine operations in South African waters before the end of World War II.
    Here the author got carried away a little.
    The Eisbär Wolf Pack operated in the South Atlantic from 25 August to 1 September 1942.
    Consisted of five boats - U-68, Karl-Friedrich Merten, U-156, Werner Hartenstein, U-172, Karl Emmermann, U-459, Georg von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf, U-504, Hans-Georg Friedrich Poske.
    The only success of this "flock" was the sinking of the British merchant ship Clan Macwhirter by U-156, which had lagged behind the convoy SL-119, with a gross tonnage of 5941 tons.

    Doesn't feel like a "crushing success".
    1. bubalik
      19 January 2021 20: 01
      +10
      ,,, if you take only these boats:
      U-156 departure from Lorient 20 August 1942 / return 16 November 1942 Duration 89 days. Sunk 30 381 brt.
      The Eisbär Wolf Pack operated in the South Atlantic from 25 August to 1 September 1942.
      The only success of this "flock" was the sinking of the U-156

      Clan macwhirter sunk in the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of Madeira
      U-172 leaving Lorient on 19 August 1942 / returning on 27 December 1942 Day 131. 60 brt was sunk.
      U-68 departure from Lorient 20 August 1942 / return 6 December 1942 109 days. Sunk 56 330 brt.
      U-459 departure from Saint-Nazaire 18 August 1942 / return 4 Nov 1942 79 days. Milch cow.
      U-504 leaving Lorient 19 August 1942 / return 11 December 1942 Day 115. 36156 brt was sunk.
      From August 25 to September 1, 1942. these boats originally formed the core wolf pack "Eisbär". But the operation itself continued throughout the fall.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 19 January 2021 20: 20
        +9
        You know, Sergei, I myself became interested in this issue. You obviously took Kleinhans's article as a basis. Wolfpack Eisbär and Operation Eisbär are also found in different sources.
        And the numbers of losses of the merchant fleet vary.
        Probably, if, after all, Operation Eisbär and Wolfpack Eisbär are different things, then you are right, the operation lasted until December 1942.
        1. bubalik
          19 January 2021 20: 26
          +11
          Yeah, VikNik. I broke my head myself, but I'm inclined to the same:still Operation Eisbär and Wolfpack EisbärDifferent things, not quite correctly in the article this face was displayed recourse
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 19 January 2021 20: 37
            +8
            A worthy polemic! Let's see what will happen in dynamics ...
          2. Undecim
            Undecim 19 January 2021 20: 37
            +11
            Hitler's War Beneath the Waves: The menace of the U-Boats has a separate chapter, Operation Eisbär. It specifically states that the operation started in October 1942. I have not found any other data yet.
            1. bubalik
              19 January 2021 20: 42
              +9
              the operation started in October 1942.
              ,,, they came to the operational area in early October.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 19 January 2021 20: 57
                +10
                Logically, Gruppe Seehund should appear in the sequel.
              2. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 21 January 2021 12: 49
                +2
                ,,, they came to the operational area in early October.

                So, there is nothing to read today, so I want to amuse you a little about our favorite phrase. I found an English caricature about emancipation yesterday, I can't help but share with you. drinks

                Apparently, the late 19th - early 20th century. Emancipation of all from everything! drinks
  • mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 19 January 2021 19: 02
    +9
    Thank you, intrigued, I hope you will not delay the continuation.
  • 2 Level Advisor
    2 Level Advisor 19 January 2021 20: 24
    +10
    Sergey, thanks for the article! good
  • Constanty
    Constanty 19 January 2021 20: 58
    +7
    Where is the proofreading of the text by BO. Lots of overlapping paragraphs.
    And the topic itself was only a signal. I'm waiting for the actual continuation
    1. Petr Vladimirovich
      Petr Vladimirovich 20 January 2021 21: 18
      0
      And also, unfortunately, just a clumsy translation.
      1. Constanty
        Constanty 20 January 2021 21: 42
        +1
        Unfortunately, I also use a translator - I read fluently, but write very badly :-(
        However, here the title is catchy and the content itself is small.
    2. Petr Vladimirovich
      Petr Vladimirovich 21 January 2021 14: 23
      +1
      "North Atlantic victories have dropped significantly"
      "reducing the" air gap "
      "ships that traveled along the coast"
      "difficulties with logistics"
      "Cape Town's waters were devoid of any significant underwater activity"
      Dear author (edition)! Friendly request.
      Do not consider it too difficult to read the material before publishing ...
      1. bubalik
        21 January 2021 14: 53
        +2
        Petr Vladimirovich (Petr)
        Konstanty (Konstanty)

        ,,, hi agree with you. I do not speak languages, I am not engaged in writing. Rather, it's a hobby. Of course I try to make the text literate and readable, but as you can see for yourself, it does not always work out request
        1. Petr Vladimirovich
          Petr Vladimirovich 21 January 2021 15: 56
          +2
          Yes, everything is just wonderful! Any hobby is honorable and respected! And if there are several of them (all except white, of course), then even better! 10 years ago, unexpectedly and unexpectedly, I got involved in aircraft modeling, which I recommend to everyone.
          Sincerely yours, Peter
          drinks
  • Tests
    Tests 19 January 2021 21: 04
    +10
    Sergey, thank you very much for the article! I will look forward to the continuation with impatience ... I read about auxiliary cruisers in the Indian Ocean, but not about submarines ... I read: "Walvis Bay". The memory returned to childhood immediately. Mid 70s, one of my favorite magazines "Around the World", the story "Coast of Skeletons".
  • Alex013
    Alex013 19 January 2021 23: 26
    +9
    Finally, adequate commentators began to write articles. Moreover, on a rare topic, on which he himself wrote essays on history. Thank you!
  • Alex013
    Alex013 19 January 2021 23: 27
    +7
    Looking forward to Undecim
  • Toucan
    Toucan 20 January 2021 01: 59
    +9
    The article is definitely bold + good
    I noticed one interesting pattern - readers who leave the most competent and meaningful comments often become
    very interesting authors. And the staff "writers" of the site are not particularly encouraging lately.
  • kalibr
    kalibr 20 January 2021 16: 24
    +5
    What interesting materials do you write ... +++++++++
  • Tests
    Tests 20 January 2021 21: 36
    +2
    3x3zsave (anton), dear, the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic only died on May 08, 1990, when the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR adopted the Decree on the state status of Estonia. At that moment, the ESSSR Supreme Council was led by a loyal Leninist, holder of the Order of Lenin, Arnold Ruutel. In 1991, Ruutel and EBN signed an Agreement on the Fundamentals of Interstate Relations between the RSFSR and the Republic of Estonia ... In August 1991, my wife and I traveled by train through all the capitals of the Soviet Baltic, for a week we lived in Lithuania in the town of Snechkus, which was built for builders and operators Ignalina NPP. The Republic of Lithuania has been a member of the club of countries with nuclear energy for 18 years (although Snechkus was already applied in Visaginas in 1992), and now ... I just want to remember our Minister of Foreign Affairs: "Morons, five!" ... In 1991, on the train from Arkhangelsk to Leningrad, there was a video show car, and then my wife and I watched "Kindergarten Policeman" for a small price. Petersburg train from Arkhangelsk and today barely runs for almost a day, and then at each post stood for 2 minutes.
  • Tests
    Tests 20 January 2021 22: 11
    +1
    "Pane Kokhanku (Pane Kokhanku) It's just the climate!" Dear Pane Kokhanku, do not be frightened by theories, our climate in Severodvinsk is much more fun than in St. Petersburg, there are many more reactors, not long ago (compared to the accidents on the nuclear submarine) in Nyonoks, after which all the men fell off the horns on the third day, but the wool on the tails now grows pure, silky. But cannibals do not appear every decade. Dismemberment and concealment of corpses is normal, the methods of concealment are different, different peoples from all over the USSR sent their representatives to us, the interpenetration of races, religions, cultures, you know, entertainers and in this specific area were.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 21 January 2021 10: 14
      +1
      entertainers and in this specific area were.

      Yes, that's all clear. drinks It's just that, Evgeny, as you remember, in St. Petersburg over the past year and a half, there were several cases of that very dismemberment that even cartoons are being drawn.

      Of course, there is little funny, but we are joking at ourselves - they say, the climate is like that, Raskolnikov's assistant! Now, even Vasya Lozhkin has already joined drinks
  • Tests
    Tests 21 January 2021 17: 21
    +2
    Pane Kokhanku (Pane Kokhanku), dear, looked at Vasi Lozhkin's cats and somehow immediately thought that on January 01, 2021, the bespectacled summer resident was going west, somewhere in the direction of Luga, and the summer resident under the umbrella was heading east seems to be for Volkhov, either in the DNP of the Fleet Veterans, or in the SNT Wallet. After all, our beloved State Duma decided that from 01.01.2021 summer residents can harvest deadwood only by hand ... January 01, 2021, almost like Vasya Lozhkin's cat, walked with his wife and youngest daughter under umbrellas in almost their native Krasnoselsky district of St. Petersburg .. .And the first cartoon is just great! Have fun!
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 22 January 2021 11: 25
      +1
      almost native Krasnoselsky district of St. Petersburg

      Whoa! And for me he is dear from birth to this day! drinks
      And the first cartoon is just great! Have fun!

      It seems to me that Lozhkin has already become our all-Russian property! good