Military Review

How people live at the bottom of the ocean

55
How people live at the bottom of the ocean

It is generally accepted that the profession of an astronaut is special. Big risks, alien habitat, confined space, no change of day and night, isolation and the inability to quickly return to familiar conditions. However, few people know that in similar conditions people work on the ground, or rather under water.


Diving with extreme saturation (saturation diving) - perhaps the most "extreme" type of underwater activity (after Russian experiments in the field of liquid breathing).

To understand what he is, you need, as Ivan Vasilyevich said,

"To pierce time and go into the past."

Historical background


With the development of the technological level of mankind, the number of engineering and installation tasks increased, including under water. The level of development of robotics at that time made human labor in the depths uncontested. Even today, not everything can be done with the help of robots. And human hands are often more effective than the most technologically advanced manipulators.

However, working under water meant physical activity and high fatigue, which made long shifts impossible. At the same time, the complexity of operations and the scale increased, which naturally affected the time required to complete typical volumes of work under water.

The first problem faced by the commercial diving enthusiasts of those years was that after long periods of work, an equally long decompression was required, during which the diver would have to be in the water with all the attendant risks.

Therefore, in 1933, Max Zero was taken to solve this problem (in those years he was still a student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology).

He builds a diving bell, which he gives a telling name "Hell bellow»- it is difficult to grasp the context, but literally translates as

"Hell is below".

At the same time, the device was not the first of its kind - long before that, back in 1892, a spherical underwater vehicle was lowered to a depth of 165 meters by an Italian Balsamello (Felice balsamello and his bathysphere "Palla nautica").

And by 1934, the apparatus of another American designer William Beebe (William beebe) plunged to 932 meters, unthinkable at that time (this record lasted for 15 years).

Bathisphere Bibi "Age of Progress"

Zero's apparatus did not allow setting records, however, it made it possible for the diver to undergo decompression in relatively comfortable conditions (more comfortable than in the water). In addition, Zero was actively involved in experiments with gas mixtures and a diving suit, which ultimately allowed him to set another record - to dive in a suit to a record 420 feet (128 meters) for that time.

Research funding has always been a problem. Advertising has become a good help. The poster shows Max Zero in a suit designed by him.

The next step was to conduct a series of experiments, the purpose of which was to determine whether the human body is, in principle, capable of enduring long dives.

And already on December 22, 1938 Max Zero и Edgar End performed the first deliberate saturation immersion simulation in the pressure chamber. The total time during which they breathed air at a pressure of 4 atm. (equivalent to a depth of 30 meters), was 27 hours. And, despite the fact that the subsequent 5-hour decompression was not entirely harmless, nevertheless, it was found that a person can stay at a depth for a long time.

Experimenting further, the researchers realized that humans have a so-called saturation limit, upon reaching which further depths do not increase decompression time. The maximum decompression time is 1 week. It doesn't matter whether a person has spent 10 hours at a depth, a day or a month - it will take one week to return to normal atmospheric pressure conditions.

From then on, the era of commercial diving with the ultimate saturation level began.

Above, I already gave a link to my previous article about underwater activities. And it presented part of the decompression profile diagram for a saturated dive:


"Space stations" on board the ship


The essence of the method is quite simple.

A kind of space station, consisting of compartments, is being built on board the support vessel. There are several accommodation units in which divers live.

The divers enter the station, where they are slowly "squeezed" to the "depth" at which they have to work. When their work shift comes, they enter the bell through the airlock, close the hatch. And they are lowered to a predetermined depth, where they work. Later, everything is repeated in the opposite direction. In any case, it is better to see once than hear 100 times.


When diving, it is classic that there are three people in the shift - two divers work, the third helps them dress, monitors the functioning of the bell systems and, in case of an emergency, can go down under the water himself to provide assistance.


It is not difficult to assess the attendant risks of such work - despite the fact that there are people physically around the station on the ship, the divers inside are isolated from the outside world. If something happens, the person cannot be pulled out earlier than after 7 days.

Despite the fact that there are usually specialists with a medical education in the shifts, the amount of assistance that a diver can count on is limited to primitive manipulations - first aid for cuts, bruises, fractures, relief of acute conditions.

In addition to being placed on board such a station, a diving support vessel should have volumetric systems for storing gas (helium), as well as equipment for preparing gas mixtures. All key elements must be duplicated.

Since divers breathe gas under pressure 24/7, its consumption on a recreational scale cannot be described as anything other than "monstrous." Therefore, for storage of gas on board, huge sections are assembled from high-pressure cylinders.


The gas used is heliox, a mixture of helium and oxygen. Perhaps this is the most expensive solution available, but also the safest. In recreational (or technical) diving, such a mixture is also available for use. However, it was not widely adopted due to the price.

It should be noted that the helium used in the mixture is not technical, but "medical". It differs from the one used to inflate balloons in parks in the degree of purification, which naturally affects the price.

The gas supply on the bell is heliox and oxygen. In the event of an emergency, it will allow divers to hold out for a while inside the bell until rescuers arrive.

Due to the high cost of gas, divers also use closed breathing apparatus - when exhaling, the gas does not leave the circuit, as is the case with conventional scuba diving, but remains inside the system and is then reused (after "processing").

Low temperature problem


The temperature at depth is much lower than in the upper layers of the water. This means that divers will have to spend up to 6 hours in water, the temperature of which barely reaches + 5 ° C.

To solve this problem, they also borrowed "space" technologies (although who borrowed the concept from whom is still a question). We are talking about a suit of water heat exchange - along the “umbilical cord” from the bell (in addition to gas and electricity), warm water is continuously supplied, which warms the diver.

Cosmonauts' water heat exchange suit. Despite the fact that in space it works for cooling, the principle of operation is the same.

Training


Traditionally, the leaders in the field of deep sea diving are American and Norwegian schools. Russia lags far behind in this regard, both technically and conceptually. Although recently, there have been some positive trends aimed at reducing this lag. In essence, these "tendencies" boil down to the development of what has long been used on a massive scale in the West.

Among the requirements for candidates for training are excellent health, education not lower than secondary. And there are some specific tests for "aquaticity" - swimming on holding the breath, holding the breath in static, etc.

Among the operations taught in the basic courses are welding / cutting of metal, assembly of structures on bolted joints.

Typical construction set for practicing underwater skills.

Practicing the skills of working with tools most of the time is spent at shallow depths. Or in special pools, where all the divers' actions can be controlled through the glass.


A special place in the preparation is occupied by the study of emergency situations - the separation of the bell or the umbilical cord.

If the entire bell is torn off, the divers remain at the bottom until help arrives. At the same time, their situation is somewhat better than that of submariners on an emergency submarine - the bell can be easily attached to the cable and pulled out.

Since the power supply is cut off, the bell gets very cold very quickly. Therefore, first of all, the whole shift changes into special suits that resemble sleeping bags in the shape of the body. Take an emergency supply of water and food with them inside the bag. They are included in breathing apparatus with replaceable cassettes (allow gas regeneration). And in such a "pupated" state they are waiting for help.

It looks something like this.


If the umbilical cord breaks, the diver has very little gas with him - for a maximum of 10-15 minutes. It is understood that during this time he must reach the bell; he has no other options at great depth.

In order to minimize emergency situations and make work safer (as far as this word, in general, is appropriate to use in relation to such work), support vessels are equipped with special dynamic positioning systems.

Below is a diagram of the location of the movers.


On such ships, not classic propellers or water cannons are often used, but Foid-Schneider movers or azipods.

The first option is the "wings" located vertically on a rotating platform. When changing the angles of rotation of the blades, the thrust vector also changes.

The Foid-Schneider vane propellers are clearly visible. This option allows you to change the thrust vector much faster and more accurately.

To some, such a mover may seem like something new and exotic, but this is far from the case.
Those interested can read about him in more detail in the issue of the magazine"Young modeller-constructor" No. 4 for 1963 year.

Second solution - azipod.

Electric motor located on a rotating console - the console rotates and changes the direction of the thrust vector.


Computer-controlled propellers, having data from a high-precision GPS system, make it possible to implement a mode in which the vessel "hovers" exactly over the diving site and keeps its position and orientation unchanged, despite the waves, currents and wind. However, there is a limit to the conditions under which this system can ensure that the ship's position remains unchanged. And if the specified parameters are exceeded (sea waves, wind speed), all work must be urgently stopped.

Adaptation to working conditions and psychological compatibility


When a group of people is closed together for a long time, psychological aspects begin to play a special role. Not everything can be predicted in the early stages of learning through surveys and drawing up a psychological portrait of a person (although there is some benefit from such methods). There is always a risk of unaccounted for psychological factors.

Interesting experiments in this area have been and are being carried out by the USSR / USSR in the context of manned flights to other planets.

From November 1967 to November 1968 (exactly one year), an experiment was conducted at the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), in which three volunteers were locked in an enclosed space, simulating space flight.


During the experiment, a lot of information was obtained. And among others, conclusions were drawn about the importance of psychological compatibility of people for such conditions.


It is impossible to retire in such living conditions. Therefore, everyone tries to distract himself as best he can. Fortunately, modern technologies allow you to do this - headphones plus gadgets.

However, the older generation still prefers books ...


Diving film


Most often, 99% of films cannot be recommended for the purpose of acquainting with the real state of affairs, since much in them is distorted for the sake of entertainment, plot, etc.

However, there are exceptions.

One such good exception is the British-directed documentary Last Breath. About the development of an emergency situation with one of the deep-sea divers. Most of the storage space is the frames taken by the team directly at the moment the situation itself develops.

It is not possible to post the film itself here (without copyright infringement), but you can offer you to watch the trailer.

Author:
Photos used:
http://oosif.ru/, https://novayagazeta.ru/, http://www.nyd.no, https://www.kirbymorgan.com/, ru.wikipedia.org
55 comments
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  1. Cowbra
    Cowbra 20 March 2021 15: 15
    +17
    At one time I heard from one funny pretzel, a pinniped saboteur, a shoulder strap with two gaps. "A diver must be bald, fat and stupid. - This is why?"
  2. RealPilot
    RealPilot 20 March 2021 15: 24
    +7
    Interesting ... and dangerous.

    I am an amateur diver, about 30 open water dives. I love diving, it's awesome! And then, one day I ran out of air, another time I lost my weight belt. And then I almost bit a moray eel laughing
    So my compliments to those specialists who made diving work their profession!
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 20 March 2021 16: 10
      +3
      Quote: RealPilot
      So my compliments to those specialists who made diving work their profession!

      Especially the work of deep divers, it is harder than that of cosmonauts, because a diver is connected with work under water all his life.
  3. Flooding
    Flooding 20 March 2021 15: 30
    +4
    It is impossible to retire in such living conditions. Therefore, everyone tries to distract himself as best he can. Fortunately, modern technologies allow you to do this - headphones plus gadgets.

    I suppose they play Subnautica
  4. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 20 March 2021 15: 59
    +2
    When a group of people is closed together for a long time, psychological aspects begin to play a special role.
    I read that at first they were going to select submariners for the cosmonaut detachment, for psychological reasons.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 20 March 2021 17: 10
      -1
      Born to swim - cannot fly!
      1. I do not care
        I do not care 20 March 2021 19: 43
        +1
        Those interested can read about him in more detail in the issue of the magazine "Young modeller-constructor" No. 4 for 1963.
        and with the Siberian Cranes, and at the bottom. Do not flatter yourself.
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 20 March 2021 20: 34
          +3
          Quote: me by
          and with the Siberian Cranes, and at the bottom. Do not flatter yourself.

          He's a multi-station wagon.
      2. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 20 March 2021 19: 59
        +1
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        Born to swim - cannot fly!

        They just decided that for an astronaut the independence of thinking and training for overloads with a fighter is more suitable than resistance to being in a confined space and the habit of having minimal chances of escape from a submariner.
  5. Lynx2000
    Lynx2000 20 March 2021 16: 19
    0
    In 2005, in Kamchatka, I met PDSniki, we were friends, and we were dragged into the divers' club.
    I do not think that the USA and Norway are the leaders in deep-sea diving, I think that Russia is not inferior.
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 20 March 2021 18: 11
      -6
      everything is bad - everything is bad - like with torpedoes and PTZ at Klimov .. nothing is missing .. everything is stolen .. to us
      1. Lynx2000
        Lynx2000 20 March 2021 18: 15
        +6
        Honestly, I did not understand anything from your "message".
        1. antivirus
          antivirus 21 March 2021 00: 55
          -1
          no point - just sand and shit.

          I many times - "on an open site tryndet not knowing all the" little things "that lie waiting for hoursX. supposedly we are hopelessly behind the partners. the armymen always shout for throwing away all 20-year-olds and buying everything new, something backward and unfit ...
    2. ratcatcher
      ratcatcher 22 March 2021 04: 50
      +4
      And here you do not need to think, but you need to look at the records for diving, in open water, in a pressure chamber, and at what depths who actually works. The Russian record in the pressure chamber is 425 meters. Comex's record is 700. And that's it. KB "Rubin", which was engaged in surveys for deep-sea work with us, was in full control from the restructuring to the mid-2000s. Despite the fact that even before that, we were not the most advanced in diving technologies. Although the GK 300 suit allowed us to hypothetically work at 300 meters, in fact they did not work deeper than 200.
      By the way - I myself am a PADI divemaster, I have degrees in technical diving. And I was personally acquainted with the developers from Rubin ...
      1. water
        water 23 March 2021 13: 16
        0
        Quote: ratcatcher
        And here you do not need to think, but you need to look at the records for diving, in open water, in a pressure chamber, and at what depths who actually works. The Russian record in the pressure chamber is 425 meters. Comex's record is 700. And that's it. KB "Rubin", which was engaged in surveys for deep-sea work with us, was in full control from the restructuring to the mid-2000s. Despite the fact that even before that, we were not the most advanced in diving technologies. Although the GK 300 suit allowed us to hypothetically work at 300 meters, in fact they did not work deeper than 200.
        By the way - I myself am a PADI divemaster, I have degrees in technical diving. And I was personally acquainted with the developers from Rubin ...

        Of course you are right! It is necessary to watch the records: In 1956, in the autumn, on the Caspian Sea near Baku, from the rescue vessel 254 of the "Zangezur" project, deep-water diving descents were carried out successively to depths: 220; 240; 260; 280; 300 meters. Prior to that, the record diving depth was considered to be 184 meters, achieved by the English diver John Wookie. And only in 1962 the Swede G. Keller, on Lake Lucerne, finally reached 300 meters.
        Quote: ratcatcher
        The Russian record in the pressure chamber is 425 meters. Comex's record is 700.
        ... In 1993, work on the practical development of a depth of 500 meters was completed in Russia. For the work, the retrofitted SVG-200 equipment with the IDA-72V apparatus was used. The depth has been mastered, the decompression modes have been tested in practice. At the same time, it was scientifically substantiated that it is categorically not recommended to walk deeper than 350 meters on gas mixtures because of the great danger of pathological changes in the human body.
        Quote: ratcatcher
        KB "Rubin", which was engaged in surveys for deep-sea work with us, was in full control from the restructuring to the mid-2000s. Despite the fact that even before that, we were not the most advanced in diving technologies. Although the GK 300 suit allowed us to hypothetically work at 300 meters, in fact they did not work deeper than 200.

        TsMKB "Rubin" has never dealt with diving equipment or diving equipment, it has always dealt with marine equipment, and the GK 300 suit has not been seen in nature.
        1. ratcatcher
          ratcatcher 26 March 2021 04: 13
          0
          "... carried out deep-water diving descents successively to depths: 220; 240; 260; 280; 300 meters. And only in 1962 the Swede G. Keller, on Lake Lucerne, finally reached 300 meters." Nevertheless, already in the 70s, Comex carried out a pressure chamber dive at over 700, and in open water, as far as I remember, about 600. But with us this case slowed down. And the diving equipment itself then developed slowly. Perhaps the direction was not considered a priority.
          "In 1993 in Russia, work was completed on the practical development of a depth of 500 meters. For the work, additional equipment SVG-200 with an IDA-72V apparatus was used. The depth was mastered, the decompression modes were tested in practice."
          And at the same time, a record dive in a pressure chamber at 425? How is it so interesting?
          Or how with such a statement: "The rescue vessel Igor Belousov of the Russian Pacific Fleet completed experimental deep-water diving descents on November 18, 2018. According to the Mil.Press FLOT portal, during this experiment, a national diving diving record was set - a depth of 416 meters."
          "The GK 300 suit has not been seen in nature." - yes, I was wrong SVG 200 and SVG 300
          "TsMKB" Rubin "has never dealt with either diving equipment or diving equipment" - they dealt with issues of underwater work. For example, a rigid-type space suit, observation cameras with manipulators for rescue vessels, ship lifting issues. I won't argue specifically about suits and breathing apparatus - I don't know. But with regard to all diving equipment and Soviet and Russian diving practice, they were in great detail in the course, including all its shortcomings, in the spirit of a very mediocre supply of water for heating in SVG 200 or savings on helium during diving operations in the 90s and early 2000s ...
          1. water
            water 26 March 2021 13: 12
            0
            Quote: ratcatcher
            .... And at the same time, the dive in the pressure chamber at 425 is considered a record one for us? How is it so interesting?

            You know, I am not a theoretician, I am basically a practitioner and where did you get the "record" depth for a pressure chamber of 425 meters I find it difficult to answer.
            Quote: ratcatcher
            Nevertheless, already in the 70s, Comex carried out a pressure chamber dive at over 700, and in open water, as far as I remember, about 600. But with us this case slowed down. And the diving equipment itself then developed slowly. Perhaps the direction was not considered a priority.

            If you figured out what happened to those people who walked 700 meters in a pressure chamber and about 600 meters in "open" water, you would understand why this business has slowed down somewhat. The fact is that they preferred to repeatedly check and double-check scientific hypotheses and theoretical calculations, especially when it came to human health and life, and only then, when the experiments gave a good result, did they begin to check the developments with the participation of people. I have already written that work at depths over 350 meters is fraught with pathological changes in the human body. Labor protection in the USSR was at its best, so the development of deep-sea manned workers and rescue vehicles began. And they were quite carried away by them, and in view of the fact that there were few serious works under water, the realization that a mechanical manipulator is far from always able to replace a human hand came quite belatedly, and even now it has not reached many scientists. Now, as in those days, those who determine technical policy are carried away by uninhabited remote-controlled underwater vehicles, believing that NTPA is quite capable of replacing a diver. And, it should be noted that when performing the simplest work, this calculation is justified. However, only in the simplest jobs. Complex work, rescue work, work inside structures, hulls, compartments can only be carried out by a diver. And here NTPA is a wonderful assistant to him.
            Quote: ratcatcher
            Or how with such a statement: "The rescue vessel Igor Belousov of the Russian Pacific Fleet completed experimental deep-water diving descents on November 18, 2018. According to the Mil.Press FLOT portal, during this experiment, a national diving diving record was set - a depth of 416 meters."

            Well, how !? - Probably not! Because this is truly a record working dive. Neither in the USSR nor in Russia in sea conditions they did not go to such a depth. After all, the development of the technology of diving operations at a depth of 500 meters was carried out in a hydrobaric chamber.
            Quote: ratcatcher
            I won't argue specifically about suits and breathing apparatus - I don't know. But with regard to all diving equipment and Soviet and Russian diving practice, they were in great detail in the course, including all its shortcomings, in the spirit of a very mediocre supply of water for heating in SVG 200 or savings on helium during diving operations in the 90s and early 2000s ...

            Rubin designs marine equipment. In case of emergencies with this technique at sea, the diver goes to eliminate these situations. Therefore, the design bureau should always be aware of all new products in diving equipment and technologies. After all, the designers think over possible emergency situations and methods of their elimination in advance, when designing.
            1. ratcatcher
              ratcatcher 27 March 2021 02: 39
              0
              And for open water, the numbers are still the same (315 since this is before diving to 416 meters.):
              "Previously, dives to a depth of 200 m (carried out in the Pacific Fleet in 1991 from the rescue vessel Alagez) and to a depth of 315 m (carried out in 2017 from the board of Igor Belousov) were considered record," the Department of Information and Mass Communications reports. Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. "
              https://vpk.name/news/235221_na_tof_uspeshno_zavershen_eksperiment_po_pervomu_v_istorii_vmf_pogruzheniyu_vodolazov_na_rekordnuyu_glubinu_416_m.html


              "The fact is that we preferred to repeatedly check and double-check scientific hypotheses and theoretical calculations, especially when it came to human health and life, and only then, when the experiments gave a good result, began to check the developments with the participation of people."
              Not always. Here is a description of dives with GCS 3. Two people died.
              https://yurvit.livejournal.com/122114.html

              "After all, the development of the technology of diving operations at a depth of 500 meters was carried out in a hydrobaric chamber." - all the same, Comex lagged behind in this matter for 15 years ...
              I found information on experiments in a pressure chamber with a depth of 500 meters. Indeed - from 88 to 95.
              1. water
                water 27 March 2021 11: 07
                0
                Quote: ratcatcher
                "Previously, dives to a depth of 200 m (carried out in the Pacific Fleet in 1991 from the rescue vessel Alagez) and to a depth of 315 m (carried out in 2017 from the board of Igor Belousov) were considered record," the Department of Information and Mass Communications reports. Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. "

                You see, all submarine rescue vessels built in the USSR had diving complexes at 200 meters (1957), on Project 940 rescue submarines! (1975) diving complexes at 300 meters, near the ships of Minmorneftegaz (1979) at 300 meters. Well, as for the Department of Information and Mass Communications - it talks about Russia as a separate newly formed state. I think one should not forget that Russia is the legal successor of the USSR, therefore, Soviet achievements and records are Russian.
                Quote: ratcatcher
                The fact is that they preferred to repeatedly check and double-check scientific hypotheses and theoretical calculations, especially when it came to human health and life, and only then, when the experiments gave a good result, did they start checking the developments with the participation of people. "
                Not always. Here is a description of dives with GCS 3. Two people died.
                https://yurvit.livejournal.com/122114.html
                Unfortunately, I did not find the information on the link. Well, the death of divers has always been - this is the job. True, before the beginning of the 90s, they died in our country by an order of magnitude less than abroad, and since the beginning of 92, an order of magnitude more.
                Quote: ratcatcher
                "After all, the development of the technology of diving operations at a depth of 500 meters was carried out in a hydrobaric chamber." - all the same, Comex lagged behind in this matter for 15 years ...
                I found information on experiments in a pressure chamber with a depth of 500 meters. Indeed - from 88 to 95.

                You are a strange person - well, what was the point for Soviet divers to climb 500 meters into the sea, if there is no work for you, and you will also lose the health of the diver? This is not a lag - this is prudence! Now, alas, there is a lag. Now we are not even able to make a deep-sea diving complex of saturated dives ourselves. I. it's sad.
                1. ratcatcher
                  ratcatcher 27 March 2021 19: 14
                  0
                  "You are a strange person - well, what was the point for Soviet divers to climb 500 meters into the sea, if there is no work for you, and you will also lose the health of the diver? This is not lagging behind - this is prudence! Now, alas, we are lagging behind. Now we are even a deep-sea diving complex is not able to make saturated dives on their own. And it's sad. " - but right now dives are planned to bring them up to 500 meters in open water. All the same, this reserve can be used to create drilling rigs. And - solely as an assumption for setting up, repairing submarine tracking stations or, on the contrary, eliminating those from the enemy. True, perhaps this is a wrong assumption - it is safer to do such things with drones or controlled bathyscaphes.
                  As for the equipment - of course, the industrial and research base was largely lost after the restructuring and restoration of capitalism ...
                  1. water
                    water 28 March 2021 11: 46
                    0
                    Yes. "Excursion" descent by the method of saturated dives to the maximum depth for the I Belousov GVK is probably planned, but whether it will take place is a question. After all, there is no objective need for it at the moment, and preparation for this diving descent is very costly. It is necessary to prepare the divers, provide them with a consistent set of depths up to 160 meters, and only then proceed to the diving descent to the maximum depth.
                    As for the use of the labor of a deep-sea diver, here the "spectrum" is very extensive both in the military and in the civilian spheres. In the military sphere, these are works from assisting the crews of sunken submarines, ensuring the lifting of these boats to the surface, repair work at bottom hydroacoustic tracking stations and to installing splitter couplings on underwater optical fiber communication cables of our foreign "partners". In the civilian sphere, this is mainly work on the installation of production platforms, bottom mining complexes, ensuring their safe operation and eliminating the consequences of accidents. But, deep-sea diving business is a costly thing, therefore, I believe, the military always does not have enough money for it. And civilians, apparently, are waiting for the end of the sanctions, comforting themselves with the hope that foreign "partners" will take them out into deep water. Perhaps we will someday come to the realization of the need not to divide deep-sea diving service into the military and civil spheres, but concentrate it in the hands of the state to perform the entire spectrum of deep-sea diving operations at all deep-water facilities of our state, regardless of their departmental affiliation. But, this is someday.
  6. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 20 March 2021 16: 23
    +3
    The first aquanauts in the USSR, Sevneftegazrazvedka, Murmansk, underwent a medical examination at the Cosmonaut Training Center. Their food from the inside, their friend was an aquanat Shashine. Health leaves the sea. We dived into that ill-fated South Korean Boeing.
  7. 2 Level Advisor
    2 Level Advisor 20 March 2021 16: 27
    +2
    Yeah ... a job .. really not worse than astronauts .. and even more abruptly in places .. health there, of course, to put it mildly, "wild" is needed ...
  8. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 20 March 2021 16: 28
    +9
    Traditionally, the leaders in the field of deep sea diving are American and Norwegian schools. Russia lags far behind in this regard, both technically and conceptually.
    You can't use mate. You can't use mate ... So, I finished psycho-training. In general, underwater settlements were organized in the USSR, on the Black Sea, in which people lived for several months. So the USSR was the first in "life at the bottom of the sea." They did not go out into the ocean, there is no need. But all the equipment for a LONG stay under water was completely worked out.
    The author, I understand, shame and conscience is not yours, but to translate American articles, with the blackened Russia and the USSR, and post them in Runet, this is somehow too much. Was there no imagination or thought left by the staff at all? Sorry... ))
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 20 March 2021 18: 24
      +11
      In general, underwater settlements were organized in the USSR, on the Black Sea, in which people lived for several months.
      Instead of psycho-training, you would read literature so as not to carry a blizzard.
      The first project "Ikhtandr" in Tarkhankut is 1966.

      All on sheer enthusiasm, on a personal initiative for their own money and from improvised means. The depth is 11 meters, 6 cubic meters of volume, two people lived for a total of three days.
      The year before, in 1965, the French and Americans had finished the Précontinent III experiment.
      Funded by the US National Geographic Society and the French Bureau of Petroleum Research.

      Six people lived at a depth of 100 meters for three weeks. 100 cubic meters of volume, 130 tons of weight.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 20 March 2021 18: 45
        +12
        with blackened Russia and the USSR,
        And what has the author blinded that the Russian Navy is using Canadian HardsuitTM HS-1200 spacesuits?
      2. Mikhail3
        Mikhail3 21 March 2021 10: 16
        -2
        Well, shit is shit ...
        In 1966, the Ikhtiander and Sadko went under water, and in 1967 the Sprut underwater hydrostat, which had an inflatable structure, was first populated. And in 1968, the longest in the Soviet and in the world history of underwater houses began the experiment "Chernomor". In total, 2 expedition crews, including over 20 aquanauts, worked in the Chernomor and Chernomor-40 laboratories for six seasons. They also hold another record: in total, Soviet researchers spent almost seven months under water! (Information source - Istoriya.RF portal, https://histrf.ru/biblioteka/b/zhizn-na-dnie-ekspierimienty-s-podvodnymi-domami-v-krymu)

        And also:
        The Ichthyander became the first underwater home almost by accident. Simultaneously with him in Sukhumi, the underwater house "Sadko" was being prepared for diving to the bottom of the Black Sea. Moreover, the Sadkovites were equipped much better than the Ikhtiandrovites: the Leningrad Hydrometeorological Institute (LGMI) was involved in the organization of the project, and the Sukhumi Acoustic Institute, which worked for the military, became the base (Information source - Istoriya.RF portal, https://histrf.ru/biblioteka / b / zhizn-na-dnie-ekspierimienty-s-podvodnymi-domami-v-krymu)

        LGMI and the Acoustic Institute - these are their own means and naked enthusiasm, right? And the Soviet submariners' clubs are also "their own means". I am not a poet, but I will say in verse ...
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 21 March 2021 10: 25
          +4
          Well, shit is shit ...
          Well, if you are more comfortable in shit, who will forbid you. You should read what you have written first.
          1. Mikhail3
            Mikhail3 21 March 2021 10: 33
            -2
            Darling, yes I read it, can you imagine? Soviet hobby clubs were financed by trade unions and enjoyed serious government assistance; their members were only required to be enthusiastic - the willingness to take over the organization and partly the work (large parts, those same houses were ordered from factories). And the Soviet research institutes, too, can you imagine, were supported by the state! And military research is the work of the state, not of individual enthusiasts!
            And the petty article only says that miserable Russia "seriously lags behind", and there is nothing about the USSR at all, as if it did not exist, with all its research! Black Sea houses were, wow, the second! That is, they did not exist at all, and those 40 people who have been there for many months are nothing at all. And how much did the military work?
            But in the article there is zero, emptiness, "backward Russia" and that's it. Does the administration of VO pay money to people for this nasty concoction? And they are there on the same day with a crush salary receive money, or on different? Or is he paying extra for some fund, from Soros? Every week, as is customary in the USA?
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 21 March 2021 12: 34
              +6
              And they are there on the same day with a crush salary receive money, or on different? Or is he paying extra for a fund from Soros? Every week, as is customary in the USA?
              The presence of such a text immediately indicates serious problems with the perception of reality. In this case, there is no question of any constructive discussion. All the best.
      3. water
        water 21 March 2021 11: 41
        +2
        Quote: Undecim
        Instead of psycho-training, you would read literature so as not to carry a blizzard.
        The first project "Ikhtandr" in Tarkhankut is 1966.


        All on sheer enthusiasm, on a personal initiative for their own money and from improvised means. The depth is 11 meters, 6 cubic meters of volume, two people lived for a total of three days.

        In fact, these are activities under the research program carried out by the Donetsk Submariners' Club "Underwater House". There were two stages: "Ichthyander-66" - when two aquanauts lived in a house at a depth of 10 meters for three days, going out into the water every day and performing medium-heavy work. The stage was terminated ahead of schedule due to a storm. In August 1967, the second stage took place. - "Ichthyander-67". The house was new, three-compartment. Installed at 12 meters. During the experiment, two teams of five people each worked in this house. Each team worked for a week.
        Quote: Undecim
        All on sheer enthusiasm, on a personal initiative for their own money and from improvised means. The depth is 11 meters, 6 cubic meters of volume, two people lived for a total of three days.

        It is difficult to agree with the author here. You might think that in the USSR, ordinary people from Donetsk could use their own money to build an underwater house with all its supporting systems. Of course not. It's just that the Club, as a public organization, has developed design documentation, a program and methodology for the experiment, and a cost estimate. After that, he presented all this to the City Executive Committee, which, in turn, considering the event useful, allocated money for its holding and organized the manufacture of an underwater house at the city's enterprises. Then everything was much simpler than it is now. Personal money was spent only on ice cream.
        And the enthusiasm !? - Of course he was, moreover, there was a lot of him and not at all naked.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 21 March 2021 13: 01
          +6
          You know, I myself am from the USSR and one of the enthusiasts who enjoyed the support of public organizations, and I know well the difference in the level of research that a public organization and the French Petroleum Research Bureau could provide. And I had to meet with Kiklevich.
          "Spring 1965. We are starting from scratch, with equipment worthy of scrap metal collectors. A decommissioned, fifth-grade compressor is rolling along the streets of Donetsk, dropping parts."
          to repair for at least a year, ”say experienced people. Compressor repair was a good school of plumbing, patience and respect for technology. The "old man" supplied the "Ichthyandrovites" with compressed air for four years, and the best assessment of our work was the repeated attempts of the former negligent owners to get it back.
          There is a lively correspondence between Donetsk and Kiev. The time of the expedition has already been set. A list of equipment and a list of participants have been drawn up. Are the events going too smoothly? In May I visited Kiev and brought some sad news. The Institute of Archeology was not found
          necessary, a very small amount of money. The enthusiasm of our allies has faded
          the expedition was canceled. "
          This is from his memories. And how in the workshop of the Donetsk Institute of Mining Mechanics and Cybernetics from scrap metal "Ichthyander" was collected is also well known. And about personal money "only for ice cream."
          But I, in fact, are not talking about that. Someone Mikhail3 wrote that "the USSR was the first in" life at the bottom of the sea. "
          I answered him, without belittling the merits of all those who dealt with this issue, that in the USSR enthusiasts began to "live at the bottom of the sea" at a time when all over the world they began to lose interest in this. And the opponent suffered a blizzard about the CIA and Soros.
  9. evgen1221
    evgen1221 20 March 2021 16: 42
    +1
    Live for a century and still read something new for yourself. Thank. Really I read a lot of interesting things for my outlook. It seems that it is even easier for astronauts, even though the heroes automatically received fame. But the conditions of the divers are even tighter.
  10. Fitter65
    Fitter65 20 March 2021 17: 02
    +3
    To understand what he is, you need, as Ivan Vasilyevich said,
    "To pierce time and go into the past."
    This was said by Shurik, one of the main characters of the film "Ivan Vasilyevich Changes His Profession".
  11. Bumblebee_3
    Bumblebee_3 20 March 2021 17: 24
    +4
    The author recalled youth. After breathing, with a helium-oxygen mixture, everyone who breathed sang the song "my midget come to me ..." There was laughter. Even those with bass laughed at the change in their voices. Eh youth!
  12. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 20 March 2021 17: 45
    +11
    "However, few people know that in similar conditions people work on the ground, or rather under water."
    Why is that? This has been known for a long time.
    It's just that the profession of a diver is not widely advertised in wide circles of the public .. And in vain.
    Those people who were concerned with these issues perfectly understand the value of our comrades. And they are unbearably respected.
    Every competent diver is a piece goods! One should pray and trust in him.
    Only he knows the falcon, what is there / yes how. Nobody but him will climb THERE. And you have to climb.
    "In addition to being placed on board such a station, the diving support vessel must have volumetric systems for storing gas (helium), as well as equipment for the preparation of gas mixtures. All key elements must be duplicated."
    Presumably, just to make life easier for divers, shipbuilding took care of releasing a series of "divers" of the A160 system. In the construction of one of them, I even had the honor to participate for the Black Sea Fleet.
    In addition, I wanted to add. You don't get in the way of some diving and diving work. These are a little different things.
    1. Bumblebee_3
      Bumblebee_3 20 March 2021 18: 07
      +1
      Quote: Benzorez
      Don't get in the way of some diving and diving work. These are a little different things.

      I agree with you, but it all starts with ordinary diving. Flight school cadets start with training aircraft. So it is here. Carried away, allows health to become a pro.
      1. Petrol cutter
        Petrol cutter 20 March 2021 18: 21
        +4
        To be honest, I have never been a diver or a diver. In general, I'm afraid of water. Yes, that happens too. You will laugh ...
        Simply, at work, I had / may and will have to deal with the involvement of divers more than once.
        And really, I would not like to be in his place.
        He does not just dive for pleasure, but is obliged to do some work.
        Moreover, he must achieve an acceptable result.
        1. Bumblebee_3
          Bumblebee_3 20 March 2021 18: 39
          +2
          Gas cutter (Vitaly
          I was immersed in my youth. By the way, I don't like the word diving. I had a submariner's swimmer's certificate, but not a diver's .. We had aqualungs AVM 1M, Ukraine-2. To be honest, I was always drawn to dive deeper. Several of my friends, classmates, continued to do this business. We worked, engaged in "lungs" and communications under water. Well, I worked in another field.
          1. Aag
            Aag 21 March 2021 20: 06
            0
            Quote: Bumblebee_3
            Gas cutter (Vitaly
            I was immersed in my youth. By the way, I don't like the word diving. I had a submariner's swimmer's certificate, but not a diver's .. We had aqualungs AVM 1M, Ukraine-2. To be honest, I was always drawn to dive deeper. Several of my friends, classmates, continued to do this business. We worked, engaged in "lungs" and communications under water. Well, I worked in another field.

            "Certificate of a diver" ... Orange crusts ... Received in DOSAAF, registration in the Federation of Underwater Sports of the USSR ... My first official knife is inscribed in this certificate. To be kept as a keepsake.
            I still wouldn't have been able to dive deeper, - "barrel" 12,5 meters))). We did not have "Ukraine", although we studied it. there was such an exercise ... hi
  13. bk0010
    bk0010 20 March 2021 18: 14
    +1
    The Foid-Schneider vane propellers are clearly visible. This option allows you to change the thrust vector much faster and more accurately.
    Didn't see the vane propellers at all. Where are they in the picture approximately?
    1. region58
      region58 23 March 2021 03: 24
      +1
      Quote: bk0010
      did not see the vane propellers

  14. zwlad
    zwlad 20 March 2021 18: 27
    0
    Interesting. But some kind of understatement in the article. Kmk.
  15. Dimide
    Dimide 20 March 2021 19: 07
    +2
    I will share a personal one. I always swam and dived above average, and during the first scuba diving I almost "screwed up", "I didn’t emerge urgently," the panic was irrational, the instructor held it well, made me calm down, breathe out. All the same, the air quickly ran out laughing
    1. Petrol cutter
      Petrol cutter 20 March 2021 19: 21
      +2
      It happens. The thing is ...
      Why do I say - underwater affairs ...
      Hemorrhoids are the case. Sorry for the tufting.
  16. ycuce234-san
    ycuce234-san 20 March 2021 19: 14
    0
    the amount of assistance a diver can count on is limited to primitive manipulation


    Here it is desirable to clarify why it is impossible to take a very healthy medical student, for example, a traumatologist, and teach him, on the basis of a medical university and a seaport, the basics of deep diving activities. The fact that a student can become a deep diver was practically proved by Max Zero as a tech student. In honeys they teach for a long time and it is quite possible to master the basics of technical underwater work over the years and years of study (there, the diver acts as, mainly, a welder, a fitter, a slinger, a bricklayer and a concrete worker, that is, professions that can be minimally mastered within the framework of working courses in the profession) and diving technology.
    1. Petrol cutter
      Petrol cutter 20 March 2021 19: 30
      +2
      Have you ever been in full gear underwater?
      Even I have not been, but I understand how the diver feels.
      This is the end !!! - The first thoughts that would have visited me.
      Then, of course, you start to perform the task, and the lyrics fade into the background, but nevertheless ...
      1. ycuce234-san
        ycuce234-san 20 March 2021 19: 54
        0
        Quote: Benzorez
        Have you ever been in full gear underwater?
        ..., but nonetheless...

        The skills of a physician are important - his tools and consumables, his minimum workplace, you can take with you into the bell, under the water, but his practical skills and theoretical knowledge cannot be put into the head of a layman. Therefore, a surgeon or traumatologist will be able to sew up, for example, a torn peritoneum under water and keep the injured person in an artificial coma until more or less safe decompression. There is a well-known case of an operation involving the removal of the appendix by a polar explorer. Well, medical intervention will be carried out in the bell - it is unlikely that the victim's Aesculapians will darn right under the water, bubbling merrily with bubbles and chasing curious fish with a drone.
        And the price of this is the system of deep diving clubs in medical schools. For example, mountaineering and tourist clubs at universities are a long-standing tradition, if I am not mistaken, famous Dyatlovites were from such a club.
  17. Inturist
    Inturist 20 March 2021 19: 28
    +3
    https://youtu.be/Gk4DU8VA03Q

    https://youtu.be/hWZ9G06g7PM

    In three years, according to my calculations, fifteen people died. Work in minus winter and summer.
    People are trying to earn a living, if they were given a job and well paid, I think there would be more benefits.
  18. KSVK
    KSVK 20 March 2021 21: 34
    +1
    Quote: Benzorez
    Don't get in the way of some diving and diving work. These are a little different things.


    Absolutely different. Moreover, commercial divers are in much better conditions than amateurs.

    Quote: zwlad
    Interesting. But some kind of understatement in the article. Kmk.


    This is because the amount of information is overwhelming. Starting with physiology, ending with the device of life support systems. Not to mention the protocols of action, and ABSOLUTELY different for commercial divers and for amateurs.
    I just wanted to draw a couple of articles on general questions of physiology and a little about the types and design features of breathing apparatus, but it will not work out quickly, and I don’t want to do it. And there is not much time. In addition, I'm afraid all this is a little out of the format of this resource and will not arouse the interest of a large number of readers.
  19. kig
    kig 21 March 2021 05: 37
    +1
    Hell bellow ... bellow = roar, bellow. One extra letter changes the meaning completely.
  20. Tests
    Tests 21 March 2021 12: 48
    0
    Americans near the Hawaiian Islands, according to them, lived at a depth of 100 meters. The USSR was in the role of catch-up. Scuba diving clubs in the USSR in the 60s - 80s of the 20th century did everything other than sports. Severodvinsk "Penguin" helped Ksenia Petrovna Gemp near Solovki to study algae, the Arkhangelsk Seaweed Plant wanted to know "chyavo and skoka" grows in the White Sea. There were expeditions to the Sea of ​​Japan to study molluscs, crabs and fish, near Chersonesos they helped archaeologists. The underwater house "Chernomor" was created at SEVMASH, including those who made up the backbone of "Penguin".
  21. water
    water 21 March 2021 14: 35
    0
    Not a bad review article, but with some inaccuracies:
    Traditionally, the leaders in the field of deep sea diving are American and Norwegian schools. Russia lags far behind in this regard, both technically and conceptually. Although recently, there have been some positive trends aimed at reducing this lag. In essence, these "tendencies" boil down to the development of what has long been used on a massive scale in the West.
    If traditionally, then somewhat not so. Until 1917, the indisputable and in those days the traditional leader here was the Kronstadt military diving school (Russia). Further, there was a strong lag, but from the beginning of the 50s to the beginning of the 90s of the last century, the USSR and the West went head-to-head in diving in the depths. By the beginning of the 90s, Russian aquanauts had mastered the 500-meter depth, in addition, a large groundwork had been made in mastering breathing with liquid media. But since 1993, after the destruction of the deep-sea diving service and diving science as such in Russia, the American and Norwegian schools have indeed become the undoubted leaders in the field of deep-sea diving work. Today we have lived to the point that we can no longer do a deep-water diving complex for saturated diving on our own.
    1. Photon
      Photon 21 March 2021 23: 57
      0
      "until the beginning of the 90s of the last century, the USSR and the West went head to head in diving in the depths
      I can add. In the laboratory of hyperbaric systems, they did not spread much about the corresponding work in the USSR. But, somehow, already in the 90s I was told that Hans Keller was not the first at 300m
      1. water
        water 22 March 2021 21: 36
        0
        Quote: Photon
        "until the beginning of the 90s of the last century, the USSR and the West went head to head in diving in the depths
        I can add. In the laboratory of hyperbaric systems, they did not spread much about the corresponding work in the USSR. But, somehow, already in the 90s I was told that Hans Keller was not the first at 300m

        In 1956, in the fall, in the Caspian Sea near Baku, from the rescue vessel 254 of the Zangezur project, deep-water diving descents were carried out successively to depths: 220; 240; 260; 280; 300 meters. Prior to that, the record diving depth was considered to be 184 meters, achieved by the English diver John Wookie. And only in 1962 the Swede G. Keller, on Lake Lucerne, finally reached 300 meters.