Military Review

Ceausescu and Pol Pot: the enemy of my enemy is my friend

87
Ceausescu and Pol Pot: the enemy of my enemy is my friend

Bucharest and Phnom Penh - together against Moscow



On January 14, 1990, the so-called "Council of National Salvation" of Romania discovered in the archives of Nicolae Ceausescu - the conductor (conducător), a draft agreement with the Pol Pot Kampuchea. This happened shortly after the execution of the Ceausescu couple. And it did not become a special sensation.

The deposed head of state was accused of much more terrible crimes than friendship with the organizer of the genocide in Kampuchea. The very same agreement on full-scale military-technical cooperation was scheduled for 1979, for a period of three years.

It provided for the supply of the Khmer Rouge regime with artillery and small arms weapons, air defense systems, mortars and oil products in exchange for the import of a number of goods from Kampuchea. From rice, natural rubber, coffee, tropical timber and fish products to semi-precious stones and artifacts.

Already in the late 1970s, Romania was in dire need of a variety of goods - and not only because of Ceausescu's domestic economic policy. The deterioration of relations with the USSR and other participants in the Warsaw Pact also affected, which was also expressed in the breakdown of trade contracts with the Socialist Republic of Romania.

It is clear that the aforementioned treaty would have become a direct challenge to Moscow, especially in the context of the then military conflict between the "pro-Chinese" Kampuchea (which was also helped by the DPRK) with Vietnam (actively supported by the USSR).

But it did not happen: in the first half of January 1979, the Pol Pot regime was overthrown. Bucharest did not recognize this until 1987.

Ogre's kiss


Unlike the bloody dictator of Democratic Kampuchea, who calmly lived out his days in the jungle near the Thai border right up to 1998, Nicolae Ceausescu was arrested and shot. But in 1970, Romania and Kampuchea were allies, exchanged visits, and more and more actively traded with each other - of course, in opposition to the USSR and Vietnam.

And never, not with a single word, did Bucharest condemn the monstrous Pol Pot repressions ... However, Brezhnev also once kissed the cannibalistic African dictators.

Bucharest's rapprochement with Beijing and its allies accelerated after the well-known events in Czechoslovakia in 1968 (officially condemned by Bucharest and Beijing). Since 1969, China began to provide financial assistance to Romania, and since the early 70s, Bucharest began to re-export Soviet small arms and anti-tank missiles to the PRC, and sent specialists to service them.

Romanian oil and petroleum products were, as they say, abundant in the PRC. These and other areas of cooperation were agreed upon during Ceausescu's “triumphant” visits to Beijing in 1971 and 1973.

Then (during official receptions in honor of the CPP delegation almost throughout the country) Chinese officials stigmatized

"The renegade clique of Khrushchev-Brezhnev, which betrayed the teachings and deeds of Lenin-Stalin",

and the Romanian side, meaning the USSR, condemned

"Old and new hegemonism",

announced

"Defending the national path of building socialism."

Conductor and dictator


In 1973, Nicolae Ceausescu met in Beijing with Pol Pot, the future head of that very Democratic Kampuchea of ​​1975-1978. It is quite obvious that the Sino-Romanian partnership initially meant the cooperation of Bucharest with Beijing's partners, including Democratic Kampuchea.


The acquaintance of Ceausescu and Pol Pot was long and ... fruitful.

That is, the Romanian authorities began to actually oppose Moscow and Indochina.

But Moscow did not decisively oppose this, so as not to provoke a more active rapprochement of Romania with the PRC and the West. Moreover, already in 1972-1973. Romania received (the only one of the pro-Soviet socialist countries) the most favorable trade regime in the USA, Canada and the European Union.

Meanwhile, Romania and Kampuchea established barter trade by the end of 1975: natural rubber, rice, tropical timber, coffee and seafood were supplied to the Romanians. By the way, a number of rooms in the luxurious Ceausescu residence in Bucharest were decorated with mahogany (mahogany) from Kampuchea.

In turn, Romanian supplies included crude oil (for the Kampong Chnang refinery), petroleum products, fabrics, clothing, feed grains, and since 1977, small arms and even military river vessels for the Mekong River and its tributaries. By the way, Romanian weapons and ships were used in Kampuchea in its war with Vietnam in 1978-1979.

Beijing behind


It is characteristic that these goods were transported in both directions, mainly by Chinese merchant ships. Apparently, both sides were afraid of any actions of the Soviet Navy against these trade flows, and under the flag of the PRC - of course, it was more reliable ...

Official Bucharest, for obvious reasons, has long avoided deliberate publicity in relations with Polpot's Phnom Penh. However, the repeated visits of the delegations led by Paul Pot to the PRC and the DPRK allowed Bucharest not to hide much of its cooperation with the Khmer Rouge regime.

In this context, the North Korean authorities awarded Pol Pot the title of "Hero of the DPRK" made a special impression. The appropriate order was presented to him personally by Kim Il Sung at a rally in Pyongyang.


The photographs of Kim Il Sung and Pol Pot cannot be found on the internet, but Ceausescu has both been regularly filmed with.

But Pol Pot and his comrades understood what, where and in what form could be officially declared.

Therefore, if in Beijing they did not hesitate in expressions about the USSR and especially Vietnam, then in Pyongyang there were no such references at all. Is that, oh

"The dangers of new types of hegemonism"

и

"Regional contenders for hegemony."

Socialism without communists


Meanwhile, since 1976, Albania established political and trade relations with the Khmers, and Yugoslavia established trade relations. Periodic trading contracts 1975-1977 Kampuchea sold with the GDR and Cuba.

Moreover, it turns out that in the early 50s Pol Pot visited Yugoslavia. According to the head of the central news agency DK Kela Narsala,

"In 1953, Pol Pot, as part of a youth brigade of French communists, went to harvest and build highways in Yugoslavia, which was blocked by the USSR and its allies, including the PRC."

“The fact that he saw the actual promotion of capitalism in the Titoist Yugoslavia did not please the future head of Kampuchea. But he firmly learned that you can build socialism on your own without the help of such giants as the USSR and China. "

Looking at Beijing and Pyongyang, Romania has also “grown bolder” with regard to Phnom Penh. Moreover, it was during the period when the military conflict between Kampuchea and Vietnam was growing. And in May 1978 (during Ceausescu's visit to Pyongyang), he and Kim Il Sung spoke out in favor of providing joint military-technical and financial assistance to Kampuchea.

In order not to irritate Moscow, they decided not to include this thesis in the final communique. In the same month of 1978, the Ceausescu couple paid an official visit to Phnom Penh. There were no pompous rallies and statements, but the parties signed a 10-year agreement on friendship and cooperation.

Vietnam will wait


In the USSR, pro-Soviet socialist countries, as well as in Albania, this was not commented on.

But Beijing and Pyongyang officially welcomed this document. Pol Pot assured Ceausescu that he would provide Romanian enterprises with all kinds of benefits in the country as soon as the Vietnamese aggression was defeated. The Romanian side preferred not to mention "Vietnam" at all.

Bucharest Phnom Penh Credit Aid 1975-1978 amounted to about $ 7 million, of which over 70% at the end of 1978 was subsequently written off by the Romanian side. For small and poor countries like Kampuchea, that's a lot.

Despite the military successes of Vietnam, Bucharest deliberately demonstrated cooperation with Kampuchea. The visit to Romania in August 1978 of the successor of Mao-Hua Guofeng, an outspoken anti-Soviet, who held three top posts in the PRC at once, was especially indicative in this regard.



Hua Guofeng was truly friends with both Paul Pot and Ceausescu.

In the press of the USSR and pro-Soviet socialist countries, Hua was condemned.

But not a word was said there about the "unity" of Beijing and Bucharest in relation to Kampuchea. Moscow decided not to provoke the creation of a military-political alliance between Beijing and Bucharest.

And this, alas, was quite real, as they say, on the "Kampuchean soil." Moreover, by that time, both Beijing and Bucharest were already, as is known, the West's de facto political allies in opposing the USSR and the Warsaw Pact.

Dictatorship, but not a colony


Only in August 1978, Pol Pot, at the head of a small delegation, paid a return visit to Bucharest.

There were no triumphant rallies and other pomp. But both sides condemned (which was the main thing in the final communique)

"All kinds of hegemonism and its attempts to provoke conflicts between peoples, national liberation movements and socialist countries."

Of course, the USSR and Vietnam were meant. And Romania simply agreed to continue to support Kampuchea. Bucharest even offered mediation (together with neutral Laos) in resolving the conflict with Vietnam.

Pol Pot first accepted these proposals. But in October 1978 he rejected them. For, as Radio Khmer declared,

"Moscow and Hanoi are striving to turn Kampuchea into their colony ... The Warsaw Pact and its satellites are the main threat to the preservation of our country."

Polpotov's troops at that time began to retreat along the entire front. And, in the end, in the winter - in the spring of 1979, they were ousted from Phnom Penh and most other areas of Kampuchea. But Bucharest did not officially recognize the new authorities of Kampuchea-Cambodia until March 1987.

Their recognition was a forced step. Since the mid-80s, the PRC was no longer a support for the anti-Soviet variations of Bucharest. This was especially evident in December 1989, when Beijing did nothing to help socialist Romania.

And even the Ceausescu couple did not help to avoid being shot ...

Author:
Photos used:
tunnel.ru, fishki.net, persons-info.com
87 comments
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  1. Crowe
    Crowe 16 January 2021 05: 28
    +13
    Bucharest and Phnom Penh - together against Moscow

    Haberdashery and cardinal - this is power!
  2. Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 05: 36
    +9
    Ceausescu was finished off by Lenka. I want such a yacht, I want such bruliki ... Before the execution they deciphered the last words of Ceausescu: "Elena, well, leave me alone at least now!"
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 05: 40
      -1
      Oops ... Who gave me a minus? Arguments, please.
      1. apro
        apro 16 January 2021 05: 45
        -1
        Quote: mordvin xnumx
        Oops ... Who gave me a minus? Arguments, please.

        I have slapped tabloid gossip, emotional but uninformative, the more I learn about NChausescu, the less I want to believe his denunciators ..
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 05: 47
          +1
          Quote: apro
          I slammed tabloid gossip.

          These "tabloid gossips" were published by the magazine "Interpol".
          1. apro
            apro 16 January 2021 05: 48
            -1
            Quote: Mordvin 3
            These "tabloid gossips" were published by the magazine "Interpol".

            You still refer to speedinfo ..
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 05: 53
              -5
              Quote: apro
              You still refer to speedinfo ..

              Compared! laughing The magazine "Interpol" was quite authoritative, and competed with "Man and Law".
              1. apro
                apro 16 January 2021 05: 56
                -3
                Quote: Mordvin 3
                Compared! Interpol magazine was quite authoritative, and competed with Man and Law.

                Everything that was published in the USSR and the Russian Federation after 1985 was unequivocally atisovetchina.antikommunisticheskaya propaganda.to destroy the USSR.and afterwards to justify this crime.
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 06: 04
                  +4
                  Quote: apro
                  Everything that was published in the USSR and the Russian Federation after 1985 is definitely atisovetchina.antikommunisticheskaya propaganda.to destroy the USSR.

                  That is, Lenca Ceausescu was not a likeness of Raiska Gorbacheva? She also loved to show off.
                  1. apro
                    apro 16 January 2021 06: 08
                    -3
                    Quote: Mordvin 3
                    That is, Lenca Ceausescu was not a likeness of Raiska Gorbacheva?

                    Personally, I am not familiar with this character. And their family affairs are not interesting. But the actions of Comrade NChausescu on the modernization and development of the SRP are interesting and instructive.
                    1. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 06: 11
                      +4
                      Quote: apro
                      Personally not familiar with this character.

                      Well, get acquainted. Fuck a little. There Lenka had requests, cleaner than Raika's.
                      1. apro
                        apro 16 January 2021 06: 14
                        -1
                        Quote: Mordvin 3
                        Well, meet

                        Why ??? this one .. but two but you can believe the gossip?
                        This is from a series of what bloodthirsty Ivan the Terrible.VILENIN.IVStalin..and derzhimordy Arakcheev and Beckendorf.
                      2. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 06: 17
                        -1
                        Quote: apro
                        This is from a series of what bloodthirsty Ivan the Terrible.VILENIN.IVStalin..and derzhimordy Arakcheev and Beckendorf.

                        Yeah, and then there was Biron ... And Count Osterman spied ...
                      3. apro
                        apro 16 January 2021 06: 19
                        -3
                        Quote: Mordvin 3
                        Yeah, and then there was Biron ... And Count Osterman spied ...

                        And you verte ... you will like it ...
                      4. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 06: 20
                        0
                        Quote: apro
                        And you verte ... you will like it ...

                        What, what? From this Sofia Paskudovna with Biron, the whole country wept.
                      5. apro
                        apro 16 January 2021 06: 25
                        -6
                        Quote: Mordvin 3
                        What, what?

                        You like gossip ...
                      6. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 06: 27
                        +1
                        Quote: apro
                        You like gossip ...

                        Gossip? Oh well...
            2. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 16 January 2021 06: 19
              +7
              Quote: mordvin xnumx
              ...... There Lenka had requests, cleaner than Raika's.
              they are spouses. both irritated the people with their behavior.
              An interesting article about the relationship between countries. New information for me
            3. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 06: 25
              -1
              Quote: Reptiloid
              they are spouses. both irritated the people with their behavior.

              Nikola was modest, and Lenka was crazy about it. She wanted a yacht, then something else ... She was presented with a glass with diamonds like that.
            4. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 16 January 2021 06: 30
              +3
              I read that he indulged her in everything that they were afraid of poisoning and took different measures ...
            5. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 06: 33
              0
              Quote: Reptiloid
              I read that he indulged her in everything that they were afraid of poisoning and took different measures ...

              It's a pity I threw out the magazines. There they wrote such passions about the couple Chaushchek, as much as horror. sad
            6. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 16 January 2021 13: 42
              +1
              Quote: mordvin xnumx
              ..... It's a pity I threw the magazines out. There they wrote such passions about the couple Chaushchek, already horror. sad
              We have the same. In 2010, he threw out a whole suitcase. Yes, they wrote about the leader's criminal past, about nepotism, about intimidation of the population ... now this is not denied.
            7. Tochilka
              Tochilka 17 January 2021 05: 42
              +2
              Even when he was at school and those events happened with the execution of Ceausescu, Koms.truly reported that he lived in luxury. They say there was a mega-chandelier in his palace, but it was so energy-intensive that when it was turned on, the voltage in the entire Bucharest network dropped. And no less idiotic joke from Petrosyan in the wake of the "bukh-arrest" events ...
            8. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 17 January 2021 10: 53
              +5
              laughing if we compare the socialist luxury with the modern luxury of the new "noblemen" who "made themselves" ..... and their party "zhahnali all", then somehow it turns out that it was not a luxury either ..... and so, imperfect wiring ...
        2. Vasilenko Vladimir
          Vasilenko Vladimir 17 January 2021 18: 09
          -1
          Quote: Mordvin 3
          It's a pity I threw out the magazines. There they wrote such passions about the couple Chaushchek, as much as horror.

          If you read about what they wrote in those days about the Red Army, then it is not at all clear how we got to Berdin
  3. antivirus
    antivirus 16 January 2021 08: 31
    +4
    except for the new ones, why was it necessary to hand over their supporters in Poland? even before the fall of the Berlin Wall? and the GDR?
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 17 January 2021 10: 39
    +2
    ... but the actions of Comrade NChausescu on the modernization and development of the SRP are interesting and instructive.

    If it were not for the well-known processes of the late 70s, when creditors raised the rate and simply strangled Romania, it could well have become a 'socialist paradise' and a 'showcase'. I understand those Romanians who nostalgically remember the golden decade. But he had a downside.
    1. apro
      apro 17 January 2021 10: 44
      -1
      Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      But he had a downside.

      The CIA and the KGB jointly acted against NChausescu ...
  • Vasilenko Vladimir
    Vasilenko Vladimir 17 January 2021 18: 07
    -1
    Quote: Mordvin 3
    Compared! Interpol magazine was quite authoritative, and competed with Man and Law.

    if you are about this publication, then the titles of the articles speak for themselves

  • Crowe
    Crowe 16 January 2021 06: 49
    +21
    Quote: apro
    Quote: Mordvin 3
    These "tabloid gossips" were published by the magazine "Interpol".

    You still refer to speedinfo ..

    And if you refer to the Romanians themselves? ”The same publicist Dorin Iancu wrote:
    “Hunger was a kind of instrument of the dictator's domination, which he used along with cold, darkness and fear. Ceausescu hoped to use these elements to turn people into frightened animals whose only thought would be how to get food, no matter what kind of food it is.

    The apartment was allowed to turn on only one 15-watt light bulb, hot water was practically not supplied, trying to pay off previously taken loans, in 1977 the Romanian government decided to increase the working day for workers, while disability pensions were canceled for them and the retirement age was raised by 2 years .Do you like this kind of life?
    1. apro
      apro 16 January 2021 06: 56
      -6
      Quote: Crowe
      Do you like this life?

      Today in Russia this is the norm ...
      Quote: Crowe
      The same publicist Doreen Jankou

      Another human rights activist? A sufferer for the people? How many have we listened to in our country .... when the USSR was bombed.
    2. mat-vey
      mat-vey 16 January 2021 07: 03
      +7
      Quote: Crowe
      The apartment was allowed to turn on only one 15-watt light bulb, hot water was practically not supplied, trying to pay off previously taken loans, in 1977 the Romanian government decided to increase the working day for workers, while disability pensions were canceled for them and the retirement age was raised by 2 years .Do you like this kind of life?

      It smelled like something new, but familiar.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 21: 31
        -1
        ... It smelled like something new, but familiar.

        Korean soup? Kim, it seems, also limits the electricity to his beloved people. He needs to finish building the submarine.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 17 January 2021 08: 34
          +1
          "The same goal is pursued by the new procedure for calculating electricity bills, which has affected many Russians - using the social consumption rate (Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of July 22, 2013 No. 614" On the Procedure for Establishing and Applying the Social Rate of Electricity (Power) Consumption and on Making Changes into some acts of the Government of the Russian Federation on the establishment and application of a social norm for the consumption of electric energy (power) "). The essence of this innovation is that consumers pay for a certain amount of electricity within the social norm at a reduced cost, and electricity consumed in excess of the norm is more expensive The Cabinet of Ministers has established that tariffs are calculated based on the electricity prices applied since July 1, 2013: within the social norm, the tariff must be below this level, and the excess consumption, on the contrary, must exceed this bar. "
          To postpone is not to refuse ...
    3. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 07: 52
      +2
      Quote: Crowe
      Only one 15 watt light bulb was allowed in the apartment.

      Oh, damn it! And I was waving nunchucks, a chandelier with three 60-watt bulbs broke in the 80s. The Rodoks did not even notice, they bought a new one.
      Quote: Crowe
      almost no hot water was supplied

      And then, you fool, every day I sat in the bathroom for a couple of hours, reading books. And the water flowed continuously ...
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 16 January 2021 09: 01
        +8
        And then, you fool, every day I sat in the bathroom for a couple of hours, reading books. And the water flowed continuously ...

        Did you sit in the bathtub in Romania? So that's who undermined its economy!
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 09: 13
          +4
          Quote: Aviator_
          Was he in a bath in Romania?

          He was in the USSR. I cut off a crust of bread, stuffed it with garlic, and spread it with bacon on top. Then I sat in the bathroom for two hours with a book ...
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 10: 45
            +2
            Quote: Mordvin 3
            I cut off a crust of bread, stuffed it with garlic, and spread it with lard on top. Then I sat in the bathroom for two hours with a book ...

            Picturesque ... A boy in a pioneer tie, lying in the bathroom, leafing through the pages of 'Materials of the XXV Congress of the CPSU' with greasy fingers.
            To tears. laughing
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 10: 49
              -4
              Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              A boy in a pioneer tie, lying in the bathroom, is leafing through the pages of 'Materials of the XXV Congress of the CPSU' with greasy fingers.

              Are you talking about yourself? It can be seen...
            2. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 16 January 2021 13: 51
              -2
              Quote: mordvin xnumx
              Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              A boy in a pioneer tie, lying in the bathroom, is leafing through the pages of 'Materials of the XXV Congress of the CPSU' with greasy fingers.

              Are you talking about yourself? It can be seen...

              I looked in the mirror and myself negative remembered laughing
            3. tralflot1832
              tralflot1832 16 January 2021 17: 21
              0
              By the way, in the materials of the 25th congress, the party organization of Stavrapolye was given heat for overspending party funds.
    4. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 16 January 2021 14: 09
      +4
      hi I greet you, Sergei! I just read the newspaper VZGLYAD about those events. It becomes, of course, known and understandable, which was not discussed before. About the influence of the USSR on events in Hungary and Romania even before the Victory, it is necessary to return more than once .... The fate of the leader who replaced Ceausescu is interesting, they do not remember him. Ion Iliescu. For death, victims, false information ...
      Then, during that "revolution of 1989" new technologies were tested, which then appeared in Ukraine. Horse racing, hopes for a rich life in Europe
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 16 January 2021 17: 06
        +4
        new technologies were tested, which then appeared in Ukraine. Horse racing, hopes for a rich life in Europe

        Quite right. Only the technologies are not new, but old, but the generation was already new, not knowing what it was like to live under capitalism. These technologies did not work on previous generations. Now they found out, but the train had already left. Just now, Odnoklassniki posted the story of one Orenburg house, which at the time of the Republic of Ingushetia was with a fountain and a garden, after the revolution it became a communal apartment, and now it is dilapidated behind the fence - Orenburg, after the transfer of the management of Gazprom's daughters to St. Petersburg, has become a depressed region ... So, around this "House with a Fountain" there are continuous drooling and snot of lovers of "French buns" who do not understand that the maintenance of this elite housing of the XNUMXth century required a whole block of barracks and dugouts, where people who created this added value lived.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 16 January 2021 17: 18
          +2
          It is about this "House with a Fountain", I do not remember. But lately there have been many similar reports about the collapsing former estates. They did not perish under the USSR, because there were sanatoriums, clubs, and other public ones ..... During the capitaclysm it all stopped and the empty estates began to decay and collapse. They are not interesting to anyone and no crystal bakers negative they didn't give a dime winked to preserve the fragments of the lost Russia
        2. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 16 January 2021 17: 21
          +1
          This "House with a fountain" came across to me literally half an hour ago, when I was looking through my account on Odnoklassniki. There one guy is looking for and uploading old photos of the city very professionally. I gave him my photos too.
        3. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 16 January 2021 17: 31
          +1
          Of course, the history of apartment buildings is interesting. What kind of people lived? How many people are in the room? In the apartment? Wealth level? Now, in appearance and location, one can, of course, assume that some kind of house was for the workers, and some apartments were "master's".
        4. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 16 January 2021 18: 32
          +1
          Dmitry, Orenburg is a provincial town, there were, of course, tenement houses, but this is not the case. In the house I mentioned, there lived a whole clan, it seems, of merchants, who did not deny themselves anything. It was a two (three?) Storey house for a comfortable stay.
        5. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 16 January 2021 18: 54
          +1
          I'm sorry hi Sergei, my words about apartment buildings are somehow an answer to my thoughts about the old fund houses seen in St. Petersburg, as I have been to many for work. Both in separate apartments and communal apartments. Somewhere the master's separate apartments. Somewhere a tenant of an apartment rented out rooms and corners in the apartment ... ... such was the income of the tenant. ... And there was also a term --- a girl living on her own ...
          As for the houses you mentioned ---- in St. Petersburg there are small estates --- 2-3 floors ..... there are more. .. Probably, there, as in Orenburg --- a family, clans were ... survived, if there is a city institution.
        6. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 16 January 2021 20: 05
          +2
          All my childhood up to 12 years old, inclusive, was spent in the old part of Orenburg, in fact, in the historical center, which until 1860 was inside the fortress (the rampart began to be torn down in 1860, the last mound disappeared in 1965 during the construction of the agricultural institute dormitory). On a city map, this is a rectangular street layout. Inside the old part there are merchant houses on two floors, sometimes with beautiful turrets, a few large pre-revolutionary buildings, in particular, later they housed the flight and navigational schools, houses of the 30s on the site of the demolished pre-revolutionary huts. Very patriarchal look. In the 50s, massive construction began, but outside the center. Well, from the 90s, the hell began that the historical appearance was disfigured by new buildings and new buildings.
        7. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 16 January 2021 21: 52
          +1
          ..... flight and navigational schools ...
          thanks to this, the buildings have survived, probably in that ancient form. State institutions.
          I wonder which ones are unfinished? Budget or private?
        8. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 16 January 2021 22: 52
          +2
          Yes, the devil only knows, private, probably. However, we can have anything - the Vostochny cosmodrome, for example, seems to be a budget one, but they have been building since 2007 and still will not be completed.
        9. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 16 January 2021 23: 13
          +2
          Our stadium took much longer to build, increasing funds ........
  • Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 19: 52
    +2
    Quote: Reptiloid
    Of course, the history of apartment buildings is interesting.

    What I don't know, I don't know. Under the collapse of the USSR, we received an apartment of about 80 square meters .........
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 21: 35
    -1
    .We got an apartment under the collapse of the USSR under 80 square meters .........

    How many were you?
  • Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 21: 40
    +1
    Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    How many were you?

    four
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 21: 42
    -2
    Four children?
  • Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 22: 08
    +1
    Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Four children?

    No ... Dad got it. Four of 80 squares.
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 22: 24
    -3
    Four family members, including yourself? 4-room @ 80 sq.m.?
    And who is your father?
  • Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 16 January 2021 21: 42
    -1
    Quote: mordvin xnumx
    ....... We got an apartment under the collapse of the USSR, about 80 square meters .........
    Yes, you are very lucky. Your city is young, right? ... It was under the USSR, no pre-revolutionary?
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 21: 26
    -2
    ... You still refer to speedinfo ..

    'between the floor' is also good laughing
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 16 January 2021 09: 12
    +4
    Colleague Mordvin, regarding the last words of Elena Ceausescu, there is a video on YouTube: "the execution of Ceausescu" and these frames were shown on the site. There 100% of this is not visible.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 09: 24
      -4
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Colleague Mordvin, regarding the last words of Elena Ceausescu, there is a video on YouTube: "the execution of Ceausescu" and these frames were shown on the site. There 100% of this is not visible.

      It was in the magazine "Interpol" They read by the lips what he told her.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 11: 13
        -3
        ... It was in the magazine "Interpol" They read by the lips what he told her.

        'Lenka, have you turned off the iron?'
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 16 January 2021 11: 18
          -3
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          ... It was in the magazine "Interpol" They read by the lips what he told her.

          'Lenka, have you turned off the iron?'

          Uncle, are you De Bill?
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 16 January 2021 19: 46
        +2
        Watch the video yourself
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 11: 09
      +1
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Colleague Mordvin, regarding the last words of Elena Ceausescu, there is a video on YouTube: "the execution of Ceausescu" and these frames were shown on the site. There 100% of this is not visible.

      Well, he wants to - let him believe)
  • Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 16 January 2021 05: 36
    +6
    However, Brezhnev also once kissed African cannibalistic dictators.
    The authors should definitely spit on Brezhnev ... they would have liked to remember Pinochet, Somoza and other dictators of the Western persuasion whose hands are covered in people's blood to the elbows.
    Ceausescu is an angel compared to them, but Pol Pot is a bloody butcher ... his young soldiers killed the peasants and intellectuals of Cambodia in the tradition of Himmler's Einsatzgruppen.
    There was no point in shooting the Ceausescu couple ... this crime of the rebels put them on a par with Pol Pot's butchers.
  • nikvic46
    nikvic46 16 January 2021 06: 02
    +3
    It so happened, but for some time now I do not believe in the authenticity of the documents. Moreover, they were executed in a more horrible way. If earlier people in Bucharest turned their backs on Ceausescu's daughter, now they treat her kindly.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 16 January 2021 06: 17
      +5
      Moreover, they were executed by the more terrible

      There is a video of the execution of the Ceausescu couple ... rather a massacre over them ... they were quickly tried ... they were quickly shot ... they were quickly buried.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 21: 39
        0
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        Moreover, they were executed by the more terrible

        There is a video of the execution of the Ceausescu couple ... rather a massacre over them ... they were quickly tried ... they were quickly shot ... they were quickly buried.

        Revolutionary justice - it is) Or did the Romanians surprise you with something?
  • parusnik
    parusnik 16 January 2021 08: 18
    +10
    However, Brezhnev also once kissed African cannibalistic dictators.
    ... And Western "democrats" in spite of Brezhnev kissed other dictators, cannibals in their own way .. smile
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 January 2021 09: 31
      +8
      I can rip it off - I write from memory.
      Churchill was asked a question about the emancipation of women and the recognition of the claims of feminists. He threw up his hands and replied that, in principle, he had nothing against it, but for this it would be necessary to meet with them personally, and he did not want to. Since their leaders during a business briefing will have to kiss on the cheek or hand, and "they are so scary" !!! laughing
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 16 January 2021 19: 45
      -2
      Hence the "blue" _gone? It was necessary not to kiss in spite of Moscow
    3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 16 January 2021 21: 41
      +1
      ... .And Western "democrats" to spite Brezhnev kissed other dictators, cannibals in their own way ..

      That's right - everyone was kissing their own bitch son. Which he fed. What's wrong?
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 16 January 2021 08: 59
    +4
    Ceausescu and Polo Pot are two pair of boots.

    They kept their own people in hunger, fear of poverty, although they had EVERYTHING for a normal life.

    CPR, compared with the Moldavian SSR, is an absolutely impoverished country ...
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 16 January 2021 09: 39
    +2
    Quote: apro
    Quote: Mordvin 3
    That is, Lenca Ceausescu was not a likeness of Raiska Gorbacheva?

    Personally, I am not familiar with this character. And their family affairs are not interesting. But the actions of Comrade NChausescu on the modernization and development of the SRP are interesting and instructive.

    Precisely instructive. Sitting on two chairs does nothing good.
    What if Romania chose the socialist path of development and suddenly the "most favored regime" from the enemy? After all, imperialism and socialism are two antagonists.
    Is this Ceausescu the predecessor of Gorbachev?
    1. apro
      apro 16 January 2021 10: 12
      +4
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Sitting on two chairs does nothing good.

      Not ..... NChaushescu did everything for the SRR. Yes, he played on the contradictions. Then he was a politician. But he treated the USSR with suspicion.
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Is this Ceausescu the predecessor of Gorbachev?

      Why would he suddenly abandon either communism or his country.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 16 January 2021 19: 41
        +1
        "played on contradictions" - like Luka with "multi-vector" and where did she lead him? Now the security officials have supported him, but what if they keep silent?
        1. apro
          apro 16 January 2021 20: 01
          +1
          Quote: vladcub
          Now the security officials have supported him, but what if they keep silent?

          And other options existed.
          AGLukashenko is the best leader of the country in the post-Soviet space today.
  • Artashes
    Artashes 16 January 2021 12: 21
    +1
    And in 1975-76. Kampuchea was friends with Vietnam: at the end of 1975, there was a long visit by Le Duan throughout Kampuchea - with rallies, banquets ...
    ... In 1977, Pol Pot, at a rally in his honor in the center of Pyongyang, "privately" asked Kim Il Sung: "in Beijing on the Tiananmen" large portraits of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin. And here - only Marx and Lenin? "Kim Il Sung chose not to hear" the question, and Pol Pot decided not to repeat himself ...
    By the way, the portraits of Marx and Lenin in the center of Pyongyang were filmed in 2012, Stalin Avenue in Pyongyang was renamed in 1971 ...
  • evgen1221
    evgen1221 16 January 2021 13: 49
    +1
    Well, what else could Ceausescu have done at that time of bipolarity - they will eat the wrong ones.
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 16 January 2021 14: 40
    +1
    Ceausescu was overthrown in 1989
    Not at 79
    From this place I stopped reading
  • Artashes
    Artashes 16 January 2021 15: 14
    +2
    Ceausescu corrupted Romanians with their high standard of living in the late 60's and early 80's. Naturally, they no longer wanted to tighten their belts since 1986. Ceausescu knew that contradictions with the USSR would lead to an almost direct confrontation with Moscow. But he did not admit that the West would soon not be on the side of Bucharest, and that it was necessary, at least, to "restrain" the rapid growth of the well-being of fellow citizens (E. Hoja and Kim Il Sung advised him, but Ceausescu replied that they were exaggerating the situation- consequences - they were right ...). Ceausescu did not expect that the West would "collectively" turn away from him in 85-86, and that Deng Xiaoping would just as quickly turn away from Romania and Albania. Although Dan's instigated break with Albania in 1978 should have "warned" Ceausescu ....
  • vladcub
    vladcub 16 January 2021 19: 34
    -2
    "Even the Ceausescu couple did not help to avoid being shot," but how can you help: send special forces, as for Janek, or maybe bribe the generals?
  • vladcub
    vladcub 16 January 2021 19: 49
    +1
    Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Quote: Astra wild2
    Colleague Mordvin, regarding the last words of Elena Ceausescu, there is a video on YouTube: "the execution of Ceausescu" and these frames were shown on the site. There 100% of this is not visible.

    Well, he wants to - let him believe)

    His mother-in-law looks like E. Ceausescu
  • Jaromir
    Jaromir 16 January 2021 21: 25
    +11
    That is, the Romanian authorities began to actually oppose Moscow

    Laughter, and only ...
    Ceausescu was not that fool He remembered what happened in Czechoslovakia in 1968 and the reaction of the USSR. And then there is direct and frank opposition ... If he did this, he would repeat the fate of Amin, only a little earlier.
  • Jaromir
    Jaromir 16 January 2021 21: 28
    +19
    in May 1978 (during Ceausescu's visit to Pyongyang), he and Kim Il Sung spoke in favor of providing joint military-technical and financial assistance to Kampuchea.

    In order not to irritate Moscow, they decided not to include this thesis in the final communique.

    Where does the infa come from? You can have a reference ... And then I, like that Thomas, will not believe until I see reliable information.