Military Review

Albania after the death of Enver Hoxha

97

Since 1983, the seriously ill Enver Hoxha gradually transferred power to Ramiz Aliyah, who became his successor. Enver Hoxha died on April 11, 1985, and the new Albanian leadership did not accept (sent back) a telegram expressing condolences from the USSR (where Gorbachev was already the General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee), the PRC and Yugoslavia.


There was no significant opposition to his government in Albania at that time. And in October 1988, a museum in the form of a pyramid was opened in Tirana and a monument was erected:

Albania after the death of Enver Hoxha
"Pyramid". Tirana


Opening ceremony of the monument to Enver Hoxha in Tirana. October 16, 1988

However, against the background of the destructive processes initiated in the USSR by M. Gorbachev and rapidly spreading in the territories of his Eastern European allies, the power of the Albanian Party of Labor has also significantly weakened.

In 1990, against the backdrop of mass protests, the introduction of a multi-party system in Albania was announced. However, the APT still managed to win the elections on March 2, 1991 (with a result of 56,2% of the vote). On April 29 of the same year, the country was renamed. Became known as the "Republic of Albania". On April 30, Enver Hoxha's successor, Ramiz Alia, became its president.


The process of decomposition of the old ideology has already been launched.

On June 12, 1991, the Albanian Party of Labor split into the Socialist and Communist Parties of Albania. In addition, in political sympathies, the country was divided into two parts according to the national principle.

Toski ("lower Albanians") - residents of the southern, more developed areas, a native of which was Enver Hoxha, traditionally supported the Socialist Party. Outside of Albania, melancholy lives mainly in Italy and Greece.

Gegs ("upper Albanians", highlanders) of the northern part of the country vote for the Democratic Party. It is the Gegs who live in Montenegro, Kosovo and North Macedonia.


Resettlement of Tosks (marked in blue) and Gegs (in red).

This division in political sympathies persists in Albania to this day.


In May 1992, the new Albanian authorities followed the path laid by Khrushchev: at night they secretly reburied the remains of Enver Hoxha, transferring them to a public cemetery located on the outskirts of Tirana. But the Albanian "democrats" went further than Khrushchev in mockery of history own country: a tombstone from the former grave of Enver Hoxha was used to make a monument to English soldiers.


The modest graves of Enver Hoxha are at the Memorial Cemetery "Fallen Heroes of the Nation" in Tirana (photo April 1986) and modern (note, the tombstone has already been "stolen" by the new rulers of Albania).


A year later, Ramiz Alia resigned.

In 1994, he was sentenced to 9 years in prison on charges of abuse of office. In July 1995 he was released - and again arrested in March 1996: this time the case was purely "political", he was charged with participation in the repression of opponents of Enver Hoxha.

1997 Albanian uprising


In January 1997, after the collapse of a number of financial pyramids in Albania, unrest began, which turned into a full-fledged civil war. The Democratic government was then in power, and the inhabitants of the southern regions of the country fought with the northerners.

The first anti-government protest was noted on January 16, and on January 24, these protests became widespread. On this day, in the city of Lushne, protesters burned down the administration building and a cinema.

These protests soon turned into pogroms. So, on January 26 in Tirana during the protest actions, the building of the municipality of the southern district of the capital was burned down. During the riots, the buildings of the National Historical Museum, the Palace of Culture, and the Efem Bey Mosque were damaged.


Protesters in Vlora burn copies of the Democratic Party newspaper, Rilindje Demokratike. February 14, 1997

On February 20, students from the University of Vlore began a hunger strike, demanding the resignation of the government and compensation for funds lost by the population.

On February 26th, following rumors of an impending takeover of the university by the national security forces (Shërbimi Informativ Kombëtar - SHIK), thousands of protesters surrounded the campus with starving students.

On February 28, the crowd attacked and destroyed the SHIK building, killing 6 security personnel and three insurgents. On the same day, 46 students from the University of Gjirokastra (the hometown of Enver Hoxha) began a hunger strike.

And on March 1, the Peshilimena naval base was captured and police stations in Gjirokastra burned down.
On March 3, the Vlore Vocational Training Center was destroyed and the city of Saranda was captured, where the rebels burned down all government buildings.

On March 7, the Gjirokastra garrison went over to the side of the rebels.

On March 7–8, the Albanians-melancholy defeated parts of the government army near Gjirokastra. Further, on March 10, the cities of Gramshi, Fieri, Berat, Polichan, Keltzura and some others were captured. Already on March 13, the rebels approached Tirana. And on the 14th, Durres fell.

At that time, the government opened arsenals of military warehouses and bases for the allied hegs of the north, who arrived in the hundreds in the capital, where battles were already taking place in the suburbs.


Tirana in March 1997. In the photo - "Pyramid", the former museum of Enver Hoxha.

On March 17, President of Albania Sali Berisha was taken out of Tirana by an American helicopter.

It was then that the Albanian crime clans became especially strong, which, in the end, took control of a number of cities.

On March 22, Gjirokastra and Saranda were at the mercy of Albanian gangs. The inhabitants of these cities were plundered, several dozen people were killed. Later some other cities were plundered by bandits. It is said that in the cities of Vlore, Gjirokastra and in the province of Elbasan, bandit clans still have more influence than local authorities.

In late February and early March 1997, the situation in Albania was so acute that foreign citizens and diplomatic missions had to be evacuated from Tirana. US Marines evacuated 900 people during Operation Silver Wake.


American citizens boarding a CH-53 Super Stallion attack helicopter. March 15, 1997

On March 3 and 10, 16 Italians, 5 Germans, 3 Greeks and a Dutchman were taken out by helicopters of the Italian Air Force. And the German army then carried out Operation Libelle ("Dragonfly"), during which German soldiers (for the first time since World War II) had to use weapon... The rebels opened fire from two armored vehicles at the helicopters, the Germans forced them to retreat with return fire. 98 foreign citizens from 22 countries were evacuated (21 of them were Germans).


German soldiers at Tirana airport

On March 28, the UN adopted a resolution on humanitarian aid to Albania.

On April 15, the first units of the peacekeeping forces began to arrive in Durres, the number of which was brought to 7 thousand people. This contingent remained in Albania until August 14, 1997.

The economic damage from those events was estimated at $ 200 million - a very significant amount for small Albania.

In just three months of unrest, about one and a half thousand people were killed, up to three and a half thousand were injured. Thousands of Albanians fled to Italy and Greece. In Albanian ports, they were robbed in full view by local bandits who demanded from 250 to 500 dollars for a ticket.


An Albanian bandit demands money from a refugee trying to get to a ship bound for Italy. Durres. March 1997

Not without tragedy.

On March 28, an Italian Coast Guard ship collided with a ship carrying Albanian refugees. 82 people were killed.

On April 12, 1997, the grandson of King Ahmed Zog, Lek, arrived in Albania, who, on the sly, decided to take the throne of this country. At the referendum held on June 29, 1997 (simultaneously with the parliamentary elections), he received only 33,3% of the vote.


The then failed "King" Leka on Skanderbeg Square. July 3, 1997

However, on November 30, 2011, he still received the royal title ("King of Albania"), but not the power in this country.

It was during this uprising (March 13, 1997) that Ramiz Alia was released by his supporters and left for Dubai. In the same year, the Socialist Party (the successor to the APT) came to power in Albania. And Alia was released from criminal liability. He died in Tirana - October 7, 2011.

The events of 1997 in Tirana are now reminiscent of the Peace Bell, cast from bullets, shells and shell fragments collected by children. It can be seen at the famous "Pyramid".


Peace bell

Albania still cannot boast of political stability.

Outbreaks of protests and retaliatory violence by the authorities are not uncommon. And they are often accompanied by victims. So, during the next anti-government rally in Tirana on January 21, 2014, which was attended by up to 20 thousand people, during the riots that arose, 3 people were killed, 22 demonstrators and 17 police officers were injured.


January 21, 2014: Cars on fire again at Pyramid.

Economic and social situation of modern Albania


The new authorities of Albania, of course, accused Enver Hoxha of all sins, including the low standard of living of the Albanian people.

However, more than 35 years have passed since his death. And life in Albania has not improved at all.

Both industrial and agricultural production fell sharply. And more than 20% of the country's GDP are remittances sent home by labor migrants from different European countries - there are about 1 people (about 300% of the country's population).

In 2017, for example, the funds transferred home by labor migrants amounted to 22% of GDP. In Albania, now 2 flags are often hung on houses - of their country and the state where the head of the family works.

Albania supplies mainly agricultural products to neighboring countries (mainly Italy - 48%, but also Germany, Spain, France, China), which are valued there for an excellent combination of price and quality. This is not only fruits, vegetables and tobacco, but also ice cream, which is considered the best in Europe. From industrial products, chromite ore, ferroalloys and footwear are exported abroad.

The drug trade brings huge profits (though not to the state). A police operation in 2014 yielded results that shocked many: 102 tons of marijuana and more than 507 cannabis seedlings were found and destroyed. The approximate cost of the extraction of the police was estimated at 6,5 billion euros, which was about 60 percent of the country's GDP. 1900 people were arrested then. In 2016, 5204 hemp-planted plots were discovered (about two and a half million bushes).


Marijuana production in Albania.


Destruction of a cannabis plantation in Albania.

And in 2018, in the port city of Durres, 613 kilograms of cocaine were found, arrived with a cargo of bananas from Colombia - for further shipment to Western Europe.

Demographic situation in Albania


The population of Albania in 2019 (compared to 1990) decreased by 376 people.

Currently, the number of people living in Albania is estimated at 2. The forecast of the number for 878 is 310 2050 2 people.

95% of the citizens of this country are ethnic Albanians (Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians, Gypsies also live in the country). More than 80% of the inhabitants of Albania call themselves adherents of Islam, 18% are Christians of various kinds, and 1,4% are atheists.


Confessional map of Albania

Albanian communities in other countries of the Balkan Peninsula


Outside Albania, there are currently about 10 million ethnic Albanians.

In September 2017, Albania even created the post of Minister for Diaspora Affairs. Compact groups of Albanians live in Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo, North Macedonia.


Places of residence of Albanians in the territory of the former Yugoslavia

In Serbia (in addition to Kosovo and Metohija), Albanians live in the communities of Buyanovac, Medvedja and Presevo (about 60 thousand people).

In Montenegro, Albanians make up 5% of the country's population. They live mainly in the Ulcinj community, as well as in Plava, Husin and Rozai. Currently, there is an active settlement by Albanians in the northern regions of this country, which is especially noticeable in the city of Bar and the area south of Podgorica. It was the votes of the Albanians that turned out to be decisive in the referendum, as a result of which the union state of Serbia and Montenegro collapsed.

In North Macedonia, according to the 2002 census, 509 Albanians (083% of the total population of the country) live - mainly in Tetovo, Gostivar, Debar, Struea, Kichevo, Kumanovo, as well as in Skopje. Over the years, the number of Macedonian Albanians has increased significantly. And (according to various sources) is from 25,2 to 700 thousand people. Currently, 900% of newborns in North Macedonia are ethnic Albanians.

Albanians living in the states that emerged on the territory of the former Yugoslavia often serve as conductors of the ideas of "Greater Albania".


"Great Albania"

However, many leaders of these foreign Albanian communities, having realized that it is better to be “the first guy in the village” than the second or third “in the city”, have already cooled down a little to this idea. Supporting her in words, they prefer to aggressively beat out a special position for themselves and more and more rights in their place of residence. And they are in no hurry to go under direct subordination to the Albanian authorities.

Even more Albanians now live in other countries - not only in Europe, but also in the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the states of South America.

In the next article we will talk about the Albanian diasporas in other countries and the criminal business of the Albanian clans.
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  1. Cowbra
    Cowbra 17 January 2021 07: 51
    +6
    and about the criminal business of the Albanian clans.

    Just about, all of Europe knows them, even though there are only 4 million of them on the planet.
  2. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 17 January 2021 08: 01
    +7
    Valery, thank you very much for your work. I will ponder it still
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 17 January 2021 10: 01
      +1
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Valery, thank you very much for your work. I will ponder it still

      I subscribe to the opinion. Yes, I will reread it. Much incomprehensible.
      For example, if for many years Albania condemned anti-Stalinism, went its own way, built correct socialism, then why did antisocialist changes occur almost at the same time as those where Gorbachevism spread? If for many years the country has resisted and condemned, then what has happened now? China has remained in its positions, hasn't it?
      Or something else. The population of Albania has decreased. And we know that such processes took place as a result of the return to capitalism in all the former socialist, both in the former from the USSR, and in the entire socialist camp. And why Albania? And socialism was the strictest there, and did not Gorbachev or Yeltsin drag this country into the capitaclysm?
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 17 January 2021 18: 52
        +4
        “if the country resisted for many years, then what happened now” I also thought about this, but today I understood. - Enver Hoxha was a PERSONALITY, we just didn't really remember him and Albania. "Ideological, or rather personal grievances of" Tsar Nikita "are to blame for this. And Valery's work clarified a lot
        "Tosca" are more developed, and "Gegi" - highlanders are poorer. And naturally they accumulated claims to the "melancholy" it was necessary to have the authority of Khoja in order to find compromises. And Ramiz Alia actually destroyed the foundation of Albanian socialism
        1) introducing a multi-party system in 1990 - a sharp contrast to Hoxha. In May, the APT gains 52% of the people still BELIEVE the party and remember Enver Hoxha.
        2) a month later, the APT split into two parts. The electorate or ordinary people were at a loss. Naturally, the two parties started a "war" with each other.
        In fact, Ramiz buried socialism and split Albania.
        "Nature rests on receivers" we have the same thing. Stalin was a PERSONALITY, and his successors next to him were pygmies
      2. mr.ZinGer
        mr.ZinGer 19 January 2021 08: 52
        +1
        I am not original in this message, but I strongly resemble a pendulum, the more it deflects, the greater the amplitude.
  3. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 17 January 2021 09: 24
    +3
    Valery, what happened to the cars during Khoja? Soviet legends said that private vehicles were banned and there were about 20 cars in the whole country.
    1. VLR
      17 January 2021 10: 09
      +6
      Before the breakdown of communication with the USSR, GAZ-51 (screwdriver technology) was assembled in Albania. Then - the Chinese Jiefang, licensed copies of the ZIS-150.
      In the 1970s, the purchase of Barkas and Nysa trucks, Škoda Karosa ŠM11 buses, Beising, Škoda and Warszawa cars began.
      Private cars were prohibited.
      The first in-house car production was opened in April 1962 in the city of Shkoder - first, body repair, then the manufacture of bus bodies with a wooden frame on the chassis of GAZ-51, GAZ-51A and Jiefang CA10. In 1967, the first Shkodra bus was produced.
      Avtotraktorny kombinat them. Enver Hoxha - in 1962, the first Albanian tractor engine was assembled there under a Soviet license. Then - several tractors, since 1978 - caterpillar tractors.
      Now the iconic car in Albania is a Mercedes in (99% old and resold many times before we got to Albania).
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 17 January 2021 10: 22
        0
        Quote: VlR
        Now the iconic car in Albania is a Mercedes

        Was TopGir joking about this?
      2. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 17 January 2021 11: 02
        +3
        By the way, they are the first in Europe in terms of cocaine consumption. laughing All clichés - Mercedes, Barrel, Cocaine. It's funny that in rich countries, where the population can really afford to buy Mercedes from car dealerships, small cars, family minivans, Osho and wellness are popular laughing
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 17 January 2021 11: 38
          +4
          TopGir joked that Mercedes has a large trunk - a lot of corpses intermeddle ... that's why the diaspora fell in love - for its functionality.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 17 January 2021 14: 37
            -1
            Quote: mat-vey
            TopGir joked that Mercedes has a large trunk - a lot of corpses intermeddle ... that's why the diaspora fell in love - for its functionality.

            American SUVs are best suited for carcasses laughing
            1. mat-vey
              mat-vey 17 January 2021 14: 40
              0
              Quote: Krasnodar
              American SUVs are best suited for carcasses

              You know better laughing
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 17 January 2021 15: 09
                +2
                I had Mercedes, GMC trunks and Grand Cherokee more roomy request
                1. mat-vey
                  mat-vey 17 January 2021 15: 10
                  +1
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  Larger GMC and Grand Cherokee trunks

                  Do you share the secrets of the craft? tongue
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 17 January 2021 15: 11
                    +3
                    No, by visual assessment of the trunk capacity of passenger vehicles laughing
                    1. mat-vey
                      mat-vey 17 January 2021 15: 12
                      +2
                      Quote: Krasnodar
                      No, by visual assessment of the trunk capacity of passenger vehicles

                      Uffff ... almost burned laughing
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 17 January 2021 15: 17
                        +4
                        That not - in these games I was on the side of the law lol In the sense of shoulder straps, etc. and not even in the post-Soviet space fellow
                      2. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 17 January 2021 15: 33
                        +1
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        That not - in these games I was on the side of the law

                        Everyone says so dear wink
                      3. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 17 January 2021 16: 06
                        +1
                        Yes, especially about overseas experience in law enforcement lol
                      4. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 17 January 2021 16: 15
                        +2
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        Yes, especially about overseas experience in law enforcement lol

                        Oops .. I think I got hit .. the cleaner leaves no witnesses wassat
                      5. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 17 January 2021 16: 25
                        0
                        Renault's first appearance at Besson? laughing
                      6. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 17 January 2021 16: 28
                        +1
                        So this movie was written off from you? And how to retire home? To the birches ...
                      7. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 17 January 2021 16: 32
                        0
                        "I remember birches from the stage" (c) ... fellow
                      8. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 17 January 2021 16: 34
                        0
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        "I remember birches from the stage" (c) ... fellow

                        Was there a failure? Did you get traded? ..Like Banionisa ... on the bridge ..how romantic
                      9. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 17 January 2021 16: 44
                        +4
                        No.
                        It was a special operation.
                        I was taken out of the Tel Aviv Fasion Club under the guise of deportation of a Ukrainian guest worker with Ivano-Frankivsk registration .. a long journey in UIA business class to Borispol. Sloppy twelve-year-old Shivas Ryhal ...
                        A ticket from Kiev to Istanbul .. transfer in Sabiha to the Pegasus low-fire ... and here I am in Krasnodar .. fellow
                        Comrades gave me three stars to drink with my dear Kizlyar ... we sang "Where the Motherland Begins" and "You Are Free, Vir Trinken", after which difficult Russian working days began soldier
                      10. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 17 January 2021 16: 47
                        0
                        Quote: Krasnodar
                        ... a long journey to Boryspil by UIA business class. Sloppy twelve-year-old Shivas Ryhal ..

                        So you are the head of department's son-in-law? laughing
                      11. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 17 January 2021 16: 49
                        0
                        The son-in-law of the head of department cannot be in such a job lol
                      12. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 17 January 2021 16: 50
                        0
                        What if a hobby?
                      13. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 17 January 2021 17: 13
                        +1
                        Not allowed laughing
                        Because vir trinken tsuzamen nicht alain))
                2. vladcub
                  vladcub 17 January 2021 21: 08
                  +2
                  In my opinion, difficult. I would have made it easier: I bought a ticket to America, and in America I would have painted myself a black man and you will find figs. I'll start screaming a bit: the whites oppress. And there in a month or two, Drive wherever you want
                3. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 17 January 2021 21: 12
                  +3
                  If you have a passport in the name of a Chinese laughing
                4. vladcub
                  vladcub 20 January 2021 16: 09
                  +1
                  Exactly. However, you can also a passport of the DPRK
                5. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 20 January 2021 16: 13
                  +1
                  Oh ... this opens the way to all directions of the World laughing
            2. mat-vey
              mat-vey 19 January 2021 15: 50
              0
              Quote: vladcub
              I would have made it easier: I bought a ticket to America, and in America I would have painted myself a black man and you will find figs.

              “A Man Changes Skin” is a 5 1979-episode feature film directed by Boris Kimyagarov, based on the novel of the same name by Bruno Jasenski.
  4. vladcub
    vladcub 17 January 2021 18: 56
    +2
    Bravo. Good answer
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 17 January 2021 09: 36
    +4
    Nice article analyzing their so-called "revolution". And then, I remember, naive A. Prokhanov in 1997 wrote in all seriousness in the editorial of his newspaper: "Russian, learn Albanian"!
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 17 January 2021 09: 57
      +2
      Quote: Aviator_
      "Russian, learn Albanian"!

      Well, some followed and learned "Albany" ... some perfectly.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 17 January 2021 10: 00
        +4
        Well, some followed and learned "Albany" ... some perfectly.

        I have a suspicion that these "some" do not know how to read at all, and "Albany" was taught with the help of instructors and advisers.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 17 January 2021 10: 02
          +4
          Quote: Aviator_
          and "Albany" was taught with the help of instructors and advisers.

          More like a "voice of the soul" .. Give the machine gun and behave like in the photo from the article ..
        2. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 17 January 2021 10: 46
          +2
          .... Albany .......

          Albansky ????? Good morning Sergey! hi In this regard, I remembered this.
          Balkan Albanians are widely known. But there was also another, Muslim, country --- Caucasian Albania --- in general, Northern Azerbaijan and Southern Dagestan. The territory to the south of it was then called --- Shirvan. Is there any connection between the 2 Albania?
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 17 January 2021 11: 07
            +1
            But I don’t know this question. The connection, in my opinion, is the same as that of Bulgaria in the Balkans and Volga Bulgaria.
      2. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 17 January 2021 11: 04
        +1
        Quote: mat-vey

        Well, some followed and learned "Albany" ... some perfectly.

        Atski Awesome lengwidge fellow
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 17 January 2021 11: 33
          0
          author fjot nipadetski
    2. VLR
      17 January 2021 15: 55
      +3
      Quote:
      “Prokhanov in 1997 wrote in all seriousness in the editorial of his newspaper:“ Russian, learn Albanian ”!

      Another character called on Europeans to learn Albanian smile
      About him - in the next article.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 17 January 2021 09: 59
    -2
    The modest graves of Enver Hoxha are on Memorial Cemetery "Fallen Heroes nation "

    A smart idea is to arrange a similar cemetery instead of arranging a cemetery from ... the main square of the country ...

    And Albania itself is a clear example of the success of socialist construction.
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 17 January 2021 10: 11
      +1
      The Washington parish burial ground not in the "main square of the country" - does this make a big difference?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 17 January 2021 15: 00
        -2
        Quote: mat-vey
        The Washington parish burial ground not in the "main square of the country" - does this make a big difference?

        Arlington? Of course, this is a hundred times more correct
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 17 January 2021 15: 09
          +1
          Quote: Olgovich
          Arlington?

          And where does Arlington?
    2. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 17 January 2021 13: 37
      +3
      Albania is a clear example of the success of social construction
      You can't make a bullet, candy, or wire out of feces. Despite all the efforts, the source material will turn out.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 17 January 2021 10: 08
    0
    Valery, I have long promised to criticize from the point of view of logic. So do not be offended; "in addition, the country was divided into two parts according to the national principle"
    Not entirely successful formulation: the TOSKI "lower Albanians" ... traditionally supported the Socialist Party. "
    You might think that the Socialist Party existed before 1991.
    Gegi "upper Albanians" and those other ethnic Albanians. How can they spread according to the national principle? It can be said with equal success that the Russians were divided along ethnic lines. Please do not be offended by criticism. I like you, but sometimes you have problems with logic. be careful
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 17 January 2021 21: 10
      +1
      Comrades, I envy Valery: the ladies explain to him in love. I would be so
  • Reptiloid
    Reptiloid 17 January 2021 10: 11
    +3
    Loved all the maps --- Albania. They cover the situation in the country very interestingly. I'm embarrassed to say. Maybe you missed it? Or didn't you understand? How what happened when under Tito the Albanians settled in Yugoslavia due to difficult conditions? Will there be about it ??? It's not about Albania already. I read in the book of the author Myalo about that time.
    Tito sewed a coat to the button.
    As we now know, not only him.
    1. VLR
      17 January 2021 10: 15
      +3
      Yes, there was a little about this in previous articles. Here, for example, a little:
      https://topwar.ru/178544-makedonija-i-kosovo-posle-raspada-socialisticheskoj-jugoslavii.html
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 17 January 2021 10: 26
        0
        Thank you, dear Valery! Yes, I missed a lot about the Balkans recourse request
        Here's another interesting thing. Have Myalo, some other authors met about the terrible cruelty of the Albanians ....... is it so? ..... I remembered this ----
        The Egyptian Pasha MEHMED-ALI was an Albanian, he met words about his political merits ...
        1. VLR
          17 January 2021 10: 51
          +3
          About this a little in the article:
          https://topwar.ru/178712-osmanskij-period-v-istorii-albnii.html
          1. Reptiloid
            Reptiloid 17 January 2021 11: 00
            +1
            We have an Albanian folk epic at home. We must try to find ...
  • Bolt cutter
    Bolt cutter 17 January 2021 11: 59
    +3
    The only gangs that black and Arab criminal "businessmen" are afraid of.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 17 January 2021 14: 39
      +2
      Quote: Bolt Cutter
      The only gangs that black and Arab criminal "businessmen" are afraid of.

      Duc in the States of Albanians minuscule, as well as Negro gangs in Europe. I don't know about the Arabs. Moroccans both steer and steer. In Germany, at least.
      1. Bolt cutter
        Bolt cutter 17 January 2021 15: 46
        +3
        Negro gangs in Europe. I don't know about the Arabs.
        In England, blacks make up the majority of drug prostitutes. Dope Arabs. Both were unpleasantly surprised by the harshness of the Kosovar "refugees" (from the 90s) In Germany, it seems similar.
        Negro gangs in Europe.
        Far from minuscule. in the Czech Republic, they are in full swing.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 17 January 2021 16: 08
          +1
          Distribution is not a gang. The gang delivers goods, sells by hand, incl. Africans, etc.
          In Germany, the Moroccans are serious things, the Africans are in the wings.
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 17 January 2021 19: 59
          +1
          "Were surprised at the cruelty of the Kosovar" refugees "how could it be otherwise? They lived" toiled "and suddenly strangers came and pulled out a piece, with their hands together, inevitably would be indignant
      2. mat-vey
        mat-vey 17 January 2021 16: 22
        0
        Quote: Krasnodar
        Moroccans both steer and steer. In Germany, at least.

        So since 1945 the Moroccans have been giving the Germans nightmares?
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 17 January 2021 16: 31
          +1
          It seems to me that they appeared in France in the early 1960s together with the Algerians, and from there they traveled to Europe. Hard to say. request In Frankfurt, I saw a Moroccan nurse in a hospital and Moroccan orderlies. That is, these days, most likely, they legally emigrate to the EU countries.
          1. mat-vey
            mat-vey 17 January 2021 16: 36
            +2
            In the Allied occupation forces, the Moroccans were ... they were doing ... complete scumbags.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 17 January 2021 16: 47
              +1
              No, these are not the descendants of those "zuabs" who raped everything that moves
              In general, Moroccans are normal people
              There are thugs and thugs, but who does not have them request
              1. mat-vey
                mat-vey 17 January 2021 16: 49
                -1
                But the path seems to be outlined ... like cockroaches ...
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 17 January 2021 17: 12
                  0
                  Everyone wants a better life.
                  1. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 19 January 2021 15: 48
                    +1
                    Quote: Krasnodar
                    Everyone wants a better life.

                    The locals want it too ...
              2. VLR
                17 January 2021 16: 55
                +4
                No, those Moroccans are not Zouaves (Zouaves are at that time already the elite units of the French army). And in Italy, the Moroccan gumiers "became famous" for mass rapes and massacres. Here I wrote about them:
                https://topwar.ru/170327-francuzskaja-voennaja-jekzotika-marokkanskie-gumery.html
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 17 January 2021 17: 12
                  0
                  Quite right - mixed up
  • ccsr
    ccsr 17 January 2021 12: 50
    +5
    An interesting article about a country that is known in Russia as the main one in the supply of terrorists and drugs to Europe. Well, what kind of relationship we had with socialist Albania in the fifties, many now simply do not guess. Here is what is known about the 7th separate OSNAZ detachment, which was deployed in 1955 in Albania:
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 17 January 2021 15: 49
      +5
      And in Vlore was the base of our submarines, it was from there that our boat of the 613 project penetrated the center of the order of US ships and photographed through the periscope the American ship, on which Eisenhower was then, then the President of the United States. And then, due to anti-Stalinist hysteria and other Khrushchev eccentricities, the Albanians kicked us out of this base.
      1. VLR
        17 January 2021 15: 52
        +5
        More precisely, on the Sazani Island near this city
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 17 January 2021 16: 01
          +3
          I remember this picture - the hull, it seems, of the cruiser with the president occupies the entire eyepiece of the periscope, it was impossible to miss if desired.
  • Cure72
    Cure72 17 January 2021 16: 36
    +1
    Thank you very much ! It is a pity that such a wonderful and interesting series of articles ends
  • vladcub
    vladcub 17 January 2021 17: 49
    +3
    Valery, thank you very much for your work. It so happened that in the 90s I didn't give a fuck about following the international situation. They themselves had "fun". I read it with great attention. I learned a lot.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 18 January 2021 06: 31
      0
      hi ^ I suppose that in the 90s there will be still the amount of information that is possible now.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 20 January 2021 18: 08
        +1
        Generally, it is more convenient when there is basic information. It simplifies perception and analysis.
  • Maki Avellevich
    Maki Avellevich 17 January 2021 18: 29
    +3
    judging by the soldier's face and the agave bushes from which taquila is made, this is not quite Albania.
    I bet the photo is from Mexico.
    1. VLR
      17 January 2021 18: 52
      +4
      Agave grows everywhere in the Mediterranean, almost like a weed. In Turkey, Greece - exactly along the roads and on wastelands it can be found. The climate in Albania is also suitable.
      1. Maki Avellevich
        Maki Avellevich 17 January 2021 19: 10
        +2
        Quote: VlR
        Agave grows everywhere in the Mediterranean, almost like a weed. In Turkey, Greece - exactly along the roads and on wastelands it can be found. The climate in Albania is also suitable.

        can grow but. in the photo above, we see rows of plants. the ends of the leaves are also cut off.
        this is what the plantation looks like. I'm not sure Albania is doing this.
        at the bottom there is a photo of Agave plantation under taquila.


        here is another photo from Mexico. Agave mixed with Maria Juana.
        the same faces, the same shape, the same flora.
    2. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 17 January 2021 19: 58
      +3
      Quote: Maki Avellevich
      [/ Center]

      Huh. Tse Noriega - young years. ))
      Panama fellow
      1. Maki Avellevich
        Maki Avellevich 17 January 2021 20: 08
        +1
        Quote: Krasnodar
        Huh. Tse Noriega - young years. ))
        Panama

        and definitely not knowing!
  • vladcub
    vladcub 17 January 2021 20: 11
    +2
    "King Leka, who did not take place then," he took the machine gun to get the throne for himself? Since his "subjects" are so unconscious, will they have to take it by force?
    1. VLR
      17 January 2021 21: 23
      +4
      In the foreground with a submachine gun - a guard is clearing the road. And the prince - in a beret and "camouflage" smile
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 17 January 2021 20: 52
    +1
    Quote: mat-vey
    Quote: Krasnodar
    Yes, especially about overseas experience in law enforcement lol

    Oops .. I think I got hit .. the cleaner leaves no witnesses wassat

    We will not tell you where you are
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 17 January 2021 22: 49
    +2
    Honestly, it seems that the creation in various regions of such "points of trouble", "criminal enclaves" - regions or entire states, always ready to destabilize the situation in the whole region - is an urgent necessity in nature. There must be something like this in the immediate vicinity of each state, and that's it.
    Since the beginning of the century, Albania has had a difficult burden to provide tension, read, all prosperous Europe. Apparently, she did a poor job (and the task is also very voluminous) and needed help from the Middle East and Africa.
    But nothing, old Europe over the past two thousand years and not seen this. Digest.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 17 January 2021 23: 54
      +1
      Digest. The question is in what form it will digest.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 18 January 2021 00: 16
        0
        It will change a little and remain the same. smile
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 18 January 2021 00: 37
          +2
          Not a little bit, but countries with a tough migrant policy, ala Switzerland, will feel good)).
        2. VLR
          18 January 2021 07: 43
          +1
          Hardly "slightly": Europe of the 90s. The twentieth century and the 2010s are already very different, and the process of increasing changes is accelerating.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 18 January 2021 11: 43
            0
            Europe of the 70s differed from Europe of the 90s more than from the 50s. Change is always happening and its pace is always accelerating. Despite any changes, Europe will remain old, prosperous, quiet, even when everything around will rage and melt. Sooner or later, the end will come to her, of course, but I think her changes will affect last.
            1. VLR
              19 January 2021 19: 24
              +1
              It's not even so much about the changes in Europe as about the speed with which they are taking place. Slow changes are amortized by society, while fast ones break lifestyles and traditions. One year now goes over the previous five years, and everything has a tensile strength. If the most common name for newborn boys in Germany is now Muhammad, what is the future of Germans in Germany in 50 years? Probably about the same as that of the “whites” in modern South Africa.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 19 January 2021 20: 16
                +1
                If the Muhammads speak German, get a well-fed and calm life, which they will cherish, very little will change. And yes, the question is in the reserve of strength, but in Europe it is huge, and, it seems to me, it will not come soon.
  • Jaromir
    Jaromir 17 January 2021 23: 52
    +14
    I liked the article very much.
    More than 80% of the inhabitants of Albania call themselves adherents of Islam, 18% are Christians of various kinds, and 1,4% are atheists.

    Can you clarify about 80% of the Muslim population? as in the big Russian encyclopedia
    https://bigenc.ru/geography/text/5595796
    it is said:
    OK. 60% of the population of Albania is Muslim, approx. 17% - Christians (including approx. 10% - Catholics and approx. 7% - Orthodox), approx. 23% do not identify themselves as belonging to any religious group (2011, census).
    Thanks in advance hi
    1. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich 18 January 2021 07: 23
      +1
      Quote: Jaromir
      OK. 23% do not consider themselves to be in any religious group

      look - gypsies
  • Vuvuzela1980
    Vuvuzela1980 29 March 2021 17: 05
    0
    The author, pay attention to the photos of the riots at the pyramid in 1997 and 2014, the same cars are burned down: an Audi and a jeep. Obviously one of the photos does not match the description.