Military Review

"Night of the Long Knives": how Goering threatened Hitler

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"Night of the Long Knives": how Goering threatened Hitler

So why did the Night of the Long Knives happen? I promised an extravagant version and will present it along with all the explanations that come with it. The conflict around the SA was complex in origin and touched upon the most important military-political issues facing Germany, and they also need to be given the necessary attention.


The opinion that Rem was killed because of his ambitions is clearly false. First, for several years, huge amounts of money were pumped into the SA, several hundred million Reichsmarks, in fact, the second military budget of Germany; they gave Rem to recruit an army of 4,5 million people, and then suddenly remembered that, it turns out, Rem has ambitions. It turns out to be absurd.

On the other hand, if Rem had ambitions, why didn't he realize them? Under his command was the most powerful and armed organization in Germany; stormtroopers were stronger than Reishwer, police, and other paramilitary structures. Moreover, it is known that until January 1933 the Nazis were preparing for an armed seizure of power, and Rem played a key role in this; and in 1933 he was the main pillar of the Nazi regime, which had not yet acquired all the unlimited powers established by laws and was backed up by stormtroopers. Rem could have overthrown Hitler if he wanted to.

Well, then, exercises with gases, explosives and mines, anti-aircraft and field guns, aircraft (for example, in October 1932, SA maneuvers were carried out near Berlin, in which the planes were practicing bombing) show that Rem had military priority, and not political. Neither gases nor bombs are needed to overthrow Hitler.

If you do not know about these circumstances, then you might think that it was about a power struggle in the Nazi party. Military training of the SA destroys this version to the ground.

After making sure that the available versions did not explain anything, I followed the path of developing my own version.

To prevent the Fuhrer from escaping


The first moment - what was the real basis of the Nazi party? This refers to the real reason that prompted people to join this party and especially its paramilitary structures, their real goals, and not slogans. Slogans can quite seriously differ from the actual foundation of political organization and act as a disguise.

Hitler had to explain from the very beginning, back in 1920, to his supporters why they should be with him and listen to him. We know that from the very first weeks of the existence of the Nazi party he started talking ... about the war with France. Yes, with the main winner of Germany in the recently ended First World War.

This statement is usually considered gibberish, and I think it was the key to his entire program. The Nazi party, which primarily attracted front-line soldiers, was built around the promise to its members of enrichment primarily at the expense of trophies in the planned aggressive war. The front-line soldiers after the First World War received nothing: no fame, no honor, no money, being almost literally at the bottom of society. And when Hitler promised that they would fill their pockets, it set them on fire.

Actually, this is what happened. The Nazis, from the rank and file to the Fuehrer, made their fortune by all available means, including military robbery, as well as "gifts" from subordinates and industrialists. According to some estimates, Hitler's personal fortune exceeded 700 million Reichsmarks. Hermann Goering stole untold treasures for himself, amassed a huge fortune and created a large industrial concern Reichswerke Hermann Göring, whose capital in 1941 amounted to 2,4 billion Reichsmarks. During the war, it was the largest concern in Europe. Why, even Albert Speer made a fortune of 1942 million Reichsmarks by 1,5.

Now an extraordinary fact. Until March 1, 1932, Hitler was not a German citizen; at first he had Austrian citizenship, which he renounced in April 1925, after being released from prison. For 12 years Hitler was a stateless person and had no political rights in Germany.

The Nazis, at least members of the party leadership, were undoubtedly aware of this fact, but did not cause any embarrassment. Moreover, becoming a stateless person, Hitler ousted Gregor Strasser from the party leadership. Why?

In my opinion, the Nazi party held its Fuehrer hostage. They had one attempt to get hold of power, to start a war and get rich on it. Any other leader, with German citizenship and fortune, would constantly be tempted to hesitate and gain a foothold in legal politics, deviating from the original goal. The goal is to start a war, which would inevitably be a war with France - the strongest country in Europe. This prospect was, frankly, "dumb". Which gave rise to the threat that the leader might drift and turn off the road. Then all dreams and hopes burst.

Here the Nazis themselves and chose the Fuhrer, who had nowhere to run. Refusing, he lost everything, became nothing and nothing. In this case, he could be killed or simply thrown out behind the border posts on historical homeland. That's why Hitler was a patented radical, that's why he advocated war. This is an important factor throughout history.

The plans of the Nazis and industrialists were different


The Nazis were funded by German industrialists. It is generally believed that the industry itself wanted grabs and indemnities. But this is absurd if you look at the matter taking into account the situation at the beginning of the 1920s, when for the first time contributions from industrialists went to the party cash register. Then Germany, defeated and disarmed, under the control of the victors, could not even think of any war. The Reichswehr was so small and so poorly armed that the armies of Poland and Czechoslovakia posed a serious threat to it.

In order to correctly assess the events, intentions and actions of historical figures, one must first of all avoid afterthought, that is, evaluate on the basis of the position that was at the time of the event. Of course, neither the Nazis, nor the industrialists, in the early 1920s, knew nothing about what would happen in 10-15 years, and were guided by the current situation. The same rule excluded any war, the more aggressive. Any plans of aggression then looked like empty fantasy.

Therefore, Hitler offered the industrialists something different, since they began to give him money, more and more over the years. What they were offered was worth this money, large by the standards of that time.

The fact is that the industrialists needed an army and desperately. The foundation of German industry - coal, was located very close to the borders: the Ruhr next to France and Belgium, Silesia next to Poland. If the coal basins are captured, then the imminent collapse of the German economy is inevitable. This is what happened.


German economy in 1930. It is clearly visible how close the coal of the Ruhr and Silesia was located to the border and was under the threat of capture

In 1923-1925, the Ruhr was occupied by French troops (France sought in this way priority supplies of coal for reparations), and part of Silesia was torn away in 1923 in favor of Poland. An impressive economic crisis has occurred.


German Industrialists' Nightmare Fulfilled: French Soldiers Marching in Dusseldorf

German industrialists were in dire need of protecting fuel sources. For this, an army was needed. And not a stunted Reichswehr, but an army that could beat, if necessary, the French army, or better the entire coalition from France, Poland and Czechoslovakia. They needed a large army and, therefore, remilitarization.

With the government of the Weimar Republic, this crucial issue could not be resolved, which forced the industrialists to play a double game and look for alternatives. At first they financed the German nationalists, but then moved on to a more radical option, that is, to Hitler.

This is what Hitler promised the German industrialists that he would certainly create a large army. Besides him, no one else dared to do this.

I thought for a long time about the strange contradiction between the apparent inappropriateness of Hitler's plans for a war of conquest in the 1920s and the fact that he was supported by a lot of money. But then I realized: the Nazis and industrialists wanted different things, but agreed on a means of achieving their goals. The German army, which can defeat the French, Polish, Czechoslovak armies, is suitable for both defense and aggression. Their plans were in overcoats of almost the same color of the field worker, but with a slightly different shade.

Hitler also played a double game, promising conquests in the party, and promising reliable defense at meetings of industrialists. The possessing circles did not really believe him, but there was no choice. After the failure of a series of attempts to begin remilitarization by the forces of the Weimar government, the industrialists matured to conspiracy and arranged for Hitler to come to power.

There were different people among the industrialists. There were those who initially put on war and robbery, and there were those who thought to use Herr Hitler for their own purposes. Hitler deceived the latter for a long time; it was only in 1938 that they discovered that they were actually participating in the preparation of an aggressive war. Some agreed with this, and some broke with Hitler and fled.

Motorization and blitzkrieg


The abrupt growth of the SA in 1933-1934 was associated, in my opinion, with the fact that Hitler, after coming to power, began to fulfill his promise, as far as possible under the Versailles restrictions. The command of the Reichswehr even agreed with this, which, as can be seen from the documents, provided support and assistance to the SA in military training. Industrialists pumped money into the SA, simultaneously encouraging Hitler: they say, create an army, and we will give rifles, machine guns, cannons.

But Hitler had his own plan. Not so much remains of it, but some traces have survived. As far as can be judged, he hoped to deploy the SA into the army and get down to business already in 1935-1936. An aggressive war was planned, most likely against Poland for the return of parts of East Prussia and Silesia. This is indicated by the fact that Rem was trying to gain control over the arsenals in East Prussia, which Reyshwer created in case of war with Poland. The war with France, apparently, for the sake of the Saar region.

Hitler also counted on the motorization of the SA and on the fact that with her mobility she would be able to win, that is, he put on a blitzkrieg. This is indicated by a strange plan for the construction of autobahns and the development of motorization in Germany in the early years of Hitler's rule. The strangeness of the plan was that Germany depended on imports of petroleum products, and fuel consumption (2,4 billion liters for 682,9 thousand cars in 1932 or 9,7 liters per day; this is about 90-100 km) said that Germany doesn't really need road transport. Nevertheless, Hitler forced the issuance of permits for the purchase of cars: in 1933 - 82 thousand, in 1934 - 159 thousand (despite the fact that in 1932, 41 thousand permits were issued), and exempted new cars from tax.

Finally, the first autobahn, which the Nazis began to build, went from Frankurth am Main to the south, through Darmstadt and Mannheim to Heidelberg on the right bank of the Rhine, just opposite the Saar and the protrusion of French territory that occupied the left bank of the Rhine. The Autobahn could have been used as a road in the Saarland War.


German autobahns in 1935. The already built road Frankfurt am Main - Heidelberg is marked here

Apparently, Hitler and Rem were inspired by the Battle of the Marne, when 600 Parisian taxis transferred a brigade from the Moroccan division, which decided the outcome of the battle. If the SA is put on cars, then you can count on lightning war.

Hitler between Rem and Goering


This plan was obviously worked out in detail by Ernst Röhm and was known to a very narrow circle of people. Goering, for example, did not know about him and believed that the SA was engaged in military training to strengthen the power of the Nazis and create a reserve of the Reichswehr. Goering, in particular, supported the construction of autobahns, which could be used for airplanes, and even expressed a desire that supply roads for the supply of fuel be built.

When did you find out? When he tried to take the pilot school from Rem. In May 1933, Lufthansa director Robert Knauss and Secretary of State Erich Milch drew up a plan for the development of the military aviation and bringing its number in 1934 to 1000 aircraft, including 400 bombers. It took pilots, and Goering remembered that Rem had a flight school for 1000 people; just what you need. Rem, of course, refused, and Goering, apparently using the newly created Gestapo, learned about the scope of the SA's military plans. This most likely happened at the end of 1933.

"Are they serious?" - the only question that could be asked then. From this venture, a disastrous adventure stank strongly, and Goering began to act, quickly gaining the command of the Reichswehr as an allies.

There was clearly a conversation between Hitler and Goering about these plans. Goering laid out powerful arguments: France alone has 5000 planes, and there is almost nothing to oppose; no weapons and ammunition to arm a large army. Indeed, the capacity for the production of rifles, including secret factories, amounted to 19 thousand rifles per month, the production of cartridges allowed by the Allies - 10 million pieces per month, gunpowder - 90 tons per month, explosives - 1250 tons per month, and so on. The industrialists apparently misinformed Hitler somewhat about war production.

Goering's conclusion was implacable: the plan to be realized is an adventure, it is not capable of giving anything but defeat and death. Therefore, it is necessary to moderate the ardor and prepare for war in earnest.

Here Hitler found himself in a very difficult position. On the one hand, he had plans for the party, dreams and hopes, his personal position as Fuhrer, promises made to industrialists, a lot of money spent. On the other hand, one could not but agree with Goering's arguments. And you want to, and you can't. That is why Hitler in the conflict around the SA began to hesitate and long sought a compromise.

There was no compromise. Rem believed that he could succeed, and began to consider Hitler an apostate, since he agreed to the Reichswehr with the subsequent subordination of the SA to the army. This is precisely the contradiction between different versions of the remilitarization plan: defensive and aggressive; This is the implementation of the option, in order to avoid which the comrades-in-arms kept Hitler stateless for so long. Having become the Reich Chancellor, Hitler jumped off - apparently, Rem decided.

These were not his personal ambitions. Rem proceeded from the real goal of the Nazi party - to prepare for an aggressive war that gives them everything - considering the question self-evident and believing that the party would follow him. His position is quite clear. Why now, when the instrument for realizing the main goal of the party has practically been created, do you need to retreat, obey someone and limit yourself to defense? Is this in the interests of the industrial aces, or what? All his rhetoric grows from here.

Why didn't Rem make an attempt to seize power, having the strength and means for this? Apparently because he was deceived by Hitler's vacillating position. As far as can be judged, Rem intended to push Hitler with his firmness sooner or later.

But Goering, as the leader of the coalition against Remus, was not so simple. Together with Himmler and Heydrich, he began to put pressure on Hitler, stirring up him with all sorts of rumors and incriminating evidence, hinting at the possibility of a putsch and overthrow, and they drove him to hysteria. Their calculation was based on the fact that Hitler would lose his composure.


The photo was taken, apparently, already during the preparation of the liquidation of Rem: Himmler looks very expressively at the back of Rem's head

Here it must be clarified that the Fuhrer, having lived for 12 years as a stateless person, could have been overthrown and destroyed at any moment at that time. Without a doubt, Hitler was very afraid of this and was so agitated constantly because of this intense stress that did not pass. Since 1933, his position has been greatly strengthened, but still the old fears do not pass overnight. On this Goering and pressed.


Some of Hitler's photographs clearly show traces of intense and prolonged stress.

Ultimatum to Hitler


They succeeded in almost everything. Hitler personally arrested Rem and was in hysterics in the first hours after that, which shocked the eyewitnesses; he even authorized the execution of a number of SA leaders. However, immediately after the shootings, Hitler flew from Munich to Berlin and told Goering and Himmler that he had decided to keep Rem alive.

The most interesting event in the whole history of "Night of Long Knives" took place here. Hitler, Goering and Himmler talked all night from June 30 to July 1 and all morning until almost noon on July 1, 1934. Almost 12 hours of talk time! This was clearly not a peaceful conversation between old comrades-in-arms, but a fierce, extremely uncompromising dispute over Rem and, in fact, over the plans that he was implementing. Hitler with an iron grip held on to plans for the fastest possible transition to an aggressive war, and he needed Rem as an executor.

Hitler at the beginning of this dispute was very agitated and very tired; before that, he rested on the night of June 28-29, 1934, and from the morning of June 29 to the morning of July 1, he practically spent on his feet, traveling and flying, and all kinds of meetings. You can imagine how passions boiled there.

It seems to me that Goering, exhausted by the unsuccessful struggle, decided on a last resort — a direct ultimatum. Obviously, in the end, Goering told Hitler that he and Himmler would overthrow him right here and now, and Herr Reich President would appoint as Reich Chancellor either von Papen, or Goering himself. Either Hitler gives them Rem, or they kill both of them.

That's all. Hitler had nowhere to run. The SA has already been beheaded, Berlin is in the power of the SS in full readiness, there is no one to look for protection. He will now be shot, and then Goering and Himmler will tell you that this was done by the stormtroopers, whose coup they heroically suppressed.

And Hitler surrendered. A few hours later, Rem shot himself.

Goering immediately offered Hitler a deal, the essence of which was as follows: Hitler remains the Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor, and then, after the death of von Hindenburg, which is not far off, he will become the Reich President and dictator of Germany with unlimited powers. He, that is, Goering, will do everything in the best possible way, prepare aviation and industry for a big war of conquest so that, with a guarantee, for which he will receive the priority right in robbery and take whatever he can fit into his pocket. Himmler, therefore, the SS as the main paramilitary organization, the police and special services, and then the land, prisoners and the freedom to do whatever he pleases.

Hitler could only agree. Which he did.


Thus, an issue of exceptional importance was resolved. In my opinion, Goering actually turned the history of Germany into a new direction.

This is my extravagant version of the background of "Night of Long Knives". This is a theoretical reconstruction at the moment; however, I do not exclude that documents may be found in the archives that will confirm or supplement it. Although many documents were burned, and they disappeared for us, nevertheless, in the surviving documents, the most ordinary-looking at first glance, there may be necessary information.

Those interested can argue. But I propose to begin with trying to put forward a logical explanation of why it was suddenly Goering, a pilot and a man far from industry who headed aviation and police at the same time, became authorized according to a four-year plan, that is, the head of the entire German economy, and started building metallurgical plants?
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  1. tasha
    tasha 11 January 2021 05: 04
    +5
    Unfortunately, expectations were not met. Nothing new and extravagant:
    A horde of stormtroopers led by Rem is ready to rush in Berlin taxis along the newly built autobahns to Paris. Goering and company suggest taking their time and first creating a full-fledged army. Rem screeches and for this they kill him a little. Hitler-Dzhamshut hesitates, but you can't trample on the "guru" ... wink

    I recommend reading the article by A. Samsonov "The Night of Long Knives".
    https://topwar.ru/53128-noch-dlinnyh-nozhey.html
    The opinion that Rem was killed because of his ambitions is clearly false. First, for several years, huge amounts of money were pumped into the SA, several hundred million Reichsmarks, in fact, the second military budget of Germany; they gave Rem to recruit an army of 4,5 million people, and then suddenly remembered that, it turns out, Rem has ambitions. It turns out to be absurd.
    No absurdity. The money invested did not disappear, the recruited army of attack aircraft became the reserve of the Wehrmacht, Rem was no longer needed and even dangerous.
    1. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 11 January 2021 05: 49
      +8
      A violinist is not needed, dear. He only eats excess fuel ...
    2. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 11 January 2021 11: 43
      +1
      "Rem was no longer needed", of course: two bears in one den WILL NEVER LIVE.
      Look for articles on the topic: "At the pinnacle of power, a place for one." It seems to me that by comparing the points of view of the authors, we are more likely to approach the solution of this problem.
      1. zenion
        zenion 11 January 2021 16: 15
        0
        I really need two bears. In the spring, one said to the other - you think that you have sucked your paw all winter, figurines, it was not a paw.
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 11 January 2021 17: 25
          -1
          Hee hee. Hitler was probably one of the bears?
  2. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 11 January 2021 05: 23
    +2
    A good photo of Rem and Himmler from behind, Eicke then fulfilled his boss's secret wish. I thank the author for an interesting article. hi
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 11 January 2021 06: 09
    +13
    Thanks to the author, an interesting idea, but somehow everything is unconvincing, almost only assumptions and speculations.
    As for the multifaceted military training of stormtroopers, all this was done in agreement with the command of the Reichswehr, when the mobilization was announced, the attack aircraft were automatically poured into the army, and non-commissioned officers of the Reichsphere immediately put on officer shoulder straps, and junior officers became senior, and it was conceived according to the general's plan The sect, the creator of the Reichsphere.
    As for Rem, after all, in my opinion, it is a matter of ambition and differences in views on the future of Germany. "We will go the other way" - they did not give.
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 11 January 2021 10: 24
      0
      Quote: Sea Cat
      As for Rem, after all, in my opinion, it is a matter of ambition and differences in views on the future of Germany. "We will go the other way" - they did not give.

      Two roosters in a hen house will not get along, only one rooster is needed.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 20: 59
        +2
        Quote: tihonmarine
        Two roosters in a hen house will not get along, only one rooster is needed.

        I am ashamed to ask - for the internal party struggle in the CPSU (b) this "cock" metaphor for the chicken coop Zinoviev-Kamenev-Stalin-Trotsky is also suitable? Or "is it different" (c)?
        1. tihonmarine
          tihonmarine 11 January 2021 22: 48
          0
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          I am ashamed to ask - for the internal party struggle in the CPSU (b) this "cock" metaphor for the chicken coop Zinoviev-Kamenev-Stalin-Trotsky is also suitable? Or "is it different" (c)?

          Do not hesitate, but here it is completely different, I think you also know what's what.
          But let's not say anything, some participants will not understand.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 13: 50
      +5
      Quote: Sea Cat
      As for Rem, after all, in my opinion, it is a matter of ambition and differences in views on the future of Germany.

      Hitler called this boar "National Bolshevik", which was more of a rhetorical metaphor than true. Rem was a sybarite who was just as snoozed as the entire top of the Nazis, who fed the bottom of their organization with primitive socialist bullshit. Although the "25 points" of the NSDAP I consider a great program in its utopianism. Chic motivational populism, which could recruit the masses for political struggle
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 11 January 2021 13: 58
        +1
        Posh motivational populism

        Well, this has always been popular at the bottom. I don’t know how it really was and what Ram was thinking, but it could well be that he dreamed of deriving his formula, like “Everything that marches is mine!”, As Goering did with aviation, which he planted a hefty pig of the Kriegsmarine.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 21: 17
          +2
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Well, this has always been popular at the bottom.

          Why was it, Kostya? This is still being peddled by leftist lottery) As always, they are building a pyramid from the electorate in order to climb to the booths. Now, however, it is somewhat more difficult - the plebs still have something to lose)
          Quote: Sea Cat
          I don't know how it really was and what Ram was thinking

          Absolutely. The author, of course, does not know either. All his mental construction is based solely on tolerances. But I honestly like it. This is much more preferable for me, a skeptic, than the narrow-minded manti of the haraluzhny and Samsonovs.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 11 January 2021 22: 42
            +2
            Why was it, Kostya?

            Everything is true, as it was, and it is, only in an even more disgusting form. I don’t want to talk about the current reality, I’ll be drawn to part with food right away, but I just had dinner.
            But I honestly like it.

            I also like this author, at least he is trying to search, and not stomping on the beaten track, on which the Samsonovs have already worn out more than one pair of bast shoes.
            Not boring, anyway. drinks
      2. paul3390
        paul3390 11 January 2021 15: 31
        +3
        Hitler called this boar "National Bolshevik"

        Do not forget that Gregor Strasser was slapped at the same time as Rem, but he definitely represented the socialist wing of the NSDAP ..
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 11 January 2021 17: 19
          0
          Strasser was, in any case, a non-resident, like a colleague of Stennes. And Shtennes is hard to suspect of socialism
        2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 12 January 2021 12: 17
          0
          Quote: paul3390
          Do not forget that Gregor Strasser was slapped at the same time as Rem, but he definitely represented the socialist wing of the NSDAP ..

          Correctly, that slapped. In April 1932, the court soldered a life sentence to Hitler, Goering, Goebbels and Zalomon, and the Strasser brothers jumped off, because on the night of the beating of the NSDAP on October 25-26, 1931, when the Reichswehr screwed the top of the party and did ata-ta to those who turned out to be not at all terrible gopniks from the SA, Otto Strasser instantly merged and announced that he would cooperate with the investigation.
      3. zenion
        zenion 11 January 2021 16: 20
        +1
        If not for Rohm, then Hitler would not exist. It was Ryom who had all the keys to everything. It was he who persuaded his people to accept Hitler into the party. It was Rohm who got him to study logic at the University of Munich. He was taught by a Jew who said about Hitler he took a three-year course in six months. He praised Hitler and said nothing more to teach you, recruit the rest in speeches.
    3. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 11 January 2021 14: 45
      +4
      Rem's movement was based on former criminals.
      Who committed atrocities in the first concentration camps of 33-34 years.
      The army, the nationalist officers did not want to be subordinate to
      bandits. They wanted to create their own pillar: the Waffen SS.
      From ideological Nazis, but not bandits.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 11 January 2021 14: 58
        +4
        Hi Aleksey hi
        The army, the nationalist officers did not want to be subordinate to
        bandits. They wanted to create their own pillar: the Waffen SS.


        What are you, colleague ?! The army wanted to create the Waffen SS ?! Army?! Fear God, if anyone really despised the Nazis led by "Corporal Hitler", it was the Prussian cadets, of whom the backbone of the German army always consisted. And the SS ... although, of course, after the battles on the Eastern Front, the army's attitude towards them could have changed, the same "Leibstandarte" was able to fight. But in the thirties there could be no positive attitude.
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 11 January 2021 15: 15
          +3
          Get well. yes
          Not the entire army, but the elite that accepted Nazism.
          Some of the generals of the Wehrmacht never entered the National Socialist
          party until the end of the war. But part of Hitler supported ideologically. They created the SS.
          As a kind of "order". And then the Waffen-SS.
          And these officers organized the rout of the stormtroopers
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 11 January 2021 15: 29
            +5
            Alexey, you are mistaken, the army did not create the SS - (German SS, abbr. From Schutzstaffeln, "guard detachments";
            Paramilitaries of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP). Initially, the SS were intended for Hitler's personal protection and were part of the assault squads.
            Date of establishment: April 4 1925, the
            And the SS turned Himmler into an "order" with the active assistance of Ahnenerbe - "Legacy of the Ancestors".
            1. voyaka uh
              voyaka uh 11 January 2021 17: 32
              +2
              Thanks for the corrections! drinks
        2. paul3390
          paul3390 11 January 2021 15: 28
          +3
          the same "Leibstandarte" was able to fight

          No, judging by their losses - the Waffen SS was somehow not very good at first .. Obstinacy - yes, courage - yes, resilience - yes, but with skill it was straightforward to say not ah .. Why are they, including, The army team did not have a lot of respect .. Then, of course, they gained skills, but it was too late .. It was impossible to oppose the Red Army to its heyday ..
          1. kytx
            kytx 13 January 2021 00: 08
            0
            ss suffered losses because they were thrown into the most desperate directions
            they fought cool. I'm not talking about high command but about ordinary soldiers. we will not talk about atrocities.
            by the way, it is often mentioned in memoirs and interviews that the SS were not taken prisoner
            neither our nor allies
            apparently got it
  4. ee2100
    ee2100 11 January 2021 06: 16
    +3
    Everything is quite in the spirit of that time. Real assessment of events. It is quite viable.
    Indeed Rem has gained too much "weight". The system of checks and balances in German.
  5. anjey
    anjey 11 January 2021 06: 24
    +9
    Therefore, Hitler offered the industrialists something different, since they began to give him money, more and more over the years. What they were offered was worth this money, large by the standards of that time.
    What could be holier than superprofits for industrialists, and where will it come from without seizing super-resources ??? The author completely forgets about the powerful communist movement, about the Bavarian Soviet Republic of 1918, German industrialists were seriously scared, they did not want the 2nd USSR in Europe. when Hitler came to power, he defeated the communist movement in Germany, only then there was the Holocaust. So there is no need to represent German industrial circles as naive children deceived by Hitler. It is not necessary to whitewash the "Root of Evil", as the author of the article does, all wars are unleashed by Bubble's people. And Rem is a competitive struggle within the Nazi party and nothing more.
    1. anjey
      anjey 11 January 2021 07: 43
      +10
      Of course, neither the Nazis, nor the industrialists, in the early 1920s, knew nothing about what would happen in 10-15 years, and were guided by the current situation.
      This we, ordinary people, do not assume, and at the top, everything is planned and laid out "on the shelves", and even more so in pedantic Germany. Political and military revenge, after WWI was necessary for the further development of Germany and communism was a real threat, so the Great War on many grounds it was predetermined and in the highest circles they prepared it and as a result found strength for implementation in Hitler and the Nazi party, then that they did not calculate its outcome, another question, it depended on many interested players in the world.
      1. anjey
        anjey 13 January 2021 05: 27
        +1
        By the way, the primary goal of the Holocaust was the defeat and expropriation of Jewish financial and industrial capital in Germany, it was an explicit order and violent competition of nationalist German financiers and industrialists.
  6. Cartalon
    Cartalon 11 January 2021 06: 56
    +6
    I understand this is all speculation without relying on documents
  7. strannik1985
    strannik1985 11 January 2021 07: 05
    +3
    The version is really extravagant, but it does not take into account one more coordinate - the time before Hitler came to power (1933) and the return to the army with recruiting (1935), they really need a "parallel" army, and after - why? There is the army, the police, the special services, Hitler's personal bodyguards, after all.
  8. Operator
    Operator 11 January 2021 07: 59
    +3
    Nationalist Hitler and socialist Röhm had a different vision of the future war: the first was going to strike the East in accordance with his program document "Mein Kampf", the second - to the West to take revenge on the victors in WWI.

    Hitler won with the support of German businessmen - business partners of Western businessmen. Another thing is that Hitler later threw his Western benefactors, starting the war with the conquest of Western Europe (which he did not write about in Mein Kampf), but not all strategic plans are public - Hitler was afraid of a repetition of the WWI situation in the form of a war on two fronts and lack of resources for military operations.

    The mention of the autobahns is sur, the main burden of transport support for military operations on the European subcontinent and in WWI and WWII was borne by railways.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 12: 01
      +3
      Quote: Operator
      Nationalist Hitler and socialist Rehm had a different vision of a future war: the first was going to strike the East

      Why simplify? The Fuhrer's foreign policy plans were not limited to Drang nach Osten and did not make it a priority.
      1. Operator
        Operator 11 January 2021 14: 21
        -2
        You know better from Israel laughing
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 14: 53
          -1
          Quote: Operator
          You know better from Israel laughing

          Of course. More visible than a milking machine operator because of the cow's udder. laughing
          1. Operator
            Operator 11 January 2021 15: 05
            -1
            Learn Russian, it will come in handy - "from a cow's udder", you are our agrarian bully
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 15: 11
              +1
              Quote: Operator
              Learn Russian, it will come in handy - "from a cow's udder", you are our agrarian bully

              no, sir. You just из-за udder is not enough to be seen) laughing
              1. Operator
                Operator 11 January 2021 20: 16
                -3
                That's what I'm talking about - you have a lot of experience in manual milking of cattle and the sector of view from behind the udder bully
  9. Olgovich
    Olgovich 11 January 2021 08: 23
    +6
    The opinion that Rem was killed because of his ambitions, with obvious false... First, for several years, huge amounts of money were pumped into the SA, several hundred million Reichsmarks, in fact, the second military budget of Germany; They gave Rem to recruit an army of 4,5 million people, and then suddenly they remembered that, it turns out, Rem has ambitions. It turns out to be absurd.

    On the other hand, if Rem had ambitions, why didn't he realize them?


    No absurdity: the main thing was not his desire / unwillingness to move Hitler, but the fact that he COULD do it.

    It was this potential threat that Hitler removed (as many rulers did).

    He was fully used (and he was a good organizer) and removed. Everything is simple and straightforward.
  10. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 11 January 2021 10: 41
    +8
    Why, even Albert Speer made a fortune of 1942 million Reichsmarks by 1,5.
    A non-fantastic amount for Hitler's personal architect, one of the state's leading construction specialists, and the head of national projects.
  11. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 11 January 2021 11: 54
    +1
    Quote: Cartalon
    I understand this is all speculation without relying on documents

    I would say differently: the author wants us to take his word for it.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 12: 09
      +5
      Quote: Astra wild2
      I would say differently: the author wants us to take his word for it.

      The author does not ask to take his word for it, he stated his opinion, which he himself considers quite controversial.
  12. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 11 January 2021 12: 08
    +1
    "in the end, Goering told Hitler that he and Himmler would overthrow him here and now" poor Hitler hid under the table, and Goering and Himmler ran in a circle with sticks: "Obey us or we will beat you with sticks."
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 11 January 2021 12: 59
      +1
      weren't there tables and chairs in Germany? as in the east only the fight of bulldogs under the carpet?
      I know that I don’t know anything, the more the new leaders learned about the situation in the country, the more work was planned instead of loud slogans.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 15: 02
      +2
      Quote: Astra wild2
      "in the end, Goering told Hitler that he and Himmler would overthrow him here and now" poor Hitler hid under the table, and Goering and Himmler ran in a circle with sticks: "Obey us or we will beat you with sticks."

      Well, actually, the real scene is more epic when Hitler appeared in Ryom's chambers with a whip in his hands)
      "I count to three, and then how it hurts!" (C)
  13. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 11 January 2021 12: 20
    +9
    Unfortunately, the article is written in the spirit of: "It means that Tsezapya was killed, but they didn’t get anything there, two more were sent in, the companion of Tsezapya Oktavian and the creator of Apocalypse."
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 15: 08
      +3
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      Unfortunately the article is written in the spirit:

      gorgeous comment! laughing
  14. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 12: 35
    +3
    That's all. Hitler had nowhere to run. The SA has already been beheaded, Berlin is in the power of the SS in full readiness, there is no one to look for protection. He will now be shot, and then Goering and Himmler will tell you that this was done by the stormtroopers, whose coup they heroically suppressed.

    And Hitler surrendered.

    From the author's interpretation it follows that Hitler was completely suppressed and removed from decision-making. Nevertheless, his actions on the eve and during the arrest of Schneidhuber and Rohm seem to me personally quite strong-willed and motivated.
    A few hours later, Rem shot himself.

    Well, if you believe the governor of Stadelheim prison, then Rohm did not raise his hand, and Eika had to slap the fat man right in the cell.
  15. vladcub
    vladcub 11 January 2021 12: 35
    +2
    Comrades, I have a different version. Hitler did not see that Rem had a six-pointed star in his buttonholes, but Goering saw and told Hitler that he was covering a Jew.
    Seriously though, I didn't expect to see such a symbol on Rem.
    I know that mysticism was in the council at the top of the Reich, perhaps all these runes and stars are some kind of mystical symbols? Who is in the subject, enlighten
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 11 January 2021 14: 50
      +4
      All these five, six, eight coal stars, swastikas of all shapes
      (sun symbol) - ancient ritual symbols,
      who spent the night from one culture to another, changing religion and meaning.
      In America, sheriff's stars are also hexagonal - nothing to do.
      to Jews it doesn't.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 20: 31
        +3
        Quote: voyaka uh
        In America, sheriff's stars are also hexagonal - nothing to do.
        to Jews it doesn't.

        Quite right. Just like the swastikas, for example, on the airplanes of the Lafayette squadron, they had nothing to do with Nazism) But in the 2006 film they would have looked, to put it mildly, inappropriate and shocking. And they would have produced about the same effect as the hexagram in the buttonhole of the Chief of Staff of the SA on this impressionable comrade vladcub'a
        ))
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 11 January 2021 20: 56
        +1
        Warrior, what could the six-pointed stars mean among the Aryans? Interesting origin and meaning of symbols
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 11 January 2021 21: 17
          +2
          Hexagram (6 point star), like the pentagram (5 point star)
          walk the world since the Bronze Age. And in India they find such images
          and in Britain, the Celts and the Sumerians.
          And in early Islam they are, and in Christianity.
          The ancient Jewish symbol was the menorah, not the Magendavid.
          Although the pentagram is called the "Solomon's seal" by mystics. smile
  16. A1845
    A1845 11 January 2021 12: 56
    +3
    thanks to the author for a kind of reconstruction of events
    inconsistencies begin with the first lines - German industrialists themselves bathe in gold and pour into the Nazis without stingy, and this is with an unprecedented collapse of the economy
    and so on ..
  17. evgen1221
    evgen1221 11 January 2021 13: 14
    +4
    Some of the author's conclusions are controversial. The population went to the SA because they regularly paid and dressed, and this was very motivating in the impoverished Germany with huge inflation at that time. The love of the Germans for order is also unforgettable, and at that time in Germany there was complete chaos in society and politics, here's another factor for the growth of CA-he gave people clear tasks and clear discipline inside, again a street with a wild market awaited the violator.
    On the autobahns, the author tried to pull the owl onto the globe of the day with the autobahns. Roads were built for the beginning and as the first step towards the exit from the economic priests in the country, cars from the same series. It was necessary to launch the economy and industry, without this, for a long time, the crowds of people who believed in tyabya could not be held back (try hanging noodles in your un for years about a bright future and not doing anything - very quickly people will leave and sponsors too). The Americans, too, rushed to build roads and cars, the Germans the worse. This is generally a universal way of raising any economies from their knees - give people stable prices and work, and how unimportant it is, and everywhere it is unimportant it was brought up by very authoritarian dictatorial methods and nothing, when the belly swells from hunger to the dictatorship, as if it didn't care gives you a piece of bread. The Germans will have plans to seize them a little later, when they start to run into the markets for their goods, which the United States of England and France did not want to share. Then the option with the USSR was in the suit for everyone. Let me remind you that the Germans, even the French with their colonies, could not completely capture and occupy these markets for some reason. What prevented them from giving the French and taking their place on the continent and Africa, and especially nothing in the military plan, was to march to the sea and start building a fleet. The English islands and the blockade when they were submarine was not a big problem of suffocation, while the United States did not fight with them then and could not start, switching to the Japanese.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 11 January 2021 14: 52
      +1
      "Let me remind you that the Germans, even the French with their colonies, could not completely capture" ///
      ---
      Naturally. Interfered with the English fleet in the Mediterranean and Atlantic.
      1. evgen1221
        evgen1221 11 January 2021 15: 38
        0
        And what fleet then prevented the best southern and land part of France to capture? What is it all of a sudden. Forces to no purpose on the Polish border stood immeasurably, they considered the Stalinist USSR to be a clay colossus, the British squeezed from the continent, an ally Italy was building a fleet and beating with a hoof, what was the obstacle?
  18. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 January 2021 15: 37
    +1
    This is indicated by a strange plan for the construction of autobahns.

    and what's strange? Hitler himself explained this in a speech on the bookmark of the aforementioned autobahn Frankfurt-Darmstadt:
    The best way to get the German people back to work is to relaunch the country's economic life through great monumental projects. Right now, the countdown of the construction of the greatest road system in the world is not just starting, right now we see a milestone on the path of building a community of the German people

    When our president is now mumbling about "breakthroughs" and "national projects", I suppose, this does not seem strange to anyone?
  19. zenion
    zenion 11 January 2021 16: 12
    -2
    The most important thing in this article is that the Americans and the people of Nagli have absolutely nothing to create Hitler. They didn't care that the US was going crazy because of the Great Depression, then the coronavirus began. The USA did not want war and did everything with all their might, so that there was no war. Hitler didn't want war either. But the German capitalists said that we will not pay your overseas debts if you do not kill Rem, who wants a revolution and everywhere praises Stalin at every meeting in the pub. If he seizes power, then Germany will become one of the republics of the USSR and will command a huge country in turn Rem-Stalin, Stalin-Rem. But the Americans did not agree, they wanted it to be not Rem-Stalin, but Hitler-Stalin. About this an agreement was signed somewhere about which everyone is talking, but there are no papers on this matter, they probably burned down when the Reichstag was burning, so Stalin wanted. The ticket office will be ours, but not a word about it anywhere. Hitler blurted out, bragged, and Stalin attacked Hitler through the anus, gave him in the teeth and the war began. Again, neither the United States nor Nagliy has any documents for the ascension of Hitler, everything burned down, everything was lost. Then Goering told Hitler the chiefs, from across the ocean said atas, We will rip our claws and take the cash register.
  20. Engineer
    Engineer 11 January 2021 23: 25
    +2
    I am not an expert on the political history of the Third Reich, but the author's version does not evoke any understanding.
    Goering immediately offered Hitler a deal, the essence of which was as follows: Hitler remains the Fuhrer and Reich Chancellor, and then, after the death of von Hindenburg, which is not far off, he will become the Reich President and dictator of Germany with unlimited powers

    1.But after all, Hitler is already the Reich Chancellor for a year and a half, the face of the party and so on and so forth. He is absolutely legitimate and very popular. Goering could not offer it, Hitler ALREADY had it all.

    2. If Goering was such a greyhound talking to Adolf, then why did he bring him closer to him for many years instead of gradually rubbing off his posts and then getting rid of him. Dictators don't like being threatened.

    Somehow it doesn't beat.

    A few hours later, Rem shot himself

    Where is this from ?. The author seems to have to study the subject. What did Comrades Lippert and Eicke do then?
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 12 January 2021 10: 34
      0
      Quote: Engineer
      But after all, Hitler is already the Reich Chancellor for a year and a half, the face of the party and so on and so forth. He is absolutely legitimate and very popular. Goering could not offer it, Hitler ALREADY had it all.

      As I understand it, the author in his conclusions proceeds from the sacramental premise that Hitler was an absolutely dependent and manipulated figure. That is, there is an initial cliche about his lack of independence. A puppet, they say, with a thousand strings. Whoever pushed the poor man around - Goering, and Rohm, and Hindenburg, and Rosenberg, and (oh hosspadi!) Stalin ... I generally keep quiet about the plutocracy of Britain and the United States.
      Well, at least Hitler is not denied combinatorial talents - and that's good. Otherwise, reading a vague cryptohistorical jelly, one can exclaim in the spirit of Bulgakov's investigator:
      "But excuse me, how did he serve in the cleaning?" (from)
      Quote: Engineer
      If Goering was such a greyhound talking to Adolf, then why did he bring him closer to him for many years instead of gradually rubbing off about posts and then getting rid of. Dictators don't like being threatened.

      I'm even afraid to imagine how, according to the author, Goering was appointed to the post of head of the party faction in the Reichstag after the elections of 1932 ... A picture in the style of the sketch "Surrender" is vividly drawn:
      Goering (bursting into Hitler's office):
      - Adik! Heil you, Schaub you lived for another 13 years! Toka sho in the Reichstag, shob it burned down, they told me, sho you're going to put Grishka Strasser on the watch! And instead of calmly digesting stuffed fish, God bless the cook Aunt Pesya, I rush here to tell you - you are doing something incomprehensible! By the way, you owe me for the tram. Pack it into your head - if you shove the pharmacist, then the next day from all the telefunkens of the Fatherland Hans Mend will tell an interesting story about the sodomy adventures of a corporal with an always unwashed head ...
      Hitler (hiccuping)
      - This post is yours, Herman! I swear by the customs dad!
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 12 January 2021 11: 12
        0
        Urgently to the authors of VO. Talent cannot be wasted in vain.

        If serious.
        OK. Hitler was pushed around, for example. But what can Goering offer, whose well-being depends directly on Adolf's career? Goering a representative of the interests of industry and banks? Well, this must be substantiated separately, that they went to the Nazis through him, and did not go directly to Hitler.
        He has no gingerbread. There can only be a whip in the form of compromising evidence. At the same time, such a step is a gesture of despair - they will overthrow Hitler, they will immediately ask, and who are you, if he was with him all this time and shared all beliefs and actions. Second, and most importantly, even an implicit threat of compromising evidence is the end. The end for the flying hog. Any reasonable person understands that it is impossible to deal with a blackmailer.
        Retrospective analysis shows that it is rather the opposite. The continuation of Goering's carer after a night of long knives tells us that he did the Fuehrer some extremely valuable service.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 12 January 2021 12: 10
          0
          But I’m wondering why everyone is procrastinating Night dl. knives, but no one recalls the events of October 25-26, 1931, when the Reichswehr and the police, with volunteer assistants who joined them in the person of the SCF, Stahlhelm and the Iron Front, slapped the snot on the gopniks from the SA, which they represent here downright "indestructible and legendary" the Praetorian Guard? The top of the Nazis took warm from the beds, and Ryom's gopota was easily put in a corner on peas. And in April 32nd the court slapped a life sentence to the leaders of the NSDAP. Only the Strasser brothers recoiled, because Otto immediately expressed a desire to cooperate with the investigation. A very interesting episode.
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 12 January 2021 12: 42
            +1
            Well, there was no chance. SA of that time is primarily militants in the initial stage of transformation into something more serious.
            It is as if Center E, riot police, etc., are brought to the digital cameras at the peak of their activity. with arrests and sweeps. Peas are not avoided
  21. Cowbra
    Cowbra 12 January 2021 03: 50
    -2
    The version is at least worth considering. But by itself. not indisputable. For example, for some reason the author forgot that "There were monopolies behind Hitler. There was no one behind Don Reba." Hitler. Rem was not given the money. And not only the German monopolies, let me remind you that in Hitler's office there was a portrait not of Barbarossa, but of Henry Ford. Which Hitler called his teacher. Would the Americans have dealt with the soldier Rem? Is not a fact. Military force alone does not solve everything. For example, you can recall that "Lion of the Revolution" - that was the name not of Lenin, but of Trotsky. and yet he was the commander-in-chief, consider the whole army under the command of Leiba Bronstein, and not Vladimir Ulyanov. Only who had to flee to the other hemisphere?
    Well, this is from the category, as I remember this episode. Complex object. We are now going to shy away from technical floors, basements, attics, creep like devils. Well, one of us, snags. White trousers. shirt. tie. "Dear, and you now in this outfit will climb into the collector, where is the water along the fork? - You will climb there, and I will now agree that you will be paid money for this. So that there is not enough for broth for a bug"
  22. Doliva63
    Doliva63 13 January 2021 17: 59
    0
    Putin is already in power twice as long as the "Reich" existed, and we are all about him. Enough already? No, I remember that war, of course. But it ended and we won it. Maybe it's better about how to build life further so that those who died for us would not be ashamed?