Military Review

Albania in the first half of the XNUMXth century. Independence and World War II

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Albania in the first half of the XNUMXth century. Independence and World War II
In this Albanian cartoon, a proud girl Albania “puts in place” its bestial neighbors - Montenegro, Serbia and Greece.


In previous articles, it was told about the Albanian warrior and commander Giorgi Kastrioti (Skanderbeg) and the Ottoman period stories Albania. Now we will talk about the history of this country in the first half of the XNUMXth century.

The emergence of independent Albania


The independence of Albania was proclaimed on November 28, 1912 in Vlora: the Albanians then successfully took advantage of the defeats of the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War.


Proclamation of the independence of Albania. Vlora. November 28, 1912

This ran counter to the interests of Serbia and Montenegro, which wanted to divide the Albanian lands among themselves (most of all they were attracted by the port cities on the Adriatic Sea). But Great Britain and France were not then interested in strengthening the positions of Russia's allies.

But the great powers allowed the Greeks to occupy the southern part of Albania in March 1913.

In April 1915, a secret treaty was signed in London, according to which Albania was occupied by the troops of Italy, Greece and Serbia. And then these lands were occupied by the Italians - as payment for participation in the war on the side of the Entente countries.

The occupiers were expelled from Albania in 1920. Then rebel detachments, consisting mainly of peasants, liberated a number of cities.

Tepelena was released on June 10. In August, the occupiers were forced to evacuate their troops from Vlora.

Finally, the Albanian-Italian agreement was concluded, according to which the Italians renounced land on the mainland, but retained the island of Sazani.

It was returned to Albania in 1947. It was here in 1958 that the Soviet base of the submarine brigade was located, which was closed after the break in relations between Albania and the USSR due to the fault of N. Khrushchev.


Let's go back to 1913. And we will see that in October, due to border disputes, a war almost broke out between Serbia and Albania.

The Serbs have already sent their troops into the northern regions of this country. But they were forced to retreat after the ultimatum to Austria-Hungary.

The hatred of the Serbs towards the Austrians then reached its limits. Which ultimately led to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo. And by the beginning of the First World War.

Independent Albania became a refuge for members of the Sufi Bektash order (whose history is closely connected with the Janissary corps), expelled from Turkey.


The head of the Bektash order and the commander of the Janissary corps in a medieval drawing.

Mustafa Kemal said after Turkey was proclaimed a republic:

"Turkey should not be a country of sheikhs, dervishes, murids, a country of religious sects."

Since then, the World Bektashi Center has existed in Albania.


World Bektashi Center. Tirana

The well-known Enver Hoxha also came from the Bektash family. But he broke with the order, and in 1967 he completely banned it in Albania. In the same year, Enver Hoxha, in general, declared Albania

"The world's first atheistic state."

This had consequences. Some modern Muslim Albanians, for example, still enjoy eating pork.

In 1928, Albania received the first (and last) king, who became the second president of this country, Ahmet Zogu, who took on an additional name - Skanderbeg III.

Albania during World War II


On April 7, 1939, Italy brought its troops into the territory of Albania.


A division of the Italian mountain artillery in Albania.

The only unit of the Albanian army that tried to resist the Italians was the detachment of Major Abaz Kupi, which then retreated into the mountains, laying the foundation for the partisan movement.

The king and his courtiers fled the country.

Albania was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy as part of a personal union (that is, the king of Italy also became the king of a formally independent Albania).

On December 3, 1941, a local native, Mustafa Merlik-Kruy, was appointed the Italian governor in Albania, who served as prime minister.

And on November 7, 1941, the underground Communist Party of Albania was created in Tirana (united for the whole country, until then there were separate communist groups), which in 1948, on Stalin's initiative, was renamed the Albanian Party of Labor (APT).

Among its 13 founders were 8 representatives of the Christian community of this country and 5 of the Muslim. Kochi Dzodze was then elected the first secretary.

His deputy was Enver Hoxha, who in 1938-1939. studied in Moscow. Then he first met I. Stalin and V. Molotov, completely falling under their charm and retaining the deepest respect for them throughout his life.

It was Enver Hoxha who was appointed commander-in-chief of the partisan formations.


Albanian partisan detachment.


Enver Hoxha conducts a review of the fighters of one of the partisan detachments.

In March 1943, Enver Hoxha was elected General Secretary of the CPA Central Committee. He held this position (since July 1954 - First Secretary) until his death in 1985.

In 1943, he became the commander-in-chief of the partisan detachments controlled by the Communist Party, which were united in the People's Liberation Army of Albania.


Enver Hoxha during the war.

The Albanian partisans became especially active after the Battle of Stalingrad, in which the Italian army suffered heavy losses.

In early July 1943, 20 partisan battalions and 30 smaller partisan formations were operating in Albania.

At this time, the successor of Enver Hoxha as the first secretary of the APT and the first president of Albania, Ramiz Alia, joined the Communist Party. He was the commissar of the 7th partisan brigade, and then the 2nd and 5th partisan divisions.

On July 25, 1943, Mussolini was arrested at the royal palace.

On September 8, 1943, the so-called "Brief Conditions for Italy's surrender" were published, signed on September 3.

At this time, on the territory of Dalmatia, Montenegro and Albania there was a 270-strong Italian army, the overwhelming number of soldiers and officers of which surrendered to the German troops. Only a small number of them capitulated to the partisans, and about one and a half thousand Italians went over to the side of the Albanians and fought in the People's Liberation Army of Enver Hoxha, as a battalion named after Antonio Gramsci.

Albania, abandoned by the Italians, was occupied by the Germans, who

"Restored independence"

this country.

And the regency council headed by Mehdi Frageri was put in charge of it. Recep Mitrovica became prime minister.

At the same time, some of the lands of neighboring states were transferred to Albania. About 72 thousand people from northern Albania were then settled in Kosovo - on the land of 10 thousand exiled Serb families.


Albania during the Second World War.


German soldiers in Albania. September 1943

The partisan movement split.

The National Liberation Front, in which the Communists played a prominent role, continued the struggle. The nationalist movement "Balli Kombetar" ended resistance, announcing the former associates

"Traitors", because of whom "the Germans will wipe out our people and our villages from the face of the earth."

One of the Albanian partisan detachments controlled by Enver Hoxha was transferred to the north of Macedonia, where he liberated the city of Debar. What caused an ambiguous reaction in the leadership of the NOAJ.

On the one hand, his actions in areas inhabited by Albanians were beneficial from a military and political point of view. On the other hand, it was considered as

“Great Albanian chauvinistic actions”.

SS Division "Skanderbeg"


But not all Albanians joined the partisans.

In May 1944, the SS "Skanderbeg" division was formed from the Albanians, the core of which was the Albanian battalion of the 13th SS "Khanjar" division (it was described in the article The accomplices of Hitler and Mussolini and their actions on the territory of Yugoslavia). At first, she was stationed in Kosovo, then transferred to Serbia. And at the end of December 1944 - to Croatia.


German officer in front of the formation of the Albanians of the SS "Skanderbeg" division.

This division became famous mainly for the massacres of civilians in various regions of Yugoslavia.

German General Fitzhum spoke of her servicemen this way:

"Most of the Albanian army and gendarmerie officers were greedy, useless, undisciplined and incapable of learning."

On September 1, 1944, some units of this division, stationed in Tetovo and Gostivar, rebelled altogether.

And the Albanians killed all the German officers.

As a result, this division (numbering up to 7 thousand people) is considered the worst of all collaborationist formations. None of her military personnel have been awarded the Iron Cross.

But on the other hand, the Albanians of the Skanderbeg division were good at destroying unarmed Serbs and Jews.


Trophies of the SS division "Skanderbeg".

For example, in the Montenegrin village of Andrievice, Albanians executed 1944 Christians in June 400. And on July 28, they also killed 428 people in the village of Velik.

When it became clear that Germany was doomed, most of this division (about three and a half thousand people) fled.

The rest were transferred to another SS division - "Eugene Savoy" (Prinz Eugen von Savoyen), which fought until May 1945.


Cavalrymen of the SS Eugene of Savoy division in the Bosnian city of Mostar.


Soldiers of the SS Yevgeny Savoysky division during operations against the Yugoslav partisans.

Liberation of Albania


On May 28, 1944, the Albanian National Liberation Army (24 partisan brigades) launched a general offensive, which ended with the liberation of Albania from German troops at the end of December of the same year. Moreover, practically without the participation of foreign troops (assistance was provided aviation Allies, and the British carried out a limited landing operation in the area of ​​the port city of Saranda).

These actions were facilitated by the fact that (after the withdrawal of Soviet troops to the borders of Romania and Czechoslovakia) the Germans had no time for the Balkans. Many of the units of their army stationed here were sent to the Eastern Front.


The Cossacks of the 1st Wehrmacht Division under the command of Helmut von Pannwitz continue to fight the partisans in Yugoslavia.

In this photograph, taken in October-November 1944, we see Italian Tanks M-15/42 of the 1st armored company of this division.

About von Pannwitz and the Cossacks subordinate to him was told in the article The accomplices of Hitler and Mussolini and their actions on the territory of Yugoslavia.

Tirana was liberated on November 17, 1944. November 29 - Shkodra.


Group portrait of Albanian partisans on the streets of the liberated capital of the country - Tirana.

After that, several partisan brigades of the National Liberation Army of Albania continued to fight in Montenegro, Serbia, Macedonia and even in northern Greece.

In the next article we will talk about the history of Albania after the Second World War: about Enver Hoxha and Hoxhaism, Albania's relations with the USSR, Yugoslavia and China, about "Albanian mushrooms" and social policy, as well as the fall of the communist regime in this country.
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 8 January 2021 06: 04
    +14
    Valery thank you very much for the continuation!
    True, I'm afraid for the mention of the "Cossacks", you will be eaten by the fans of the "mummers".
    Regards, Kote!
    1. Hunter 2
      Hunter 2 8 January 2021 08: 18
      +12
      I fully agree with Vladislav, the whole series of articles is read in one breath! Thanks to Valery Ryzhov hi the folder "favorites" is replenished with an enviable constancy !!!
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 8 January 2021 18: 27
        +3
        Thanks for the hint or I forgot to top up dad. Lazy, and now I need to take my mind
    2. 89268170588
      89268170588 28 March 2021 10: 54
      +1
      Now it is impossible without the Cossacks. Why are the Bulgarians not mentioned? They were there from 41 to 44 and carried out by no means "humanitarian operations", for one killed they killed 50 and sometimes even 100 hostages. Agree without the Bulgarians there is no complete picture. By the way, it was the Bulgarians who defeated the Prince Eugen division in Yugoslavia after the declaration of war on Germany on September 8, 1944. Paradoxically, by declaring war on Germany, Bulgaria was at war with the USSR, the USA, Britain and other allies.
  2. datura23
    datura23 8 January 2021 06: 14
    0
    the state is a misunderstanding
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 8 January 2021 06: 21
      +6
      Quote: datura23
      the state is a misunderstanding

      The misunderstanding is debatable. I got the impression that Albania is a kind of Balkan litomorph, like our three Baltic states.
      1. datura23
        datura23 8 January 2021 06: 23
        +4
        The Italians would have surrounded this area with three rows of barbed wire
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 8 January 2021 06: 29
          +3
          Also spend money on them, they will make "wattle"!
        2. VLR
          8 January 2021 07: 24
          +11
          It depends on which Italians smile
          Mafia structures of Italy hate outsiders on their territory, but they made an exception for the Albanians, and some journalists specializing in the topic call their relationship "fraternal". Why do you think?
          This is atypical, since the Albanian "brigades" break and crush everyone everywhere and under them, and the Italian mafiosi frankly do not like and do not trust strangers. And then all of a sudden the "families" cede part of the "business" and themselves open "offices" in Vlora. I will talk about this a little in the last article on Albania.
          By the way, in other countries, in particular, in the USA, Albanians and "old" Italian mafiosi "press"
          (those that make interesting and sentimental films about themselves - not themselves, of course, the famous directors and artists hired by them are trying).
          1. Hunter 2
            Hunter 2 8 January 2021 08: 29
            +10
            Quote: VlR

            By the way, in other countries, in particular, in the United States, Albanians and "old" Italian mafiosi are "pressing".

            Albanian criminal groups control 50% of all prostitution in Europe and almost 100% of illegal organ trade. Their structure is not "family" like that of the Italians, more like a circle of interests, very much like the "Russian" mafia.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 8 January 2021 09: 26
              +11
              Greetings, Alex! hi
              Quite right, they have groups with their own authority and common fund. Frostbite in full - in some Sweden, in broad daylight, they can stick Galil's horn into the window of a debtor living in the city center laughing
              1. Hunter 2
                Hunter 2 8 January 2021 09: 32
                +8
                Hi Albert hi Yeah, frostbitten figures are terrorizing "old Europe", which was especially interesting - Albanian groups freely accept non-Albanians into their ranks !!!
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 8 January 2021 09: 40
                  +8
                  Duc "good guys" are always needed by everyone))
                  The Albanians themselves are aggressive types, as during the showdown between Israel and Gaza they beat Russian Jews from Ashdod on a Greek ferry, like - for the suffering of Palestine laughing My friend lived in Scandinavia, he was also a Russian Israeli, he worked with them - he says that people are not rotten, they are simply crazy, if they drive something into their heads, it is difficult to convince.
                  1. vladcub
                    vladcub 8 January 2021 18: 23
                    +2
                    Who are rotten then? Interesting to know who compared
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 8 January 2021 19: 15
                      +2
                      Quote: vladcub
                      Who are rotten then? Interesting to know who compared

                      Rotten ones are those who will not throw or frame you in only two cases:
                      If you are their relative;
                      If they know what kind of kidok or set-up you will tear off their head.
                      hi
                2. VLR
                  8 January 2021 10: 20
                  +10
                  Not quite so: the backbone of the group is family members (and a family in Albania is all relatives, including the seventh water on jelly, up to 300 men alone), in extreme cases, they accept well-known fellow villagers. They all take a "vow of mutual trust" (Bese): trust each other with their lives and pledge to protect group members at all costs. These cling to each other with their teeth. The rest are performers and "cannon fodder" who know little and can say little when arrested. They are not spared and not particularly cherished.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 8 January 2021 14: 10
                    +1
                    Quote: VlR
                    Not quite so: the backbone of the group is family members (and a family in Albania is all relatives, including the seventh water on jelly, up to 300 men alone), in extreme cases, they accept well-known fellow villagers. They all take a "vow of mutual trust" (Bese): trust each other with their lives and pledge to protect group members at all costs. These cling to each other with their teeth. The rest are performers and "cannon fodder" who know little and can say little when arrested. They are not spared and not particularly cherished.

                    I was told differently
              2. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 8 January 2021 13: 15
                +8
                Quote: Krasnodar
                Galil's horn

                It sounds poetic ... Pan's flute, Galil's horn ... Immediately a thoughtful young shepherd boy named Galil appears, sitting among lush flowers on a picturesque alpine meadow and playing the horn. In the background is a fat, lazy herd of cows, and on his knees rests the head of a young languid naked peyzanne, sweetly dormant after an act of love ... , let there be one Galil.
                By the way, is it possible to buy a Galil horn at Galatza's store? smile
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 January 2021 14: 10
                  +6
                  Immediately, a thoughtful young shepherd boy named Galil appears, sitting among lush flowers in a picturesque alpine meadow and playing on a horn. In the background is a fat, lazy herd of cows, and on its knees rests the head of a young languid naked peyzanne, sweetly dormant after an act of love ... I fully admit that the young man himself is half-dressed in an Albanian national costume ...
                  And then the "Merkava" leaves the corner ...
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 8 January 2021 14: 54
                    +6
                    Yes, damn it, what is it?
                    Birds chirp, rabbits in thorn bushes squeak from the overflowing happiness and contentment, butterflies flap from flower to flower, tremblingly moving their antennae, and the Israeli military does not sleep, and now the Alpine mountain meadows are under the Zionist heel ...
                    Okay, we forgave you the occupation of Jamaica. But the enlightened public will not allow you to let the "Merkava" into the places of military glory of Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov himself, Anton! Please take the Merkava back and not spoil the idyllic landscape! Cows from such a picture will cease to be milked - where are we going to get Alpen Gold?
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 8 January 2021 15: 15
                      +5
                      Where are we going to get Alpen Gold?
                      Oh wei, Mikhail, don't make me laugh! So everyone knows what's in "Pyaterochka"!
                      1. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 8 January 2021 15: 39
                        +7
                        Niht ferstein yudish shrechen! Are you from das "five point"?
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 8 January 2021 16: 21
                        +1
                        Zi nicht ferstein, herr general loytheonat! Das ist "Pentatoikh"!
                  2. Catfish
                    Catfish 8 January 2021 16: 01
                    +3
                    Samsonov and Kharaluzhny will pronounce the verdict and will carry them out themselves. laughing
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 8 January 2021 15: 51
                  +1
                  Hello Anton. smile
                  When did you manage to change "Shermanyuga" to "Merkava"? soldier
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 8 January 2021 15: 54
                    +2
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    Shermanyugu "to" Merkava "?

                    Oh !!! Didn't notice! Hello buddy and friends! hi
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 8 January 2021 15: 56
                      +1
                      Did you react to the "Sherman" with the "Merkava" instantly, the whole tropical island and the tank from around the corner dream at night? smile
                      Hello, Sergey. drinks
                    2. Phil77
                      Phil77 9 January 2021 10: 59
                      +1
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      Hello, Sergey.

                      It's forever!
                3. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 January 2021 16: 35
                  +2
                  At the beginning of the eighteenth
              3. Catfish
                Catfish 8 January 2021 16: 00
                +2
                No, Anton, it's still yours.

                And leave the "Merkava" to Albert, he knows better from which side you need to approach it. laughing
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 January 2021 16: 47
                  +3
                  Uncle Kostya, don't make me nervous! Where is Albert and where is the "Merkava"? You can tell me now that Albert served in the Tsakhal, but I did not! Well, I saw that "merkava", and Albert, maybe not ...
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 8 January 2021 17: 09
                    +1
                    I guess where you saw her ... however, I saw her there, and at the same time the "Abrams" with "Leclerc", as a tanker say, although a former one. smile soldier
                  2. Astra wild2
                    Astra wild2 8 January 2021 19: 48
                    +1
                    Good evening. My poet, you amazes me, where have you not been?
                  3. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 9 January 2021 11: 38
                    +1
                    In far fewer places than I would like, My Fair Stranger.
            2. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 8 January 2021 20: 19
              +1
              "The Merkava drives around the corner, and Albert drives the chariot (I was told that the Merkava is a" chariot ") with the most villainous plans.
              Joke
          2. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 8 January 2021 14: 14
            +5
            Quote: Trilobite Master

            It sounds poetic ... Pan's flute, Galil's horn ... Immediately a thoughtful young shepherd boy named Galil appears, sitting among lush flowers on a picturesque alpine meadow and playing the horn. In the background is a fat, lazy herd of cows, and on his knees rests the head of a young languid naked peyzanne, sweetly dormant after an act of love ... , let there be one Galil.
            By the way, is it possible to buy a Galil horn at Galatza's store? smile

            I don't know if it is possible to buy a Galil horn in a store, but in Europe this kind of stuff is from any Lebanese))
            And a pastoral Tyrolean painting and an assault rifle shop - set off good ))
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 8 January 2021 15: 04
              +4
              Quote: Krasnodar
              in Europe this kind of stuff from all sorts of Lebanese

              Where did the Lebanese get from? Is it really a joke
              - What cartridges ran out?
              - Well yes...
              - Do you want - selling?

              not a bike, but the harsh truth of life, so to speak, a front-line sketch in the style of the Pravda newspaper for 1942?
              "Merkava" in the alpine meadows, the Lebanese in Europe are shuffling with Israeli ammunition - guys, have you decided to lead me into a catatonic stupor? Or is it just, as it should be on Christmastide, in your face just all kinds of evil spirits roamed?
              laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 8 January 2021 15: 39
                +3
                Or is it just, as it should be on Christmastide, in your face just any evil spirits roamed?
                Undoubtedly !!! As Yasno Solnyshko says, “we defeated both the Pechenegs and the Polovtsians,” but about the Khazars, meanwhile, no gu-gu. "By chance? I don't think so!" (FROM) laughing
              2. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 8 January 2021 15: 41
                +2
                laughing
                For the Lebanese - from the Phalangists, who were armed by Israel, kataib
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 8 January 2021 17: 07
                  +2
                  Quote: Krasnodar
                  kataib

                  Don't swear, Albert, and what's the accent anyway? Risking a ban, let me remind you that in Russian this word is written through "o" and "e".
                  In the 90s, towards the end, in St. Petersburg, in a criminal environment, American revolvers of caliber 0.38. Flange cartridges of the corresponding calibers on the black market have risen sharply. smile
                  Your comments? smile
                2. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 8 January 2021 19: 10
                  +3
                  laughing
                  We reviewed gangster films, probably - any short-barreled weapon without a push-button release in a built-up area (short distances), in my opinion, has no value hi
                3. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 8 January 2021 20: 09
                  +1
                  Well, there were no hostilities in the city then, thank God. For the showdown, they chose places quiet, deserted - some vacant lots, less often forest clearings ... And in general, in fact, shootings, especially those when the weapon would have to reload, that is, long, were relatively infrequent. They shot almost every day, but like this: they swooped down, shot whoever they wanted, quickly dumped. Few had time to return fire. Locations of action - entrances of residential buildings, taverns, saunas (at the exit to the street), car parking, etc. For everything about everything - ten seconds, no more.
                  In theory, in such a "war" submachine guns are most effective, compact and capable of saturating the space around the shooter with lead in a short time, but ... mainly revolvers had to be removed, sometimes just huge, and shotguns, these are from the guards in " offices ".
                  Stupidity ... Show-off ... Fashion ... Or the presence of a stable supply channel for just such a weapon.
                4. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 8 January 2021 20: 11
                  +1
                  Both that and another and the third)).
                5. vladcub
                  vladcub 8 January 2021 21: 34
                  +1
                  Misha, I think the last thing. They would be happy to take a Beret or something else, but: "take what you give"
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 8 January 2021 15: 45
      +4
      Hi Michael hi
      I was inspired by the lyric pastoral you wrote out and decided to look for something similar. And I found it! Even Galil's "horn" is in its proper place. But for the languid and naked peyzanne, the meta was still not found, I'm afraid the moderators will not understand. laughing
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 8 January 2021 16: 47
        +3
        Hello, Uncle Kostya. smile
        Each Galil has his own peyzanka, in the sense of "who is the mare's bride." smile For some, what is depicted is a harem and the ultimate dream. If we have genders now in some places under a hundred count, the young shepherd in the picture no longer seems to be something exotic.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 8 January 2021 17: 05
          +3
          The question is, what is the ultimate dream for whom: a harem from a flock of sheep, a young shepherd boy, or an assault rifle "Galil" on the shoulder of this youth? Or maybe all at once? laughing
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 8 January 2021 17: 11
            +3
            I forgot about the dog, Uncle Kostya. But you cat-lovers are forgivable. But I still remember the old children's fairy tale about Carlson:
            Once upon a time there was an ordinary Swedish family - dad, mom, sister and brother. And also a Kid who wanted a dog lived with them ...

            Quote: Sea Cat
            Or maybe all at once?

            Not, guys, whatever you want, but I'm fishing. laughing
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 8 January 2021 17: 18
            +3
            That's it, we've arrived, I'll go have a glass. drinks
    3. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 8 January 2021 19: 12
      +1
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Hi Michael hi
      I was inspired by the lyric pastoral you wrote out and decided to look for something similar. And I found it! Even Galil's "horn" is in its proper place. But for the languid and naked peyzanne, the meta was still not found, I'm afraid the moderators will not understand. laughing

      This is exactly such a Galil, Konstantin, I still managed to catch in 97, I saw in the training))
      If it's 5.56mm
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 8 January 2021 19: 57
        +1
        In my opinion, this is 7,62, there are bipods, but in general you can zoom in and see. When I photographed, I got used to "filing" them. ))
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 8 January 2021 20: 10
          +1
          Judging by the store - 7,62. The bipods on this version were originally also at 5.56, then, for some reason, there was a place for them, but the legs themselves were not laughing Because of the weight, probably
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 8 January 2021 20: 13
          +1
          Well, the variant under 7,62 was also used as a sniper rifle, in the presence of optics, and there the bipod is already mandatory, well, almost.
    4. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich 8 January 2021 20: 18
      +2
      Quote: Krasnodar
      This is exactly such a Galil, Konstantin, I still managed to catch in 97, I saw in the training))
      If it's 5.56mm

      so it is with a wooden, forend! It was considered a high status to have such, everything was more plastic.
      When I left one base so people came to ask to give the tree to them. (there are no numbers on it and it was possible to castle on plastic)
      young days, damn it!
      ps most likely 5,56. 7,62 large sparseness was
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 8 January 2021 21: 26
        +1
        Shop - 7.62
        Export option
        The IDF did not use it or did it until the 90s
  • Catfish
    Catfish 8 January 2021 11: 04
    +9
    Hello, Vlad. hi
    In my opinion, they are more reminiscent not of the Baltics, but of some "small but proud" peoples of our Caucasus, who have been plundering and slave trade throughout their history.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 8 January 2021 08: 05
    +1
    Quote: datura23
    the state is a misunderstanding

    Why is the "misunderstanding" - the state turned out to be strong, united and belligerent. Although it does not cause much sympathy ...
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 8 January 2021 09: 22
    +5

    Interestingly Albanians call Montenegro.
    Thank you, Valery!
  • Freeman
    Freeman 8 January 2021 09: 43
    +7
    In 1928, Albania received the first (and last) king, who became the second president of this country, Ahmet Zogu, who took on an additional name - Skanderbeg III.


    And that so little attention has been paid to this extraordinary ruler?


    King of Albania Zogu I Skanderbeg III
    (Ahmet Mukhtar Zogolli)


    Adhering to authoritarian positions, Zogu wanted to modernize Albania. He achieved success in the fight against banditry and in eradicating the traditions of blood feud, helped to unite the disunited fiss (clans, tribes) by building roads, hospitals and schools, sent students to European universities, created a system of administrative division, introduced the responsibility of officials to the Ministry of the Interior and used European models in the development of codes of criminal, civil and commercial law.

    During the years of his reign, 55 attempts were made on him.

    The most famous assassination attempt on Zoga I took place in 1931 when the king was in Vienna. He left the building of the Vienna Opera and got into the car when two compatriots opened fire on him. They were Aziz Chami and Ndok Jeloshi, members of the National Union, an exile group of opponents of the Albanian king. Jeloshi shot three times in the back of the head of the guard, whom he took for the monarch. Zogu himself not only was not injured, but even snatched a pistol from the bodyguard and opened fire on the attackers. He didn't hit anyone, but went down in history as the only head of state who fired back from the intruders who attempted on his life.
    1. Sergey Sfiedu
      Sergey Sfiedu 8 January 2021 12: 58
      +6
      They wrote that he was brought to power by Russian emigrants-White Guards who overthrew the president, who was also an Orthodox metropolitan, who seemed to be sympathetic to the Bolsheviks. Allegedly, under Zog, the Russians held many posts in the Albanian army. Everything is confused in this cursed country.
      1. akinak-f
        akinak-f 8 January 2021 16: 45
        +2
        Moreover, a Russian detachment formed in Yugoslavia from former White Guards, including the notorious Colonel Ulagai, played a large role in the elevation of Zog to the throne of Albania.
        https://warhistory.livejournal.com/45958.html
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 8 January 2021 18: 16
      +1
      An interesting addition. I knew nothing about their king, much less about such an attempt.
      "Jeloshu shot three times in the back of the head of the guard, whom he mistook for a monarch" the king survived purely by chance.
      What are the conclusions from it, from today's point of view?
      1) poorly prepared: the shooter did not know his "target" well. They were probably both dressed alike.
      2) at that time, the protection of the first persons was primitive: the shooter was behind the victim and practically nearby. From a pistol, probably something pocket, you will not shoot at a distance of more than 20 meters
  • Catfish
    Catfish 8 January 2021 12: 31
    +3
    Cossacks of the 1st division of the Wehrmacht under the command of Helmut von Pannwitz ...


    These fought back in the Civil, it is clear against whom.

    Von Pannwitz honors the distinguished soldiers of his corps.

    On February 25, 1945, the Cossack divisions were merged into the 15th SS Cossack Cavalry Corps.

    Two weeks earlier, von Pannwitz had nevertheless resigned from the army, the next day becoming SS Obergruppenfuehrer and Lieutenant General of the SS forces.


    On January 16, 1947, von Panwitz was hanged along with other generals of the Cossack Camp on the verdict of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR.
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 8 January 2021 21: 25
      +1
      Konstantin, you are a weapon expert. What do you think, what kind of pistol does Panwitz have and why is he on his side?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 8 January 2021 22: 34
        0
        What do you think, what kind of pistol does Panwitz have?

        How can I know, the pistol is in a holster, and there could be anything.
        ... why is he on his side?

        Where else could he be? Opera and bandits wear armpits.
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 9 January 2021 08: 29
          +1
          And where else can he be "everywhere in the films, in illustrations, a holster in front. His sheepskin coat and hat resemble a Red Army general's uniform
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 9 January 2021 12: 15
            0
            Everyone wears things as they please.
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 9 January 2021 12: 28
              +3
              Generally, wearing a uniform is regulated by the charter
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 9 January 2021 12: 31
                0
                Weapons are not a form of clothing.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 8 January 2021 21: 48
      +1
      Kostya, good evening. Now I myself noticed that the pistol was on the side. As for the weapon, he probably has: "Walter PP". Gentlemen generals are sissy to carry a parabellum or Walter P38. Give them something smaller
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 8 January 2021 22: 48
        0
        Hello, Glory. hi
        ... it probably has: "Walter PP".

        Maybe, and maybe Sauer or Mauser, or maybe Star or Astra, or maybe ... but the devil knows what he might have there, he's not at the front, but in everyday life is just a status weapon.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 8 January 2021 13: 15
    +8
    The head of the Bektash order and the commander of the Janissary corps in a medieval drawing.
    Valery, you are out of luck with drawings.
    This is a drawing by the artist Jean Brindesi, an Italian who lived and painted in Istanbul in the XNUMXth century.
    Little is known about him. He lived in a house on Yenicharshi Street in Galatasaray, depicting Istanbul during the period of Sultan Abdul-Majid I (1839-1861). He painted mainly watercolors, sometimes in oil.
    Two albums of lithographs based on his drawings were published by Lemercier in Paris: Elbicei Atika - Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople, 1855, and Souvenirs de Constantinople, 1860; ... The originals are kept at Istanbul Topkapi Palace Museum and Istanbul University.
    The illustration shown is from Elbicei Atika - Musee des Anciens Costumes Turcs de Constantinople.

    Signed - costumes Turcs de Constantinople.] (Derviche) Bektachi Emin Baba Seirdin-Ustasi (Chef des Bouffons). Soitari, Bouffon des Volontaires. Deli Bachi, Chef des cavaliers irréguliers.
    That is, there is neither the head of the Bektash order nor the commander of the Janissary corps on it.
    The dervish and the jester are sitting, the head of the irregular cavalry, the head of the order of dervishes and roving fakirs are standing.
    Those who know French will ask to correct.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 8 January 2021 13: 26
    +7
    Once again, I am extremely delighted with how all the parties concerned skillfully and subtly maintain a constant hotbed of political tension in the Balkans ... But of course - it's always good to have a few buttons at hand that you press and it will burst somewhere so that everyone can run there, and you were allowed to calmly go about your business ... Albania, it seems to me, is such a button, or, rather, a coal, constantly smoldering and waiting for someone to start fanning it ...
    Author, as always, thanks.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 8 January 2021 17: 47
    +4
    Valery, Merry Christmas. Thanks for your work. If earlier, when there were: Bulgarians, Montenegro or Serbs, I knew something. They have everything to one degree or another tied to Bulgaria and Russia, and now I'm 95% new.
    What I knew: there is Albania, the partisans were led by Enver Hoxha, he was an adherent of Stalin. And perhaps that's all ..
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 8 January 2021 19: 42
    +2
    Good evening. Valery, my gratitude to you: although I am jealous of you for the Balkans, your materials are necessary.
    Colleagues, on weekdays I often looked at the site, but today only now
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 8 January 2021 20: 52
    +1
    "which eventually led to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. And the beginning of the First World War"
    Valeriy, in fairness, Gavrila Princip was a member of "Young Bosniaia", and the Bosniacs are not very "friendly" with the Serbs, at least you said so
    1. VLR
      8 January 2021 21: 15
      +1
      Mlada Bosna is a Serbian-Bosnian organization whose goal is to join BiH to Serbia. It was supervised by the Serbian counterintelligence and the Black Hand of Dragutin Dmitrievich-Apis. I wrote about this in the article "Dragutin Dmitrievich and his Black Hand". That is why the Serbs rejected the 6th point of the Austrian ultimatum about their participation in the investigation - the regent Alexander Karageorgievich understood where the tracks were leading.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 8 January 2021 21: 11
    +1
    "it is considered the worst of all Koloborzioni compounds," but they were excellent maraders and executioners, and from their point of view - more needed. How did they reason: we are willing to rape and plunder, but fight? "No. Thank you for being bald"? Let the Aryans fight
  • vladcub
    vladcub 8 January 2021 21: 39
    +1
    Quote: 3x3zsave

    Interestingly Albanians call Montenegro.
    Thank you, Valery!

    Curious how the Montenegrins represent the Albanians.? Also in the form of an animal?
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 9 January 2021 00: 30
      +1
      Here, Slava, what I found. Obviously, this is how Serbs and Montenegrins imagine the ratio of ethnic groups in the Balkans.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 9 January 2021 11: 02
        +1
        Yes, "brotherly peoples". 'I don't want such "brothers", do you?
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 9 January 2021 12: 18
          0
          The Balkans are "Crow Slobodka", let them cook themselves in their own porridge until they sort it out among themselves or cut each other completely.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 9 January 2021 17: 18
            +1
            It would be good to evict them. Do you remember how you were once "cleared of dubious elements." The only problem is that there is no place to evict them.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 9 January 2021 17: 59
              0
              With our Caucasus, there will be enough trouble for the future, the same Balkans, only under the arm. negative
  • Seal
    Seal 9 January 2021 17: 28
    0
    Before Turkish construction companies appeared in Russia, there were Albanian ones. The Kremlin, for example, was restored by the Albanians, and not only by the Kremlin. Albanian billionaire Behgjet Pacolli, better known in Russia as the head of the construction company Mabetex Group, which restored most of the government buildings in Moscow in the mid-1990s.
  • Cure72
    Cure72 10 January 2021 09: 50
    +1
    I didn't even expect to continue ...
    Thank you very much !