Military Review

The first aircraft carriers: how, where and when it was

55

Japanese light aircraft carrier "Hosho"



Some historians are inclined to consider the first experience of joint use of air and sea vessels carried out in 1904 by raising a balloon over the Russian battleship Sinop. Prior to that, sailors flatly refused from flying objects in terms of their use together with ships - they can at least get confused in gear.

On the first aircraft carriers: how, where and when it was.


As a matter of fact, the first ships carrying aircraft that were quite suitable for performing combat missions were, in fact, combat units converted for this need, which initially had a completely different purpose. The French "Foudre" or the British "Hermes" were built and operated first as a mobile base for torpedo boats, and the second as a cruiser. And, by the way, even after "re-profiling" and a fair amount of re-equipment, they did not become aircraft carriers in our usual sense. They were even called differently - "aircrafts".

The thing is that these ships were used as floating hangars for seaplanes - that is, machines that, having floats instead of a landing gear, took off from the water surface and landed on it. Raised by cranes to the deck, the seaplanes were simply placed in hangars located on board the ship and could not take off without the help of the same crane operators. As a rule, these were torpedo bombers intended for strikes against naval targets, or reconnaissance aircraft.

By the time of the collision of world powers in the First World War, or in its process, almost all the participants in the conflict had acquired such ships - it is worth mentioning the British "Engadine" and "Ben-my-Chree" "Ark-Royal", the German "Answald" and "Santa Elena" ", As well as the Russian ship" Orlitsa ". Perhaps the Italians did not bother with this issue. Nevertheless, all these were not aircraft carriers in the usual sense of the word, but, in fact, air transport ships.

At the same time, the first air attack against a "land" target using sea-based aircraft was carried out - seven aircraft that took off from a British ship successfully attacked a German airbase. Thus, a new direction of action was opened for aircraft carriers.

The combat use of seaplanes in real theaters of military operations from 1914 to 1918 has shown very convincingly that vehicles with a wheeled chassis have a huge advantage over their "waterfowl" counterparts. Deprived of bulky floats, they were more maneuverable and faster. In the end, they were suitable for performing combat missions not only at sea, but also on land. Everything went to the fact that the winged machine had to "learn" to land on the ship's deck and take off from it.

Tellingly, experiments of this kind were conducted by that time for a long time, primarily in the United States and Great Britain. I must say, they passed with varying success - a strong pitching was enough, and the flight, or rather an attempt to complete it on board the ship, ended in tragedy. Nevertheless, the stubborn enthusiastic pilots did not give up, and the world saw the first "classic" aircraft carrier "- the British" Argus "(HMS Argus). It was a ship that had no superstructures and its only deck was, in fact, a runway for two dozen airplanes.

After World War I


In 1920, aircraft carriers take on their final, "classic" appearance - an "island" type superstructure appears on them - on the starboard side. This arrangement is due to the fact that, according to observations, the pilot who failed to land the plane on the deck in 9 cases out of 10 turns it certainly to the left. But there were aircraft carriers with a superstructure on the other side.

From about the same time - the end of the 20s - the beginning of the 30s of the twentieth century - aircraft carriers finally stand out as an independent class of warships. The first ships designed specifically as aircraft carriers were the British Hermes and the Japanese Hosho (Hosho). No matter how many "floating airfields" had plowed the sea before, they were all converted for new needs by tankers, bulk carriers, cruisers or battleships. There were even cruise ships in this “family”.

Particularly conducive to the "aircraft carrier progress" was the Naval Treaty of 1922, signed by a number of powers in Washington and limiting the displacement of battleships, but said nothing about aircraft carriers. It was he who pushed the same Japan to convert a number of battleships into aircraft carriers.

After the end of World War II, the era of American aircraft carriers began. And in 1991, it seemed, came the time of their absolutely undivided domination at all latitudes. However, according to many military experts, it has already ended - with the emergence of new means of destruction of sea targets.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / aircraft carrier "Hosho"
55 comments
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  1. Fitter65
    Fitter65 1 January 2021 09: 28
    +42
    Such a swing for a ruble, and as a result, information for a penny ...
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 1 January 2021 09: 30
      +1
      Quote: Fitter65
      Such

      hello to you too ...
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 1 January 2021 09: 31
        +3
        Quote: Aerodrome
        Quote: Fitter65
        Such

        hello to you too ...

        Well, Happy New Year. laughing drinks
        1. Aerodrome
          Aerodrome 1 January 2021 09: 36
          0
          Quote: Fitter65
          Quote: Aerodrome
          Quote: Fitter65
          Such

          hello to you too ...

          Well, Happy New Year. laughing drinks

          Yeah ... Russia is an aircraft carrier itself, you just need to move someone so that the planes do not become obsolete from the moment of development. and yes .... on the "horse"! or on "horses"? come on... drinks
    2. mgfly
      mgfly 1 January 2021 10: 27
      +17
      I agree, going into the article I expected to read about the long history of the first Aviks (
      1. Profiler
        Profiler 1 January 2021 11: 07
        +18
        And the era of aircraft-carrying ships began with the takeoff of pilot Eugene Burton Eli from an impromptu take-off platform-platform, equipped on the deck of the light cruiser USS Birmingham on a Curtiss Model D "whatnot", November 14, 1910.

        Upon take-off, the USS Birmingham radio operator immediately put on the air an ecstatic and joyful - "Eli is in the air!"

        November 14, 1910 - the birthday of the carrier-based naval aviation, which became the prologue to the birth of a fundamentally new class of ships - aircraft carriers.

        Eugene Burton Ely at the helm of the Curtiss Model D, and his wife Mabel Hall Ely, 1910



        Lifting Curtiss Model D Eugene Ely at USS Birmingham



        Placing the aircraft on the deck



        "Eli is in the air!"



        Eugene Ely aboard USS Roe after the flight

      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 1 January 2021 11: 12
        +17
        Thirty years ago, in the "marine collection" of the "Modelist Constructor" magazine, despite the compressed format, this topic was covered much more professionally ...
        But, having read the author's surname, I understood everything ...
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 1 January 2021 11: 41
          +6
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          Thirty years ago, in the "marine collection" of the "Modelist Constructor" magazine, despite the compressed format, this topic was covered much more professionally ...

          Even as if not earlier, but at the expense of covering the topic here, I agree with you.
    3. Samoylenko Sergey
      Samoylenko Sergey 26 February 2021 19: 42
      0
      Indeed, there was a swing and .... nothing.
  2. fa2998
    fa2998 1 January 2021 09: 30
    +6
    Happy New Year to everybody! The article is not bad, but the last paragraph spoiled the impression. "It has already ended" - not a single aircraft carrier has been sunk with the help of "new weapons." And whether they can hit a maneuverable target at such distances is unknown.
    When the era of battleships ended, when they began to sink the naval aviation in batches. hi
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 1 January 2021 09: 40
      0
      Quote: fa2998
      Happy New Year to all!

      do not be noisy... drinks
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 1 January 2021 09: 33
    +8
    smile Brevity is the soul of wit wink
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 1 January 2021 09: 41
      +3
      Quote: parusnik
      smile Brevity is the soul of wit wink

      for the silence ... drinks
    2. Fitter65
      Fitter65 1 January 2021 11: 42
      +2
      Quote: parusnik
      Brevity is the soul of wit

      .
  4. Catfish
    Catfish 1 January 2021 09: 34
    +14
    Hello guys and Happy New Year!
    Everything is as always, the topic for the book, and the article does not even pull the description of one brutal box. Boring.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 1 January 2021 09: 59
        +7
        There is no way to go anywhere, what the author is, such is the ... ren knows what. laughing
        And I wish you a Happy New Year too, sir!
        And I wish you creative success in your work and personal life.
        And work in personal life ennobles family relationships and brings them to the communal denominator.
        And where is the dance ... laughing
        1. Aerodrome
          Aerodrome 1 January 2021 10: 36
          +3
          Quote: Sea Cat
          And you sir

          cho ??? I am a friend wassat
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 1 January 2021 10: 47
            +3
            Well, not the enemy. smile
            Let's have a glass for "Russia Self-Derved", and to hell with her! laughing drinks
            1. Alf
              Alf 1 January 2021 12: 26
              +1
              Quote: Sea Cat
              Let's have a glass for "Russia Self-Derved", and to hell with her!

              Will I be the third?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 2 January 2021 17: 51
                0
                Of course! drinks
            2. Korsar4
              Korsar4 2 January 2021 16: 56
              0
              Do you taste horseradish?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 2 January 2021 17: 52
                0
                Why taste it - we drink. drinks
  5. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 1 January 2021 09: 50
    +8
    Some historians are inclined to consider the first experience of joint use of air and sea vessels carried out in 1904 by raising a balloon over the Russian battleship Sinop.Well, if the erostat, then yes .... but what kind of aviation is this? request so ... aeronautics! And the first takeoff of aeroplane, and a wheeled one, took place in 1910 from the American cruiser "Birmingham" .... Then the British followed this example ... The author is right that at first seaplanes were used more often, but they had to be launched and then raised ! "They still tried to use land airplanes, but at first the pilots learned how to take off from ships ... (they still did not know how to land on the deck of a ship (ship)!) That is why there was such a method of application ... the aircraft took off from the deck of the ship for bombing or reconnaissance ... but had to land on land ... where it is acceptable for a lightweight bomber to fly and sit!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 1 January 2021 10: 06
      +4
      Vova, Happy New Year! Well, what kind of person are you, let the people roam to the fullest, and then everyone's paraffin straight and without Vaseline, and you straight away - shut up when you have cancer, I know better ... laughing
      Well, you can't do that! drinks
      Actually, you can! laughing
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 1 January 2021 10: 28
        +4
        Happy New Year, Constantine! Am I a beast or what? No. I delicately ... I did not refute anything ... I agreed with everything ... I just added a bit that seemed to be overlooked ...! repeat
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 1 January 2021 10: 43
          +3
          Volodya, you have a problem with delicacy. laughing Well, to hell with them. drinks
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 1 January 2021 11: 07
            +4
            And what is "delicacy"? And then in the morning my head hurts and there are "cockroaches" in it, like after clonidine, they can hardly crawl!
            I do not "catch up"!
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 1 January 2021 11: 30
              +4
              What is "delicacy"

              Well, this is somehow so, probably ...
              1. Aerodrome
                Aerodrome 1 January 2021 11: 55
                +2
                the two above talked ... and my boss hurts because of them ...
              2. Nikolaevich I
                Nikolaevich I 1 January 2021 21: 43
                +2
                Oh look, Kostya! Would be better off! And then anything can happen!
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 2 January 2021 09: 15
                  +2
                  Volodya, hello! I woke up here, got medical treatment and came to the conclusion, "don't they know they will take care of themselves." smile
                  The cat, as a New Year's gift, brought us a cute bird, but ... alas, she is already "not that". drinks
  6. Crowe
    Crowe 1 January 2021 10: 43
    +14
    Quote: Fitter65
    Such a swing for a ruble, and as a result, information for a penny ...

    Quote: mgfly
    going into the article expected about the long history of the first aviks to read

    Quote: parusnik
    Brevity is the soul of wit

    Quote: Sea Cat
    Everything is as always, the topic for the book, and the article does not even pull the description of one brutal box. Boring.

    And what did you want, gentlemen-comrades? This is the trademark and long-known style of Monsieur Kharaluzhny, who treats writing articles like a wolf to fishing in one animated film

    The longer I sit
    The more I will write
    The more I write
    The more I get
    The more I get ($)
    I eat more satisfying

    In vain, together with the "Best Author" competition, they did not hold a certain analogue of "Golden Raspberry", I even know who would have won it then.
    All with the first day of the New Year !!!
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 1 January 2021 11: 45
      +10
      Quote: Crowe
      In vain, together with the "Best Author" competition, they did not hold a certain analogue of "Golden Raspberry", I even know who would have won it then.

      No, they would compete, because there is another dreamer-reprint, so not everything is so simple. laughing
  7. Constanty
    Constanty 1 January 2021 11: 09
    +12
    The 1922 naval treaty, signed by a number of powers in Washington and limiting the displacement of battleships, but didn't say anything about aircraft carriers.


    With all due respect, this is not true. The Washington Treaty determined both the total tonnage of the aircraft carriers of the signatory states, and the size of the newly built aircraft carriers was limited to 27000 tons, but it was allowed to convert them into two larger aircraft carriers from battleships intended for disposal (with a displacement of up to 33000 tons). t) (Article IXa). The aircraft carrier's gun caliber was limited to 203 mm, and the number of guns over 152 mm was limited to a maximum of 10 (Art. X of the treaty).
  8. Revolver
    Revolver 1 January 2021 11: 53
    +8
    Absolutely nothing.
  9. Olgovich
    Olgovich 1 January 2021 12: 42
    +1
    And, by the way, even after "re-profiling" and a fair amount of re-equipment, they did not become aircraft carriers in our usual sense.


    Become. Iyo, by definition:
    Avianosets - a class of warships adapted for servicing and basing air groups as a mobile air base operating on the high seas
    .
    The seaplane carrier meets this definition.

    Russia PMV-world leader in the development of naval aviation and in its application.
    At the same time, the first air attack against a "land" target using sea-based aircraft was carried out - seven aircraft that took off from a British ship successfully attacked a German airbase.


    The first in the world to attack enemy ships hidden in the harbor (as in Pearl Harbor) by naval aviation as part of the AUG Russian Imperial Black Sea Fleet. It happened on February 6, 1916.
  10. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 1 January 2021 12: 47
    +4
    by the end of the First World War, almost all new British battleships had a device for launching fighters above the second turret of the main battery
  11. sleeve
    sleeve 1 January 2021 15: 10
    +4
    I thought it was really some kind of annotation for serious work. And here...
  12. Evgeny Seleznev
    Evgeny Seleznev 1 January 2021 15: 20
    +4
    Quote: "However, in the opinion of many military experts, it has already ended - with the emergence of new means of destruction of sea targets." I wonder where such unique knowledge, facts come from in the studio. AUG with an order is a fairly balanced connection. And adaptation to new threats is an evolutionary process. And the hapless and odious propaganda of the wunderwolf lead to disaster, as the example of WWII for the USSR and Germany turned out sideways.
  13. dgonni
    dgonni 1 January 2021 15: 49
    +3
    It seemed to me alone that the bi contined should have sounded?
  14. tasha
    tasha 1 January 2021 16: 15
    +5

    Very, very interesting and informative article. One of the best in this 2021 year after all. The author is well done, did not load readers with unnecessary information ...drinks laughing
    Happy new year friends!
  15. Undecim
    Undecim 1 January 2021 20: 49
    +6
    Quote: Olgovich
    The Russian Imperial Black Sea Fleet was the first in the world to attack enemy ships hidden in the harbor (as in Pearl Harbor) by naval aviation as part of the AUG. It happened on February 6, 1916.

    Alas, the world's first attack by naval aviation "as part of the AUG" on enemy ships sheltered in the harbor was carried out by the Imperial Japanese Navy in September 1914 during the assault on Qingdao.

    In the photo - IJN Wakamiya.
  16. faiver
    faiver 1 January 2021 21: 15
    +4
    I do not understand, an article for military review or pioneer truth?
  17. Andy
    Andy 2 January 2021 01: 10
    +3
    while searching for the deceased battleship Rusalka, the schooner Samoyed towed an air balloon .1893-94. in addition, having mentioned a number of British aircrafts, the author forgot our Diamond
  18. Vinnibuh
    Vinnibuh 2 January 2021 13: 38
    +4
    Nu and why write a lot of letters? ... It's a shame (
  19. ZIS
    ZIS 2 January 2021 19: 42
    +2
    Vasche did not remember for ours. The Turk pomnitsa was hollowed out with gidrics. FSE "adversaries" ...
  20. Rudkovsky
    Rudkovsky 2 January 2021 21: 13
    +2
    == However, according to many military experts, it has already ended - with the advent of new means of destruction of naval targets. ==

    You can amaze anything from the couch.
  21. Old26
    Old26 3 January 2021 23: 13
    +2
    Quote: Fitter65
    Such a swing for a ruble, and as a result, information for a penny ...

    What to do, the topic is very multifaceted. I have a two-volume book on my shelf that I bought in the 90s. The author is Palmer. Called AIR CARRIERS... The topic is more or less disclosed there. And this is in a two-volume edition of about 600 pages each. And here is the whole article. I put the article plus at least for a historical excursion
    1. bugagich
      bugagich 8 January 2021 02: 52
      0
      Palmer

      Isn't Polmar who is Norman?
  22. Old26
    Old26 8 January 2021 15: 28
    +1
    Quote: bugagich
    Palmer

    Isn't Polmar who is Norman?

    He is. For the 90s, the two-volume edition was a revelation for many
    1. bugagich
      bugagich 9 January 2021 18: 05
      0
      And then I thought, you never know ... "I have them")
      Good. But, about us, there are so many, to put it mildly, fairy tales ...
      And generally not fairy tales, but conjectures. This is understandable - it was difficult for him to get information about us, given that we have not too many authoritative authors who described all this.
  23. Old26
    Old26 9 January 2021 18: 24
    +3
    Quote: bugagich
    And then I thought, you never know ... "I have them")
    Good. But, about us, there are so many, to put it mildly, fairy tales ...
    And generally not fairy tales, but conjectures. This is understandable - it was difficult for him to get information about us, given that we have not too many authoritative authors who described all this.

    Alas, Mikhail, this is a minus of all Western literature since the 70s of the last century. They practically could not get information about us. Take even the world famous reference book "Jane". We can talk there about the number of ships of this or that project, about their names, more or less about their weapons. Driving performance (range, speed, etc.) is purely hypothetical. And there were neither the names of our projects, nor their numbers. When I got my hands on a photocopy of the Soviet navy from the Jane reference book for 1980, after a quick dinner, I read these photocopies until almost 6 am. And I didn't just read, but took notes. Much immediately became clear as to whether the ships belonged to this or that project. And our authors ... It was not enough that there were few of them, and secondly, they did not describe it then, because it was fraught, and the "aircraft carriers" themselves, we had a "gulkin nose". In fact, then it was about three helicopter carriers (one not built), about three or four "Kiev" plus two promising - "Varyag" and "Kuznetsov" and a nuclear aircraft carrier planned for the future.
    Although sometimes it was interesting to read their analytics. Especially when it comes to our atomic. At that time he received the designation "Kremlin". And it was interesting to read about the reasoning of the author of the analytics, how many such aircraft carriers will we build. He began to count the cities of the USSR, where the Kremlin was at that time laughing Now this is funny to hear, but then, in all seriousness, the author talked about a series of aircraft carriers with the names: "Moscow", "Gorky," Kazan "," Tobolsk "(EMNIP) and a number of others. The same is their reasoning regarding nuclear cruisers, which planned either 5 or 6 (our data), but they gave the whole project the name "Soviet Union" and believed that the ships would bear the names of the capitals of the Union republics laughing
    1. bugagich
      bugagich 9 January 2021 21: 52
      0
      Oh, how right you are ... they practically took it off the lips hi
    2. bugagich
      bugagich 9 January 2021 22: 07
      0
      It should be noted that he, Polmar, described how the "West" expected (and was actually afraid) of the appearance of AB in the USSR!
      I may not be right, but I think such things should be written in the comments and reported constantly. In order for our society to finally understand that a quality fleet is a guarantee of prosperity and country security... And it’s strange to hear (read) people like, for example, it seems, Vladimir 1155.
      A strange man, he denies the obvious, while drawing completely opposite conclusions from the facts ...
      It is surprising that such examples are not uncommon, but the majority for us. And this is unfortunate.
      It seems to me that this ancient Khrushevsky foundation should be broken.
    3. bugagich
      bugagich 10 January 2021 02: 03
      0
      Quote: Old26
      Although sometimes it was interesting to read their analytics.

      By the way, I missed this fact. That's the point. It's really interesting there!