Military Review

Memory of "Black Monday": the default of 1998 - how it was

123

The start of the destructive processes in the domestic economy was given by all those "gains of perestroika", which its adherents called "the transition to market relations", hiding behind these words the destruction of the powerful national economy inherited from the USSR and the robbery of the country's population. Collapsed industry and agriculture, trade, which was ruled by outright speculators - all these industries, of course, could not fill the budget. The money was needed, but there was nowhere to take it.


Prelude to disaster


Inflation beat all conceivable and inconceivable records already in 1993, it came close to the level of 1000%! By 1994, the Kremlin understood that it was impossible to continue filling the treasury by continuing to print empty pieces of paper instead of rubles. It was necessary to find another way out. And they found him ...

Wholly and completely following the lead of the newly acquired "friends" and "partners" from the West, the "reformers" at the head of Russia did not think of anything better than to follow the path of more and more large-scale borrowings. The country was driven into debt, while telling the Russians about

“Ways to overcome the crisis”.

Indeed, the economic situation in the following short-term period has somewhat normalized. Inflation in 1997 was only 14%, and the budget deficit more than halved. Another question is what “levers” were used to achieve this.

The ruble was artificially overvalued. And its official ratio to world currencies had nothing to do with reality.

The money supply was catastrophically lacking. And the result was a multitude of problems - from months of non-payment of wages, benefits and pensions to the transition of the economy to barter relations. The state itself constantly found itself in the role of "scammers", not fulfilling its obligations to enterprises.

The financial lifesaver of that time was the government short-term bonds, which appeared in 1993, which had an incredible (for securities of this kind) yield of 60% per annum, while the world practice was 4–5% per annum.

By 1997, this process took on even more distinct features of a natural financial pyramid - with quite predictable consequences.

Russia, no matter how much it issued new GKOs, could no longer pay off the old obligations. These were the first signs of an impending global collapse.

Many experts consider the last straw to be the decision taken at the end of 1997 to remove from January 1, 1998 any restrictions and prohibitions on the export of capital from Russia.

Currency poured out of the country like Niagara Falls, the GKO market simply collapsed. But if Russia only played this game ...

By the time the default was declared, we owed the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, “kindly supported” our country, as well as other foreign creditors over $ 36 billion. This is with the Central Bank's cash reserves of $ 24 billion. The collapse has come.

Among other things, it was accompanied by the “disappearance” of about $ 5 billion from a targeted loan allocated by the IMF to save the Russian financial system.

Disputes about whether this money was stolen even before it was transferred to our country or whether it "dissolved" already in its vast expanses is still going on. However, the fact remains that there was nothing more to pay the debts with.

Additional negative factors that finally finished off our economy were the financial crisis that broke out in Southeast Asia and another sharp drop in energy prices.

There will be no devaluation - but you hold on


Many Russians to this day remember the words of the then president of the country, Boris Yeltsin, exactly three days before the complete collapse of the domestic financial system "clearly and firmly" declared to citizens who were beginning to lose their heads from what was happening:

"There will be no devaluation!"

Everything is calculated, yeah ...

This was said on August 14, and on the 17th, the government and the Central Bank officially declared a technical default and finally “let go of the ruble”.

The country had to go through some of the hardest in its stories years old...

Everyone who lived in those days remembers the chaos and despair that reigned, the hopeless queues at the doors (which refused to give out even a penny from your own hard-earned savings) banks, the shock of the numbers on the signboards of exchangers and on the price tags of stores.

The feeling of complete hopelessness and the crumbling world around them seized many. People have lost not only all or almost all of their savings, but also some perspective for the near future. Sometimes it seemed like the end had come.

Be that as it may, Russia, contrary to the expectations of many, did not collapse.

Yes, GDP has decreased threefold, reaching a meager value. External debt increased to $ 220 billion, bringing the country to the very top of the list of states whose loan obligations were many times higher than their revenues. Devaluation and inflation, again broke into unrestrained growth, ruthlessly devaluing all the earnings and savings of Russians, and at the same time eating up new holes in the budget.

Nevertheless, that crisis became a fulcrum for the new growth of our Fatherland.

The forced abandonment of imports that became insanely expensive at once spurred the development of Russian industry, created real prerequisites and conditions for it.

“Black Monday” on August 17, 1998 ultimately benefited Russia, which by that time was finally turning into a raw material appendage of the West.

It emerged from this crisis refreshed, more competitive, wealthy and strong.

But those who that day stood above the wreckage of their own broken hopes and destinies, of course, could not foresee this.
Author:
Photos used:
screenshot of the video of B. Yeltsin's speech: "There will be no devaluation!"
123 comments
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  1. Far B
    Far B 2 January 2021 05: 10
    +32
    The money supply was catastrophically lacking. And the result of this was a lot of problems - from months of non-payment of salaries, benefits and pensions.
    But it is not entirely true. There was even an abundance of money. Only it was not in circulation - all sorts of cunning "owners of factories, newspapers, ships" preferred to overexpose payments to suppliers / salaries / hell knows what for another month or two, or even all six months, in the bank. The sums were rather big, the interest on them also came out quite well-fed, and they went just into the pockets of "the owners of factories, newspapers, ships". One of the jackals will take on the "period of initial capital accumulation." The result is a crisis of non-payments, wild wage arrears, etc. Pensions, by the way, were paid quite stably, and were a serious help for many families.
    The collapse has come. It was accompanied by the “disappearance” of about $ 5 billion from a targeted loan allocated by the IMF to save the Russian financial system. Disputes about whether this money was stolen even before it was transferred to our country or whether it "dissolved" already in its vast expanses is still going on.
    What, nifig, disputes ?! Those who lived then remember - the IMF did not want to give that loan to Russia at close range - "one vegetable, they will steal it!" (ordinary residents of Russia, by the way, were also sure they would steal). But Rusty Tolik pressed on pity, the IMF thought and said - "Okay, let's give it. But we will send emissaries to watch how the money will be distributed." Emissaries came to Russia, money came to Russia. And then the jaws of the emissaries began to fall off - billions began to dissolve in the most unknown way. From transfer to transfer. Moreover, it is completely incomprehensible (for the emissaries) in which direction such sickly pieces of trenches floated away. As a result, all 5 billion were predictably absorbed. The emissaries did not understand where, when and how. We scratched our turnips, tightened our jaws and drove away.
    Yeltsin, exactly three days before the complete collapse of the domestic financial system "clearly and firmly" declared to citizens who were beginning to lose their heads from what was happening: "There will be no devaluation!"
    Well, this one promised to lie down on the rails long before, but somehow it didn't work out for him. It's a pity.
    A feeling of complete hopelessness and a crumbling world around them seized many
    Nifiga like that. This feeling arose back in 92, and by the time of the default it was quite firmly assimilated on a subconscious level. So there was no particular shock for the overwhelming majority of the population.
    "Black Monday" on August 17, 1998 ultimately benefited Russia, which by that time was finally turning into a raw material appendage of the West
    ] "Black Monday" benefited Russia only in the sense that it provoked the arrival of the Primakov-Maslyukov team. From which, after the first and very bright successes, EBN hastened to get rid of (Alcania, if the author is not in the know, after the default, he first stubbornly promoted Chernomyr to the premieres, but the Duma blocked it). And Russia has completely returned to the state of the West's raw materials appendage, which it still remains.
    In reality, the feeling is that the author did not live in those days, or was at such a tender age that he himself is not able to judge them.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 2 January 2021 05: 39
      +12
      The feeling of complete hopelessness and the crumbling world around them seized many.

      I remember this moment ... of course it started earlier.
      I came to the cemetery to visit my parent and I see that it has grown dramatically by hundreds of meters in breadth ... my mother ... then I realized that with such rulers we would all soon become residents of this place.
      I remember well now the hero of Russia Kiriyenko ... heh heh kinder surprise for the people ... and why he got into this mud from which you can't wash it off all your life now ... you can't close it with the title of Hero. what
      1. Far B
        Far B 2 January 2021 05: 59
        +18
        Yes, Kinder is not to blame here, in general. The situation was heading towards this anyway, the default would have burst out sooner or later. It was installed as a lightning rod - to be able to say: "Well, young, inexperienced, he didn’t manage. And we are inappropriate" (which, in fact, happened). But I respect the very fact that Kinder calculated the situation and realized that if you leave everything as it is in the hope that everything will somehow resolve by itself, then a delay in declaring a default for a couple of months or six months may generally turn into a collapse of the country ... And he risked his career by declaring a default despite Borkin "There will be no devaluation!" At that moment, Kinder had surprisingly strong coconuts.
        1. Ross xnumx
          Ross xnumx 2 January 2021 07: 51
          +15
          Quote: Dalny V
          Yes Kinder is here, generally, not to blame.

          I will not appreciate your comment. I just want to remind you:
          And the phrase: "I directed you, I will be responsible for everything" is just a stake in the throat. And this: "My place is not dear to me, our business is dear" - obtained only in parts. It has become difficult so far to play an erudite, thinking person, and although the performer wrinkles his forehead and squints, such a skewed face does not convince.

          He is guilty that he sang to a common "tune" and took on this role of a lightning rod, knowing full well what could be behind this ... Why did he (like many other "literate and experienced economists") not refuse the proposed armchairs? And if he was such a fool, why did they put him in Rosatom, and then even bring him closer, taking him to the administration?
          There were no innocent people in that Yeltsin band. Each was assigned his role, starting from the prime minister and ending with deputies from opposition parties.
          Quote: Dalny V
          But I respect the very fact that Kinder calculated the situation and realized that if you leave everything as it is in the hope that everything will somehow resolve by itself, then a delay in declaring a default for a couple of months or six months may generally turn into the collapse of the country ...

          Did he, having announced the (actually accomplished) fact, begin to fight the consequences? Look here:
          April 24 to August 23, 1998 The Prime Minister of Russia was Sergei Vladilenovich Kiriyenko. Kiriyenko's prime minister, considered one of the culprits in the 1998 default, was short-lived. On August 23, his entire government was dismissed.

          Why, "respected by you" Kiriyenko, did not make his statement before the beginning of August 1998? Didn't he know how this song about "GKO" would end?
          I have no respect for either EBN's entourage, or his daughter, or for various "temporary workers", whose role was to indicate the incompetence of the leadership in the position received and hide the barbaric plunder of the country.
          The time will come, I believe, people will appreciate the contribution of each participant in this criminal revolution ...
          1. Lech from Android.
            Lech from Android. 2 January 2021 08: 37
            +5
            The time will come, I believe, people will appreciate the contribution of each participant in this criminal revolution ...
            Some participants themselves demand to evaluate their contribution to this revolution ... in plain text ... I was fucked up by such impudence.
            I ask you to grant me the status of a foreign agent



            Leonid Gozman.
            https://echo.msk.ru/blog/leonid_gozman/2766198-echo/?utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fzen.yandex.com
            1. 210ox
              210ox 2 January 2021 12: 24
              +6
              I B appropriated him .. Cross with greenery. I disagree with the author about import. In the first decade of the XNUMXs, they just sat on imports. And it was not the default that forced us to refuse, but the refusal of the "partners" to supply us with something worthwhile.
              1. Shurik70
                Shurik70 3 January 2021 22: 54
                0
                I remember Yeltsin on TV:
                "Everything is fine. You see, I'm not sitting in Moscow, but traveling around the country with visits to cities. If the situation were critical, I would interrupt my trip."
                The next day news: Yeltsin interrupted his tour of the cities and returned to Moscow.
          2. Narak-zempo
            Narak-zempo 2 January 2021 15: 40
            +2
            And, by the way, there is a non-zero probability that Kinder will become a successor ...
            1. Doliva63
              Doliva63 2 January 2021 17: 17
              +4
              Quote: Narak-zempo
              And, by the way, there is a non-zero probability that Kinder will become a successor ...

              And then another "analyst" will write: but we survived again! laughing
          3. paul3390
            paul3390 2 January 2021 15: 43
            +4
            There were no innocent people in that Yeltsin band. Each was assigned his role, starting from the prime minister and ending with deputies from opposition parties.


            Pyotr Alekseevich, according to legend, used to say to Menshikov, beating him in the face: “Steal from profit, cattle, from profit, not from losses"...
          4. Far B
            Far B 3 January 2021 01: 52
            +1
            There were no innocent people in that Yeltsin band
            And I am to blame generally do not take off. Simply In that situation, he showed that he has beytsy. Why he did it - no idea. But the fact remains.
      2. New Year day
        New Year day 2 January 2021 09: 20
        +14
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        I came to the cemetery to visit my parent and I see that it has grown sharply hundreds of meters in breadth ... my mother

        Recently I went to my own: where the grapes grew - crosses, crosses. Classmate, 60 years old, therapist Yurka Petrov, - lies; surgeon Ulyanov, a victim of a covid at work, is lying. And next to it, a tractor is clearing the ground for new graves.
      3. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 2 January 2021 15: 07
        0
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        I remember well now the hero of Russia Kiriyenko ... heh heh kinder surprise for the people ... and why he got into this mud from which you can't wash it off all your life now ... you can't close it with the title of Hero.

        He covered Primakov with himself, spoke for him, made statements. In principle, thanks to that crisis, temporarily, the ruble began to cost as much as it actually cost at that time, it was this that straightened the economy, and had an effect until 2008. Now just such a crisis is missing, it will be easier. Because we have our own agricultural production, and then we lost it, exchanged it for cheap American chicken legs.
      4. zenion
        zenion 2 January 2021 15: 15
        -5
        Neither Lenin nor Stalin can be compared with the present-day perdoviks. Only now the people must understand how lucky the people are that those who thought that the country was for the people are long gone. Now you shouldn't bother yourself with this nonsense, or shouldn't. As Marked by the Devil said, everything will be as it is, but after perestroika we will live even better. In vain did the West send Hitler. He could not do what the communists did from the devil, but according to his plans.
      5. BAI
        BAI 2 January 2021 15: 32
        +6
        .and why did he climb into this dirt from which you will not wash off now all your life

        The system was like that - to substitute a special person for the implementation of unpopular reforms. So to speak "zits-chairman". Kirienko, Zurabov, Serdyukov - the list goes on. In city and regional administrations, green 20-year-old boys were put in charge of the land distribution. We lived well, but not for long.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. Comrade
      Comrade 2 January 2021 05: 42
      +23
      Quote: Dalny V
      Well, this one promised to lie on the rails long before, but somehow it did not work out

      Instead of lying on the rails himself, he put all of Russia on the rails.
      1. Crowe
        Crowe 2 January 2021 08: 13
        +30
        Quote: Comrade
        Quote: Dalny V
        Well, this one promised to lie on the rails long before, but somehow it did not work out

        Instead of lying on the rails himself, he put all of Russia on the rails.

        But since then, we understand the value of the words and promises of our rulers - a worthless price on a market day. "There will be no devaluation until I am the president of the pension reform," yeah .. The owners will give their word - they will give their word, they will take the word later. In our time, you are no longer surprised when officials do not keep their word; on the contrary, you begin to be surprised when an official who gave his word took and kept it)
        1. New Year day
          New Year day 2 January 2021 09: 21
          +15
          Quote: Crowe
          But since then, we understand the value of the words and promises of our rulers - a worthless price on a market day. "

          And what are we doing? We vote for them and vote! And so for 20 years. Masochists or what?
          1. Doliva63
            Doliva63 2 January 2021 17: 42
            +4
            Quote: Silvestr
            Quote: Crowe
            But since then, we understand the value of the words and promises of our rulers - a worthless price on a market day. "

            And what are we doing? We vote for them and vote! And so for 20 years. Masochists or what?

            No, just stupefied by the Soviet free-hand. I ask voters at a meeting: you are offered to choose from 2 poop - one in a wrapper, the other without, chosen in a wrapper. There was no answer to the question - why do you need a turd? Only in the 20s - 50s, probably, they would not have done this, for the Civil War, the Second World War, the restoration of the country - everything is on its hump. And in the 80s, they were already just brainless parasites at the expense of previous generations. And the 90s made them just mindless. And they wanted to remain parasites, but then they bent down and only promised a carrot. They are still waiting and voting. And even if someone says that they were deceived, they would rather beat them than think.
    4. sniperino
      sniperino 2 January 2021 07: 07
      +7
      Quote: Dalny V
      The IMF did not want to give that loan to Russia at close range - "one vegetable, they will steal it!"
      Quite the opposite. The IMF only gave loans to Russia to be plundered, and its emissaries kept a close eye on this. IMF loans are an instrument of control, deterrence, strangulation, like a bowl of food to put on a noose and put on a chain. Old myths about the IMF as an institution of international economic development are not needed here.
      1. Far B
        Far B 2 January 2021 07: 14
        +4
        Don't tell me myths here. I am friends with memory and I remember that period very well. Speech exactly about credit. They just didn't want to give it. Apparently, our grabbers even managed to get their "partners" with their impudent lawlessness. So much so that Chubais had to be specially sent as a "special envoy for international affairs." Then another anecdote appeared: "A red-haired boy was found at the IMF headquarters, begging for money for the treatment of his mother-homeland." And the fact that now Rusty Tolik is again a "special envoy for international affairs", and even under the president, worries me personally.
        1. sniperino
          sniperino 2 January 2021 07: 28
          +2
          Quote: Dalny V
          It's about that loan. They just didn't want to give it.
          They flirted.
        2. lucul
          lucul 2 January 2021 15: 40
          -7
          I am friends with memory and I remember that period very well. It's about that loan. They just didn't want to give it. Apparently, our grabbers even managed to get their "partners" with their impudent lawlessness.

          Yes, there is no need to remember - there is an example of Ukraine before your eyes, that then, that now in / in Ukraine is ruled by the same.
    5. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 2 January 2021 07: 58
      +13
      Quote: Dalny V
      But it is not entirely true. There was even an abundance of money. Only it was not in circulation - all sorts of cunning "owners of factories, newspapers, ships" preferred to overexpose payments to suppliers / salaries / hell knows what for another month or two, or even all six months, in the bank. The sums were rather big, the interest on them also came out quite well-fed, and they went just into the pockets of "the owners of factories, newspapers, ships". One of the jackals will take on the "period of initial capital accumulation." The result is a crisis of non-payments, wild wage arrears, etc. Pensions, by the way, were paid quite stably, and were a serious help for many families.

      good That's all right. It was this situation that contributed to the enrichment of the new business owners, who were not going to produce anything at all ... Remember how factories owned by private individuals were closed ... And people left production for speculation ("shuttle traders") in order to somehow feed their families ...
      By the way, it was after the default that trade in the mall and different markets developed.
      1. Snail N9
        Snail N9 2 January 2021 08: 05
        +9
        More interesting is not how it "happened" - then everything is just "simple", but how out of this ..., by what methods, the government of Primakov, Maslyukov and Gerashchenko pulled us out ... "Airplane he unfolds it without our permission, you know ... " yes
    6. Region-25.rus
      Region-25.rus 2 January 2021 13: 02
      +4
      So there was no particular shock for the overwhelming majority of the population.
      How to say. Personally, I found myself in default in the middle of the Sea of ​​Japan, at the transition from Nakhodka to Niigata, or Toyama (I don’t remember years ago, and it’s not very important). Radio exchange with the coast is purely nominal. Once a day, a radiogram about the current position, course, speed, stock availability, etc. So we spanked ourselves calmly and did not suspect anything. But upon arrival ..... they took the form of the local authorities, an agent climbed aboard and, along with the documents, lashed out local newspapers and the captain - "Count up, what a naughty you have there in Russia!" If I say that everyone was in Akuya, it's about nothing! Especially our "passengers". Who does not know, "passengers" are the same shuttles only with documents of sailors (such as sailors and minders in the crew) who buy cars in Japan and resell them in Russia. Those were in a state of wild panic bordering on a state of stupor. For everyone had hefty amounts in foreign currency, everything was estimated and calculated at the current exchange rate. And then such a "white and fluffy polar animal" showed his cunning little face. Well, I myself lost a couple of thousand of Baku.
      1. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 2 January 2021 15: 12
        +2
        Quote: Region-25.rus
        For everyone had hefty amounts in foreign currency, everything was estimated and calculated at the current exchange rate.

        If the sailors had hefty sums in foreign currency, then they could NOT LOSE anything, because returning with the goods, this goods would cost three times more than what they expected
        1. Region-25.rus
          Region-25.rus 2 January 2021 15: 57
          +4
          yes, but who would have bought from them what cost three times more! Because the buyers bought dollars for RUBLES in any exchange offices! And dollars have become more expensive. And if you managed to buy bucks at the old rate, then yes! But if not ..... Math first grade high school, learning to count to a hundred.
          And yes, the sailors did not have large sums on their hands! I wrote about "passengers". And these are either just hucksters, or representatives of various organized crime groups, or other not necessarily criminal groups.
          1. aybolyt678
            aybolyt678 2 January 2021 15: 59
            +2
            Quote: Region-25.rus
            yes, only who would have bought from them what cost three times more!

            it just complicated the sale and made the purchase wisely, no one said that it was easy
            1. Region-25.rus
              Region-25.rus 2 January 2021 16: 01
              +4
              It HUGE (litter for caps) complicated this (and not only) kind of business. I've been on that topic for a long time, as it were ... And you don't need to tell me about what I saw personally. And ... can you tell me how hard life was for me with the "bloody scoop"? And how fabulous with the "saints" of the 90s?
              1. aybolyt678
                aybolyt678 2 January 2021 18: 44
                +3
                Quote: Region-25.rus
                And ... can you tell me how hard it was for me with the "bloody scoop"? And how fabulous with the "saints" of the 90s?

                wrong address question. You see many personal tragedies, but I see how the financial vacuum cleaner worked, pumping money out of the country. Of course it is a tragedy when someone took out a loan in dollars, bought an import, sold it for rubles and here you are !!! default, you lose 70% of the purchasing power of your money. Another thing is when you took dollars, they are in your hands and .... default, of course, you have to pay interest, but you are in a much more advantageous situation.
                I was born in a scoop, more precisely in the USSR, I miss you to tears ... I fight for socialism as much as I can. More precisely, for its elements: free medical care, education, etc.
                You understand, or rather, remember American chicken legs! cheap, fatty .. they were half the price of our blue chickens! There was a dominance of foreign products and goods! and all because the exchange rate did not reflect the market value of these same currencies. And now it does not reflect. It is formed on Mezh. currencies. exchange. Where the world's bankers are waging war against us. A fake term was invented - "strong" ruble! which implies that another currency will fall in price and the ruble will buy everything. But why then when the ruble "strengthens" our producers scratch their turnips and ask - why no one buys our goods?
                Today, our government has practically no influence on the exchange rate, they have nothing to do with it. And the currency vacuum cleaner is still pumping the filling of the ruble out of the country.
    7. lucul
      lucul 2 January 2021 15: 47
      -4
      Pensions, by the way, were paid quite stably

      The first time I hear that pensions in the 90s were paid stably.
  2. Free wind
    Free wind 2 January 2021 05: 10
    +8
    Happy New Year everyone!!!! As I understand it, the fact that we are in a hole is another cunning plan, glory to the great ruler.
    1. sniperino
      sniperino 2 January 2021 07: 36
      -5
      Quote: Free Wind
      we are in a hole
      Don't panic. If you do not see a gap, you are probably moving in the opposite direction from the exit.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 2 January 2021 08: 35
        +7
        Well in the opposite direction from the exit is the entrance. And it’s dark everywhere. laughing Happy New Year! All the best to you.
        1. sniperino
          sniperino 2 January 2021 08: 40
          -9
          Quote: Free Wind
          And it’s dark everywhere.
          I am sending the card. If you have a flashlight, you will find a way out.
          1. Free wind
            Free wind 2 January 2021 08: 45
            +4
            The structure of your internal organs is not interesting to me, I love women.
            1. sniperino
              sniperino 2 January 2021 09: 03
              -5
              Quote: Free Wind
              I love women
              At least love poetry, it makes no difference to me. I realized that we can have different "entrance" and "exit". For example, they ate me in the 90s, but I came out of my stomach with vomit. And you climbed through the anus without soap, and now you are rushing against intestinal peristalsis.
            2. New Year day
              New Year day 2 January 2021 09: 25
              +9
              Quote: Free Wind
              The structure of your internal organs is not interesting to me, I love women.

              If the function of the drawn is violated, then you will no longer have time for women laughing
              The pharmacy will become your "woman" laughing
          2. The comment was deleted.
      2. New Year day
        New Year day 2 January 2021 09: 23
        +4
        Quote: sniperino
        If you do not see a gap, you are probably moving in the opposite direction from the exit.

        Sometimes the light from the oncoming train is mistaken for the light at the end of the tunnel. Maybe this is your case?
        1. sniperino
          sniperino 2 January 2021 09: 38
          -8
          Quote: Silvestr
          Maybe this is your case?
          Your party comrade is in a hole without light today, and you are talking about some trains from 2008. Or are you, too, with him in the hole today? Relax, the counter-peristalsis movement will end with the ileo-cecal valve (see map above).
          1. New Year day
            New Year day 2 January 2021 12: 30
            +7
            Quote: sniperino
            the movement against peristalsis will end with the ileo-cecal valve

            If such a specialist in the valve apparatus of the gastrointestinal tract, then they should know that there is a primary and secondary insufficiency of the Baugin's valve. In the 1st case, you get colonization of the small intestine with all the ensuing consequences, in the 2nd case, vomiting with feces, as in the case of large bowel obstruction. By the way, in her classification, this moment is present: colonic obstruction with and without an enteric component. This affects the tactics of treating the patient. laughing
    2. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 2 January 2021 08: 12
      +7
      Quote: Free Wind
      As I understand it, the fact that we are in a hole is another cunning plan, glory to the great ruler.

      Most likely, this is why, in the absence of their own achievements, they remember the mistakes of the previous (best of all, the dead) rulers.
      Quote: sniperino
      If you do not see a gap, you are probably moving in the opposite direction from the exit.

      What an interesting observation! fellow And, I was supposed that the expression: "It's dark like ..." - says a lot, including about indifference in choosing the direction of promotion in this particular place ... wassat
      1. sniperino
        sniperino 2 January 2021 11: 37
        -5
        Quote: ROSS 42
        about indifference in choosing the direction of promotion in this particular place
        You and I came to a common conclusion in different ways. You just have to understand how you and your comrades in misfortune got into that "hole without light", to draw the right conclusions for yourself and not to make the wrong ones.
    3. lucul
      lucul 2 January 2021 15: 48
      -7
      Happy New Year everyone!!!! I understand that we are in a hole

      You may well be.
  3. Comrade
    Comrade 2 January 2021 05: 16
    +20
    Many Russians to this day remember the words of the then president of the country, Boris Yeltsin, exactly three days before the complete collapse of the domestic financial system "clearly and firmly" declared to citizens who were beginning to lose their heads from what was happening:
    "There will be no devaluation!"

    He almost did not dry out, what is the demand from him?
    And the monument at the Yeltsin Center needs to be redone.
    1. Crowe
      Crowe 2 January 2021 08: 03
      +19
      “There will be no devaluation. Firmly and clearly. And I’m not just making it up, or a fantasy, or I would not want to, no. This is all calculated, this work and control is carried out every day, every day.” Boris Yeltsin

      In 1998, the people's confidence in the authorities was already completely undermined. The events of that year clearly showed that the words of politicians cannot be trusted - these are the sounds that are profitable for them to extract at the moment. So now, in any danger, citizens change the national currency for dollars or euros and take away bank deposits. We are used to not putting our eggs in one basket - we prefer to invest money in anything, even hide it under a pillow, than to give it to the government "for safekeeping."
      1. Ross xnumx
        Ross xnumx 2 January 2021 13: 07
        +10
        Quote: Crowe
        In 1998, the people's confidence in the authorities was already completely undermined.

        Here he is, handsome:

        And this eroded trust tells us that the authorities should not allow such situations, and not create them artificially.
        1. aybolyt678
          aybolyt678 2 January 2021 15: 23
          +6
          Quote: ROSS 42
          And this eroded trust tells us that the authorities should not allow such situations, and not create them artificially.

          The saddest thing is that this eroded trust does not tell the authorities about the need to change the paradigm of governing the country, in fact, this is the only case when, as a result of government actions, the ruble has come to its real market value. In all other cases, the Central Bank ruled the course. But the authorities should not have allowed such statements that there would be NO DEFAULT. this is what undermines trust. It's like Putin and the Pension Reform.
      2. lucul
        lucul 2 January 2021 15: 45
        0
        Everyone remembers how to take your money out of the bank with such "big nibbles"

        Why keep your savings in the bank? )))
        Remember - the very first mistake you make when dealing with a bank is when you cross the threshold of the bank))))
    2. Sergey Averchenkov
      Sergey Averchenkov 2 January 2021 15: 45
      +1
      Sorry, but I peed on this miracle Yudo. Pee and that's it.
  4. apro
    apro 2 January 2021 05: 36
    +3
    Black Monday on August 17, 1998 ultimately benefited Russia

    Yes, a very bold statement ... the result is the launch of the final deidustrialization of the Russian Federation. After all, the field of these cataclysms, the industry did not get on its feet. And the 2s finished off the industry, which was rocked in foreign currency debts.
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 2 January 2021 07: 20
      +1
      Quote: apro
      Yes, a very bold statement

      By the way, you can agree.
      The government in tandem, E. Primakov-Y. Maslyukov, quickly pulled the economy out of the "quagmire"
      After 1998, the West buried Russia, so at the meetings of such a respected organization as the Bilderburg Club, Russia was not mentioned at all, they considered that we were finished.
      1. sniperino
        sniperino 2 January 2021 08: 07
        -4
        Quote: bober1982
        They miscalculated, which they now apparently regret, they finally missed the chance to finish off the chance.
        I couldn't believe it for a very long time. Even after the peace in Chechnya, I expected a catch, assumed that they had made peace in order to shake the entire Caucasus, the Volga region ... I expected that under Medvedev it would start anew. However, after forcing Georgia to peace, I realized that I was very mistaken in Putin. And I'm not alone: ​​against the background from which he appeared ...
        1. Free wind
          Free wind 2 January 2021 08: 29
          +1
          As a result of the victory in Chekhne, the country lost thousands of young guys, pays them an indemnity, but shifted one clan in power to another, which sings the praises of duck, and festivals with impunity here. Is this a victory or not? Well, what did it do?
          1. Boris55
            Boris55 2 January 2021 08: 51
            -3
            Quote: Free Wind
            As a result of the victory in Chekhne, the country has lost thousands of young guys ... who sings the praises of duck

            Your comment is similar to this: "As a result of the Second World War, the USSR lost 27 million ..." so what? Is Stalin bad?

            As a result of the 2nd Chechen war, the plan for the disintegration of Russia was blocked. Expensive? Expensive. Who is to blame for the beginning of Chechnya - Putin or Yeltsin? Yeltsin!

            For this alone, for the fact that Putin saved Russia from disintegration, you need to erect a monument to him during his lifetime, and you, like the State Department, dream, as one US senator said, to take Putin out of the Kremlin: with honor or with your feet.

            Free wind, whose mill are you blowing?
            1. sniperino
              sniperino 2 January 2021 12: 18
              -3
              Quote: Boris55
              Free wind, whose mill are you blowing?
              Free wind in the head does not blow on anyone's mill: it sweeps a blizzard. (I'm trying to smear)
            2. Free wind
              Free wind 2 January 2021 12: 58
              +7
              The carrier of handbags for a dog and a dog on the monument does not pull.
              1. Boris55
                Boris55 2 January 2021 15: 15
                -3
                Quote: Free Wind
                The carrier of handbags for a dog and a dog on the monument does not pull.

                What would you do if you were in his place to come into power and take over control? He went this way and achieved his goal, but what would be your path? Describe, at least in a thesis, how, in your opinion, he should have acted so that a major in foreign intelligence could become president?
                1. Free wind
                  Free wind 3 January 2021 08: 32
                  0
                  Well, at least I wouldn't like terrorist attacks. Explain to me why not a single terrorist on Dubrovka was interrogated, how they got to Moscow hung with weapons and explosives? how did they ride around Moscow and no one stopped them? Why were they just shot? Although the prisoners were interrogated even during the war, I would interrogate someone and then shoot them, but why was no one interrogated. So they knew something. And no one should know this. You roll with your great ..
                  1. Boris55
                    Boris55 3 January 2021 08: 57
                    -2
                    Quote: Free Wind
                    Well, at least I wouldn't like terrorist attacks.

                    He didn’t suit them.

                    They were satisfied with those who were dissatisfied with the kind of policy Putin was pursuing. Their goal was to force him to continue the destruction of Russia - to stop the 2nd Chechen war, which gave rise to this process.

                    Who are they? This is the State Department behind a puddle and Yeltsin's clan "family" in Russia, which put Putin as president, in the hope that he will remain in history as the destroyer of Russia, and they will seem to have nothing to do with it - they miscalculated.

                    The terrorist attack on Dubrovka is 2002. The President has just begun to gain strength. In all government bodies, including the siloviki, there were proteges of the State Department.

                    The terrorists knew a lot about who covered them, so they were not left alive ... Do you remember who freed Basayev from Budenovsk? That's right - Chernomyrdin and people like him, there are many in power ...


                    ps
                    Terrorists are the irregular army of the West. Their goal is to achieve the desired result by bypassing all the rules. The media that "savor" terrorist attacks are accomplices of terrorists. the goal of any terrorist attack is to spread fear among the population. The media do the best job with this task.

                    pss
                    The king is made by the retinue. She does it literally and figuratively.
                  2. sniperino
                    sniperino 3 January 2021 09: 47
                    -2
                    Quote: Free Wind
                    would not suit terrorist attacks
                    It seems that you and the terrorists have common goals and a master: some organize terrorist attacks to eliminate the power and destroy the country, others excuse them with the same goals.
                  3. gsev
                    gsev 6 January 2021 02: 23
                    0
                    Quote: Free Wind
                    Explain to me why not a single terrorist was interrogated on Dubrovka

                    It seems that the terrorists were gassed at Dubrovka. There was a dilemma to save poisoned spectators or terrorists. We decided to save the spectators who did not look like terrorists. In addition, then Dudayev and Basayev spoke openly about their goals. For example, Dudayev's secretary, Mrs. Aset, openly told everyone how Anna Politkovskaya worked in close cooperation with her.
      2. Deniska999
        Deniska999 2 January 2021 08: 17
        -6
        Have you been to the meetings of this club? Interesting interesting)
      3. New Year day
        New Year day 2 January 2021 09: 28
        +10
        Quote: bober1982
        Government in conjunction, E. Primakov-Y. Maslyukov

        And how were they thanked for that? - Resign! And in their place are those who quickly "corrected" their success
  5. Vladimir61
    Vladimir61 2 January 2021 05: 52
    +15
    Yes, we remember! We also remember that it all started not in 98, but many years earlier. We remember the Minister of Economy and Finance of the USSR Gaidar, chewing chocolate candies at his dacha, let his famous grandfather sleep peacefully, and this at a time when the parents no longer knew what to feed their children tomorrow. We also remember this whole gang of reformers and democrats, represented by Gaidar, Chubais, Burbulis, Shakhrai, Poltoranin, Popov, Luzhkov and others, under the leadership of the outstanding figure Yeltsin. It is a pity that we will never hear a fair, historical assessment of the activities of these subjects, not only on the collapse of the USSR, but on the results of their activities, which, in its essence, was no less tragic than the so often mentioned Holodomor of the 30s.
    And then?
    It emerged from this crisis refreshed, more competitive, wealthy and strong.
    Yeah, I immediately took it and left ... It came out, almost, it only lasted for two decades and for many ended tragically.
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 2 January 2021 06: 02
      +2
      It is a pity that we will never hear a fair, historical assessment of the activities of these subjects, not only on the collapse of the USSR,

      We will hear ... or rather read ... even more likely, our descendants will read smile in the works of professional historians, in a hundred years that way ... when the current passions and emotions subside.
      Unless, of course, it will be a story written by our scientists, not the Anglo-Saxons.
    2. KCA
      KCA 2 January 2021 08: 18
      +8
      Fortunately, Arkady Gaidar did not have his own children, and the hamster's father was adopted, the grandson could not shame the honor of his grandfather
    3. sniperino
      sniperino 3 January 2021 09: 58
      -3
      Quote: Vladimir61
      no less tragic than the so often mentioned Holodomor of the 30s.
      Forgot to add "in / on": "... so often mentioned in / on ...". We talk about hunger at this time.
  6. bober1982
    bober1982 2 January 2021 06: 25
    +5
    This entire liberal group of "reformers" had been prepared very carefully by Andropov since the 70s, and the selection there was very serious.
    The disappeared IMF stabilization loan of five billion, which was given on the eve of the default, mentioned by the author of the article, did not disappear anywhere; it was converted into hard currency by the "reformers" themselves, in order to enrich themselves.
    1. sniperino
      sniperino 2 January 2021 07: 19
      +3
      Quote: bober1982
      the IMF loan of five billion, issued on the eve of the default, did not disappear anywhere, it was converted into hard currency
      Why an extra operation? On conversion with the hourly falling ruble they would lose. It was already in hard currency: to scatter only on your accounts through the "gaskets".
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 2 January 2021 07: 24
        +2
        Quote: sniperino
        On conversion with the hourly falling ruble, they would lose.

        So after all, they converted to a falling ruble. Everything was known in advance, of course, and not to fellow citizens.
        With the hourly falling ruble, ordinary citizens lost everything.
        1. sniperino
          sniperino 2 January 2021 07: 26
          +1
          Quote: bober1982
          converted to a falling ruble
          Sorry, before the collapsed ruble. And he did not stop getting cheaper.
    2. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 2 January 2021 07: 42
      +1
      This entire liberal group of "reformers" had been prepared very carefully by Andropov since the 70s, and the selection there was very serious.

      There was an article about this on the internet at one time ... there were consistently described all the stages of development of society that are now taking place in Russia ... then I took it all for the author's fantasies ... but now I see everything as a carbon copy of what is described in the article. hi
      A strategic plan for the future of Russia ... oh, sorry I didn't dig deeper on this article.
      1. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 2 January 2021 15: 38
        +1
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        A strategic plan for the future of Russia ... oh, sorry I didn't dig deeper on this article.

        Strategy, as you know, is long-term planning. We have tactics at the top. They do not look far, paid experts in unison insist that the world is changing faster than we can calculate, no one even thinks to look a couple of generations ahead. sad
        Of course, there are developments: a thermonuclear reactor under construction in Sarov. This is the most interesting .. However, with such a personnel policy, all the developments will go to the West, after we solve all the problems. For it is easier to buy a person than to develop an industry.
        In terms of strategy, it would be better if the Americans sell their gas to Europe. A commodity trader always loses, as historical experience teaches.
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        there were consistently described all the stages of development of society that are now taking place in Russia ... then I took it all for the author's fantasies

        what are the stages of development? Aristotle 2200 years ago said that the aristocracy that seized power is turning into an oligarchy. Nothing has changed in two thousand years!
  7. Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 2 January 2021 07: 23
    +5
    Black Monday memory: default of 1998 - how it was

    As it was? Okay, this "half-sober" doll "glued the flippers together", but the immediate "calmer of that time" - Hero of Russia Vladimir Leninovich is alive and in full health ... wassat Why didn't you ask him? Is there a lot of things he could tell?
    It emerged from this crisis refreshed, more competitive, wealthy and strong.

    From this crisis, after which, in theory, the old economic formation should return (thanks to Zhirinovsky and his party, the EBN did not receive a "shock"), the government made one important decision for itself - all adversity and blunders must be solved at the expense of the country's population, that she has been doing it successfully so far.
  8. Andrei Nikolaevich
    Andrei Nikolaevich 2 January 2021 07: 26
    +6
    I "lived through" these days perfectly. He was young and stupid. 3rd year of the institute. Parents are on vacation. The hut is free.) But even now, in the photo, I can't see the face of the always drunk "guarantor".
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 2 January 2021 08: 17
      +5
      Quote: Andrey Nikolaevich
      But even now, in the photo, I can't see the face of the always drunk "guarantor".

      You have a clear tendency to the fact that soon you will become disgusted with a closed recessed space ... yes
  9. Moskovit
    Moskovit 2 January 2021 08: 30
    +5
    I remember that there were those who took out loans in foreign currency. Many one-day offices fell apart. But the further from Moscow, the less noticeable the impact of the default. I don't remember such a direct apocalypse. Because not a millionaire))
    1. bober1982
      bober1982 2 January 2021 10: 32
      0
      Quote: Moskovit
      I don't remember such a direct apocalypse

      Yes, the panic stopped relatively quickly, the Russian, or in the words of Boris Nikolaevich, dear Russians, are used to everything.
      1. Moskovit
        Moskovit 2 January 2021 11: 08
        +5
        When money was changed at 93, it was worse. Then the people were robbed in full.
        1. aybolyt678
          aybolyt678 2 January 2021 15: 42
          +2
          Quote: Moskovit
          When money was changed at 93, it was worse. Then the people were robbed in full.

          I then came from the North to buy an apartment ... there was a million when I probed the prices of apartments in Omsk in September. In October I arrived, in November I bought a floor of a house in the suburbs .. Apartments took off in a month to 10 or more lemons!
        2. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 2 January 2021 17: 31
          +1
          Quote: Moskovit
          When money was changed at 93, it was worse.

          In the 90s they changed. Pavlov's reform ...
          1. Moskovit
            Moskovit 3 January 2021 08: 45
            +2
            They also changed in the 90th. But then then 50 and 100 ruble bills.
            Then there were pensioners who kept money for a rainy day. And at 93 all the money.
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 3 January 2021 11: 22
              +1
              Quote: Moskovit
              They also changed in the 90th. But then then 50 and 100 ruble bills.

              I went skiing to my grandfather. Traveled five kilometers ...
      2. sniperino
        sniperino 3 January 2021 10: 09
        -1
        Quote: bober1982
        the panic stopped relatively quickly
        Delays and non-payment of wages throughout the 90s were much more difficult, in my opinion, than the default at the end of that decade. Those who managed to accumulate savings in the 90s probably suffered more from the default, but this is a very small part of society. The panic was mainly informational, whipped up by the media.
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 3 January 2021 11: 24
          0
          Quote: sniperino
          Delays and non-payment of wages all 90s

          But we didn't have a delay
  10. kalibr
    kalibr 2 January 2021 08: 31
    +3
    The article has a total of 5505 characters with spaces. Still, it is too little for such a complex topic. It's not Zen, after all. Well, at least the author brought up to 8000 ...
    1. aybolyt678
      aybolyt678 2 January 2021 15: 51
      +4
      Quote: kalibr
      The article has a total of 5505 characters with spaces.

      it's not about the signs but about the terminology and knowledge of the economy and the subject of which we are talking. The Central Bank has always supported the exchange rate at which it is more profitable to export resources from Russia and not allow production to develop. Default 98 is the result of the activities of the Primakov government, which by the way no one scolds smile , at which the ruble was returned to its market value. Kinder was appointed a lamb to be slaughtered, restructured the debt, and canceled GKOs. Yes! crisis, which is translated from the Greek COURT.
      The country was saved ... I remember then there were talks about the creation of the Siberian Republic and others ...
      The trouble is that everyone remembers the bankrupt traders, but no one remembers that after half a year Russian chicken appeared on the shelves, that the economy in kind grew by 24 percent a year !!!!!
  11. New Year day
    New Year day 2 January 2021 09: 15
    +6
    ... the abandonment of imports that instantly became insanely expensive spurred the development of Russian industry, created real prerequisites and conditions for it.

    Why did the author not indicate how these prerequisites were implemented? In what areas do we have a full production cycle?
    ... She emerged from this crisis renewed, more competitive, wealthy and strong.

    New Year's holidays were not in vain - champagne is spinning laughing Would reveal the content of this opus.
    All of the above was only due to the cosmic prices for hydrocarbons, as soon as they fell, everything disappeared.
    Only the absence remains
    ... any prospects for the near future.
  12. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 2 January 2021 09: 57
    +8
    “Black Monday” on August 17, 1998 ultimately benefited Russia, which by that time was finally turning into a raw material appendage of the West.

    It emerged from this crisis refreshed, more competitive, wealthy and strong.

    Pancake! Another singer of the once popular hit: "This is very good, that while we are bad!" And the fact that as a result of this "Black Monday" the people were dramatically impoverished, many destinies were broken, human lives were ruined - the author is "violet"! And yak! He croaked his own! Imagine ... in a person, a tumor has captured almost the entire face, and the doctor looks at the back of his head and says: “My friend, you’re all right!” ... What EBN did is nothing but the greatest meanness! Decent people, if they did this, not even intentionally, but by mistake, immediately resigned! But decency is not for EBN! Note ... this is typical not only for one EBN, but in general for the ruling liberal regime in Russia: to do stupidity, meanness and pretend that nothing of the kind happened (!), And there is nothing to talk about it ... remember! And the Putin regime is no exception! But I digress! Let's return to our "Pavlik Morozov", that is to say, to Kharaluzhny! Who pulled him by the tongue to repeat the well-known excuse of liberalism? He could "briefly" mention the merzapacostina that EBN and his team arranged, but focus more on those options that were possible in order to prevent a disaster; but which EBN-skaya liberastnya deliberately rejected! To focus on the damage caused to the country by the catastrophe organized by the EBN regime of power!
    1. Drugov
      Drugov 2 January 2021 17: 36
      +2
      On that day, tens of thousands of medium and small businesses and entrepreneurs went bankrupt. Not a small part of them committed suicide.
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 2 January 2021 17: 50
        +2
        Quote: Drugov
        On that day, tens of thousands of medium and small businesses and entrepreneurs went bankrupt. Not a small part of them committed suicide

        What is my speech about!
  13. parusnik
    parusnik 2 January 2021 10: 18
    +6
    Be that as it may, Russia, contrary to the expectations of many, did not collapse.
    laughing And who expected something? EBN with Chubais? smile
    It emerged from this crisis refreshed, more competitive, wealthy and strong.
    ..So it turns out, for the sake of this the default was started?
  14. dmmyak40
    dmmyak40 2 January 2021 10: 56
    +7
    In those days, he worked as a deputy. the head of the search and rescue service and the commander of a rescue squad in one of the southern regions. The salary delay was 12 months. When descending from the roof, the rescuers lost consciousness from hunger ... Damn times ...
  15. iouris
    iouris 2 January 2021 13: 02
    +4
    Today is not August or even Monday. The author knows something ... But he did not say.
  16. Million
    Million 2 January 2021 13: 43
    +5
    rare ...
  17. bairat
    bairat 2 January 2021 14: 30
    +2
    I remember then poking around the banks, there are naturally no dollars anywhere, I go to work by minibus, sad, and apparently "upstairs" decided that "this" should be regretted. Some kind of internal pendal forced to get off at the bus stop, the second pendal did not let him stop at the entrance to the bank, where it also said "no dollars". There are no dollars, but there are pounds and Swiss francs!) They also went up later, and then I saved my modest savings, earned by hard work.
    1. aybolyt678
      aybolyt678 2 January 2021 15: 53
      +1
      Quote: bairat
      there are pounds and Swiss francs!) They also went up later, and then I saved my modest savings, earned by hard work.

      Abroad will help us !!!!
  18. VORON538
    VORON538 2 January 2021 15: 06
    0
    So that you and your offspring, boriska, the devils do not let you out of the boiler !!!
  19. BAI
    BAI 2 January 2021 15: 26
    +1
    Among other things, it was accompanied by the “disappearance” of about $ 5 billion from a targeted loan allocated by the IMF to save the Russian financial system.

    This is not the only missing loan. The loan for the restructuring of the coal industry has also disappeared. Not a ruble reached the mines, everything disappeared in Moscow.
    1. Petr Vladimirovich
      Petr Vladimirovich 2 January 2021 15: 57
      -1
      And where else, personally in my Aboriginal throat ...)))
  20. Sergey Averchenkov
    Sergey Averchenkov 2 January 2021 15: 33
    0
    And then I flew in ... specifically ... And who did not fly in? Maybe only Chubais who knew about it.
    1. Petr Vladimirovich
      Petr Vladimirovich 2 January 2021 16: 11
      0
      Do you want to laugh, dear colleagues? I don’t remember the year, Saturday, at the dacha, the radio says, some bills have been canceled since Monday. Okay, we collected everything we had, sat on a Zhigul, drove to the nearest hamaz, took three bags of sugar. Loaded into the trunk. And radiculitis is pleasant and at home then for a very long time they stumbled over these bags ...)))
  21. Doliva63
    Doliva63 2 January 2021 17: 01
    +5
    "Among other things, it was accompanied by the 'disappearance' of about $ 5 billion from a targeted loan allocated by the IMF to save the Russian financial system."
    Actually, on TV, the Deputy Prosecutor General told how Nemtsov and Yeltsin's daughter took this money into their pockets. Then he disappeared somewhere, I hope he was just fired wassat
  22. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 2 January 2021 17: 23
    +1
    Interesting: how old was Alexander Kharaluzhny in 1998?
  23. Drugov
    Drugov 2 January 2021 17: 37
    +1
    And Chubais walks around and enjoys life!
  24. Pardus
    Pardus 2 January 2021 19: 05
    +1
    default of 1998

    Was one of the worst crises in the past 35 years.
  25. Pardus
    Pardus 2 January 2021 19: 07
    0
    transition to market relations

    They wanted market relations, but got the collapse of the country and industry.
  26. Pardus
    Pardus 2 January 2021 19: 09
    +1
    its official relation to world currencies had nothing to do with reality.

    also now the ruble exchange rate does not correspond to the real value.
  27. Pardus
    Pardus 2 January 2021 19: 13
    +1
    GKO - Government short-term bonds, which had an incredible (for securities of this kind) yield of 60% per annum against the world practice of 4-5% per annum.

    The GKO market then turned out to be a real financial pyramid.
  28. Pardus
    Pardus 2 January 2021 19: 20
    +2
    accompanied by the "disappearance" of about $ 5 billion from a targeted loan allocated by the IMF to rescue the Russian financial system.

    Where did the money go request bully
  29. for
    for 2 January 2021 19: 22
    0
    The money supply was catastrophically lacking. And the result of this was a lot of problems - from months of non-payment of salaries, benefits and pensions.

    I remember I worked at a company, my salary was on time, if you want an advance. One day the rumor will be delayed, but in the evening they brought in dollars, there were no rubles. It largely depends on the owner. Not "gazneft".
  30. Pardus
    Pardus 2 January 2021 19: 36
    +3
    The forced abandonment of imports that became insanely expensive at once spurred the development of Russian industry, created real prerequisites and conditions for it.

    For some reason, there is nothing like this ...
    All imported
  31. Pardus
    Pardus 2 January 2021 19: 37
    +4
    It emerged from this crisis refreshed, more competitive, wealthy and strong.

    Well, they buy our products abroad, we pushed the west into the market laughing We became so rich that we had to raise the retirement age ...
  32. zenion
    zenion 2 January 2021 21: 25
    +1
    It was necessary to finish off the people and bring people to the state of donkeys, they brought them. From people who completed secondary education, they made a people who charged three-liter cans of water through the TV. The same should have been hammered into the heads of the people, who were the first to fly into space, that those who lie to the people from the negativity from the people back through the TV will suffer. Instead of rallying and revenge, they went in a friendly column for the goats to the slaughterhouse. Gentlemen, what you had from the Soviet regime, you didn't have a nichrome, but under this power you will have three times more and finally you will have gum and you will walk like a cow belching and chewing, chewing chemistry that you could not wait for. To improve the mood anecdote. One godmother had a shepherd bitch. Finally she gave birth. Then the godfather comes to visit the godfather. Brings the dance. We drank and looked at the puppies. Kum says - can you give me one puppy? The godfather replies - fuck you, not a puppy, when the bitch had a wedding, you were not in line to see her.
  33. datura23
    datura23 2 January 2021 21: 26
    0
    DAMNED ON THE PHOTO !!!
  34. Selevc
    Selevc 3 January 2021 11: 16
    +1
    Market relations in the Yeltsin era consisted in the fact that the state apparatus (consisted of swindlers headed by the main Kremlin swindler) got into the pockets of all market participants !!!

    Since those glorious times and until now in the states-republics of the former Union there is a glorious tradition, which consists in the fact that those in power come up with new and sophisticated ways to rob their own peoples !!! And each new next round of lawlessness from above is traditionally called market reforms !!!
  35. Kushka
    Kushka 6 January 2021 22: 23
    0
    Black Monday on August 17, 1998 ultimately benefited Russia,
    by that time it was finally turning into a raw material appendage of the West.
    She came out of this crisis renewed, more competitive,
    rich and strong.

    At the end, the author clearly showed you that the default and 220 lard of foreign debt
    is that magic pendal that gave magic acceleration and country
    began to develop rapidly. But without this, apparently, there would be a pipe.
    (I already envied how people know how to turn inside out)
    Well, the "smaller brothers" are acting "after the model and likeness" of Russia,
    maybe they will have a magic pendal. Ukraine has won, has already
    for 100 lard prevailed - to see a pendal will happen and it will become
    "renewed, more competitive, richer and stronger"
  36. The comment was deleted.
  37. tank64rus
    tank64rus 7 February 2021 11: 31
    0
    Questions who stole 5 billion. and who profited from the default. All of the then "elite" did it, but the people were thrown.
  38. Alexfly
    Alexfly 9 February 2021 12: 36
    0
    I would like to say a separate thank you to Marked, for the ideas about 6 acres, many would not have survived without subsidiary farming, but, most likely, all rebuilders would have been shod with pitchforks ... palaces are being built, for Judas ... It is a pity that his tombstone was girded with a tricolor, otherwise they would have blown up ...
  39. nnz226
    nnz226 13 February 2021 14: 40
    0
    Even the picture shows the soaked face of the "guarantor of the Constitution" - the drunkard Borka!
  40. Stalnov I.P.
    Stalnov I.P. 16 March 2021 10: 42
    0
    EBNets is the worst leader for the last 700 years in Russia and Russia. The man got the RUSSIAN PEOPLE for genocide.