Military Review

With a new hypersound: achievements and failures of the creators of hypersonic missiles in the past year

27

Photo: Press service of the Russian Defense Ministry



Photo: Matt Williams / USAF

Despite all the difficulties caused by the coronavirus pandemic, as well as the economic problems associated with it, the most powerful countries in the world have been confidently working on promising hypersonic weapon systems for twelve months. Perhaps the final result was not quite the same as it was seen, but the road will be mastered by the one walking.

"Zircon": the official birth


Characteristics (hypothetical):

Type: sea-based hypersonic anti-ship missile;
Flight speed: within the framework of tests, the rocket reached a flight speed of M = 8;
Range: 600-1000 kilometers;
Warhead weight: about 400 kilograms;
Carriers: Project 885 submarines, promising fifth-generation submarines, as well as surface ships equipped with 3S14 universal shipborne firing systems (UKSK).


Photo: Press service of the Russian Defense Ministry

The Zircon rocket is sometimes called weaponscapable of

"Change the rules of the game" and "the balance of power at sea."

Now we will not try to find out whether this is so: obviously, the final conclusions are still very, very far away.

One thing can be stated with complete certainty: the rocket development program is actively developing. In February, it became known about the first test of "Zircon" on board the ship. The target was located on a ground range. On October 6, 2020, according to the message of the Russian Ministry of Defense, the frigate of project 22350 "Admiral Gorshkov" for the first time performed shooting a hypersonic cruise missile "Zircon" at a naval target located in the Barents Sea. The product was able to hit a target located at a distance of 450 kilometers, while reaching a speed of more than M = 8, which confirms the previously announced characteristics.

These tests were for ordinary observers a turning point in the program: in fact, Russia for the first time officially demonstrated a new model of weapons.

Previously, almost the only visual confirmation of the existence of the rocket was a photograph of 2019, which captured transport and launch containers (TPK) on board the frigate Admiral Gorshkov. Similar to those that should be used for "Zircons".


Still from the video: TV channel Zvezda, youtube.com

In December 2020, a video of the new tests of Zircon was posted on the official channel of the Russian Ministry of Defense.

“The next test launch of the Zircon hypersonic cruise missile took place in the White Sea. The target of the rocket launched from the board of the frigate "Admiral Gorshkov" was at the Chizha test range at a distance of more than 350 kilometers ",

- says the description for the video.

In addition to the presentation of the hypersonic missile, the dates for the adoption of the complex into service were announced. According to Deputy Defense Minister Alexei Krivoruchko, the complex with the Zircon hypersonic anti-ship missile will be adopted by the Russian army in late 2021 - early 2022. Prior to that, the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Navy, Admiral Nikolai Evmenov, said that one of the frigates would be the first to receive the new complex.

ARRW: small steps of a fast rocket


Characteristics (hypothetical):

Type: air-launched hypersonic missile;
Flight speed: from M = 6,5 to M = 8;
Range: approximately 1600 kilometers;
Warhead weight: unknown;
Carriers: strategic bombers B-52H (it will be able to carry four ARRW missiles on an external sling - two on each pylon), B-1B, as well as, possibly, a promising stealth bomber B-21 Raider.


The Americans are now implementing the concept of a hypersonic triad, within the framework of which new and largely unified complexes are to be received by the Navy, Air Force and ground forces.

Perhaps the most attention in 2020 was focused on the promising AGM-183 ARRW hypersonic air-launched missile or Air-Launched Rapid Response Weapon. This is a solid-propellant rocket equipped with a detachable gliding hypersonic warhead.

This year, for the first time, the characteristics of the product, even approximate ones, were revealed: they were voiced by Major General of the United States Air Force Andrew J. Gebara in an interview with Air Force Magazine. As expected, the thesis that the complex will be able to develop a speed of M = 20 turned out to be incorrect (at least, if you trust the new information). The real flight speed will be from M = 6,5 to M = 8. Which is also, of course, not a little.


In July 2020, new tests of the AGM-183 took place. As before, the B-52 strategic bomber acted as a carrier.

As before, no missile launches were carried out directly. Two prototypes of AGM-183A were hung on the plane. One of them was equipped with a telemetry unit, and the second received some parts of the control system.

It is also noteworthy that recently a B-1B bomber launched an AGM-158 JASSM cruise missile from an external holder. It is assumed that the experience gained can be used to test hypersonic weapons from an aircraft.

HAWC and HCSW: Top Losers


HAWC Features (Estimated):

Type: air-launched hypersonic missile;
Flight speed (cruising): M = 5 or more;
Range: unknown;
Warhead weight: unknown;
Carriers: various American fighters. First of all, the F-15E and F-35.


The HAWC (Hypersonic Air-breathing Weapon Concept) hypersonic missile is probably the main disappointment of the year in terms of the development and testing of hypersonic systems.

Recall that the complex is not a very large tactical hypersonic missile, which should be able to hit both stationary and moving targets. Unlike AGM-183A, it will receive a ramjet engine. The bidders are Raytheon and Lockheed Martin. It was Lockheed Martin who allegedly participated in the recent failed tests.

It is not known for certain what exactly happened at the end of 2020. According to Air Force Magazine, the Americans unsuccessfully tested the product from the B-52 bomber. According to the data presented, the problem lay in the mechanical aspects of the launch: because of this, the launch from the strategic bomber had to be canceled.

“This is not an issue related to the design of a hypersonic cruise missile. This is from the category of stupid mistakes ",

- said on this occasion an informed source.

Earlier, a more serious failure befell a project with a similar name and a similar concept - HCSW or Hypersonic Conventional Strike Weapon.

Air Force Magazine reported in February that the program had simply been shut down. The reason is trivial - lack of funds.

Perhaps, in the near future, we will face new postponements and new curtailments of once ambitious projects.
Author:
27 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Sergey39
    Sergey39 30 December 2020 18: 13
    0
    Something is unlucky for our “partners”. It is always more difficult to catch up.
    1. Nestor Vlakhovski
      Nestor Vlakhovski 30 December 2020 18: 56
      -9
      Mattresses do not have an extra chromosome, therefore they are doomed to swallow dust after the leading country.
  2. military_cat
    military_cat 30 December 2020 18: 18
    +5
    Americans have an interesting tradition of choosing abbreviations. In addition to their immediate meaning, they still look like some ordinary word.

    HAWC = hawk (hawk)
    ARRW = arrow
    HCSW = hacksaw
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 30 December 2020 18: 37
      0
      Quote: military_cat
      In addition to their immediate meaning, they are still similar to some ordinary word.
      Well, marketing, branding, you can safely wind up 20-25% llohu to the customer. )))
  3. Nestor Vlakhovski
    Nestor Vlakhovski 30 December 2020 18: 53
    -12%
    The hypersonic analogue_no "dagger" actually turned out to be an old tinted missile from the "Iskandnr".
    Speaking of the no less breakthrough analogue_net "zircon", propagandists first showed retouched photographs of the American X-51, and recently, as a successful test, they tried to issue an onyx launch, which is probably the middle new-old wunderwaffe.
    But more than 2 years have passed since Putin's speech.
    1. lucul
      lucul 30 December 2020 19: 39
      +6
      The hypersonic analogue_no "dagger" actually turned out to be an old tinted missile from the "Iskandnr".
      Speaking of the no less breakthrough analogue_net "zircon", propagandists first showed retouched photographs of the American X-51, and recently, as a successful test, they tried to issue an onyx launch, which is probably the middle new-old wunderwaffe.
      But more than 2 years have passed since Putin's speech.

      Analytics level God))))
  4. fa2998
    fa2998 30 December 2020 19: 57
    +1
    Quote: Sergey39
    It is always more difficult to catch up.

    I will not write much. Do you know the X-15 aircraft, piloted at a speed of 5M, reached altitudes of over 100 km.? already over 15 M.
    60-80 years, USA. So who is catching up? hi
    1. foxhound
      foxhound 31 December 2020 05: 24
      +1
      Then we were catching up, now they are. And it's easier to catch up more often. The one who goes first fills cones, spending a large amount of resources.
  5. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 30 December 2020 20: 03
    +1
    I personally see problems with hypersonic missiles in the west with the Bologna education system, we have similar problems in Russia, but we have a huge plus SOVIET R&D and STAFF REMAINS
    1. tralflot1832
      tralflot1832 30 December 2020 20: 19
      +5
      Otedel Boeing works in Moscow, there are no problems with personnel. Musk also works with us. There is more likely something in technology, since they are shamelessly secret. hi
      1. Ryaruav
        Ryaruav 30 December 2020 20: 28
        -3
        Andrey is a tendency since 1990, I understand people somewhere Russia plus bureaucracy is a complex country, but if I grew up and got an education, well, we live even with a goat zeroed out, what can I say, a strong conservative people, and I'm part of this people and I live at home among my own people
    2. Seba
      Seba 30 December 2020 20: 38
      +2
      Rather, it’s a different question, young people of the technical mind go to it, because of this, and the drawdown of the quality of engineers in almost everyone.
  6. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 30 December 2020 21: 17
    +9
    “Interestingly the girls are dancing!” More recently, the Americans “proved” that Russian hypersonic “daggers” do not “have the right” to be called hypersonic missile weapons ... only CD with a ramjet engine, reaching hypersonic speed (and indeed ... an aircraft with a ramjet engine ( !) ...) -the true carriers of the proud title of "hypersonic"! Well, now they stood in the wake of the "dagger", hoping to "quietly" break out ahead! I recall that there were a lot of people in VO who were in solidarity with the opinion of the Americans!
    What I would like to draw your attention to ... If the "dagger" shows the characteristics of a hypersonic weapon, subject to the preliminary acceleration of its MiG-31 to supersonic, then ARRW is supposed to be launched from a relatively "slow" B-52! There is a certain reason for this! What can be offered from "our" side? Well ........ And if you work with the hypersonic zuras 77Н6-Н and 77Н6-Н1? Is it possible to build something similar to ARRW on the basis of these missiles? For the Tu-95 ... maybe for someone else ... what
  7. Mikhail Zakharov
    Mikhail Zakharov 31 December 2020 00: 23
    +3
    no one has atmospheric hypersound and will not. and all these tales from our propaganda were invented for a fabulous bunker grandfather
    1. foxhound
      foxhound 31 December 2020 05: 26
      0
      And the earth is flat
    2. Zoldat_A
      Zoldat_A 2 January 2021 20: 41
      0
      Quote: Mikhail Zakharov
      no one has atmospheric hypersound and will not. and all these tales from our propaganda were invented for a fabulous bunker grandfather

      Exactly ...
      ... All this is fiction, there is no Rio de Janeiro, and there is no America, and Europe, there is nothing. And in general, the last city is Shepetivka, on which the waves of the Atlantic Ocean break.
      laughing
    3. sleeve
      sleeve 3 January 2021 07: 36
      0
      And our propaganda understands what kind of atmospheric it is there or not?)))
  8. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 31 December 2020 11: 03
    +2
    In short: hypersonic cruise missiles with a ramjet engine did not work,
    and the gliders and airborne ballistic missiles turned out well.
  9. rica1952
    rica1952 31 December 2020 13: 09
    0
    In the classical understanding, we do not have hypersonic aircraft with a scramjet engine. The Dagger complex is a conventional aerobalistic rocket with solid propellants. The tested rocket, Zircon, is a modernized anti-ship missile system .. Onyx, with an extra-atmospheric flight path with high-energy fuel such as Tsiklin, Sintin So, about the constant noise in our media about hypersonic missiles, this is just noise and nothing more.
  10. bars1
    bars1 31 December 2020 16: 46
    0
    Quote: Nikolaevich I
    If the "dagger" shows the characteristics of a hypersonic weapon, subject to the preliminary acceleration of its MiG-31 to supersonic, then ARRW is supposed to be launched from the relatively "slow" B-52!

    And nothing that Iskander shows "characteristics of hypersonic weapons" when launched from the ground?

    In general, Putin's verbal balancing act about the "hypersonic Dagger" as a kind of breakthrough (although the same "hypersonic" Iskander has been in service for 10 years already) really raises doubts about the "revolutionary" nature of those solutions tested in Zircon.
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 31 December 2020 20: 41
      0
      Quote: bars1
      And nothing that Iskander shows "characteristics of hypersonic weapons" when launched from the ground?

      Do you have such a hobby ... to hesitate to every pillar? There has already been a lot of talk about BRs with their hypersonic speeds! This is a well-known fact! But when they now talk about hypersonic missile weapons, they invest in it certain (!) Widespread (!) Ideas, opportunities and tasks ... tactics of use!
      1. sleeve
        sleeve 3 January 2021 07: 29
        0
        By the way on the BR. Avangard is a good step towards corrected hypersound for BR. What kind of a little thing will turn out, attacking on hypersonic planning in case of "bringing" to the possibility of full guidance, I cannot guess. Well, this is still a job for many years. There, KVO is not needed 50-70 meters, but no more than 2. And the ranges, if, for example, the same Iskander becomes a "throwing" platform to throw 40-50 kilometers into the warhead in the "planning" mode are directly impressive.
  11. Old26
    Old26 31 December 2020 22: 07
    +1
    Quote: Nikolaevich I
    What I would like to draw your attention to ... If the "dagger" shows the characteristics of a hypersonic weapon, subject to the preliminary acceleration of its MiG-31 to supersonic, then ARRW is supposed to be launched from a relatively "slow" B-52!

    Namesake. "Kinzhaol" has hypersonic speed even without the MIG. It's just that the Mig becomes, as it were, the starting accelerator of this system, and the hypersonic speed of the Dagger is higher than if it was launched from the same TU-95. Starting with a strategist allows you to have a "long hand". If the same MIG has a combat radius of the aircraft itself of about 700 km plus the Dagger's flight range of 1300 km, all this gives a "long arm" (sorry for the tautology) 2000 km. With the same range as the "Dagger", the American AGM-183 will have a "long arm", significantly exceeding the "arm length" of the MIG + DAGGER complex. It's just that the combat radius of the same B-52 can be 8, 9 and 10 thousand kilometers. Plus, the flight range of a hypersonic missile will add up not 2000 km, as we have, but 9,3 thousand, 0,3 thousand and, accordingly, 11,3 thousand km. The same will happen if we place the Dagger on the TU-95.

    All comrades with the coming and coming (for some) New Year. I raise a glass of cognac for the new year good
  12. Michael
    Michael 1 January 2021 23: 52
    0
    Happy New Year to all of you. Congratulations, we didn't have to go through a WAR last year. But, there are new frontiers ahead. But, ahead of a new life, warriors of light, goodness and freedom.
  13. sleeve
    sleeve 3 January 2021 07: 23
    0
    Am I correctly interpreting that 48Н6Е2 and ЕЗ from С400 break the declared characteristics on the planned vectors? MIM 104 will not pull, but what about the Patriot's "anti-missile"? Which is ERINT? What is the declared speed of the target?
  14. -Dmitry-
    -Dmitry- 7 January 2021 18: 22
    0
    As before, no missile launches were carried out directly. Two prototypes of AGM-183A were hung on the plane. One of them was equipped with a telemetry unit, and the second received some parts of the control system.


    And how did you get the speed and range then?
  15. bzbo
    bzbo 31 January 2021 03: 37
    -1
    Conversations are super!
    Spies from liberda ferret out state secrets)))!