Military Review

Bread under occupation: reports

27

Harvesting bread in occupied Ukraine


This was a very interesting archive find. In one of the previous articles, namely in “Harvests and procurement of bread in the occupied territories of the USSR", I already touched upon the topic of agriculture in the regions occupied by the Germans and tried to roughly determine what crops were collected there. Now there is accurate reporting data for 1942 and 1943.

Of course, I understood that the German occupation administration was collecting data on plowed area, yield and harvest volume. These are the most basic, starting points for any agricultural policy required, for example, for calculating taxes, grain procurements and supply plans for the non-agricultural population, regulating the grain market and other needs. It could not be that the Germans did not collect and generalize this data. But where is this generalized result in the documents? In the previous article, I expressed the hope that the document would be found, albeit without much enthusiasm. You never know what, went for kindling or rolling.

And now this document was found. It was an appendix to the monthly report of the Economic Headquarters Ost (1-31 October 1943). There was some logic in this: we received the reporting data at the end of September 1943, and included it in the monthly report. But for a researcher it is not at all so easy to guess that the most important statistical data on agriculture in the occupied territories of the USSR should be looked for there. In addition, the document was in the middle of a rather bulky case, the annotation to which said that it contained reports on the situation in the occupied areas of the economic inspections, the Ost Economic Headquarters, the authorized Reich ministry for the occupied territories, the main command of Army Group South, and so on. The abstract, in general, hinted at the current official correspondence. In general, the document could only be found by chance, during continuous scanning in some vague searches for something interesting.

Bread under occupation: reports
The beginning of the report on crops and harvests in the occupied territory of the USSR. I can't even believe that such a thing could be found

Whatever it was, the document was found, and you can look at the agriculture of the occupied territories of the USSR in a statistical context. We are most interested in cereals, but for other researchers, I report that the report also includes data on legumes and oilseeds.

Vintage 1942 and 1943


The report provides data for all occupied areas: managed by both the civil administration and the military-economic authorities. This is very important, since German documents do not often and in detail describe the situation in the rear of army groups that occupied vast areas.

So, the summary table (TsAMO, f. 500, op. 12463, d. 61, ll. 52-55):


It is easy to supplement the data based on the given size of the harvest and yield. In 1942, 2711,3 thousand hectares were sown in the Ostland Reichskommissariat (excluding Belarus), and 340,2 thousand hectares in the Economic Inspectorate "North". In total, crops for 1942 in these areas amounted to 11817,9 thousand hectares.

It is interesting to note the use in the document of the term "Western Ukraine" (Westukraine). Formally, the Reichskommissariat Ukraine continued to exist and was formally abolished on November 10, 1944. But by the end of September 1943, almost the entire left bank of the Dnieper was already lost; by December 1943 (the report itself was drawn up on December 1, 1943) was completely lost, Soviet troops took Kiev. The rear of Army Groups "South" and "A" moved to the territory of the Reichskommissariat, military and civilian administration of these territories was mixed. Therefore, in the document, this part of the occupied territory is highlighted with such a special term.

These are the gross production of cereals, quoted at the time of the standing estimate made before the harvest. According to the experience, the barn yield was about 15% lower than the estimated for the growing; in any case, the Germans, in their estimates of Soviet yields, adopted such a coefficient for converting estimates into a granary harvest. In 1942, 7126 thousand tons were actually harvested, in 1943 - 7821,3 thousand tons of grain crops.

Possible inaccuracies in plow and yield estimates. There were, of course, inaccuracies. First, due to the possible underreporting of data on the ground, since the Soviet agronomists who worked for the Germans were far from always loyal to them. Secondly, at the expense of secret crops of the peasants, which were greatly facilitated by the chaotic nature of land relations and the inability of the occupation authorities to control all farms; secret plowing was a typical peasant technique for ensuring their survival in wartime. Thirdly, at the expense of plowing in areas that were actually controlled by the partisans. I think that for 1943 it is possible to add another million hectares and 760 thousand tons of grain harvest to the given data.

German procurement level


We have data on German harvests from the 1942 harvest. This year, 3269 thousand tons were procured (RGVA, f. 1458k, op. 3, d. 77, l. 92). This amounts to 35,5% of the crop volume assessed for standing or 41,7% of the barn crop.

For Soviet agriculture of the late 1930s, this is a normal level of procurement, taking into account the obligatory grain deliveries and payment in kind by the MTS and provided that the bulk of the peasants work on collective farms. So much is given by data on average harvests and procurements in 1938-1940: gross harvest - 77,9 million tons, government procurements - 32,1 million tons, the ratio is 41,2%. Despite plans to de-collectivize peasants, the German occupation administration failed to dissolve the collective farms, and grain production was carried out mainly by collective farms. The conclusion that the level of procurement was normal undermines numerous assurances in the literature that the Germans were only thinking about robbing the peasants. First, robbery of peasants is possible only once, after which a sharp drop in plowing and harvesting inevitably follows, which follows from the lack of seed material in conditions of total rake of grain from peasants. German data show a slight reduction in the area under crops by about 600 thousand hectares, which is associated with the situation at the front and the activity of the partisans, and the yield in 1943 was better than in 1942, which at least indicates that the sowing was normal. Secondly, the Germans clearly planned to settle in the occupied territories for a long time and feed the German troops from them, therefore they were not interested in undermining agriculture. Third, it follows that the confiscation of grain from peasants in 1942 was a local phenomenon and was associated with operations against partisans.

We do not yet have the opportunity to assess the level of harvests from the 1941 harvest, since accurate reporting data for this year have not yet been found. However, we can already say with sufficient certainty that the Germans had such data, and the report lies somewhere in the archives.

The preparations from the 1943 harvest were much less and amounted to 1914 thousand tons, which is undoubtedly due to the fact that during the fighting the Germans lost significant territories in Ukraine, and just during the procurement of grain. Part of the 1943 crop grown under the Germans went to the Red Army.

The decline of agriculture in wartime


The available data allow us to return once again to assessing the ratio of harvests before the war and during the German occupation. According to German data, the western part of Ukraine (before the Dnieper) produced 1943 million tons in 5,8, and 1942 million tons in 4,2. In 1940, the Ukrainian SSR collected 26,2 million tons, including the South-Western region - 11,2 million tons, the southern region (excluding the Crimea) - 4,8 million tons, Donetsk-Pridneprovsky region - 10,1 million tons ...

In 1932, the Ukrainian SSR harvested 14,6 million tons, in 1933 - 22,2 million tons, in 1934 - 12,3 million tons. Of these, 5,1 million tons in 1934 and 5,5 million tons in 1933 did not belong to the regions later taken into account by the Germans in their statistics (these are the regions: Kharkov, Chernigov - the right bank of the Dnieper and Odessa, which belonged to Transnistria). The total collection for the considered area was 1933 million tons in 16,7 and 1934 million tons in 7,2.

The total harvest under occupation in Ukraine was about 40% lower than in 1934, and 66% lower than the good harvest in 1933 or the harvest in 1940 (it is difficult to calculate accurately due to the territorial incomparability of data). Before the war in 1940, judging by the yield and harvests, 12,3 million hectares were plowed in the Southwestern and Southern regions of Ukraine. In 1942, plowing was 54% of the pre-war level and in 1943 - 65%. This is not surprising given the decline in the working-age rural population, the decline in the number of horses and the sharp decline in the use of tractors due to lack of fuel. Quite a typical picture of the decline of agriculture in war conditions.

However, German data show that they had a certain potential in the restoration of agriculture, and in Ukraine crops in 1943 increased by 1,7 million hectares compared to 1942, which even largely compensated for the reduction in crops in other occupied areas. The higher harvest in 1943 was apparently associated with better weather conditions, as the pre-war data show the same fluctuations in yields and harvests. Only now they could not take advantage of these results due to defeats at the front at the end of 1943 and at the beginning of 1944.

As you can see, you should not underestimate the German statistics on the occupied territories. It seems that it is possible to collect information on all the territories occupied by Germany and, together with the statistics of German agriculture, completely fill the gap in the economic stories World War II, associated with the production and consumption of grain crops in Germany and the occupied territories.
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  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 28 December 2020 05: 20
    +6
    The conclusion that the level of procurement was normal undermines numerous assurances in the literature that the Germans only thought about robbing the peasants.
    Wow, the author of the article is revealed from a new side. True, this is already confirmed by "numerous assurances in the literature":
    this is the normal level of procurement, taking into account the obligatory grain deliveries and payment in kind by the MTS and provided that the bulk of the peasants work on collective farms
    Of course, there are no MTS, but the grain was taken away. Robbery as it is.
    Well, in percentage it looks good, but in absolute numbers it is not so at all. Although we must pay tribute to the "care" of the Germans for the peasants, the Germans cleaned up the poultry and livestock very well, professionally, so there is no need to spend the remaining grain on pets. This is not a robbery, this is such a "concern", any lover of "Bavarian" understands.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 28 December 2020 06: 42
      +2
      Hmm, how many parasites and deviators in the rear of the Germans were sheathed. Reports and references were scribbled out depicting the virtual well-being of the Reich.
      Essentially useful nonsense for us. If these clerks and extras went to the front, the Wehrmacht could reach China.

      Now jokingly, after reading the article, I personally saw a banal robbery of a peasant farm. They tore everything and everyone artificially forming hunger and the extinction of the population of the occupied territories.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 28 December 2020 06: 56
        +1
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Hmm, how many parasites and deviators in the rear of the Germans were sheathed

        Any tsvayamtgenossetseuryuk was like fleas on a barboske, but the Germans understandably did not record them as combat losses, it was a matter of principle.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 28 December 2020 10: 40
        +3
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Hmm, how many parasites and deviators in the rear of the Germans were sheathed. Reports and references were scribbled out depicting the virtual well-being of the Reich.
        Essentially useful nonsense for us. If these clerks and extras went to the front, the Wehrmacht could reach China.

        Midnight. I am sitting in a compartment of a courier train Vinnitsa - Berlin. It consists of two sleeping cars and a dining car. Seats on the train are occupied by generals, officers of the General Staff, SS Fuhrer and all sorts of "Sonderfuehrer", Nazi party nobles, quartermasters, military judges and other officials of all ranks and shades. Yes, the gentlemen are doing well in the rear. Only occasionally will you notice a lone front-line officer - he either returns after reporting to the command, or he, like me, was lucky enough to find a way to quickly get home on his short vacation. In addition to me, a colonel-tanker in the compartment, who was transferred to the West. Let's get acquainted. But the conversation does not go well: both are too tired. We fall asleep, and the train rushes us without stopping through the Russian forests to our homeland.
        The next morning I feel like a newborn. Finally got enough sleep! Together with a neighbor we go to a restaurant car. Suddenly a voice stops me:
        “Why don't you salute?”
        I turn around. At the door of the compartment is a young man with a haughty face. Noticing the general's trousers, I almost snapped his heels. But then he made out a bluish-blue collar of a uniform and white buttonholes with oak general branches. Honest mother, which only does not happen in the world: the "Sonderfuhrer" in the rank of general! True, one of those who go to count the harvest.
        © Helmut Welz. The soldiers whom they betrayed.
    2. antivirus
      antivirus 28 December 2020 18: 17
      +1
      also noticed "care"
      only the memories of the rights and the lion bank of the Dnieper-Kharkiv-Voronezh-Rostov than they plowed and sowed. and so on ...
      stupid "cost" - how much labor was invested?
      what is the return?
      Were you able to buy out the "partners" or took it away?
      prices as in France or taking into account slave cheap labor?
      special office isledavatil - not a researcher
      tractors were not confiscated for the needs of the army?
      free of charge or at German prices including wear?

      the worst heron beast. there is a midge, a frog ...
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 29 December 2020 11: 24
        +3
        As if the author does not know anything about the Second World War at all except for German denunciations
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 28 December 2020 07: 08
    0
    In 1942, plowing was 54% of the pre-war level and in 1943 - 65%. This is not surprising given the decline in the working-age rural population, the decline in the number of horses and the sharp decline in the use of tractors due to lack of fuel. A fairly typical picture of the decline of agriculture in wartime

    In such difficult conditions (especially without tractors, with a small number of horses), the harvest cannot be called bad.

    Although it is clear that people worked, first of all, in order to survive on our own
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 28 December 2020 08: 16
      0
      Quote: Olgovich
      In such difficult conditions (especially without tractors, with a small number of horses), the harvest cannot be called bad.
      Plowing without tractors and draft animals is incredibly difficult, but not harvesting.
    2. Military77
      Military77 28 December 2020 08: 47
      +7
      What are you talking about? What kind of tractor? What horses? My grandfather, born in 1924, told me that in their village in the Elninsky district of the Smolensk region. not even chickens remained of the living creatures. Our tractors and horses were taken during the retreat, they also drove off the collective farm herd of cows, and then the Germans requisitioned everything that was left.
  4. Moskovit
    Moskovit 28 December 2020 08: 57
    +16
    It remains to find statistics on the condition of roads in the occupied territory and prove that the Germans began to build autobahns and if it were not for the barbaric Red Army, they would now drive for Bavarian Mercedes on highways.
    1. Alexander Suvorov
      Alexander Suvorov 28 December 2020 15: 14
      +4
      Well, yes, again the Nazi henchman of the Verkhoturov gives out his slop to the mountain. To read it, so the Fritzes really wanted to arrange heaven in the USSR, but the "bloody" Stalin and his guardsmen, the NKVDeshniki with the partisans, did not allow ... laughing
      To what baseness the VO has descended by allowing to place on its resource frank Nazi henchmen! And the habits were on the type of "patriotic" site ...
      1. evgen1221
        evgen1221 29 December 2020 05: 18
        +1
        Why are you reacting so sharply. Any army going with the intention of seizing territory, everyone always tried to transfer to self-service for food. And then how did anyone succeed. Yes, and the Middle Ages with a small number and modern times greatly change the scope of the task and the result. The author's info is given simply for information and for the information of leading history buffs. Ordinary people do not digest this and read diagonally. And infa is really interesting.
  5. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 28 December 2020 10: 44
    +9
    My family's grandmother and grandfather's sister survived the occupation. Grandmother in Kingiseppsky district, grandfather's sister in Luga (Leningrad region). In fact, they told the same thing - the Germans allowed to take land for cultivation, and they did not limit it - take as much as you want. But at the same time:
    a) There were very few men in the villages
    b) Partisans could get those actively cooperating with the Germans
    c) Draft force was requisitioned at the very beginning of the occupation
    According to the results, it turned out that the peasants planted only what was necessary to feed the thinning families, in which there were actually only girls left - men at the front, young guys were driven away to Germany, or in partisans.
    My grandmother also talked about some kind of agricultural enterprise, but I understood that it was private, that is, some kind of German, or an Estonian hired someone, plowed something there, planted ...
    And so the fields were mostly empty, although the Germans everywhere shouted that everyone can sow as much as he wants.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 28 December 2020 10: 56
      +2
      Good morning! hi
      I read that the Germans did not disperse collective farms with a specialist in order to present some norms to the collective farm.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 28 December 2020 11: 57
        +2
        Greetings Albert.
        I was not specifically interested in this issue, I just recounted what I had heard from eyewitnesses. In general, as far as I can tell, in the zone of Army Group "North", the German occupation regime was largely more "human" in comparison with Belarus and Ukraine, and the stories of relatives confirm this - about any atrocities, such as the total destruction of peaceful I did not hear the inhabitants. The villages in the partisan regions, of course, were burned, but at first, all the same, the inhabitants were driven out and taken somewhere else to other areas.
        I can say for sure that no one told me anything about the collective farms, perhaps they were restored somewhere, but not here, and who would work in them? My great-grandfather had five children, four boys and the youngest girl. At the time of the arrival of the Germans, there were two adults, they, of course, were called up. The third son - seventeen years old - went to the partisans, was mobilized in 1944 and died in Estonia in September. The fourth - my grandfather (fifteen years old) - stayed at home and was immediately sent by the Germans to Germany. But a thirteen-year-old girl, their younger sister, spent the entire occupation at home. Here, from her words and from the words of my grandmother, I can only judge what happened. According to them, there were no collective farms. There was nothing at all - there was no one to work. In the villages there were only women and policemen. We were fed from vegetable gardens, plus mushrooms and berries. There were no cattle.
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 28 December 2020 12: 58
          +1
          Reliable and logical - there really was no one to work.
        2. igordok
          igordok 28 December 2020 21: 54
          +1
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          I have not heard about any atrocities, such as the total destruction of civilians.

          Of the many villages burned by the Nazis together with the inhabitants of the Pskov region, two have been preserved as monuments: Krasukha and Andryukovo. But there were many such destroyed villages.

          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 28 December 2020 22: 57
            +1
            Yes, exactly, in the Pskov region such cases were not rare. But it became clear during the liberation process. In the Leningrad region, many villages were also burned, but so that together with the inhabitants - a rarity, I remember only the Big District, the so-called. "Russian Khatyn". Basically, residents were simply kicked out.
            I wrote "I have not heard", meaning "have not heard from relatives." My grandmother said that they burned several villages in their neighborhood in 1943 for contacting the partisans, but before that all the inhabitants were herded into one village, and then they were driven away somewhere. The punishers did not touch their villages.
            In general, it is likely that the attitude towards the local population among the Germans varied greatly from the personality of a particular boss. Everything was allowed, but some apparently preferred more "human", so to speak, approaches, and some were completely radical.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 28 December 2020 16: 40
        +1
        Quote: Krasnodar
        I read that the Germans did not disperse collective farms with a specialist in order to present some norms to the collective farm.

        There, not only the norms were the reason, but also the convenience of removing the harvest from the collective farm warehouse instead of the yard bypass of individual farmers in the style of "food detachment has arrived."
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 28 December 2020 18: 53
          +2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          Quote: Krasnodar
          I read that the Germans did not disperse collective farms with a specialist in order to present some norms to the collective farm.

          There, not only the norms were the reason, but also the convenience of removing the harvest from the collective farm warehouse instead of the yard bypass of individual farmers in the style of "food detachment has arrived."

          This is what I read about
    2. antivirus
      antivirus 28 December 2020 18: 24
      +1
      antivirus 3 November 20, 2016 12:36
      antivirus Today, 11: 59 ↑
      Sergei Gavrilovich Semenov, 1931 gr, d Maksimovo, Staritskiy district, Kalinin region:
      "We were under a German for a month and a half, but close by, near Rzhev 1,5 g, They did not consider us as people. They could have easily killed."
      At the age of 10, the child understood by instinct, everyday communication, views, and beat, kicked out of the hut.
      + the elder brother died at the front, and 2 more were blown up on the remaining supplies in the ground (which ones? I dismantled out of curiosity, but I don’t know)
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 28 December 2020 20: 56
        +1
        Yes, they did not consider people as people, that is true. Rather, for full-fledged people who have some kind of rights. They didn't kill for anything, they didn't seem to kill, but they could have casually hit with a boot or a butt, just as we wave off a fly. They were very afraid of them, tried not to get noticed - you can't guess what would come to their minds.
        But, by the way, what is true is true, they built the road, or rather, the old road was built in another place, more convenient, it became straighter and shorter. Before the war, the road went through two small villages, bypassing the forest and the lake, and making two turns at 90 degrees, the Germans straightened it through this massive and left two villages a little to the side. Well, the Germans ... Our prisoners from the local concentration camp, but "under the sensitive German leadership."
        However, the communists in the 80s also changed this road - they straightened it, I already remember how it was done ...
        1. antivirus
          antivirus 28 December 2020 22: 00
          0
          about roads - 100 years ago, cars and hard surfaces appeared
          from the village - the collective farm there was one road, more often, to the area of ​​c. export of milk, etc. commodity exchange.
          MAIN THING --- EVERYTHING WAS DOWN ON ONE ROAD - HAYMEARS-FARM-SUMMER-WINTER PARKING-FIELDS-DELYANKI-CUTTING-WATER BATHS ---- EVERYTHING FOR VILLAGE WORK (not only the "collective farm") and the design and construction are not logical for usv 21 century.
          built according to the needs and habits in the exchange of goods from the 19th century.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 28 December 2020 23: 00
            +1
            Quote: antivirus
            built according to the needs and habits in the exchange of goods from the 19th century.

            This is yes. The Germans had a different goal - movement speed. Therefore, they altered it for themselves.
            For some reason, I don’t want to say "thank you" to them. request
  6. BAI
    BAI 28 December 2020 12: 52
    +3
    1.
    We do not yet have the opportunity to assess the level of harvests from the 1941 harvest, since accurate reporting data for this year have not yet been found.

    Was it (harvesting) in 1941? The front passed through the fields. We remember how everything burned in "They Fought for the Motherland".
    2.
    and in Ukraine, crops in 1943 increased by 1,7 million hectares compared to 1942,

    In 1941 there were no winter crops, for the reasons stated in paragraph 1. And in 1942 sowing for winter crops was already there. It was not the cultivated area that expanded in 1943, it was just more intensively used.
  7. Anachoret
    Anachoret 28 December 2020 20: 23
    -1
    these statistics are more similar to the bikes of the Luftwaffe aces about the enemies shot down by thousands in one sortie)

    along the way, 13-14 year old girls were also taken to work in Germany,
    someone to a brick factory, and if someone more intelligent and quick - to a domestic servant
  8. Gregory Charnota
    Gregory Charnota 21 February 2021 15: 19
    0
    tried the saucepans! went to the bright future of the European Union even then !!!