Military Review

What awaits the PD-50 sunken in Murmansk: rise, oblivion or replacement?

134

Disputes and gossip about what is more among the reasons for the tragic accident that occurred near Murmansk on the night of October 29-30, 2018 (a fatal coincidence of circumstances, sloppiness, negligence, or even someone's malicious intent) are ongoing to this day. They, for sure, will go on for a long time, no matter what the conclusion issued by the investigation in this case. Many experts in the field of shipbuilding argue that with the right organization of work, a disaster of this magnitude would not have happened.


The power outage, which became, as indicated in the official report, the main cause of the emergency, should not have affected the survivability of the floating dock at all, since the power supply had to be carried out from onboard diesel generators. But, as it turned out, there was no fuel for them ... Also, the reasons why some of the valves of the dock bulkheads turned out to be open, and some were closed, and this despite the fact that such operations may well be performed manually, are also unclear. Honestly, it’s not long to believe in the truth of the assumptions about deliberate sabotage that led to the flooding of the PD-50.

To raise or not


However, we will leave the right to draw conclusions to specialists, but for now let's move on to the question of what consequences the catastrophe mentioned by us may have not only for "Admiral Kuznetsov", but, in general, for ensuring the combat capability of the Northern fleet Russia. Today the PD-50 remains in a flooded state, despite the statements made shortly after the accident by the head of the Ministry of Industry and Trade Denis Manturov.

Then a high-ranking official argued that the dock, which "prevents the normal entrance to the factory harbor," will certainly be raised from the depths. True, he did not specify when exactly, by what forces and means. The same confidence in the rise of PD-50 was voiced by the country's Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov.

As it turned out later, such an event seems to be very problematic, and from several points of view at once. The sunken floating dock is a huge structure 330 meters long, 67 meters wide and an area of ​​27 thousand square meters. Its weight is huge, but this is not the only point. The colossus that has sunk to the bottom is currently balancing over a pit 100 meters deep, from slipping into which it is, most likely, restrained by the anchors and holes in the bottom, the irregularities of which it is hooked into the ground. Start turning such a colossus - it can dive even deeper.

Moreover, the enterprise itself, similar in scale to the ship-lifting operations that will be necessary in this case, will require simply colossal costs. Preparatory work, manufacturing of appropriate equipment and devices, attracting top-class specialists and far from ordinary equipment. All this in the end can result in amounts comparable to those required to build a new similar dock! In addition, some shipbuilders generally express doubts about the feasibility of raising the PD-50.

If the reports of divers regarding the cracks they found in the shell of the sunken dock turn out to be true, about the holes below the waterline, then this (in combination with the loss of the PD-50 of both cranes) will turn his "rescue" into a completely senseless waste of an incredible amount of funds and resources ... After all, to repair this floating dock you will need ... an even larger dock! And such in nature (at least in our country) simply does not exist.

In connection with all of the above, the question of replacing the PD-50, which is vital for carrying out repair work on such warships as Admiral Kuznetsov or Peter the Great, is extremely acute. Let us remember that this dock, which before the disaster was one of the largest structures of this kind not only in Russia, but in the world, was built in Sweden in 1979 by a special order of the USSR Navy. Naturally, today it is not worth even dreaming of placing such an order (even if we leave out of the brackets its cost and the fact that the creation of the PD-50 lasted 4 years) in any of the Western countries. And they won't talk ...

The Pacific Fleet, of course, has the PD-41, which is the second floating "giant dock" in Russia. It is also capable of accepting a ship with a displacement of 80 thousand tons for repairs, which should be enough for Kuznetsov. The Black Sea Fleet has a PD-190 with a slightly smaller capacity - up to 60 thousand tons of displacement. However, the question arises regarding the transportation of either one of these structures to Murmansk, or ships that need to be docked to the places of the current deployment of structures suitable for its implementation. Both options are difficult, costly, problematic, fraught with unpredictable complications and consequences.

Conclusion


In any case, such maneuvers cannot be considered a cardinal solution to the problem. There are two global outputs. You can “bow” to our Chinese comrades, who can even build something else at their COSCO shipyard in Dalian. But here again the question of price, timing, and, most importantly, another dependence on a foreign supplier arises.

In light of this, the most correct (although far from the easiest and cheapest way) is still the creation of our own floating docks with the necessary characteristics. Experts call, in particular, the Kola Shipyard, which is currently being built by Novatek, as an enterprise that could be capable of such a super task.

One way or another, but Russia must learn to solve any problems exclusively on its own.
Author:
Photos used:
Photo from Wikipedia aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov in the dock PD-50
134 comments
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  1. 7,62h54
    7,62h54 26 December 2020 15: 09
    +39
    First, you need to ask Rosneft for the drowned PD.
    1. Borik
      Borik 26 December 2020 15: 24
      +7
      No doubt we need floating docks with a large carrying capacity, but also dry and, if possible, more than one per fleet.
      1. URAL72
        URAL72 26 December 2020 16: 28
        +3
        I propose to take Kherson. There, in my opinion, floating docks are still offered for export, although they cannot physically master such a whopper. And PD 50 needs to be heated. The new one will be cheaper. It would be nice to load Kerch, there ships up to 150 thousand tons can be built.
        1. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter 26 December 2020 16: 56
          +14
          Quote: URAL72
          It would be nice to load Kerch, there ships up to 150 thousand tons can be built.

          It would be nice to build something serious on the "Zaliv", but the authorities have no such serious plans.
          1. URAL72
            URAL72 26 December 2020 17: 09
            +8
            Why not? 4 UDC is it not serious? There are other orders as well. They have not had so much work since the times of the USSR, plus they are updating the equipment. Workers are required.
        2. Vladimir Mashkov
          Vladimir Mashkov 26 December 2020 17: 48
          +10
          Quote: URAL72
          I propose to take Kherson.

          "Whether there is life on Mars, whether there is life on Mars - science is unknown."
          And your proposal about Kherson, Nikolaev and Odessa is interesting! smile
        3. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 26 December 2020 18: 10
          +4
          Quote: URAL72
          There, in my opinion, floating docks are still offered for export, although such a whopper cannot be physically mastered.

          Of course, I am far from shipbuilding, but the question arises - why is it impossible to build a large dock in sections, and already "do not float" to collect the entire structure "in a heap"?
          1. hydrox
            hydrox 27 December 2020 15: 48
            +13
            Why not?
            Of course, it is possible and even necessary, but for this there is not enough political will for someone to judge the culprit, then undress him to his cowards and maybe even put him against the wall - maybe even the confiscated funds will be enough, and the shareholders of RosNeft 5- 7 years without paying dividends.
            After all, it is known that the culprit of any catastrophe has a position, name and surname: the only problem is that at the helm of Russia is not Li Kuan Yew, and not Lavrenty Pavlovich, but someone with a different, defective, set of merits. ...
        4. 7,62h54
          7,62h54 26 December 2020 20: 09
          +1
          How to drag him out of Kerch then?
        5. Revolver
          Revolver 27 December 2020 03: 28
          +2
          Quote: URAL72
          I propose to take Kherson.

          Kherson is in front of you. Break through with bayonets? And 10 grenades - not a trifle? wassat
          1. da Vinci
            da Vinci 27 December 2020 11: 47
            -1
            No no. Claudia in one hand, mouse in the other and will thresh to the right and to the left !!!
      2. sav
        sav 27 December 2020 14: 46
        +10
        Quote: Borik
        and dry

        A dry dock is being built in Murmansk at SRZ-35
      3. zenion
        zenion 30 December 2020 16: 08
        0
        Borik (Boris). What is there to worry about. You don't need to be nervous, you can wear it out. When he sees that no one even itches and he gets bored, he himself will crawl out onto land. And what should he do there under water. It has long been known how to make a kettle boil quickly. You need to turn away from him, and not jump impatiently, he will see that no one needs boiling water, then he will instantly boil. Pay attention to how the ships, which sank a couple of thousand years ago, themselves crawl into people's eyes, shouting at the same time, I am here, I have been here for a long time, drag me.
    2. Lexus
      Lexus 26 December 2020 16: 40
      +21
      Who will ask "friends"? The Norilsk Nickel, which dirtied Yenisei with diesel fuel, is a vivid example of this.
      1. da Vinci
        da Vinci 27 December 2020 21: 09
        +2
        By the way, something is inaudible about the successful elimination of fuel leaks. Is everything fine, or are they stacking the dis-ice in stacks?
      2. svan26
        svan26 28 December 2020 08: 59
        +1
        The Pyasina River, where the fuel has flowed, is not in the Yenisei basin. It flows into the Kara Sea on its own.
    3. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 26 December 2020 17: 01
      +16
      Quote: 7,62x54
      First, you need to ask Rosneft for the drowned PD.

      And who can ask something from the secretary of the head of the club, except for the head of the club.
    4. antivirus
      antivirus 26 December 2020 18: 00
      -2
      strangers do not go here.
      I wrote - "Shoigu as the head of the financial industry group ...."
      the union of mechanical engineering + the military-industrial complex and the SDR on the side of oil and gas workers (even subordinate to GDP) is problematic.
      1. sales markets and buyers in the west requires a certain understanding with them - the opponents of soviet imperialism. How quickly the outskirts started such a song we see.
      2. to transfer to Rosneft and Novotek part of "their" money and competences from "Shoigu", dual technologies.
      3. to depend on the rocket scientists and submarines from the "pipe" -sryevik - "sale of the Motherland."
      4. Only the new Russian national banking capital can unite, Gref-Kostin (?) Did not pull. new is grown. when will PSB ripen?
      everyone writes in VO - "we (the Russian Federation) can do everything", but really do - our psychology, the subconscious needs to be broken - "I don’t need it .... let the oilmen break under the imperial consciousness"
  2. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 26 December 2020 15: 12
    +15
    All this in the end can result in amounts comparable to those that are required to build a new analogue.
    .The state of traders! angry Stalin is gone, sorry. sad At 24 hours, EPRON would have been created, and a year later the PD was raised. It has been feeding the fish for 2 years now, and these specialists are scratching their eggs in front of an open refrigerator.
    1. Bashkirkhan
      Bashkirkhan 26 December 2020 15: 21
      -2
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      Stalin is gone, sorry

      Comrade Stalin for criticizing the regime would send you to GULAG 2.0, now for a bowl of soup a dry dock in Murmansk for a heavy cruiser in granite would be hollowed out.
      1. Mavrikiy
        Mavrikiy 26 December 2020 15: 25
        -6
        Quote: Bashkirkhan
        Comrade Stalin would send you to GULAG 2.0, now for a bowl of soup, a dry dock in Murmansk for a heavy cruiser in granite would be hollowed out.

        You're wrong, dear. What's fussing, getting sick? I will not encroach on your place, liberalist, camps should be opened, of course, and given a time limit.
      2. paul3390
        paul3390 26 December 2020 15: 41
        +23
        And who told you that some of us were going to criticize the regime of Comrade Stalin ?? what Actually, most of them strongly approve of it .. wink
        1. Bashkirkhan
          Bashkirkhan 26 December 2020 16: 06
          -4
          Quote: paul3390
          criticize the regime of Comrade Stalin ??

          And under Comrade Stalin, you would not have been allowed to criticize bully
        2. Eldorado
          Eldorado 26 December 2020 16: 10
          -8
          Believe me, not everyone approves of it ...
          1. paul3390
            paul3390 26 December 2020 17: 42
            +21
            Believe me, you, too, are much more than those who disapprove ... And the further capitalism continues to exist in Russia, the more rapidly you will turn into a marginal minority ..
            1. shahor
              shahor 26 December 2020 18: 54
              -3
              Quote: paul3390
              And the further capitalism will exist in Russia -

              Where did you see capitalism in Russia?
              1. hydrox
                hydrox 27 December 2020 16: 06
                +6
                It is necessary to clarify in terms: today in Russia there is a libero-thief capitalism, built on anti-popular codes of laws adopted by liberoids-legislators.
                And as long as there is such a form of pseudo-capitalism, created by the undead, as long as the robbery of the people will continue.
                1. shahor
                  shahor 27 December 2020 22: 09
                  +1
                  Quote: hydrox
                  today in Russia there is a libertarian capitalism,

                  I was brought up in a Soviet university on clear definitions of socio-economic formations. Please give a clear definition of the nonsense that you are trying to convey here.
                  1. hydrox
                    hydrox 27 December 2020 22: 13
                    +3
                    Sorry, I don't communicate with boorish opponents.
                    I don't go to the gate.
                    All the best ...
    2. sergo1914
      sergo1914 26 December 2020 16: 25
      -2
      Quote: Mavrikiy
      eggs are scratched in front of an open refrigerator.


      Is there a fundamental difference? Well, I mean, is the refrigerator open or closed.
      1. martin-159
        martin-159 26 December 2020 17: 30
        +15
        It's stupid to scratch in front of a closed one, but in front of an open one you seem to think.
      2. svan26
        svan26 28 December 2020 09: 07
        +1
        Scrambled eggs in a bunch: you open the refrigerator, it's empty and you scratch eggs ...
    3. Vadim237
      Vadim237 26 December 2020 20: 53
      -3
      There is no sense in this rusty trough which has not been lifted for more than 40 years - large dry docks are already being built and floating ones in the USSR and Russia have never been purchased abroad.
  3. Bashkirkhan
    Bashkirkhan 26 December 2020 15: 20
    +16
    In Ukraine, the largest floating dock - sixty-thousanders (4M or dock No. 163), which sank in 2002 has not yet been raised, and no one wants to cut it up. Nobody needs PD-50 either. PD-50 sank during a dock operation due to metal corrosion; operation in the North did its job. The casing of the tower could not withstand the water pressure + there was a power outage, while the pumps were already threshing, constantly pumping water out of the rotten floating dock. Due to the age, the floating dock towers turned into a sieve and PD-50 sank. For 38 years without repair, PD-50 still served + he had a birth injury, which is associated with the operation of pumps. Due to their incorrect operation, at one of the moments of PD-50 testing in Sweden, a water hammer occurred on the hull and PD-50 "floated up with dents." It was noted that the steel sheets of the PD were literally pressed inward, as a result of which they had to be "digested" in an emergency manner. This was a few days before the transfer to Soviet sailors. The PD-50 also suffered damage during transportation to the USSR, when it got into a severe storm. This also required restoration. A similar situation was with the Ukrainians on the German captured floating dock with a carrying capacity of 60 thousand tons (for the battleship Tirpitz), which in the USSR had the number 4M. Krupp's steel held out for the time being, and after more than 65 years of operation, it finally cracked. The dock, the height of a 9-storey building, sank, sank to the bottom. To date, the floating dock 4M is not going to be lifted. Brotherly peoples in one word, common approaches.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. lis-ik
        lis-ik 26 December 2020 17: 45
        +18
        Quote: Mavrikiy
        Quote: Bashkirkhan
        Nobody needs PD-50 either.

        Liberals like you are not needed.

        How are you zadolbali your "liberastami", liberals are sitting in the Kremlin and their entourage, and they themselves proudly say about it. Do you want to make a claim to them?
    2. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 26 December 2020 18: 24
      +3
      Quote: Bashkirkhan
      PD-50 sank during a dock operation due to metal corrosion; operation in the North did its job. The casing of the tower could not withstand the water pressure + there was a power outage, while the pumps were already threshing, constantly pumping water out of the rotten floating dock. Due to the age, the floating dock towers turned into a sieve and PD-50 sank.

      Quote: Bashkirkhan
      For 38 years without repair, PD-50 still served + he had a birth injury, which is associated with the operation of pumps.

      It's great how you shoved everything on the shelves. Question: Why was the dock not repaired, but brought to a rotten state?
      1. Bashkirkhan
        Bashkirkhan 26 December 2020 18: 35
        0
        Quote: Mordvin 3
        Why was the dock not repaired, but brought to a rotten state?

        If it had not been repaired, PD-50 would have sunk earlier. But in any case, the floating dock could not serve more than 50 years in the North. He drowned at 38 because his time had come. And nobody will raise this rot in the 20s.
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 26 December 2020 18: 41
          +6
          Quote: Bashkirkhan
          But in any case, the floating dock could not serve more than 50 years in the North. He drowned at 38.

          It looks like a Pension Fund dream. "He could live for 50 years, but he was out of luck, he drowned." Doc was not listed on the balance sheet of the poorest organization. What did they do to prolong his life? Optimized mechanics?
          1. Bashkirkhan
            Bashkirkhan 26 December 2020 18: 48
            +1
            To begin with, the USSR had to initially build a dry dock in the North for an aircraft carrier, and not distribute aid to all sorts of socialism-oriented regimes, whose leaders recently climbed off a palm tree and broke their tail. PD-50 was a temporary solution to the problem. He could not work forever, PD-50 had to be written off and cut up without waiting for self-flooding.
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 26 December 2020 18: 52
              +2
              Quote: Bashkirkhan
              Let's start with the fact that the USSR

              Let's start with the fact that the USSR has been gone for 30 years.
              Quote: Bashkirkhan
              He could not work forever, PD-50 had to be written off

              What was not written off? Didn't you have enough mind? In addition, according to you, he could serve for 50 years.
              1. Bashkirkhan
                Bashkirkhan 26 December 2020 19: 18
                0
                Quote: Mordvin 3
                What was not written off? Didn't you have enough mind?

                Because we live in Russia.
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 26 December 2020 19: 22
                  +1
                  Quote: Bashkirkhan
                  Because we live in Russia.

                  Mind does not understand Russia,
                  You can not measure the general with a general.
                  She has a special place,
                  You can only believe in Russia!
                  Hope dies last, said Vera and shot Love ... crying
          2. aglet
            aglet 27 December 2020 11: 47
            +3
            "What did they do to prolong his life? Optimized the mechanics?"
            not only, but also electricians
        2. tralflot1832
          tralflot1832 26 December 2020 19: 23
          +2
          So our people are not in the know how to service the dock, how costly it is. And the flooding of the docks has been put on stream, but they have already served. Two at the miracle yard in Murmansk, PD 50. Next for icebreakers? This is also ancient! Yes, rumors reached me. Murmansk Shipyard is being closed.
    3. Revolver
      Revolver 27 December 2020 03: 35
      +1
      Quote: Bashkirkhan
      Nobody needs PD-50 either.

      Whether it is necessary or not is not a question. The question is - what money do you need? Because there is a threshold amount beyond which it is cheaper to push it to the depth and drag a new one in its place.
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 26 December 2020 15: 20
    +10
    One way or another, but Russia must learn to solve any problems exclusively on its own.
    ....Deep thought.
  5. bar
    bar 26 December 2020 15: 24
    +6
    In light of this, the most correct (although far from the easiest and cheapest way) is still the creation of our own floating docks with the necessary characteristics.

    Surely floating? At Zvezdochka, a dry dock with the "necessary characteristics" is being built. Why is it worse than a floating one?
    1. IC
      IC 28 December 2020 01: 44
      0
      Large floating docks were never built in the USSR. There were either captured or Yugoslavian buildings.
      For aircraft-carrying cruisers, Sudoimport ordered 2 docks in Sweden and Japan. For a long time already there is an overabundance of docks in the world ship repair. New ones are practically not built. A certain shortage of docks in the USSR was caused by the large-scale disunity and low efficiency of their use.
  6. Pashhenko Nikolay
    Pashhenko Nikolay 26 December 2020 15: 26
    +11
    'The Pacific Fleet, of course, has a PD-41 in stock,' It would be interesting to look into the tanks of diesel generators on the PD-41. Did you draw conclusions or this cannot be with us.
    1. Runway
      Runway 26 December 2020 15: 35
      +1
      Which japas were building? It seems like a floating dock, not an underwater dock.
    2. IC
      IC 28 December 2020 01: 37
      0
      I think that the state of the PD-41 leaves much to be desired.
  7. From Tomsk
    From Tomsk 26 December 2020 15: 31
    +15
    Sweden was able to build such a dock in 1979, while Russia cannot build one in 2020. World power)))
    1. Vasiliev S.
      Vasiliev S. 26 December 2020 15: 40
      -7
      It's not a fact that Sweden can build now.
      Their industry has degraded too.
      1. 2 Level Advisor
        2 Level Advisor 27 December 2020 10: 06
        +2
        Are you in the subject or so .. say? Sweden, to put it mildly, has not degraded .. it has one of the main industries - shipbuilding .. if degraded - for example Poland, but not Sweden ..
        1. armannu
          armannu 27 December 2020 16: 11
          0
          in 1975, Swedish shipyards launched ships with a total displacement of 2,5 million registered tons, in 1982 this figure dropped to 300 thousand tons, and in 1990 to 40 thousand tons
          And now they build yachts there.
          Everyone knows that.
          1. 2 Level Advisor
            2 Level Advisor 27 December 2020 22: 46
            +1
            Well, too banal a reception, not serious "everyone knows that", but there are facts?
            1. armannu
              armannu 28 December 2020 02: 08
              +1
              That is, in fact, you have nothing to argue.
              The reduction in production tenfold is a well-known fact.
          2. IC
            IC 28 December 2020 01: 35
            +1
            There is no shipbuilding in Sweden for a long time.
        2. IC
          IC 28 December 2020 01: 35
          0
          Learn materiel. There is no shipbuilding in Sweden for a long time.
    2. 72jora72
      72jora72 26 December 2020 15: 42
      -1
      Sweden was able to build such a dock in 1979,
      And the Americans could once fly to the moon, And the Chinese to kill all the sparrows .......
      1. Ross xnumx
        Ross xnumx 26 December 2020 16: 31
        +3
        Quote: 72jora72
        And the Americans could once fly to the moon, and the Chinese could kill all the sparrows ...

        The Chinese did not kill all the sparrows, but the campaign resulted in the purchase and delivery of live sparrows from the USSR and Canada to the country. As for the flights of the Americans to the Moon, after the last visit to the Moon by a Chinese unit in the Middle Kingdom, questions arose to NASA about the places where American astronauts landed.
        Russia is a country where the average annual temperature is below 0 ° C, and this figure is lower beyond the Arctic Circle. Therefore, it is more practical and prudent to build closed dry docks in which work would not depend on the vagaries of the weather and the ambient temperature. It is clear that in a country where "private temporary owners" squeeze all the juice (all profits) out of the once national property, not caring about anything else, 30 years of time was not enough for everything. Forgive me, only then there is no need to scold the USSR for its sluggishness, inability and mediocrity of social and economic policy. And ROSNEFT can be shaken for damages. So as not to build apartments for board members for a billion rubles ...
        The decision on the PD-50 should have been made yesterday, and not to give hope to anyone in order to obtain budget funds for "nothing" ...
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 26 December 2020 21: 05
          0
          "After the last visit to the Moon by a Chinese unit in the Middle Kingdom, questions arose to NASA about the places where American astronauts landed." This is how - the Chinese module that landed on the landing site of the Americans? Rosneft now has a Zvezda and its new floating docks and the largest dry dock in Russia, given that everyone is aware of the state of the PD 50, it will not be lifted simply by charges and explosions will be dumped into this 100-meter pit.
  8. Vasiliev S.
    Vasiliev S. 26 December 2020 15: 39
    +5
    The shipyard has not yet been built.
    And it's not a fact that there are no more important tasks for her than doc.
    In short, some questions.
    There is only one way out in practice - an order in China.
    Or rather two - South Korea may not be like that either.
  9. d1975
    d1975 26 December 2020 15: 45
    +5
    “One way or another, but Russia must learn to solve any problems exclusively on its own.” - waking up was long and painful. You need to love your homeland and country, just like that! We can do a lot, but we don't do anything serious, so fidgeting. There is no punishment for theft, for mismanagement, when the ghouls get drunk already, then we will live. Will it ever be?
    1. 72jora72
      72jora72 27 December 2020 04: 19
      +3
      "One way or another, but Russia must learn to solve any problems exclusively on its own."
      Yes you are right. Only in the last 30 years have been lost (as it is fashionable to say now) competencies in most industries. A living example, for two years they could not find who would beat the power lines from Lomonosov (Pevek) to BiNPP Bilibino-Peschanka field, and the line had to be ready for the arrival of the "floating" in the port of Pevek. Everyone refused to work (-45 temperature in winter, mountain passes, permafrost, no roads), and at the beginning of 70, in a year they did ... but the old line had already completely depleted its resource.
      1. d1975
        d1975 27 December 2020 20: 15
        +2
        I willingly believe you, emphasizing effective managers.
  10. rocket757
    rocket757 26 December 2020 16: 13
    +7
    One way or another, but Russia must learn to solve any problems exclusively on its own

    Well, yes, to begin with, teach everyone to be responsible for their words and deeds ... and you need to start learning ... oh, from the very top !!!
    1. Vasiliev S.
      Vasiliev S. 26 December 2020 16: 20
      0
      And from below too - how many crooks and thieves can you tolerate?
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 26 December 2020 16: 25
        +2
        Responsibility for everyone, this is understandable .... but control comes from above !!! then everything should be CLEAN there !!!
        1. hydrox
          hydrox 27 December 2020 16: 30
          +2
          To control, you need a clean, clear, sober and competent head ...
          If a fish rots from the head, then what quality control will this head exercise? request
          1. rocket757
            rocket757 27 December 2020 17: 11
            0
            In general, when rotting, from any side, measures must be taken urgently! Although, it is wiser to carry out prevention, not to bring to a critical state.
  11. sergo1914
    sergo1914 26 December 2020 16: 28
    -1
    ... What awaits the PD-50 sunken in Murmansk: rise, oblivion or replacement?


    You should have asked yourself this question at the press conference.
    1. lelik613
      lelik613 26 December 2020 16: 38
      +11
      He has the same answer to all questions, about galoshes ...
  12. Radikal
    Radikal 26 December 2020 16: 56
    +5
    Quote: Bashkirkhan
    Quote: paul3390
    criticize the regime of Comrade Stalin ??

    And under Comrade Stalin, you would not have been allowed to criticize bully

    What for? We would simply have no reasons and reasons to do this, in contrast to the current state of affairs with labor and performance discipline, and besides, then Rosneft and its head would simply not exist! lol wassat
  13. Dart2027
    Dart2027 26 December 2020 16: 59
    +1
    Actually, they are doing a dry dock now, so there will be no need for a PD there.
    It is a pointless waste of resources to raise it (almost 40 years of operation without repair, initial problems that were solved at the last second before delivery to the customer and the consequences of the accident itself), it is easier to flood at a depth of 100 meters and forget.
  14. mmaxx
    mmaxx 26 December 2020 17: 41
    +2
    "After all, to repair this floating dock will require ... an even larger dock!" - from these words it is clear that there is no point in raising the dock. It seems that earlier Borisov had enough sense not to grind nonsense with his tongue. But the time has come. If the dock is raised, then only for scrap.
    Civilian managers with economic education simply by their mental abilities are not able to understand that qualified people with good salaries should work on the dock. The cost of their mistakes has already been demonstrated. As I understand it, Comrade Stalin ...
    I don't know the situation, but I'm almost sure that pre-retirement men for 10 thousand rubles were sitting on the dock. Who knows, enlighten.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 27 December 2020 14: 19
      0
      but I'm almost sure that pre-retirement men were sitting on the dock for 10 thousand rubles. Who knows, enlighten.

      There was this - "Rosneft" acquired a floating dock and began its "optimization", in particular, diesel fuel in emergency generators after "optimization" suddenly appeared. And during the snowfall, power from the shore cut off, that's all. Pre-retirement men have nothing to do with it.
  15. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 26 December 2020 17: 48
    +2
    how the largest floating dock of the Navy ended up in the hands of another fat cat (traitor), and is not the entire command of the Navy made up of incompetent and corrupt
  16. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 26 December 2020 17: 54
    +7
    I would like to see who signed the sale of the PD-50 from the leadership of the Navy with us starting with Pasha Grachev in the defense industry one shit is front
    1. Genry
      Genry 26 December 2020 18: 30
      -4
      Quote: Ryaruav
      I would like to see who signed the sale of PD-50

      It turns out that they sold it very correctly and on time. And you were worried ...
  17. Avrora17
    Avrora17 26 December 2020 18: 43
    -10%
    Disputes and gossip about what is more among the causes of the tragic emergency

    There is nothing tragic there .. Drive round dances in vain! The cruiser will come out of the stocks updated and formidable .. This is already a matter of the principle of the Navy and the prestige of Russia. hi
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 26 December 2020 18: 48
      +8
      Quote: Avrora17
      The cruiser will leave the stocks updated and formidable

      Vital, let's call Santa Claus. He will raise the dock for us, and he will fix Kuzyu. If the promise stick hasn't bent yet.
      1. Avrora17
        Avrora17 26 December 2020 19: 00
        -8
        Quote: mordvin xnumx
        Quote: Avrora17
        The cruiser will leave the stocks updated and formidable

        Vital, let's call Santa Claus. He will raise the dock for us, and he will fix Kuzyu. If the promise stick hasn't bent yet.

        Why are you burning down the office again, Vladimir? Now Vadik will gallop up on a signal and again ..)))
        And Kuzya will be released updated! This is definitely ..
  18. Arnaut
    Arnaut 26 December 2020 18: 47
    +4
    Sorry, but some crazy question. Russia needs to build its own large floating docks. At the same time, you need to buy Chinese (if you buy only Chinese, they will not add up the price). At the same time it is necessary to build stationary docks.
    Or stop generating information noise about a promising ocean-going fleet with aircraft carriers, nuclear destroyers and an armada of submarine cruisers.

    Otherwise ... it will be like in 1941.
    Tens of thousands of tanks were built, but there are no basic spare parts.
    We built trucks (less than necessary) and there are no tires for them.
    They have built great tools, but there is nothing to pull them with.
    We built a lot of airplanes, but we didn’t build equipment for airfield services (refuellers, oil tankers, workshops, etc.).

    And as a result, tanks, aircraft and guns were not at all where they were needed.
  19. Al Asad
    Al Asad 26 December 2020 18: 53
    +3
    The floating dock owned by Rosneft did not have diesel. fuel what
  20. Indifferent
    Indifferent 26 December 2020 19: 05
    +1
    The dock will be scrapped. Recovering is simply impractical. Too expensive. He will certainly be taken out and cut on pins and needles. I would like to note that you don't need a lot of technical intelligence to make docks. This is not an aircraft carrier. It is an iron box with pumps and valves. We have a huge construction experience. And the size does not affect too much.
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 27 December 2020 03: 44
      0
      Quote: indifferent
      docks do not need a lot of technical intelligence. This is not an aircraft carrier. It is an iron box with pumps and valves. We have a huge construction experience. And the size does not affect too much.

      Then why was it ordered from the Swedes, and the Pacific Fleet from the Japs? For the currency that was always lacking in the USSR? And again, what or who is stopping the construction now?
  21. Avrora17
    Avrora17 26 December 2020 19: 08
    -8
    You rejoice early "gentlemen" ..he he

    Russia is too tough for you and Kuzya will enter the ocean ..
    1. aglet
      aglet 27 December 2020 12: 00
      +1
      "Russia is too tough for you and Kuzya will enter the ocean .."

      adversaries are already trembling. 28 planes are a huge force, but if something happens, like a war, they will melt half of them themselves, there is experience
  22. dgonni
    dgonni 26 December 2020 19: 38
    +2
    There is only one conclusion. Both the fleet and the dock owners signed their helplessness in lifting the dock right at their base.
    And just about 100 years ago, a certain Ernest Frank Cox raised almost the entire Kaiser fleet from under the water. Moreover, not in an equipped harbor, but at the devil in the middle of nowhere in Scapaflow Bay. At the same time, they did not understand anything in the concept of lifting.
    So it's time to wipe off and forget about greatness.
  23. Phil77
    Phil77 26 December 2020 19: 41
    +1
    Quote: Mordvin 3
    Faith and shot Love ...

    Volodya? Is it really ... stupid?!?
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 26 December 2020 19: 49
      +2
      Quote: Phil77
      Is it really ... stupid?!?

      For me, yes. The other day, I regretted that the chiefs had to prepare the object normally for painting, spend an extra couple of days, so they piled up such crap that we redo it for the second week, and the end is not visible ... But I immediately warned ... Female dogs ...
  24. fa2998
    fa2998 26 December 2020 19: 55
    +3
    Quote: 7,62x54
    need to ask Rosneft

    My proposal is to entrust the rise of Rosneft, and not to stand up to the price, let the guys work, now oil is not in price, they are starving laughing wassat hi
  25. Kushka
    Kushka 26 December 2020 20: 08
    +4
    read how a bunch of port men raised
    the entire German fleet was flooded in scapaflow.

    In total, from August 1924 to May 1926, Cox and his team raised 25 German destroyers. Some of them lay on the bottom in an inverted position. At one time, experts from the British Admiralty came to the conclusion that it was impossible to raise them. In fact, the opposite happened.
  26. Kushka
    Kushka 26 December 2020 20: 12
    0
    Exactly at noon on June 21, a predetermined signal was raised on Admiral von Reiter's flagship. Immediately, pennants were raised on all German ships, red flags flew up on the klotik, horns blared, bells rang, and the joyful shouts of several thousand German sailors flew into the air. Meanwhile, the officers and foremen who were in the lower rooms of the ships were opening the kingstones, breaking the inlet pipes of the seawater supply systems. They bent the intake valve stems so that they could not be closed, and threw overboard the handles and flywheels of the Kingston. On the destroyers, moored in two and three to one barrel, the mooring lines were screwed to the bollards and the anchor chain cotter pins were riveted so that it was impossible to disconnect the chains later.

    And then, in front of the few English sailors, gazing in horror at everything that was happening, the German ships began to swing from side to side like drunken ones, roll, colliding with each other, sink to the bottom - bow, stern, side or turn upside down. British drifters and trawlers, opening gunfire, tried to force the Germans to close the Kingstones, but they, wearing life bibs, began to jump overboard or in lifeboats headed for the shore. Eight people were killed and five injured.

    The British made an attempt to save at least a few ships, but they managed to withdraw only a few destroyers, three cruisers and one battleship into shallow water. 50 German ships - from destroyers with a displacement of 750 tons to the battle cruiser "Hindenburg" with a displacement of 28 thousand tons - went under water at a depth of 20 to 30 m.

    Never before in history have so many warships been sunk on one relatively small stretch of the sea. This record lasted until February 17, 1944, when the Americans sank 51 Japanese ships in Truk Lagoon in the Pacific Ocean.
  27. Kushka
    Kushka 26 December 2020 20: 16
    +1
    Ascent to Scapa Flow of the battleship "Bayern"

    (From the collection of articles EPRON No. X-XII. Leningrad 1935.)

    Engineer M.M. Obolyaninov

    The battleship Bayern was sunk by the Germans at Scapa Flow up keel, and the depth of the flooding was 120 feet and the ship had a roll of 9 °. The survey found that the ship can only be lifted by air. The depth of water above the keel was 65 feet in the bow and 85 feet in the stern.

    The work was carried out by installing seven shafts located along the length of the ship, each with a height of 70-90 feet, depending on the location. The shafts were 10 feet in diameter at the bottom and 4. The shafts were made in parts, pressure tested at 90 psi. inch and fastened with bolts and braces to the bottom of the ship, installed assembled (photo. 1).



    Ascent to Scapa Flow of the battleship "Bayern"





    Ascent to Scapa Flow of the battleship "Bayern"





    Ascent to Scapa Flow of the battleship "Bayern"




    The weight of each shaft, depending on the length, was from 15 to 20 tons, and all their parts were standardized and interchangeable.

    In order to ensure longitudinal and lateral stability, the ship was divided into seven compartments, and a huge amount of work was done to seal underwater holes, survey and plug the pipeline. During the work, special concrete was used for underwater work. The use of acetylene inside the battleship had to be abandoned due to the presence of gases from the decomposition of organic substances, which greatly complicated the work and led to the need at the last stages of work to periodically lower the air pressure in order to get rid of the spoiled one (it was the responsibility of a special chemist who periodically produced it analysis.

    The air supply itself was carried out using five compressors installed on a specially equipped vessel "Berta" with a total capacity of 2500 cubic meters. foot. per minute. The weight of each shaft, depending on the length, was from 15 to 20 tons, and all their parts were standardized and interchangeable.

    In order to ensure longitudinal and lateral stability, the ship was divided into seven compartments, and a huge amount of work was done to seal underwater holes, survey and plug the pipeline. During the work, special concrete was used for underwater work. The use of acetylene inside the battleship had to be abandoned due to the presence of gases from the decomposition of organic substances, which greatly complicated the work and led to the need at the last stages of work to periodically lower the air pressure in order to get rid of the spoiled one (it was the responsibility of a special chemist who periodically produced it analysis.

    The air supply itself was carried out using five compressors installed on a specially equipped vessel "Berta" with a total capacity of 2500 cubic meters. foot. per minute.

    In the process of work, when those were completed and the ship in two compartments was under full pressure, and in the rest the water was only partially removed - the pipeline burst, which entailed an increase in pressure in the partially drained bow compartments, and the ship suddenly surfaced, and later the air began to quickly escape through the opened pipeline, and the stern part went under water with a roll of 29,5 ° (photos 2, 3 and 4).

    Later it was found that the roll was due to the displacement of the ship's center of gravity, as a result of the loss of four towers with a total weight of 2500 tons. In order to eliminate this roll, it took about two weeks to carry out work on the arrangement of longitudinal and transverse bulkheads and sealing coal pits from the opposite bank sides, as a result of which it was reduced to 5 °.

    Later, for no external reason (obviously, due to air leakage), the ship received a roll of 42 ° to the port side and found a tendency to go aboard, which was prevented by opening the valves and lowering the ship to the bottom, reaching which, it lay down with a roll 22 ° to starboard.

    Bringing the roll further to 14 ° by increasing the pressure in the left side tanks and decreasing in the starboard tanks, the bow was raised again and, with a roll of 3 °, the stability test began, which took several days.

    When lifting, the stern after the first movement appeared to the surface after 30 seconds, and after 10 minutes the whole ship appeared, and the height of the surfaced side was 10 feet. and the roll was absent (photos 5, 6 and 7).

    24 hours after the ascent, the Baern was retracted four miles and stranded less than a kilometer from the Lipes base, where it was later prepared for towing 260 miles to Rosyth, where it was heading for scrap (photo 8) ... A number of attached photographs illustrate the individual phases of the lifting operation.
  28. Kushka
    Kushka 26 December 2020 20: 35
    +2
    So, it was possible to take up the "Hindenburg". Yes, it is for Hindenburg. The battle cruiser, 213 m long, 29 m wide, with a side depth of 8,2 m, lay at a depth of about 22 m. The thickness of the water layer above the poop reached 9 m and 3 m above the bow of the deck. Even at low tide, only the boat deck and the navigating bridge protruded above the sea surface. Cox examined the ship lying on an almost level keel and finally decided to raise the cruiser by pumping water out of it. To do this, it was necessary to pre-close and seal all openings, including the kingstones, fans and hatches left by open German sailors when they left the ship. The divers had to supply more than 800 patches and plugs ranging in size from 0,04 m2 to a giant 78 m2 chimney closure made of two layers of 152-inch planks held together by a dozen 11 mm I-beams. This structure weighed XNUMX tons. The tightness of the patches was ensured by a canvas laid with tow, which was previously laid along the edges of the holes.
    In the process of final fixing of the patches, this kind of cake was compressed and subsequently did not let water through. The job was made much easier when someone was lucky enough to find a metal plate engraved with the layout of all piping, valves, and valves. Rescuers were extremely lucky - before that, divers working inside the ship had to find holes, relying only on their instincts. Six groups of two, each, patched and caulked from May to August. Meanwhile, four sections of the docks (the second dock was also cut in half after it was raised) were installed in pairs along the sides of the cruiser. It took 16 anchors to hold them in place, some of them stowed half a mile from the docks. The sections of the ship protruding from the water and all sections of the docks were connected by transitional bridges. To protect against the fierce storms often observed in the Orkney Islands, two destroyers that had been raised shortly before were placed upwind. On August 6, eight 12-inch centrifugal pumps and twelve 6-inch submersible pumps started up. The water level in the cruiser hull began to drop, but too slowly. A solid leak has appeared somewhere.
    Soon the divers discovered that the small fish - pollock, scurrying around the sunken ship in abundance, had eaten away all the fat that had soaked the tow in the seals of the patches. Coke was seething with anger. The practical Mackenzie took the appropriate measures: he added 10% cement to the fat. Even pollock found this mixture inedible. In addition, Mackenzie found that the composition he invented had even better sealing properties than plain fat. The pumps were switched on again, but the water level again almost did not decrease. A diver was lowered inside the cruiser hull to find out what was the matter. He found the cause of the leak and fixed it, but his air hose and signal end got caught on something, so his partner had to come to his aid. As he freed his comrade, their hoses and lines became so entangled that they had to be lifted to the surface together. - Did you dance down there? - the attendant who was unraveling them grunted. The pumps started up again. And again without visible results.
    This time, divers were sent to inspect the ship from the outside to see if any opening remained closed. Soon one of them signaled upstairs - in need of urgent help. He was found pressed with his back to the hole in the side Kingston with a diameter of 20 cm. The water pressed on the diver with such force that the only way to free him was to flood the cruiser again and thus relieve the pressure. So it had to be done, but in the end, several hundred pounds sterling was wasted. “You made a pricey plug,” Mackenzie said. - And what am I to blame? I was sent to stop the leak, and I liquidated it, ”the diver replied. In the end, the pumping out of water went at full speed. Submersible pumps were lowered from the bow of the gun turret through the supply pipe directly into the holds. 18 more centrifugal pumps were added to the already operating pumps. Five days later, the cruiser's nose surfaced. In one hour, 3,6 thousand tons of water was pumped out of the ship. The bow part appeared on the surface with some heel, and the more it floated up, the stronger the roll became: 30 °, 40 ° ... Fearing that the cruiser would roll over and the people on it would die, Cox reluctantly gave the command to stop pumping water from the bow parts to let her dive in.
    We tried to pump out water from the stern. History repeated itself. “The damn ship is heavier on the port side,” Cox decided, “and that's the point. Nobody argued. Now everyone understood that, trying to lift the ship from one end, they were essentially balancing with a load of 28 thousand tons on a keel less than a meter wide. Until the cruiser is balanced, they will not succeed. Cox drove one of the destroyers, moored it to the starboard side of the ship and filled it with water. A double steel cable was brought to the steel foremast of the battle cruiser and its end was fixed on another destroyer, run aground near the island of Kave, 1200 m from the cruiser. On September 2, Cox attempted a second time to lift the ship, this time on an even keel. When the upper deck of the cruiser just emerged from the water, the cable, fixed on the grounded destroyer, burst.
    By some miracle, the steel snake whistling in the air did not touch anyone, but the cruiser tilted 25 ° to the port side. Dusk fell, and a gale blowing 55 knots, but Cox and his men stubbornly refused to admit defeat. They worked all night, although all the diving boats sank in the clearing waves. The Hindenburg, only torn from the ground, like a giant hog, rolled heavily from side to side. By dawn, the main steam boiler of the right dock went out of order. It supplied power to at least half of all the pumps, and if they stopped, the Hindenburg would inevitably have sunk.
    Desperate, Cox pulled up the Ferrodenx and tried to use its boilers. Nothing came of it. Six months of hard work and 30 ft. Art. were wasted. The people looked at Cox in silence. Some had tears in their eyes. He invested almost his entire fortune in this venture - it cost 1000 feet to pay workers and equipment. in Week. Cox now had only 10 feet. and he was close to total ruin. Cox turned to Mackenzie and said abruptly, “We’ll raise him next spring. I've already figured out how to do this. In the meantime, we can do Moltke. Since then, he never mentioned the Hindenburg until 1930, when, in his opinion, everything was ready for another attempt.
  29. Kushka
    Kushka 26 December 2020 20: 39
    +1
    Ordinary port hard worker, with the same
    hard workers and all on their knees -100 years ago !!!.
    By the way, not a single person was hurt and
    with such a risk, he stood on watch all the way,
    he watched and promised his wives - I am responsible for everyone!
  30. Kushka
    Kushka 26 December 2020 21: 10
    0
    Stalin was not over Cox.
    First destroyer


    The first destroyer V-70 began to lift in March 1924. It was a ship with a displacement of 750 tons, lying at a depth of 18 meters about two miles from the coast. The ship sank on an even keel, which allowed the divers to easily wind a lifting chain around the propeller hub. At low tide, the ends of the chain were selected using winches of two dock sections, anchored above the destroyer, until the chains were taut. The tide raised the stern of the destroyer, and another chain was passed under its hull, this time closer to the bow. In this way, 12 chains were gradually stretched under the bottom of the ship. To do this, the divers, using long metal rods, first pushed a thin cable with a chain attached to its end under the destroyer. On a cold March morning, at low tide, 48 people, divided into pairs, began to evenly rotate the winch handles. We made six revolutions and the destroyer broke away from the bottom. The coming tide helped to select chains for another similar length. But then, with a deafening shot-like sound, chain No. 10 flew out of the water. Its broken end hit the dock wall like a projectile. Cox shouted, ordering everyone to throw themselves face down on the dock deck. And not in vain. Under the unexpectedly increased load, the chains began to break one after another. Broken links, cables, hoists, massive blocks flew in all directions. Freed from her bonds, the destroyer sank to the bottom like a stone. By some incredible accident, no one was even injured.
    When all was quiet, the people on the deck began to hesitantly rise to their feet, expecting the inevitable explosion of curses from Cox. To their amazement, he was laconic. “I'll get the cables as soon as I can, but it will take at least a week. Until then, you have enough business ashore. So do it. Only noticing that the dumbfounded people continued to stand, not moving, he finally barked: - Well, now go, what are you still waiting for! Both Macs, whether they liked it or not, won the first round. At the same time, one of the workers remarked: - If genius and a donkey had not coexisted in him at the same time, he would never have undertaken a job of this magnitude, let alone finish it. Except for McCone and McKenzie, none of us knew exactly anything about raising ships, and they didn’t know much about it either ... The cables arrived in April. Their middle part was flat, which provided more reliable support for the ship being lifted. To pass the cables weighing 250 tons under the bottom of the sunken destroyer, they used, in fact, the same way. All blocks were put in place, and during low tide, at 4 a.m. on August 1, 1924, a new attempt to raise the ship began. The winch handles made ten turns, all the cables were taut, but none of them vibrated (this phenomenon usually precedes a break). Ten more revolutions, and the destroyer was 38 mm away from the seabed. Every 20 revolutions, Cox ordered people to rest.
    This continued until the destroyer's superstructures appeared from the water. And then Cox saw that there were no torpedo tubes on the ship. This time, an unbridled rage gripped him. - Mackenzie, what the devil! Your damned divers tore down the machines with cables! - Ask the fish - said the diver Bill Peterson - or ask these quiet ones on the shore. - So they were stolen? Cried Cox. - I will go to the police, I ... He did not go anywhere: there was nothing to help the case. Inhabitants of the Orkney Islands on dark nights long ago removed everything that was possible from the ships sunk at shallow depths. In the end, the destroyer V-70 was raised and brought to the dock. It could have sold thousands for a pound and a half, but despite a desperate need for money, Cox never dared to scrap his first booty in Scapa Flow. Instead, he ordered the holes in the underwater part of the ship to be repaired and converted into a carpentry workshop, calling it "Rescue Block # 1." The first success confirmed the correctness of the method of lifting destroyers chosen by Cox. On August 12, it was the S-53's turn, followed by the S-29 on the 55th, the G-12 on September 91, the G-27 on the 38th of the same month, and finally on the S-13 on October 52. Then there was a break - it was necessary to complete construction work on the shore and adapt the workshops built there for work in the winter months. In preparation for the recovery of the destroyer G-91, a diver, working between two destroyers lying on the bottom, fell into a trap when the chimney of one of the destroyers unexpectedly fell on him, clamping its air hose and signal end.
    Two of his comrades, desperately in a hurry, tried to free the diver, while Mackenzie, meanwhile, decided to use the phone to somehow calm the poor fellow. However, picking up the receiver, to his bewilderment, he heard the words of a popular song coming from it, albeit in a very poor performance. - Hello! Mackenzie exclaimed. "I ... um ... well, how are you?" “It's all right, sir,” he heard back. - How do you like my voice? “Extremely awful, but we’ll survive one more verse somehow,” Mackenzie encouraged him. Divers find it difficult to panic. This is already a feature of their profession. In total, from August 1924 to May 1926, Cox and his team raised 25 German destroyers. Some of them lay on the bottom in an inverted position. At one time, experts from the British Admiralty came to the conclusion that it was impossible to raise them. In fact, the opposite happened. The free space left by the superstructures between the seabed and the hull of the ship made it possible to easily start the lifting cables. To each such cable, passed under the destroyer, was attached a cable-conductor connected to the lifting cable of the next winch. Thus, the entire operation of wiring the cables could be completed in 40 minutes. Cox feared that the steel mooring lines of the destroyers lying on the bottom would make lifting work much more difficult. To deal with them, it was decided to use dynamite. The Mackenzie people were so adept at working with this explosive that the cable cut by the explosion could not be distinguished from the one sawn with a hand hacksaw. By 1925, the lifting of destroyers had become such a common thing that the entire operation took four days.
    In one case, six ships were raised in two weeks. If the vessels floated upside down, they were turned over, which usually took about an hour. Both docks were taken out into deep water, and then on one of them they began to etch the lifting cables, and on the other to choose. As a result, the destroyer lying on the cables simply rolled into the desired position. By the summer of the same year, ten destroyers had been sold to Alloa Shipbreakers. For them, Cox received 23 thousand feet. Art. - more than half of the originally spent £ 45. Art. Cox felt that the time had come to take on the larger ships: destroyers weighing 1300 tons. one huge German floating dock. This dock was also U-shaped. According to the plan developed by Cox, it was required to flood the dock and submerge it to the bottom, then raise the destroyer in an already proven way - using the halves of the old dock - and lower it to the deck of the flooded dock. After that, it remained to pump out water from the dock, and he would float to the surface together with the destroyer.
    However, the plan failed. They could not manage to enter the destroyer, torn from the ground, into the flooded dock. The walls of the dock interfered. Cox ordered the water to be pumped out of the dock, and when he floated up, cut off one of the walls. As a result, this dock also acquired the shape of an inverted letter G. Now destroyers can be safely dragged into the dock from the side. But nothing came of it either. At the first attempt, the dock tilted during the ascent so that the destroyer in it almost slipped back to the bottom into the silt. The dock and the destroyer had to be flooded again. Unfortunately, this was done too quickly - one corner of the dock cut deeply into the bottom. At the same time, the planking of the dock warped, some of the rivets flew out and the walls were filled with water. Now they have become the owners of an already sunken dry dock. In the end they managed to get him up, but it turned out to be the most difficult enterprise they have faced so far. So it was all in vain. Cox had to again use two sections of the old dock as pontoons to lift the destroyers.
    To his greatest annoyance, he found that they could lift 1300 tons as easily as before 750 tons. The last destroyer was raised on May 1, 1926. And then Cox again conceived ambitious plans. The time had come, he thought, to take on even larger ships. And why not start with the biggest one? From the Hindenburg, a battle cruiser with a displacement of 28 thousand tons, that is, 4 thousand tons more than the largest ship ever raised from the seabed. A very suitable ship to work out further plans on it. But at this time, unfortunately, a general strike broke out in England, the largest in the history of the country. Cox's influence on the people who worked for him was so great that not one of them left him. In this matter, everything turned out as well as possible, but as a result of the strike, the price of coal rose to 2 feet. Art. per ton, and although Koks needed coal, hundreds of tons of coal, he could not buy it at such a high price.
    Nor could his people help him. But why not? They knew how to work, and therefore to solve the problem. The bunkers of the cruiser "Seydlitz" with a displacement of 25 thousand tons were filled to the brim with coal. Cox removed several plates of the cruiser's deck armor, fitted a floating grab crane, and coal began to flow smoothly into the furnaces of his rescue tugs Lines and Ferrodenks, as well as other ships and workshops.
  31. Kushka
    Kushka 26 December 2020 21: 15
    -1
    Von Moltke "


    The battle cruiser "Von Moltke" had a displacement of 23 thousand tons - 5 thousand tons less than that of the "Hindenburg", and a length of 184 m, that is, 30 m shorter than the "Hindenburg". However, in width and draft, it was almost equal to the latter. The cruiser lay at a depth of 23,5 m with a 17 ° roll to starboard. There was only one small peculiarity in the Moltke's position - it sank upside down. In theory, this made it easier to lift the ship. Its intact body could be easily sealed. To do this, it was only necessary to close the kingstones, which were open when the cruiser was flooded (and since the ship was in such an unusual position, it was not difficult to reach them), after which compressed air should have been supplied to the capsized cruiser and it would float up. The first thing to be done was to remove algae from the cladding. People shod in high-toed boots began to perform this operation with secateurs, but then were forced to use razor-sharp axes. Some of the algae were taller than a human being and were as thick as an arm. When done with the algae, they began to close up the Kingston. Small-diameter holes were plugged with wooden plugs, and larger ones were filled with a mixture of cement and sand hardening under water.
    In mid-October, air was pumped into the cruiser. A battery of air compressors supplied 8,5 thousand m3 of air per day to the ship's hull. Since the depth was shallow, the air had to be compressed to a pressure of only 1,05-1,5 kgf / cm2. However, such a large volume of water had to be displaced that it took a whole 10 days before the cruiser nose appeared on the surface. Although the bow rose a good 2,5 m above the water, the stern still continued to lie on the ground, and very firmly. A roll to the left side was formed, reaching 33 °. This meant that all the compartments of the ship were connected to each other and the air could freely pass from one compartment to another, and since the nose rose first, all the air pumped into the ship rushed there. Thus, all bulkheads had to be repaired. Moreover, it was necessary to arrange air locks in the hull through which workers could get inside the cruiser after they began to supply compressed air there. It was decided to use 12 steel boilers 3,6 m long and 1,8 m in diameter as locks.
    With the help of bolts, they were fixed to the bottom in the area of ​​the stoker No. 2 and the bow engine room. Oxygen-acetylene burners cut holes in the bottom skin - where the airlocks were installed, and also arranged manholes in the bulkheads of all compartments to provide workers with unhindered passage. Electric bulbs were hung everywhere, both for lighting and as an emergency signal in case of an urgent need to leave the ship. While the bulkheads were being pressurized, a control valve was installed in the bow of the hull to vent air. Once, a worker assigned to operate the valve, misinterpreting one of the incessant orders, closed the valve. The nose of the cruiser, where air again accumulated, began to rise again, which caused a rapid increase in trim. Mackenzie, who was at that moment in one of the aft compartments, felt that something was wrong when he noticed that the air in the compartment suddenly became cloudy and the faces of people became visible as in a fog - the result of a sudden rarefaction and partial condensation of moisture due to a sharp drop in pressure. Deciding that the bow airlock was out of order, Mackenzie and the workers who were with him, not feeling their feet under them, rushed to run, breaking through holes in four bulkheads on their way. A stream of air rushing into the nose whistled through the manholes, which tore off hats and jackets from people, threw lumps of coal and large pieces of rust into them.
    Fortunately, no one was hurt, and then everyone recalled the incident as a very funny incident. In May 1927 everything was ready to try again to raise the Moltke. But the matter did not go beyond another attempt. Rescuers could easily raise either the bow or the stern. However, in any case, the roll to the left side remained unchanged. All of Cox's efforts to eliminate him led nowhere. The case took a somewhat comic turn. A 300-ton section of the previously raised destroyer was moored to the starboard side of the ship, which was filled with 200 tons of water. Then, having previously sealed all the side tanks and bunkers of the cruiser, they blew through those that were located on the left side, and filled the tanks and bunkers of the starboard side with water. Finally, Cox ordered to moor two sections of the dry dock to the starboard side of the ship, connect them to the cruiser using 20 cables with a circumference of 229 mm, and flood both sections. On May 20, the Moltke began to be lifted for the third time. The pressure of the supplied air was brought to 1,5 kgf / cm2, and the bow of the ship appeared on the surface. The lurch still remained, but comparatively little this time. And then one of the hoisting cables burst. After him the second, third, fourth, fifth ... Without wasting a second, Cox ordered the rest of the cables to be etched a little to reduce the load on them. The remaining 15 ropes survived. As the inspection carried out by the divers showed, the cables did not burst from tension, but were cut by the sharp edges of the decks under the influence of the huge mass of the Moltke. Smoothed metal plates were placed under each cable in the place of its contact with the edges of the decks, and the rise resumed. When the bow of the cruiser came out of the water, it turned out that the roll decreased to 3 °. At 13 hours 15 minutes the stern rose, and now the giant ship appeared on the surface, like a floating whale.
    Around the Moltke, 6-meter columns of water rose. They disappeared only when the pressure of the supplied air was reduced to 0,7 kgf / cm2 - the limiting value necessary to maintain the ship's buoyancy. On June 16, the Moltke began towing to Lineness. During all the days preceding this event, people for 16 hours a day cut and blew up superstructures, chimneys, masts - everything that, in the normal position of the ship, rose above the deck level, and now prevented its towing. There was a gale blowing, and both Macs were concerned about the middle turret they wanted to cut. However, Cox refused to give himself unnecessary trouble. Towing began, the tower crashed into the ground, and the Moltke stopped. I had to follow the advice of "Poppies". Unfortunately, the tower turned out to be made of the most durable steel at that time, and the rescuers were forced to lift a giant battle cruiser on the ropes, as was done with destroyers in their time. The lifting power of the docks was clearly not enough to hold the entire huge mass of the cruiser, but since she was already afloat, she was able to lift it a little and deliver it to the sandbank off the island of Kave. There it was necessary to further lighten the ship in order to prepare it for the 280-mile ferry to the Scottish port of Rosyth, where the Moltke was to be scrapped. Regular railroad rails were laid across the bottom of the overturned cruiser, along which a crane mounted on the platform was launched, designed for a load weighing up to 3 tons.The air locks were removed, and holes with a diameter of slightly less than 2 m were found in the bottom skin.
  32. Kushka
    Kushka 26 December 2020 21: 16
    +1
    A floating crane with a lifting capacity of 10 tons was pulled to the side of the cruiser in order to extract engines and various ship mechanisms from the inside. In total, 2 thousand tons of steel and cast iron and 1000 tons of armor and non-ferrous metals were removed from the cruiser. At the same time, the rescuers set a world record, cutting 3 cm steel plates with a thickness of 30 mm every 305 minutes with an oxygen-acetylene burner. Cox decided to tow the cruiser upside down, and even stern forward. This meant that massive steel towing bollards had to be welded to the propeller hubs, and a house for living, a kitchen, a dining room and a room for air compressors had to be built on the bottom of the ship. In addition, at the port of Rosyth in the Firth of Forth, it was necessary to find a place where a cruiser could be placed in order to cut it into pieces for the subsequent sale to Alloa Shipbreakers. In the end, Cox persuaded Admiralty officials to allow him to put the ship in one of the empty dry docks of the Navy. Cox painfully pondered how to get out of this situation. He was desperate for money to keep the Scapa Flow from shutting down. "Moltke" cost 60 thousand pounds. Art., but his bankers resolutely refused to lend him even any amount on the security of the ship still in Scapa Flow, since it had real value only in Rosyte. On May 18, 1928, three tugboats: "Seefalke", "Simeon" and "Pontos", which belonged to one German company, began to tow the cruiser. Cox and Mackenzie were on the Moltke. When the caravan entered Pentland Firth, a strong wind, unusual for this time of year, blew.
    The inverted hull of the cruiser began to roll heavily from side to side, which caused an intense leak of continuously pumped air into it. They could not go into cover, since with any significant change in course, the Moltke would inevitably tilt and sink as a result of additional air loss. Its hull was already protruding from the water by less than two meters, instead of the previous six. The caravan was near the town of Vic when the wind died down and the pitching stopped. Only then did Cox, muttering, “As for me, I'm so damn glad to get out of him,” left the cruiser. Before that, he flatly refused to do this until the danger to his people was over. Cox arrived at Rosyth and was greeted by a perfectly polite official who announced to him that he would have to forbid the cruiser to dock: “I'm sorry, but that is the order of the Admiralty,” he explained to Cox. Furious, Cox rushed to London. As he found out there, the Admiralty experts feared that the ship turned upside down would disable the dock. They demanded a deposit in case of possible damage to the dock. Cox didn’t have a penny, only a Moltke. He laid it down. Such a decision could entail very serious consequences, for Cox had no right to begin work on the dismantling of the ship until any claim for damage to the dock that the Admiralty could bring to him was satisfied. But he had no choice.
    Back at Rosant, Cox hired an Admiralty pilot to meet and escort the Moltke. Independently of him, as a result of a sad misunderstanding, the captain of the tugboat "Seefalke", in turn, hired a pilot in the Firth of Forth. The two pilots soon got into a fierce skirmish over their prerogatives and seniority, while the upside-down Moltke marched majestically straight onto the center abutment of the Firth bridge. It became clear that the tugs would pass on one side of the abutment, and the cruiser on the other, unless it crashed into the abutment at all. The only thing left to do in such a critical situation was to immediately cut off the towing cables. And so it was done. As a result, "Moltke" set a second record, becoming the first large warship to pass under the bridge not only uncontrollable, but also in an inverted position, without people on board. The always busy traffic along the river came into complete disorder, ships and boats scattered in different directions from the slowly moving giant. Screams and curses were heard.
    Only when the cruiser was taken in tow again, everything returned to normal. In the meantime, Cox's divers were working in the empty dock, installing props and anchorages there, which they hoped would accurately reproduce the shape of the cruiser's deck surface, with the remains of sheared towers, masts and wheelhouses, thereby preventing damage to the dock. The Moltke was brought into the dock and the water was carefully pumped out. For Cox, days of agonizing anticipation began. And then one fine morning in Scapa Flow arrived an official package from the Admiralty. It contained an invoice for damages caused to a dry dock in Rosyth, the property of His Royal Majesty, and a letter with a proposal to immediately pay the bill in order to avoid confiscation of the Moltke as collateral. Cox sat for several minutes, holding a folded bill in his hand, afraid to read what was written there. Then, making an effort on himself, he unfolded the document and looked at the number that had been affixed. The bill was for £ XNUMX.
    1. aglet
      aglet 27 December 2020 12: 04
      +1
      "and the mountings that they hoped would accurately replicate the shape of the cruiser's deck with the remains of sheared towers, masts and deckhouses, thereby preventing damage to the dock."
      too much bukaf. Wasn't it easier to just give a link?
      1. Kushka
        Kushka 27 December 2020 20: 23
        +1
        The comment was accepted. Just hooked when
        flashed - "but that would be Stalin, but already EPRON
        created "...
        At the beginning of 1923 V.S.Yazykov got an appointment with the head of the GPU under the NKVD of the RSFSR
        Heinrich Yagoda and managed to interest him in the idea of ​​raising the "Prince".
        Initiative group (V.S.Yazykov, D.A. Karpovich and mechanical engineer
        E.G. Danilenko, according to whose project the deep-water
        shell for lifting "Prince") was credited to the allowance of the GPU.
        March 13, 1923 Yagoda gave the order to create EPRON at the GPU,
        approval of its first staff and chief - VS Yazykov [3].

        As you can see, EPRON was created for a fix idea:
        During the Crimean War, on the fateful day of November 14, 1854, his
        threw a hurricane on the rocks and he sank under Balaklava [4]
        Since the 1870s, the "Prince" has been searched for by the Germans, French, Norwegians,
        expedition of the Italian engineer Giuseppe Restucci [5],
        since it was assumed that he was carrying 200 pounds sterling
        gold [4] [6] [7].

        And what is most interesting, EPRON was created at the same time,
        when Cox (1924), with a simple brigade of dockworkers, decided to raise
        213 meter battleship (and raised and towed to hell)
        - without any participation of the state, government, scientific
        institutions, military, etc. In the end, he raised everything.
    2. Reader 2013
      Reader 2013 28 December 2020 15: 09
      -1
      Interestingly, it was necessary to make a separate article
      1. Kushka
        Kushka 28 December 2020 15: 58
        +1
        Download the book "Rise of Sunken Ships"
        Joseph Gorse. The head of the flooded fleet.
        This is what hooked me:
        By the time Cox set out to raise the flooded in
        Scapa Flow fleet, he has never in his life had to raise
        to the surface of not a single vessel, not even the most ordinary boat.
        He never did any kind of rescue work.
        Moreover, he did not have an engineering degree. His profession was
        trading in scrap metal, for which he received the nickname "big junk dealer".
        Cox was born in 1883. He did not have a passion for learning and dropped out of school at 13.
        But even without receiving an education, he managed to quickly move forward.
        thanks to his irrepressible energy and outstanding abilities.

        Can you imagine? First, 100 years ago! (what rig?)
        Secondly, even at school, one can say that he did not study (what drawings, calculations?)
        Thirdly, I have not done anything like this before (and here are 74 ships,
        including 11 battleships)
        Fourthly, not a single state of emergency, personally responsible for wives
        every diver.
  33. RoTTor
    RoTTor 26 December 2020 21: 33
    +1
    So the southern capital of Russian and Soviet shipbuilding NIKOLAEV, founded by Prince Potemkin-Tavrichesky by order of Empress Catherine the Great, where the "Admiral Kuznetsov" was built
    it's high time to return.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 27 December 2020 12: 11
      0
      Russia no longer needs it since the Star was built and it is possible that another one will be built in Severodvinsk.
  34. APASUS
    APASUS 26 December 2020 21: 58
    +3
    It seems that with this material the author is trying to justify the inaction of the military. And even more interesting is the progress of the criminal case on the investigation of the PD-50 drowning. Again, no one from the top managers was injured, the switchmen were found guilty, energy?
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 27 December 2020 12: 13
      0
      In general, PD 50 was the property of Rosneft, and since it makes a large dry dock on the Zvezda, on the rotted PD 50, everything was just a hell of a draw for the unnecessary use of it.
      1. APASUS
        APASUS 27 December 2020 13: 25
        0
        Quote: Vadim237
        In general, PD 50 was the property of Rosneft, and since it makes a large dry dock on the Zvezda, on the rotted PD 50, everything was just a hell of a draw for the unnecessary use of it.

        The fact is that for the entire Gray Fleet it was one dock, and where is the Star?
        1. 75 Sergey
          75 Sergey 27 December 2020 19: 11
          +1
          It's true, they are picking in the rock, I saw it myself!
  35. xomaNN
    xomaNN 26 December 2020 23: 18
    +3
    Two years of empty talk around PD 50 ... A year after the drowning, it became clear that he would not be raised, that we could not build a PD in Russia ... It was quite possible to order PD from China in 2019. And by 2021-22 he was already in the SF floating dock. And it's better to spend money on it than to spend on dummies!
  36. CastroRuiz
    CastroRuiz 27 December 2020 00: 06
    0
    Sukhie doki nado stroit.
    Rosneft dolzhen stoimost PD + shtraf oplatit, dazhe nekotorie lica na parashu posadit no kumirstvo meshaet.
  37. evgen1221
    evgen1221 27 December 2020 06: 49
    -1
    I wang that the lifting project is being developed, and then there are no people, it is expensive to build ships and in general it will be unnecessary.
  38. megawolt
    megawolt 27 December 2020 13: 19
    0
    This dock had sunk twice already, the first time shortly after construction and it was lifted up without any snot.
    1. Dart2027
      Dart2027 27 December 2020 16: 48
      0
      Quote: megawolt
      the first time soon after construction and it was raised without any snot

      Immediately after construction and after 40 years of operation, these are two different things.
  39. Just Arkady
    Just Arkady 27 December 2020 17: 28
    +1
    And how much money are going to be put into this trough? Mastering colossal budgets and perpetual repairs. How many planes fell, and then, as a result, the floating dock burned down.
  40. 75 Sergey
    75 Sergey 27 December 2020 19: 09
    0
    1. Who was punished and how?
    2. Fig boobs crumple, timing, etc., the stump is clear that you need to order in China yesterday.
    3. Kuznetsov is waiting for the land dock to be built, they are picking a rock nearby, although they calculated for other purposes, but for a small aircraft carrier it will do.
  41. arnulla
    arnulla 27 December 2020 19: 13
    0
    What a mess after all ... And there are no guilty ones, and no one will answer for anything
  42. starshina78
    starshina78 27 December 2020 20: 25
    +1
    If this dock had not been handed over to Rosneft, then there would have been no need to puzzle over what to do with the drowned man. Well, as Sechin is a friend, then there will be no guilty.
  43. Vladimir1155
    Vladimir1155 27 December 2020 21: 53
    +1
    there is no dock, and in general only one ship is required to be so large and inconvenient, AV Kuznetsov, TARK can be repaired even outside Sevmash where Nakhimov is now, and there are only a couple of old ships. The fleet is developing towards a decrease in tonnage, with such ships there are fewer problems, there are many places where they can be repaired .... the main question is whether Kuzya is needed at all? It is clear that he is not able to reach somewhere in the DMZ, he has no escort, which means that going far is his senseless suicide with 5000 team members and a worldwide disgrace. The problem is that he is not capable of helping surface ships in BMZ to control the Barents Sea as an exit zone for the return of nuclear submarines. The reason is admiral parochialism, and the distribution of ships is not for the defense of the country, but for the admiral's managerial positions on the seas. Surface ships of the first and second rank are not needed on the seas at all, they are not combat units, but feeders. In a war, they will not leave the ports, and if they do, they will be immediately destroyed by enemy ground forces and aircraft. At the same time, in the most important direction to the Northern Fleet, now there are two BODs, two FRs, one cruiser. Although the enemy does not have coastal assets there, there are enemy submarines and aircraft there. Due to the criminal dispersion of the surface fleet over the water areas where it is not combat-ready and unnecessary, it is also not combat-ready on the Northern Fleet. The second important direction is Kamchatka, there is simply no surface fleet there. It is necessary to transfer Dagestan to the Black Sea Fleet of Tatarstan, but take all the ships of the first second rank from the Baltic Sea of ​​the Sea of ​​Japan and the Black Sea (except for landing) to the Northern Fleet, having formed a squadron of surface ships capable of controlling the Barents Sea and the exit of the nuclear submarine and Kuzya even there would be useful among them. On the seas, leave only those ships that go Volga-Don Volgo-Balt, and on the Sea of ​​Japan, those that pass the Tatar Strait. You can also send a couple of three ships to Kamchatka to guard the base. The alternative is the sale of Kuzi, then the dock is not needed.
    1. IC
      IC 28 December 2020 01: 27
      +1
      You are not right. A large dock is now needed for a new series of nuclear-powered icebreakers. Rosatom plans to build such a dock. In this case, the state must coordinate the interests of the Navy and Rosatom. USC is now building an emergency dry dock for Kuznetsov, in which icebreakers can also be docked.
      1. Vladimir1155
        Vladimir1155 28 December 2020 09: 49
        +1
        Main characteristics
        Displacement 25 t (standard)
        33 540 t (full at design waterline)
        Length 173,3 m (160,0 m at design waterline)
        Width 34,0 m (33,0 m at design waterline)

        he doesn't need a 300 meter dock
  44. Basarev
    Basarev 28 December 2020 00: 24
    0
    A floating dock is a half measure. What is needed is a dry dock of at least Nikolay dimensions. And better and more, with an eye to the future. The ships won't get smaller.
    1. IC
      IC 28 December 2020 01: 17
      0
      There are no large repair docks in Nikolaev. There are 2 large construction dry docks. Ocean plant in Nikolaev Bay in Kerch. There is a large floating dock at the Novorossiysk Shipyard, where Kuznetsov has already docked. It is on lease from the state. But its technical condition is questionable. There is a larger floating dock in the Far East.
  45. IC
    IC 28 December 2020 01: 10
    0
    Floating docks normally use coastal power for docking operations. Onboard diesel generators must be in hot standby in case of emergency shutdowns. But during such complex operations it is better to keep it on the move without load. But there are docks without working DGs. Calculation only ashore. Judging by its appearance, the dock is not in proper technical condition. Traces of severe corrosion are visible. Therefore, it is possible that the strength characteristics of the hull structures are lost. What is surprising in the reaction of the press and the public. No one is looking for who carries legal
    responsibility for the disaster. The dock was recently transferred by the state from the Navy
    to the management of PJSC Rosneft. This means that Rosneft should bear full financial responsibility for all the consequences of flooding the dock and additional costs for repairing the ship. Rosneft should fully raise and restore the dock at its own expense. The state and the navy suffered enormous damage.
    This important issue fell out of the spotlight.
  46. Berg berg
    Berg berg 31 December 2020 16: 52
    0
    And one conclusion comes, to invite the Chinese to this work and they "with one hand" in a few days will raise this colossus from the bottom and, moreover, for half the price and without "cutting" the money!
  47. Nikolai Redko
    Nikolai Redko 2 January 2021 01: 49
    0
    Lifting and repairing is a utopia. But you need to cut and clean the fairway.
  48. barsik92090
    barsik92090 2 January 2021 11: 17
    0
    Market scavengers, in anticipation of a big fat gain, will not raise the dock, they did not drown it for that, but start a long-running story with the construction of a new one, search for an executor with an authorized capital of 100 rubles, which will certainly go broke, but the budget money will be mastered, but there will be nothing to sink, offshore do not sink!
  49. Yuri Shalnov
    Yuri Shalnov 10 January 2021 17: 18
    0
    Everything, as in the good old days, in the army language, we had a PPR, namely: - let's sit, povizdim and disperse!
  50. Sergey74
    Sergey74 13 January 2021 16: 17
    0
    Quote: 72jora72
    A living example, for two years they could not find who would beat the power lines from Lomonosov (Pevek) to BiNPP Bilibino-Peschanka field, and the line had to be ready for the arrival of the "floating" in the port of Pevek. Everyone refused to work (-45 temperature in winter, mountain passes, permafrost, no roads), and at the beginning of 70, in a year they did ... but the old line had already completely depleted its resource.

    I think that not only because of the natural conditions, everyone refused. Most likely due to the low cost.