Military Review

Capella Space's All-Seeing Eye: Harbinger of the Satellite Intelligence Revolution

105

More recently, we have considered the capabilities of space-based reconnaissance assets to detect aircraft carrier strike groups. In particular, the author put forward the assumption of the creation in the near future of "constellations" of compact and inexpensive reconnaissance satellites placed in low orbits and capable of replacing existing large and expensive reconnaissance satellites. Something similar is already happening with communications satellites thanks to Space X and its Starlink global high-speed satellite Internet project.


According to the author's assumption, the technologies used for large-scale construction and deployment of Starlink satellites could subsequently be used for the construction of reconnaissance satellites. Some opponents have objected to this that reconnaissance satellites will be much larger, more complex and more expensive. And this is especially true for active radar reconnaissance satellites, which are of the greatest interest, since they can operate at any time of the day and in any weather.

Well, the future comes earlier than the author assumed. But, unfortunately, this future does not come for everyone.

Capella space


Founded in 2016, the American company Capella Space, based in San Francisco, California, aims to provide users around the world with the ability to obtain high-resolution commercial radar images of the planet's surface.

Capella Space plans to deploy 36 satellites equipped with synthetic aperture radar (radar). It was assumed that the mass of one satellite would be about 40 kilograms. The system should allow obtaining radar (RL) images of the earth's surface with a resolution of 50 centimeters.

Moreover, presumably the system is capable of receiving images with a resolution of 25 centimeters and higher, but this opportunity for civilian consumers is still blocked by US law.

In December 2018, Capella Space launched its first test satellite, Denali, into orbit. The launch was carried out using a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle from Vandenberg Air Force Base (California).

The Denali satellite is designed to test design and technology. RL images from it were not sold. But they were used for internal testing and attracting investors and potential customers. After launch, the Denali satellite deployed a flexible antenna web covering an area of ​​about 8 meters.



Image of the Denali satellite, the first Capella test satellite launched in 2018.


Comparison of the size of the Denali satellite with existing Earth sensing radar satellites.

In August 2020, the first serial operational satellite, Sequoia, was launched, which is already capable of providing radar images of the earth's surface to commercial customers. The launch into orbit was carried out by the RN Electron of the private American aerospace company Rocket Lab.

The Sequoia satellite weighs 107 kilograms. It contains 400 meters of cables and wires connecting over a hundred electronic modules. The software includes over 250 lines of C code, over 000 lines of Python code, and over 10 lines of FPGA code.


Sequoia satellite image

With an orbital altitude of 525 kilometers and an orbital inclination of 45 degrees, Sequoia satellite provides customers with access to radar imagery in regions such as the Middle East, Korea, Japan, Europe, Southeast Asia, Africa and the United States.

By the end of 2020, it is planned to launch into orbit two more Sequoia RN Falcon 9 satellites from SpaceX. In total, it is planned to launch at least seven satellites of this type.


Sequoia satellite launch infographic

It should be understood that the maximum resolution of the area selected for the survey is provided when the radar image is exposed for about 60 seconds, for which the Sequoia satellites are equipped with a system of mechanical orientation of the antenna web. In-flight clearance will be lower. Synthetic aperture mode allows accurate 3D topography and surface features.


Sequoia satellites operate in a highly detailed image of a limited area of ​​the planet, or in tracking lane surveys.

It is assumed that the final constellation of 36 satellites will provide an image of any part of the planet with an interval of no more than one hour.


Radar image of the ExxonMobil Singapore chemical plant on Jurong Island.


Radar image of McDonnell Douglas MD-80 and Airbus A300-600R aircraft at the Center aviation Roswell in New Mexico.

Capella Space's Sequoia satellite was created in 4 years by a team of 100 people.


Capella Space Team


Thermo-vacuum furnace for testing satellite equipment from Capella Space.

Capella Space has already signed contracts for the provision of cartographic information with US government agencies.

In particular, in 2019, an agreement was concluded with the US National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) to integrate commercial radar images obtained by Capella Space satellites with the state-owned NRO observation satellites.

In November 2019, the US Air Force (Air Force) awarded Capella Space a contract to incorporate the company's imagery into Air Force virtual reality software (possibly referring to highly detailed XNUMXD terrain maps for aviation).

On May 13, 2020, a contract was signed with the US Department of Defense to provide airborne synthetic aperture radar data to the US Navy. Capella will also provide the Department of Defense with in-house analytical services to interpret the findings.

And on June 25, 2020 Capella Space announced the signing of the Joint Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the US National Geospatial Agency (NGA). The CRADA agreement will provide Capella Space with access to NGA researchers for a deeper understanding of the issues. In return, NGA gets access to Capella Space's imagery and analytics services. This is the first CRADA agreement entered into by NGA with a commercial company providing imagery from synthetic aperture radar satellites.

Of course, Capella Space satellites cannot be considered direct analogues of the sophisticated and expensive reconnaissance satellites launched by the leading military-industrial powers. But something else is important here.

A 100-person company has developed and manufactured satellites capable of receiving high-resolution radar images. This company plans to deploy a constellation of 36 such satellites. The size and mass of these satellites allows them to be launched into orbit in clusters, as is the case with Starlink communication satellites. This makes it possible not only to quickly build up their grouping in orbit, but also to urgently launch them, if necessary, with midget launch vehicles.

If only a private startup company is capable of this? How many such or similar satellites can the US Department of Defense launch, if necessary?

By the way, Capella Space is not the only one working in this direction.

ICEYE


The Finnish company ICEYE was founded in 2014 as a subsidiary of Aalto University, Faculty of Radio Technology.

Since 2019, ICEYE has been offering services for obtaining high-resolution commercial radar images obtained using three proprietary satellites. The first ICEYE-X2 satellite was launched on December 3, 2018 by SpaceX's Falcon 9 launch vehicle, and two more satellites were launched on July 5, 2019.

It is assumed that with the commercial success of the project, several more satellites will be launched annually.


Image of the ICEYE-X2 satellite

The mass of one satellite is 85 kilograms. It is equipped with ion thrusters for orbit correction. The resolution of the radar images is 0,25x0,5, 1x1 or 3x3 meters, the alignment accuracy is 10 meters, the communication channel speed is 140 megabits per second. The orbital altitude is 570 kilometers, inclination is 97,69 degrees.

Planet Labs


The American company Planet Labs, founded in 2010, develops and manufactures CubeSat-type microsatellites called Dove, which are delivered into orbit as an auxiliary payload for other missions.

Each Dove satellite is equipped with state-of-the-art optical reconnaissance systems programmed to survey different parts of the Earth. Each Dove observation satellite continuously scans the Earth's surface, sending data after passing over the ground station.

The first two experimental Dove satellites were launched in 2013.


Dove satellites are launched from the International Space Station (ISS).

Following the acquisition of the German company BlackBridge AG, the Planet Labs satellite constellation has been expanded with RapidEye satellites. And after the acquisition of TerraBella from Google by the SkySat constellation.

In July 2015, Planet Labs placed 87 Dove satellites and 5 RapidEye satellites into orbit. In 2017, Planet launched 88 more Dove satellites. By September 2018, the company had launched about 300 more satellites, 150 of which are active. In 2020, Planet Labs launched six additional high-resolution SkySats and 35 Dove satellites.

Dove satellites weigh 4 kilograms. Their dimensions are 10x10x30 centimeters, the orbit height is 400 kilometers.

The satellites provide images with a resolution of 3-5 meters.


Dove satellites

RapidEye satellites weighing less than one cubic meter and weighing 150 kilograms, located at an altitude of 630 kilometers, provide an image with a resolution of 5 meters using a multispectral sensor in blue (440-510 nm), green (520-590 nm), near red (630 –690 nm), far red (690–730 nm) and near infrared (760–880 nm) wavelength ranges.


RapidEye Satellite Image

SkySat satellites provide sub-meter resolution video images. Their design is based on the use of inexpensive, commercially available electronic components.

SkySats are about 80 centimeters long and weigh about 100 kilograms.


SkySat satellites

SkySat satellites are in orbit at an altitude of 450 kilometers and are equipped with multispectral and panchromatic sensors. Spatial resolution in the panchromatic range of 400-900 nm is 0,9 meters.

The multispectral sensor collects data in the blue (450-515 nm), green (515-595 nm), red (605-695 nm) and near infrared (740-900 nm) ranges with a resolution of 2 meters.

Do we have something similar?

Russian private cosmonautics


The successes of Russian private astronautics are much more modest.

First of all, one can recall the SPUTNIX company founded in 2011, which in 2014 launched into low-earth orbit the first Russian private microsatellite-technological demonstrator Tablettsat-Aurora weighing 26 kilograms.

As the main payload, the vehicle is equipped with a panchromatic camera for photographing the earth's surface in the spectral band 430-950 nm with a resolution of 15 meters and a swath width of 47 kilometers.

Capella Space's All-Seeing Eye: Harbinger of the Satellite Intelligence Revolution
Microsatellite Tablettsat-Aurora

Also, several scientific and educational nanosatellites developed by students and schoolchildren were launched.

Among the devices under development, the ultra-compact satellite for remote sensing of the Earth RBIKRAFT-ZORKIY can be noted.

Its weight will be 10,5 kilograms. The launch is scheduled for 2021.

The device will carry a telescope camera with a resolution of 6,6 meters per pixel, produced by NPO Lepton. The camera is equipped with a thermal stabilization and focusing system, as well as a built-in memory device, which allows shooting on demand, without being bound to receiving stations.

The estimated orbital altitude of the RBIKRAFT-ZORKY satellite will be 550 kilometers with an inclination of 98 degrees.


Cubsat RBIKRAFT-ZORKY

Another company is OOO NPP Dauria Aerospace, founded in 2011 and becoming one of the first Russian companies to create and launch commercial satellites.

On July 8, 2014, Dauria Aerospay launched the first satellite of the DX series equipped with a payload for receiving and transmitting signals from the Automatic Identification System, designed for navigation and identification of ships in the World Ocean and on river lines.

By the way, such satellites can be useful when working in conjunction with satellites for radio engineering, optical and active radar reconnaissance in terms of solving the problem of selecting civil and military ships.


Satellite DX1

Two more satellites, PERSEUS-M1 and PERSEUS-M2, were sold to the American Aquila Space at the end of 2015.

In the same 2015, Mikhail Kokorich, founder of NPP Dauria Aerospay LLC, sold his share in the company and emigrated to the United States.

As we can see, our lag in the field of commercial satellites from the leading countries of the world is about 10-15 years.

Formally, there are companies that manufacture components for satellites - ion engines, sensors, electronic components. But the creation of a production facility that produces final products - high-tech satellites - somehow does not grow together.

We have a similar situation with launch vehicles. In general, we have nothing comparable to Spaсe X or Capella Space yet.

conclusions


Space commercialization is developing at the highest rates, both in terms of placing payloads into orbit and in creating artificial earth satellites for various purposes. It can be noted that the trend of commercialization of space was outlined at the beginning of the XNUMXs and has become explosive in the last decade. Taken together, this has allowed the emergence of equipment, technologies and services, not only recently available not only for commercial, but also for government customers.

In this light, the prospect of the deployment by the US armed forces of hundreds or even thousands of reconnaissance and communications satellites, and in the future also satellites of the anti-missile defense (ABM) system, no longer raises any doubts.

What does this mean for us in practical terms?

It can be argued that from a certain moment, as an increasing number of reconnaissance satellites of various classes and purposes are deployed, as well as their technical characteristics improve, it will become almost impossible to avoid the detection of many types of weapons from space.

The ability to obtain global, round-the-clock and all-weather intelligence data, in near real time, will allow high-precision strikes weapons and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to the entire depth of enemy territory, not only for stationary, but also for moving targets, re-targeting weapons in flight.

Under threat will be mobile ground-based missile systems (PGRK), which make up one of the elements of the Russian nuclear deterrent forces (SNF), and surface ships of the traditional layout will lose the slightest opportunity to get lost in the depths of the ocean, which means that long-range enemy aircraft will always have the initiative and will be able to provide the necessary concentration of forces for a strike by anti-ship missiles (ASM), sufficient to overcome the air defense (air defense) of aircraft carrier and naval strike groups (AUG and KUG).

If the United States officially legalized the sale of images from space with a resolution of 50 centimeters, then what resolution is available to the military - 25, 10 centimeters or less?

With this image quality, no corner reflectors will help. For example, when attacking ships, their initial detection can be carried out with a resolution of 3–5 meters, then identification with a resolution of 50 centimeters or less will be performed. And after that, after the launch of the anti-ship missile system, ships can be tracked and their coordinates transmitted in real time directly to the anti-ship missile system via a satellite communication channel (retargeting in flight).

Someone will say why not use electronic warfare?

They can solve some of the problems, but not all. Electronic warfare equipment itself is a "beacon" for the enemy; it is impossible to use them continuously. In addition, optical reconnaissance equipment remains.

It is practically unrealistic and economically ineffective to destroy a network of small-sized satellites from the surface - it is possible to replenish the group of small-sized satellites with less economic losses than to shoot them down with missile defense missiles. This requires specialized space interceptors capable of intensive maneuvering and being in orbit for a long time, ensuring the consistent destruction of many targets.

And do not rely on the common misconception about "a bucket of nuts in orbit." The entire economy of the planet will not be able to transport "nuts" into orbit in an amount sufficient to destroy satellites.

“According to the European Space Agency, there are more than 29000 large debris orbiting our planet, from 4-inch pieces of metal to entire non-existent satellites and tanks of spent fuel. Add about 670 pieces of metal between 000 and 1 centimeters in size, about 10 million paint particles, and countless billions of frozen coolant droplets and dust particles less than a centimeter in size. ”

Improvement of technologies for creating small satellites and missile defense technologies, with a high probability will lead to the resumption of implementation at a new technical level projects of orbital missile defense interceptors of the "diamond pebble" type, which, taking into account the strengthening of intelligence and percussion capabilities of the US armed forces can largely neutralize the potential of Russian strategic nuclear forces.

At the end of the XNUMXth century, much was said about the fact that the XNUMXst century will be the century of virtual reality, nano- and biotechnology. Space, on the other hand, has become "everyday-applied", associating with something like satellite TV.

The emergence of private companies with ambitious goals and projects changed everything. And space again found itself at the forefront of technological progress.

Space is not only projects of scientific research and human expansion into new territories, but also a cornerstone in ensuring the security of the state. Even now, without gaining an advantage, or even parity in outer space, any ground, air and sea forces are doomed to defeat. In the future, this situation will only get worse.

This makes projects for the creation of promising launch vehicles and spacecraft for various purposes among the most high-priority tasks of our country.
Author:
Photos used:
capellaspace.com, habr.com, iceye.com, planet.com, spire.com, sputnix.ru, dauria.ru
105 comments
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  1. Operator
    Operator 24 December 2020 18: 16
    +2
    How long does the Sequoia radar reconnaissance satellite last?
    1. Shopping Mall
      24 December 2020 18: 39
      +14
      Quote: Operator
      How long does the Sequoia radar reconnaissance satellite last?


      Each Capella satellite has a design life of three years. By launching 12 satellites a year, the constellation will retain its imaging capabilities indefinitely. With the ability to continually update and update satellite technology, Capella will be able to make quarterly improvements to the constellation and radar performance.

      (auto-translation)

      In fact, there may be more.
      1. Lexus
        Lexus 24 December 2020 18: 52
        0
        Will appear now rotten Sawkosmos horn slipped and your article will spit with bile. smile
        1. Sling cutter
          Sling cutter 24 December 2020 19: 03
          +9
          Quote: lexus
          Now there will be a rotten mouthpiece of Sawing Space slipped and your flock of agitation will be thrown.

          And here you can at least throw caps on the fan, only all the satellite groups indicated in the article are already quietly transmitting data and, which is typical, they manage to form a 3D picture. There is no doubt that the "partners" set themselves more ambitious goals and 5 cm is not the limit.
          1. Lexus
            Lexus 24 December 2020 19: 12
            -2
            For the putriots, from now on, other people's cowards are the subject of an unhealthy fetish and sighing.
            1. MoJloT
              MoJloT 25 December 2020 11: 32
              -2
              The putriots now have other people's cowards
              Don't confuse patriots with liberals and city madmen. All under the banner of the patient!
            2. The comment was deleted.
          2. Intruder
            Intruder 24 December 2020 23: 39
            0
            well ..., for non-partners, like in this song:
      2. ccsr
        ccsr 24 December 2020 19: 24
        +1
        Quote: AVM
        By launching 12 satellites a year, the constellation will retain its imaging capabilities indefinitely.

        Of course, now there is complete euphoria from success in launching small satellites and getting good results in their work. But what is alarming with such a massive launch into a low orbit is where they will then go within 20-30 years and whether they will be the culprits of space disasters for orbital stations and expensive specialized satellites. For some reason, it seems to me that the current permissiveness will then turn into big problems for their owners, as soon as, for example, an expensive US intelligence satellite or the ISS suffers.
        I think that there is something to think about for those who now see only some advantages of small satellites - at least now you need to think about their disposal.
        1. Shopping Mall
          24 December 2020 19: 27
          +6
          Quote: ccsr
          Quote: AVM
          By launching 12 satellites a year, the constellation will retain its imaging capabilities indefinitely.

          Of course, now there is complete euphoria from success in launching small satellites and getting good results in their work. But what is alarming with such a massive launch into a low orbit is where they will then go within 20-30 years and whether they will be the culprits of space disasters for orbital stations and expensive specialized satellites. For some reason, it seems to me that the current permissiveness will then turn into big problems for their owners, as soon as, for example, an expensive US intelligence satellite or the ISS suffers.
          I think that there is something to think about for those who now see only some advantages of small satellites - at least now you need to think about their disposal.


          Now it is becoming a trend to equip satellites with a vault system from orbit.
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 24 December 2020 19: 44
            +3
            Quote: AVM
            Now it is becoming a trend to equip satellites with a vault system from orbit.

            After three years of 75 kg flight, the satellite is unlikely to have at least a 90% probability of reliable de-orbit - however, let's assume that this is so. The question is different - how to bring him together if he suddenly lost his orientation and it is impossible to control him. Where will it fly and what will be the trend if it collides with another satellite of the same type, and their debris will fly in different orbits. What is interesting to say about this those who advertise such satellite systems? I understand when something will happen in geostationary orbit and there will be time to think about the situation. But the distance from 400 km to the ground is too small, and this will make the missile defense system tense.
            1. Profiler
              Profiler 24 December 2020 20: 33
              -1
              Capella Space plans to deploy 36 satellites equipped with synthetic aperture radar (radar).

              Well, we would quickly respond with a system that overlaps them in parameters, at times.

              And call it something ... For example - Red capella, in honor and memory of our legendary intelligence network that worked in the rear of the Nazis.
            2. Shopping Mall
              24 December 2020 20: 46
              +2
              Quote: ccsr
              Quote: AVM
              Now it is becoming a trend to equip satellites with a vault system from orbit.

              After three years of 75 kg flight, the satellite is unlikely to have at least a 90% probability of reliable de-orbit - however, let's assume that this is so. The question is different - how to bring him together if he suddenly lost his orientation and it is impossible to control him. Where will it fly and what will be the trend if it collides with another satellite of the same type, and their debris will fly in different orbits. What is interesting to say about this those who advertise such satellite systems? I understand when something will happen in geostationary orbit and there will be time to think about the situation. But the distance from 400 km to the ground is too small, and this will make the missile defense system tense.


              Will not force, they are monitored in advance, these are predictable processes. And such babies burn out completely in the atmosphere. EMNIP this was one of the requirements for Starlink satellites.
              1. ccsr
                ccsr 24 December 2020 21: 08
                +2
                Quote: AVM
                EMNIP this was one of the requirements for Starlink satellites.

                They also promised to make the Titanic unsinkable. And here tens of thousands of satellites work as a single mechanism - well, they made fun of ...
                Quote: AVM
                Will not force, they are tracked in advance, these are predictable processes.

                Do you have any idea that these satellites are within 1 minutes in the radio visibility zone when they fly in such orbits? What the hell are "predictable processes" if we can't even predict a change in trajectory during an uncontrolled descent.
                1. Shopping Mall
                  24 December 2020 21: 29
                  +3
                  Quote: ccsr
                  Quote: AVM
                  EMNIP this was one of the requirements for Starlink satellites.

                  They also promised to make the Titanic unsinkable. And here tens of thousands of satellites work as a single mechanism - well, they made fun of ...


                  Glad you are having fun. Of course there will be failures, but now they are developing, so to speak, systems of forced deorbiting, we will also talk about them.

                  Quote: ccsr
                  Quote: AVM
                  Will not force, they are tracked in advance, these are predictable processes.

                  Do you have any idea that these satellites are within 1 minutes in the radio visibility zone when they fly in such orbits? What the hell are "predictable processes" if we can't even predict a change in trajectory during an uncontrolled descent.


                  The missile defense radar will uniquely separate a spontaneously falling satellite from a deliberate attack. The satellite will burn up in the atmosphere - this is not a mastodon with a nuclear reactor, if it fell, half of the planet could be spoiled.
                  1. ccsr
                    ccsr 25 December 2020 12: 21
                    +3
                    Quote: AVM
                    Of course there will be failures, but now they are developing, so to speak, systems of forced deorbiting, we will also talk about them.

                    Of course you can talk, but who will be responsible for the damage if these systems do not work and holes in the skin appear on the ISS?
                    Quote: AVM
                    The missile defense radar will uniquely separate a spontaneously falling satellite from a deliberate attack.

                    One - yes, but a hundred is unlikely, especially since we do not even have an idea about the appointment of all of the tens of thousands of satellites that will be launched by different corporations from different countries.

                    Quote: Cherry Nine
                    No, a 100 kg satellite will not fly on your head, it will burn. Only larger pieces of iron, Soviet ones, reach the ground.

                    For a start, ask how much weight the cassettes with film from Soviet reconnaissance satellites had, to make sure that any 75-200 kg object can safely fly to the ground, and even carry a small nuclear charge. And we won't even know what kind of satellites they fly at an altitude of 400 km.
                    1. Shopping Mall
                      25 December 2020 12: 47
                      +1
                      Quote: ccsr
                      Quote: AVM
                      Of course there will be failures, but now they are developing, so to speak, systems of forced deorbiting, we will also talk about them.

                      Of course you can talk, but who will be responsible for the damage if these systems do not work and holes in the skin appear on the ISS?


                      Who's in charge now? What do you want from me? I'm not Elon Musk, I'm not putting 100500 satellites into orbit. But apparently this is an inevitable path of development.

                      Quote: ccsr
                      Quote: AVM
                      The missile defense radar will uniquely separate a spontaneously falling satellite from a deliberate attack.

                      One - yes, but a hundred, hardly,


                      Modern radar systems with AFAR are capable of tracking thousands of objects. Otherwise, how will they distinguish the warhead against the background of false targets?

                      Quote: ccsr
                      especially since we do not even have an idea about the purpose of all of the tens of thousands of satellites that will be launched by different corporations from different countries.


                      But they will not all fall on us. Even if 100 satellites fall per day, then 1-2 will be considered a threat, and that is not a fact. To pose a threat, the object must "fall" on Moscow or the position of the Strategic Missile Forces. Even if it falls on another city, everyone will understand that 99,99999% is a light satellite that will completely burn out in the atmosphere, and accordingly, no one will panic. Nobody will start a nuclear war in this way.

                      Quote: ccsr
                      Quote: Cherry Nine
                      No, a 100 kg satellite will not fly on your head, it will burn. Only larger pieces of iron, Soviet ones, reach the ground.

                      For a start, ask how much weight the cassettes with film from Soviet reconnaissance satellites had, to make sure that any 75-200 kg object can safely fly to the ground, and even carry a small nuclear charge. And we won't even know what kind of satellites they fly at an altitude of 400 km.


                      Weight is not the only criterion, what matters is what materials. From tungsten and a ball 5 cm will most likely fly to the surface, and from foam and a ball weighing a ton to evaporate.
                      1. ccsr
                        ccsr 25 December 2020 13: 35
                        +2
                        Quote: AVM
                        Modern radar systems with AFAR are capable of tracking thousands of objects. Otherwise, how will they distinguish the warhead against the background of false targets?

                        Well, let's say you track, but can you point and hit? We have only one full-fledged missile defense area, and even then with a limited ammunition load, according to the agreement. True, now everything is changing, but the very distance of 400-600 km is threatening for us, at least in order to make a decision and give a command.
                        Quote: AVM
                        Who's in charge now? What do you want from me?

                        At least so that you do not advertise this as a great achievement, because the danger from such devices has not yet been fully understood. I think that this will be a serious substantive conversation with the Americans, if they turn on their brains and sit down at the negotiating table themselves, because if this takes on the scale of a space epidemic, the ram of the "twins" will seem like a kindergarten. Everyone should think about this, and not blindly copy foreign agitation.
                        Quote: AVM
                        Weight is not the only criterion, what matters is what materials. From tungsten and a ball 5 cm will most likely fly to the surface, and from foam and a ball weighing a ton to evaporate.

                        So I say that the uncontrolled launch of small satellites can lead to a nuclear war, because we do not know what they will be made of, and the response of missile defense systems may become belated. It's a pity that stupid Americans don't want to understand this ...
                      2. Shopping Mall
                        25 December 2020 14: 26
                        +1
                        Quote: ccsr
                        Quote: AVM
                        Modern radar systems with AFAR are capable of tracking thousands of objects. Otherwise, how will they distinguish the warhead against the background of false targets?

                        Well, let's say you track, but can you point and hit? We have only one full-fledged missile defense area, and even then with a limited ammunition load, according to the agreement. True, now everything is changing, but the very distance of 400-600 km is threatening for us, at least in order to make a decision and give a command.


                        Quote: ccsr
                        Quote: AVM
                        Who's in charge now? What do you want from me?

                        Even so that you don't advertise it as a great achievement,


                        Do you prefer the position of a cartoon ostrich? What is not known about, that is not?

                        All these systems will develop regardless of whether there are articles about them in the Russian Internet. And because we will not have similar systems, it will only be worse for us.

                        Quote: ccsr
                        because the danger from such devices is not yet fully understood.


                        By whom, by you? All interested organizations "with them" are systematically working on this issue.

                        Quote: ccsr
                        I think that this will be a serious substantive conversation with the Americans, if they turn on their brains and sit down at the negotiating table themselves, because if this takes on the scale of a space epidemic, the ram of the "twins" will seem like a kindergarten. Everyone should think about this, and not blindly copy foreign agitation.


                        Oh, I can see how we talk "seriously" with the Americans. We forbid them to deploy satellites, we impose sanctions. Let's put it bluntly - we will launch another satellite - Poseidon. And they are already obserae with fear ...

                        Come back to reality. In Syria, poor Turkey shot down a plane, and we stopped buying tomatoes from them for six months. And the United States came out of almost all the agreements for a reason - agreements are concluded with equals.

                        Quote: ccsr
                        Quote: AVM
                        Weight is not the only criterion, what matters is what materials. From tungsten and a ball 5 cm will most likely fly to the surface, and from foam and a ball weighing a ton to evaporate.

                        So I say that the uncontrolled launch of small satellites can lead to a nuclear war, because we do not know what they will be made of, and the response of missile defense systems may become belated. It's a pity that stupid Americans don't want to understand this ...


                        Can't, tired of explaining why.
                      3. ccsr
                        ccsr 25 December 2020 17: 39
                        0
                        Quote: AVM
                        All these systems will develop regardless of whether there are articles about them in the Russian Internet.

                        This is not a fact - there are also many articles about drugs on the Russian Internet, but this does not mean that we should legalize them. In this case, prohibitive measures are beneficial.

                        Quote: AVM
                        And because we will not have similar systems, it will only be worse for us.

                        Can you explain why we need these systems, if we have the ability to destroy the United States without them?

                        Quote: AVM
                        And they are already obserae with fear ..

                        They, too, did not expect an attack on the "twins", and then they did it, if of course they allow their version of the attack. But what they are pushing the world to now, making it possible to launch a huge number of satellites uncontrollably, will eventually hit them - over time, terrorists can also use these satellites to attack Americans, even with the help of hacker attacks on their control systems.
                        Quote: AVM
                        Come back to reality. In Syria, poor Turkey shot down a plane,

                        This is not a military success for Turkey, but just a mess with the status of our troops, and it is simply ridiculous to take this incident seriously to assess the military confrontation. You remind me of the local Israelis who are trying to convince everyone that their yard army is one of the coolest in the world.
                        Quote: AVM
                        And the United States came out of almost all the agreements for a reason - agreements are concluded with equals.

                        Now they left, and then they can return to them again, as soon as they understand that they cannot oppose anything to us. By the way, where did you get the idea that since they withdrew from the treaty, then they are not afraid of our military potential?
                      4. psiho117
                        psiho117 29 December 2020 12: 30
                        0
                        Quote: ccsr
                        if we have the ability to destroy the United States without them?

                        and there is no trace of such a possibility - the available warheads and delivery vehicles are not enough even to halve the US military-industrial potential.
                        If the ABM factor is not considered at all, it is even worse with it.
                        And given the fact that US military bases are distributed throughout the globe, then ...
                      5. ccsr
                        ccsr 29 December 2020 13: 08
                        +1
                        Quote: psiho117
                        and there is no trace of such a possibility - the available warheads and delivery vehicles are not enough even to halve the US military-industrial potential.

                        You do not take into account the secondary factors of any nuclear explosion, including man-made and psychological ones, and their consequences can be significant for the country's population, such as the earthquake in Leninakan before the collapse of the USSR, or the Chernobyl disaster.
                        Quote: psiho117
                        If the ABM factor is not considered at all, it is even worse with it.

                        And he did not play a special role even in Soviet times, because even with that military power, we had one missile defense area each. Why would it change so much now if we have even less money?
                        Quote: psiho117
                        And given the fact that US military bases are distributed throughout the globe, then ...

                        You cannot fight from bases in a short-lived war, so this is not yet an indicator for comparing the strategic nuclear forces of both countries.
    2. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 24 December 2020 23: 55
      0
      Quote: ccsr
      But the distance from 400 km to the ground is too small, and this will make the missile defense system tense.

      Nonsense. Just in orbits less than 500, this problem does not exist. There, the satellite slows down on the remnants of the atmosphere, loses altitude and burns up over several years. No, a 100 kg satellite will not fly on your head, it will burn. Only larger pieces of iron reach the ground, Soviet.

      In orbits of 800 kilometers and above, yes, there is a debris problem.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 25 December 2020 03: 36
        -6
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        Only larger pieces of iron, Soviet ones, reach the ground.

        This is because Soviet microcircuits are the largest microcircuits in the world! Already a tear of pride welled up!
  • Intruder
    Intruder 24 December 2020 23: 46
    0
    But what is alarming with such a massive launch into a low orbit is where they will then go within 20-30 years and whether they will be the culprits of space disasters for orbital stations and expensive specialized satellites.
    billions of cubic kilometers of space between the LEO - from 100 to 600 km. maximum, not decades, and then they actively burn out when entering the dense layers of the atmosphere, the planet's gravity rules every second and plus other factors ... which there are many in orbit, especially at low ones! And everything else is banal "magazine fictions" and naked hype on space topics ...
  • Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 25 December 2020 03: 34
    +1
    They can solve some of the problems, but not all. Electronic warfare equipment itself is a "beacon" for the enemy; it is impossible to use them continuously. In addition, optical reconnaissance equipment remains.
    Laser illumination of an object of interest, or a certain area. Can be combined with a mask. networks.
    1. Shopping Mall
      25 December 2020 08: 48
      0
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      They can solve some of the problems, but not all. Electronic warfare equipment itself is a "beacon" for the enemy; it is impossible to use them continuously. In addition, optical reconnaissance equipment remains.
      Laser illumination of an object of interest, or a certain area. Can be combined with a mask. networks.


      There are interesting ways to protect your lenses. For example, lenses with backlighting and a temporarily destructible filter, when the lens is mounted "back", the image is reflected on it from the mirror surface in the vacuum chamber. When the laser radiation hits, the power of which exceeds the set threshold, the film evaporates (it is made of a special material of a certain melting point), after which the laser beam passes through the lens "right through" or goes into a refractory catcher.

      The laser is extremely effective against optical seeker and reconnaissance equipment, but for this, protected products will need to deliver power in kilowatts, or even tens of kilowatts.

      If we are talking about the fact that we need a 10-100 kW defensive laser to burn out the GOS ATGM of the 3rd generation or I-V missiles at a distance of 1-3 km, then the PMSM is a reality - the filter will simply collapse physically or "lead" structural elements ...

      But if we need to disable the satellite optics at an altitude of 500-1000 km + we need to take into account the "horizontal" distance from the laser to the satellite trajectory, then we will need completely different powers - several MW, most likely.
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 25 December 2020 08: 55
        +1
        Quote: AVM
        But if we need to disable the satellite optics at an altitude of 500-1000

        No, no, we are talking about temporary blindness, when flying over a protected object, we mean peaceful time. Well, a slight haze illuminated by a laser from below, I think, too, will not add "vigilance" to the optics.
        Quote: AVM
        when the lens is installed "back", the image is reflected on it from the mirror surface in the vacuum chamber.
        It will be wonderful if such a "miracle" will be installed on massive cheap satellites of "probable partners". )))
        You are "in the subject" to the envy of most VO authors! I applaud. hi
        1. Venya Selnikov
          Venya Selnikov 28 December 2020 16: 50
          0
          Quote: Vladimir_2U
          we are talking about temporary blinding, when flying over the protected object
          The question is that blinding is an active effect on a satellite belonging to another state and located in neutral space.
          In fact, this is an attack that could lead to its breakdown.
          Such a thing can go far ... right up to provoking a military conflict.
          I doubt that it will be adequate in any way in peacetime.
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 28 December 2020 18: 37
            0
            Quote: Venya Selnikov
            The question is that blinding is an active effect on a satellite belonging to another state and located in neutral space.
            An analogue is the blinding of pilots with laser "pointers", no one declares wars on this matter, and you can always declare a certain area "dangerous for optics", in the manner of "dangerous waters" during naval exercises. And yet, the light of optics is far from equal to the destruction of optics.
            The dazzling effect leads to the fact that the sensors temporarily lose their photographic capabilities, due to temporary illumination with light that is brighter than the image of the area

            https://aftershock.news/?q=node/878377&full
            I mistakenly confused blinding with blinding, it turns out there is an official difference,))) but the meaning, I think, was clear.
  • Operator
    Operator 25 December 2020 11: 36
    -1
    Thanks for the reply.
  • evgen1221
    evgen1221 24 December 2020 18: 35
    +3
    I have heard many times that you can read a newspaper from space, but I have not seen real pictures in this resolution. Although even for advertising they had to be. The last time something similar was in young technology in 91 years.
    1. Shopping Mall
      24 December 2020 18: 42
      +7
      Quote: evgen1221
      I have heard many times that you can read a newspaper from space, but I have not seen real pictures in this resolution. Although even for advertising they had to be. The last time something similar was in young technology in 91 years.


      If there are such, in the optical range, then they do not go beyond the special services so that the enemy does not provide opposition to this. In the US, it is legally prohibited to release commercial images with a resolution better than 50 cm. I am sure that their allies follow this restriction.
      1. Sling cutter
        Sling cutter 24 December 2020 19: 12
        +8
        Quote: AVM
        If there are such, in the optical range, then they do not go beyond the special services,

        Exactly so, although in the bowels of the tyrnet pictures and videos with high resolution are already appearing. The era of the info world, however.
        Thank you for the article, meaningfully, informatively and analytically. hi
    2. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 24 December 2020 19: 05
      +7
      Quote: evgen1221
      I have heard many times that you can read a newspaper from space, but I have not seen real pictures in this resolution. Although even for advertising they had to be. The last time something similar was in young technology in 91 years.

      Any search engine with maps to help you Google Maps or Yandex maps, for example. You can admire your and the neighboring house.
      You can get a higher permit either from specialists or for money.
      1. evgen1221
        evgen1221 24 December 2020 21: 16
        0
        So the fact of the matter is that how many I have not looked for, but there is not at all one photo in a higher than the Yandguglovsky picture. And this is precisely what is alarming, in our age of PR and corruption, at least one could seep into the public domain. The same headline in the newspaper of a passer-by, shot in order to advertise and intimidate opponents (like we now see it anyway)
  • Evil Booth
    Evil Booth 24 December 2020 18: 45
    -6
    I am still a threat in the hundreds of something hanging over my head
  • sevtrash
    sevtrash 24 December 2020 18: 46
    +4
    "... Their design is based on the use of inexpensive, commercially available electronic components ..."
    This is probably the key point. The ability to access high-tech components from many firms and countries. And the ability to build on their basis a device, apparatus, system. Of course, you also need a team that will do everything. But this is secondary, primary - the ability to receive components from suppliers around the world, but primarily from the countries of the Western world. With permission from the United States, of course. Hence the prospects are clear.
    1. Cosm22
      Cosm22 24 December 2020 19: 34
      +10
      The team is definitely needed. A team of like-minded people and people with innovative views.
      But first of all you need brains. A leader who is able to form such a team and set goals for it. How Musk did it. A leader should see farther than others, he should not walk on the beaten path, his goal is to be able to see the perspective, evaluate it, do something that no one else has done before.
      But is such a state of affairs possible in Russia, where any initiative is stifled in the bud, and only the Republic of Kazakhstan rules the ball?
      No.
      Here in the article, Kokorich is mentioned. A clever head and a bright mind, who created the private space company Dauria in Russia. Why did he emigrate to the USA?
      He himself explains this in a few lines. According to Kokorich, creating Dauria in Russia was his biggest mistake in life. His direct quote:
      “A company of this kind can only exist in two situations. Either if there is strong support from the state, which gives orders, builds into structures, as is done for Boeing, Airbus, Lockheed Martin, and so on, or when there is an opportunity to work for a large open world market, taking advantage of the country's advantages. And I, of course, did not sign up for the fact that after 2014 we will be cut off from the world market. "
      What is there to add? There is nothing to add. Under such prevailing conditions, there is nothing to count on the appearance in Russia of his own Elon Musk. They will not give freedom for creativity, they will be crushed by instructions, regulations, any initiative will be immediately evaluated as vicious. For the state RK is a big giraffe. He knows better what and how to do.
  • Doctor
    Doctor 24 December 2020 18: 47
    +5
    Yes, that's how you have to work. A company that started with $ 2 million of leveraged funds 19 years ago does this:

  • donavi49
    donavi49 24 December 2020 19: 03
    +7
    By the end of 2020, it is planned to launch two more Sequoia RN Falcon 9 satellites into orbit by SpaceX.


    Sherpa flies on January 14, 2021 (transfer is possible due to the weather, well, or the rocket will break there, the booster is still five times).

    In the subject, Maksar was also forgotten, their Legion 29 cm / pixel in optics makes wink
    Maxar will launch the world's most advanced constellation of WorldView Legion satellites into Earth orbit in 2021. The first block will be a block of six high-performance satellites, which will make it possible to photograph the Earth with the highest spatial resolution up to 15 times a day. This mission will meet the needs of all customers for ultra-high resolution 29 cm images and triple the speed of new data.

    Features and Benefits of WorldView Legion Satellites
    Ultra-high spatial resolution
    - panchromatic image - 29 cm
    - multispectral image - 1.16 m
    8-channel shooting for a wide range of tasks.
    The highest accuracy of image snapping without using control points - no more than 5 m.
    Direct access to images through the site using unique encryption keys.
    The communication system allows you to get new images immediately after shooting.
    Large image area both in mono and stereo modes.
    10-year satellite service life.

    While the old ones work for them, they give the highest quality picture of all private traders (better than an Israeli private program and Europeans).



    1. eklmn
      eklmn 24 December 2020 20: 04
      0
      "Features and Benefits of WorldView Legion satellites ... (etc.)"
      The author of a very good article, Andrey Mitrofanov, missed (or I did not notice) that a synthetic aperture radar station (radar) sees through roofs and shelters, and there are such pictures. Therefore, it makes no sense to compare with the photo.
    2. Shopping Mall
      24 December 2020 21: 34
      +2
      Quote: donavi49
      Maksar is forgotten, their Legion


      Not that I forgot. There are many remote sensing satellites, including. commercial, but they are all large, heavy and expensive. The key difference between the considered satellites is that they are small (about 100 kg).
  • svoit
    svoit 24 December 2020 19: 04
    +4
    Quote: evgen1221
    I hear many times that you can have a newspaper from space

    My hearing is not that good, but I also read somewhere about reading car numbers under favorable conditions.
    I just didn’t understand the difficulties in aiming anti-ship missiles, is it really that today's 5 m is not enough to aim at an aircraft carrier?
    1. antivirus
      antivirus 24 December 2020 19: 26
      +1
      guys just make money and move progress ... get their hands on space technologies.
      Secondary school physics and chemistry teachers are happy.
      1. agond
        agond 24 December 2020 20: 38
        0
        The number of reconnaissance satellites will continue to grow, it is impossible to somehow influence it, everything on the planet's surface will be tracked in real time with high resolution in different ranges, so you should think about whether it is possible to hide something, if possible, how, I think that
        1 samples of military equipment should be made as small as possible, for example, instead of a large launcher with four S-400 missiles, use a truck with one missile, and launch it not from a vehicle, as is customary, but from a container, the container can be pulled aside by a winch under the bushes, into the forest, into a ravine, into a snowdrift
        2 the appearance of military equipment should be closely similar, which would make it difficult to determine its purpose, for example, it was impossible to determine exactly which type of aircraft was taxiing from a satellite
        It is better to keep all sorts of smaller missiles in launch containers and hide them under water in the coastal zone, although ice can prevent their launch, but this is probably solvable.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 24 December 2020 19: 49
    +10
    Well, the future comes earlier than the author assumed. But, unfortunately, this future does not come for everyone.
    The author, this future is more than 20 years old. Since 1999, in the United States, commercial satellites have provided information to government agencies on the basis of guaranteed contracts. At the same time, a part of the resource (about 50%) is used by the operating companies for the formation of ultra-high resolution space images, intended for sale on the world market.

    These are satellites with optoelectronic surface sensing systems.
    And this is with radar systems.
    1. Shopping Mall
      24 December 2020 20: 43
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      Well, the future comes earlier than the author assumed. But, unfortunately, this future does not come for everyone.
      The author, this future is more than 20 years old. Since 1999, in the United States, commercial satellites have provided information to government agencies on the basis of guaranteed contracts. At the same time, a part of the resource (about 50%) is used by the operating companies for the formation of ultra-high resolution space images, intended for sale on the world market.

      These are satellites with optoelectronic surface sensing systems.
      And this is with radar systems.


      You are partly right, but in the article the emphasis is on the fact that such satellites began to be collected just not in car services, and their mass became like a refrigerator.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 24 December 2020 20: 58
        +4
        You can't collect satellites in a car service.
        1. Shopping Mall
          24 December 2020 21: 37
          +2
          Quote: Undecim
          You can't collect satellites in a car service.


          I'm exaggerating, it's like the difference between the Khrunichev State Research and Production Center / Boeing and a 100-person startup.
  • bk316
    bk316 24 December 2020 20: 08
    0
    It is about this that I wrote to our VOShny naval commanders about 2 years ago. The task of tracking all AUGs has been technically solved long ago. Once an hour there will be target designation or once every 30 minutes at AUG speed is insignificant
    ... Our military is still far away from 15 cm, but the permission of 15 m for AUG is above the roof.
    1. ccsr
      ccsr 24 December 2020 20: 53
      +1
      Quote: bk316
      The task of tracking all AUGs has been technically solved long ago.

      At least since the eighties - that's for sure.
      Our military is still far from 15 cm,

      And this is not necessary, because there is too little surface capture with such detailing, and this is a waste of resources.
      1. Shopping Mall
        24 December 2020 21: 39
        +3
        Quote: ccsr
        And this is not necessary, because there is too little surface capture with such detailing, and this is a waste of resources.


        An analogy can be made here with optical sights. There is a high magnification and a narrow field of view - you can see far away, but the field of view is small, there is with a small magnification, but with a large field of view. And there is a variable multiplicity, with a choice.

        Capella Space satellites are just, conditionally, with "variable fold".
        1. ccsr
          ccsr 25 December 2020 12: 30
          +1
          Quote: AVM
          Capella Space satellites are just, conditionally, with "variable fold".

          I'm not going to enter into polemics with you on this issue, but I think you need to study this material from a scientific journal:
          Resolution of 30 cm allows you to "see" a free-standing person or a free-standing brick. A resolution of 1 m is sufficient to distinguish a vehicle from a tank. But the stories that American spy satellites are able to distinguish the stars on the shoulder straps of the military or read the numbers of passenger cars belong to the category of anecdotes. In order to count the stars on the captain's shoulder straps, a permit of about 0,5 cm is required, and the numbers of cars are not written on the roofs of cars. Here you can easily determine the name of any American aircraft carrier from a picture from space: ship numbers are usually drawn on decks in multi-meter numbers!

          https://www.popmech.ru/technologies/8999-lyubopytnyy-vzglyad-iz-kosmosa-fotoshpionazh/
          1. Shopping Mall
            25 December 2020 12: 38
            +1
            Quote: ccsr
            Quote: AVM
            Capella Space satellites are just, conditionally, with "variable fold".

            I'm not going to enter into polemics with you on this issue, but I think you need to study this material from a scientific journal:
            Resolution of 30 cm allows you to "see" a free-standing person or a free-standing brick. A resolution of 1 m is sufficient to distinguish a vehicle from a tank. But the stories that American spy satellites are able to distinguish the stars on the shoulder straps of the military or read the numbers of passenger cars belong to the category of anecdotes. In order to count the stars on the captain's shoulder straps, a permit of about 0,5 cm is required, and the numbers of cars are not written on the roofs of cars. Here you can easily determine the name of any American aircraft carrier from a picture from space: ship numbers are usually drawn on decks in multi-meter numbers!

            https://www.popmech.ru/technologies/8999-lyubopytnyy-vzglyad-iz-kosmosa-fotoshpionazh/


            Did I claim the opposite somewhere? I just said that such satellites can work with a resolution of 3-5 meters in flight and 25 cm in the "exposure" mode.
            1. ccsr
              ccsr 25 December 2020 13: 25
              +1
              Quote: AVM
              Have I argued somewhere else?

              Why then passages with "variable multiplicity" - do they deny us common sense, or prove that we are going the wrong way?
              1. Shopping Mall
                25 December 2020 13: 45
                +1
                Quote: ccsr
                Quote: AVM
                Have I argued somewhere else?

                Why then passages with "variable multiplicity" - do they deny us common sense, or prove that we are going the wrong way?


                "Variable multiplicity" is not in vain in quotes. With regard to the topic under discussion, this means that the satellite can carry out reconnaissance with a tracking strip conventionally with a resolution of 3 meters, or shoot one area from several points with a resolution of 30 centimeters. The first mode is used for primary target detection, for example, we found a group of ships. The second mode - for target recognition, understanding - this is a cruiser, this is a supply ship, and this is a yacht with Abramovich. It immediately becomes clear what needs to be sunk first.

                And about the stars - I'm not sure that Popular Mechanics is being told about all the capabilities of US intelligence.

                Look at the pictures of Google maps, even on them you can easily distinguish people. And look how many secret satellites the United States has. The military and intelligence agencies always keep the best for themselves. I would not be at all surprised by an optical reconnaissance satellite with a resolution of 1-5 centimeters.
                1. ccsr
                  ccsr 25 December 2020 14: 10
                  +1
                  Quote: AVM
                  And about the stars - I'm not sure that Popular Mechanics is being told about all the capabilities of US intelligence.

                  Can you think of a real reconnaissance task for such detail, taking into account the fact that this satellite does not hang as a geostationary one and how many of them will be required to track an object with such detail at least several tens of minutes? After all, no one is going to brag about their capabilities where they need an optimal result for little money.
                  Quote: AVM
                  I would not be surprised at all by an optical reconnaissance satellite with a resolution of 1-5 centimeters.

                  For what - name the problem that such a satellite can solve, and which cannot be done in another way.
                  Quote: AVM
                  The first mode is used for primary target detection, for example, we found a group of ships.

                  Yes, they already "flicker" that radio reconnaissance and without satellites of detailed optical reconnaissance can indicate the exact coordinates without any "primary detection". Go down to earth - everything has been worked out for a long time since Soviet times.
                  1. Shopping Mall
                    25 December 2020 14: 34
                    0
                    Quote: ccsr
                    Quote: AVM
                    And about the stars - I'm not sure that Popular Mechanics is being told about all the capabilities of US intelligence.

                    Can you think of a real reconnaissance task for such detail, taking into account the fact that this satellite does not hang as a geostationary one and how many of them will be required to track an object with such detail at least several tens of minutes? After all, no one is going to brag about their capabilities where they need an optimal result for little money.


                    Quote: AVM
                    I would not be surprised at all by an optical reconnaissance satellite with a resolution of 1-5 centimeters.

                    For what - name the problem that such a satellite can solve, and which cannot be done in another way.

                    Minutes may be enough.

                    And for what? - to determine by detailed signs whether it is a real silo or a false one, this is a real PGRK or a model

                    Quote: ccsr
                    Quote: AVM
                    The first mode is used for primary target detection, for example, we found a group of ships.

                    Yes, they already "flicker" that radio reconnaissance and without satellites of detailed optical reconnaissance can indicate the exact coordinates without any "primary detection". Go down to earth - everything has been worked out for a long time since Soviet times.


                    What radiation is used for radiation? Have you heard about the radio silence mode? Detection, recognition, target designation of AUG is a very difficult task, I analyzed it in a whole series of articles, to which there are a lot of comments from people who are sure that I am wrong, and in fact it is even more difficult.

                    And the "Soviet times" are long gone, so many opportunities simply disappeared.
                    1. ccsr
                      ccsr 25 December 2020 17: 51
                      +1
                      Quote: AVM
                      Minutes may be enough.

                      Are you seriously? Yes, they won't even have time to evacuate the American president in minutes, but here you are drawing some unthinkable tasks for satellites.
                      Quote: AVM
                      And for what? - to determine by detailed signs whether it is a real silo or a false one, this is a real PGRK or a model

                      It seems to me that you are simply inappropriate fantasizing, because silos have been identified for a long time, and there is no point in attacking them - there will be no missiles there.
                      Quote: AVM
                      What radiation is used for radiation?

                      I realized that you don’t even know the slang, but with a clever air you are undertaking to discuss something about the intelligence activities of the orbital group. Maybe you shouldn't be so substituted, and understand that the word "fonat" has a completely different meaning, not related to radiation.
                      Quote: AVM
                      Have you heard about the radio silence mode? Detection, recognition, target designation of AUG is a very difficult task, I analyzed it in a whole series of articles,

                      Do you think you've figured it out? I strongly doubt this, judging by the fact that you do not even understand many elementary things.
                      Quote: AVM
                      And the "Soviet times" are long gone, so many opportunities simply disappeared.

                      Some opportunities have disappeared, but many others have appeared that they could not even have imagined before - for example, attacks on enemy control systems and opening of databases, the protection of which can sometimes be hacked.
      2. bk316
        bk316 25 December 2020 13: 43
        -1
        Definitely!
        In general, if not about aircraft carriers, but about 15 cm. laughing
        Here another task arises: how to identify mobile objects of interest to you in such an ocean of information. In the 90s the problem was unsolvable. Now ML has solved this problem.
        Summary: we are not on the eve of a revolution - it is in full swing.
  • Pandiurin
    Pandiurin 24 December 2020 20: 22
    +1
    Quote: ccsr
    Quote: AVM
    By launching 12 satellites a year, the constellation will retain its imaging capabilities indefinitely.

    Of course, now there is complete euphoria from success in launching small satellites and getting good results in their work. But what is alarming with such a massive launch into a low orbit is where they will then go within 20-30 years and whether they will be the culprits of space disasters for orbital stations and expensive specialized satellites. For some reason, it seems to me that the current permissiveness will then turn into big problems for their owners, as soon as, for example, an expensive US intelligence satellite or the ISS suffers.
    I think that there is something to think about for those who now see only some advantages of small satellites - at least now you need to think about their disposal.


    So the problem is that in a low orbit the satellite clings to the atmosphere starts to lose altitude and the process goes on increasing the lower the satellite becomes, the faster the deceleration goes. 3 years is precisely from this the service life is established. Most likely, when the satellite falls, it is unlikely to exceed this period by 2 times.
    Those. launched 3 years, worked in another 2-3 years fell and burned up in the upper atmosphere. Moreover, he has a healthy antenna, significant windage.
    1. ccsr
      ccsr 24 December 2020 20: 52
      0
      Quote: Pandiurin
      Those. launched 3 years, worked in another 2-3 years fell and burned up in the upper atmosphere.

      An uncontrolled descent, as well as an impact on the dense layers of the atmosphere, can lead to serious accidents with other space technology. And how should our missile defense system react if "suddenly" 20-50 satellites begin to de-orbit simultaneously, with the predicted point of impact in the Moscow region. In general, there is something to think about.
      Quote: Pandiurin
      3 years from this is the service life and is established.

      And if it ceases to exist earlier and begins to abruptly change its orbit?
      1. Cherry Nine
        Cherry Nine 24 December 2020 23: 59
        +1
        Quote: ccsr
        And how should our missile defense system react if "suddenly" 20-50 satellites begin to simultaneously de-orbit,

        Let him react as he wants. These are her problems.
      2. Rudkovsky
        Rudkovsky 2 January 2021 22: 29
        +2
        And how did the Soviet air defense react when Matias Rust boarded his plane in the center of Moscow in 1987? This is how they will react here, they will mess up everything, and then they will say that everything was under control. Is it difficult or what?
  • Vladimir1155
    Vladimir1155 24 December 2020 20: 27
    +2
    here is objective proof of the obvious thing, all surface ships, especially the KUG, are perfectly visible
  • eklmn
    eklmn 24 December 2020 20: 31
    +1
    Russia is not the USSR and learning to live within its means - you cannot embrace all the industries with grandmas, no money will be enough ...
    But to develop / support startups, as is done in the United States, Russia needs to learn this. And the state does not spend so much on this, but it has created a whole system of attracting private sponsors to startups (they pay the lion's share, receiving tax benefits).
    Why is it profitable for the state? Yes, because if a startup flies by, it will lose little (sponsors will lose everything), but if the startup works, then these are jobs in the economy.
    By the way, Kokorich opened his startup in the USA, creating the Momentus company. Momentus manufactures plasma-derived space tugs from water. Tugs lift LEO satellites much higher. Now it is no longer a startup, but a serious company whose services dozens of satellite owners want to use.
    1. Alexei
      Alexei 25 December 2020 10: 54
      0
      [/ quote] By the way, Kokorich opened his startup in the USA, creating the Momentus company. Momentus manufactures plasma-derived space tugs from water. Tugs lift LEO satellites much higher. Now it is no longer a startup, but a serious company whose services dozens of satellite owners want to use. [Quote]


      They are still in the project!
      1. eklmn
        eklmn 25 December 2020 17: 31
        +1
        "They are still in the project!"
        Momentus will begin commercial services in 2021 with Vigoride and will gradually introduce an entire family of advanced spacecraft.
        https://momentus.space/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Momentus-SpaceX-Press-Release.pdf
        (lane google)
        “March 9, 2020 - Santa Clara, CA - Momentus announced today that it has acquired space on six SpaceX SmallSat Rideshare Program missions, including five Sun-Synchronous launches.
        orbit (SSO) and one to the mean inclination of low-earth orbit that Momentus will use to
        customers gain access to customizable landing altitudes and orbits in space. Momentus has many customers lining up for the Vigoride shuttle in 2020 and 2021, including Steamjet, NuSpace and Aurora Space Technologies. Several other customers have signed up for Momentus charters to destinations not directly served by scheduled flights. ”
  • tank66
    tank66 24 December 2020 20: 49
    +2
    I understood about a bucket of nuts, but could an Artificial Intelligence get into the deck of an aircraft carrier with a tungsten dumbbell? winked
    1. Shopping Mall
      24 December 2020 21: 41
      +1
      Quote: tank66
      I understood about a bucket of nuts, but could an Artificial Intelligence get into the deck of an aircraft carrier with a tungsten dumbbell? winked


      In 20-30 years according to the optimal scenario, in 5-10 according to the optimistic scenario, in 40-50 according to the pessimistic one.
  • silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 24 December 2020 21: 05
    0
    blows to control centers (and there are not so many of them) ... completely make it impossible to have any grouping in Space ... 1 control center ... 1 Vanguard ... and that's all ... but in peacetime, of course, everything is under a hood ... the West drew conclusions from the war in Iraq when not a single Scud was destroyed at the starting position (AND THE TIME OF PREPARATION FOR STARTING 1 h. 45 min.)
    1. Shopping Mall
      25 December 2020 08: 25
      0
      Quote: silberwolf88
      attacks on control centers (and there are not so many of them) ... completely make it impossible to have any grouping in Space ... 1 control center ... 1 Vanguard ... and that's it ...


      Nowadays, a MCC is no longer required to control the satellite constellation; it may well be controlled by Doomsday planes or ground control points based on a truck.
      1. silberwolf88
        silberwolf88 25 December 2020 14: 22
        0
        This is, of course, your personal opinion ... but deciphering a high-resolution photo is about something else ... and controlling the onboard equipment by transmitting and receiving program / command information ... it's generally about something else ... and it's organized differently)) .. I'm not even talking about retargeting the satellites of the view reconnaissance ... or determining the constellation over a certain area and getting different information from different kinds of satellites in an aggregated form ... talk to the specialists of the Space Forces ... they will explain in detail
        Doomsday plane or VZPU, at best, about communication and transmission (transmission !!! And only) of information from ground control points of spacecraft (all kinds of KIKs, etc.) and there are a lot of topics ... one time synchronization is worth it
      2. ccsr
        ccsr 25 December 2020 18: 06
        +1
        Quote: AVM
        Nowadays, a MCC is no longer required to control the satellite constellation; it may well be controlled by Doomsday planes or ground control points based on a truck.

        Are you serious? In my opinion, you are confusing the command post of the head of state with the control system of the orbital group, and these are two big differences. And as expected, the head of state (the United States or Russia) simply will not have time to get to such an aircraft, or to arrive at a mobile command post - you are simply captivated by naive illusions about the development of a nuclear conflict between these two countries.

        Quote: silberwolf88
        This is, of course, your personal opinion ... but decrypting a high-resolution photo is about something else ... and controlling the onboard equipment by transmitting and receiving program / command information ... it's about something else ...

        I also realized that a person confuses soft with warm, and it becomes clear that he has no practical knowledge, and the knowledge gained from the Internet is not always beneficial.
        Quote: silberwolf88
        chat with the Space Forces experts ... they will explain in detail

        It is unlikely that he will want to do this - it is easier to fantasize and wishful thinking, otherwise specialists will start loading information, and the picture of the world will fade for him.
        Quote: silberwolf88
        Doomsday plane or VZPU, at best, about communication and transmission (transmission !!! And only) of information from ground control points of spacecraft (all kinds of KIKs, etc.) and there are a lot of topics ... one time synchronization is worth it

        I understand perfectly well that you are really in the subject, and the author's conclusions have nothing to do with the real picture. Probably I will not reveal a big secret, but in Soviet times, as far as I know, there were deputies at the district level air command post - but the author does not even know this when he pushes his thoughts about the doomsday plane.
  • A.TOR
    A.TOR 24 December 2020 21: 23
    0
    without gaining an advantage, or at least parity in outer space

    there will be no advantage or parity in the "competition" with the entire Western world.
    1. Shopping Mall
      24 December 2020 21: 41
      +2
      Quote: A.TOR
      without gaining an advantage, or at least parity in outer space

      there will be no advantage or parity in the "competition" with the entire Western world.


      There are still chances.
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 24 December 2020 21: 57
    +5
    Very, very interesting review article. Thanks to the author! good
  • The eye of the crying
    The eye of the crying 24 December 2020 22: 37
    -1
    Spelling "SpaceX" as "SpaseX" is that kind of thing?
  • iouris
    iouris 24 December 2020 23: 30
    0
    But we do rockets ... These rockets will launch these satellites. And our troops will not be able to hide from such an "eye".
    The Russians, too, can probably make a satellite of this kind, but nine to fifteen times heavier, ten meters longer, and the lifespan will be three times shorter. Yes, but if intelligence manages to "get" something critical over the hill ...
  • PROVINCIAL
    PROVINCIAL 25 December 2020 02: 17
    0
    I never thought about it. And it became interesting - an atomic explosion at an altitude of 550 km. ONE interceptor missile with a special unit - how many will it capture (including EI)? What will be the area of ​​the disturbance of the magnetosphere if the explosion took place, for example, over the central region? And for how long? Will the roy go out? Or go blind? I think there are specialists among the readers of VO who can answer.
  • ilpine
    ilpine 25 December 2020 03: 06
    +3
    There are 2 troubles in Russia:
    1. There is no customer for such technologies, for the RF Ministry of Defense it seems boring and petty. And the rest have no money.
    2. Roskosmos monopoly - why breed competitors? We will make you the biggest rocket, the biggest station, etc.
    The same story as with drones.
  • swzero
    swzero 25 December 2020 07: 15
    +2
    satellites are good, but how long will they live after the first nuclear explosions in near-earth orbit, if it comes to large-scale hostilities? How resistant is this whole swarm to EMP and artificial radio belts?
    1. Shopping Mall
      25 December 2020 08: 14
      0
      Quote: swzero
      satellites are good, but how long will they live after the first nuclear explosions in near-earth orbit, if it comes to large-scale hostilities? How resistant is this whole swarm to EMP and artificial radio belts?


      Disabling satellites by a nuclear strike is possible only if we attack first, and if the enemy uses them during the first strike, for example, to suppress the fleet and the PGRK, it will be too late. Even if we deliver such a blow, the enemy can partially restore the grouping of reconnaissance and communications satellites, withdrawing them with small carriers of various types.

      I doubt about EMP and artificial radio belts.
      1. agond
        agond 25 December 2020 09: 21
        0
        Even in low orbits, the distances between satellites are very large, one nuclear explosion can disable only one satellite, and then provided that the explosion occurs close enough, because the satellites are designed taking into account heating from the Sun and ionizing radiation, so the idea is massive spoil other people's satellites - scouts is a senseless idea, even the use of laser weapons will help little, try to find the dimensions of the target 10x10x30cm over 500 km, and then try to point the gun ... to counteract observers from space to do on Earth, that is, mask and hide ground, under water
        1. Shopping Mall
          25 December 2020 09: 29
          0
          Quote: agond
          ... to counteract observers from space to before on Earth, that is, to mask and hide underground, under water


          Masking will become more difficult for three reasons:
          1. Improving the quality of images and the possibility of obtaining it in several ranges - RL, IR, optical.
          2. Continuous tracking, when satellites will track the target continuously, tracking all its changes.
          3. The use of neural networks for data processing will greatly increase the efficiency of items 1 and 2.

          But underground and under water, yes.
          1. Disant
            Disant 25 December 2020 20: 33
            -1
            1. Improving the quality of images and the possibility of obtaining it in several ranges - RL, IR, optical.

            for radar and infrared ranges, energy is needed on board. The optical range ends at night and clouds. These are already different masses and other money.
            All the startups you mentioned with 100 people - PR and aversion - there is no civilian use yet - all the results of startups work thanks to the military budget. And the "fencing" of projects gives them the right not to be a target for strikes (including blinding and damage in the pre-war period) and to duplicate military constellations of satellites - it is seen as follows.
  • RealPilot
    RealPilot 25 December 2020 08: 49
    +1
    Thank you for the article! Very informative...
    Nostalgia! And sadness. crying

    I, just graduating from Moscow State Technical University in 2006, took part in the project:

    The first satellite of the Moscow State Technical University N.E.Bauman - "Baumanets" - was created in 2003-2006. under the patronage of the Federal Space Agency with the involvement of specialists from the space industry. The scientific and educational program of small-sized spacecraft is initially aimed at improving the training of highly qualified specialists for the space industry. Sputnik was created by mixed target groups of students and professionals. The uniqueness of the project lies in the creation of a special educational environment for students that allows them to gain practical skills and professional knowledge at all stages of the life cycle of a rocket and space technology product. The entire payload for the Baumanets microsatellite was developed and created by students of the M.V. N.E.Bauman. In fact, a scientific laboratory was created to conduct scientific and educational experiments. The mass of the spacecraft is 85,5 kg. The Baumanets satellite was launched into orbit on the Dnepr carrier rocket on July 28, 2006, but the spacecraft was lost due to the emergency launch of the carrier rocket.

    In general, sorry for him!

    But here's what else PASSES! I didn't take part in this already, but it's a shame:

    During 2013–2016. students of the Moscow State Technical University N.E.Bauman designed and created on an industrial basis the Baumanets-2 microsatellite, which was launched on November 28, 2017 from the Vostochny cosmodrome on the Soyuz carrier rocket. However, due to malfunctions of the upper stage, the spacecraft was not launched into the calculated orbit.


    That is, unsuccessful launches literally bury our astronautics! And this is repeated regularly ... fool
  • sevryuk
    sevryuk 25 December 2020 11: 56
    -1
    Quote: lexus
    For the putriots, from now on, other people's cowards are the subject of an unhealthy fetish and sighing.

    Understandably - the panties are lace!
  • APASUS
    APASUS 25 December 2020 13: 25
    -1
    As I understand it, that moment from the humor of our Zadornov is getting closer?
    The Russians will find a cheap and very effective way to deal with satellites, they will simply lift 60 tons of nails into space ...................
    1. iouris
      iouris 25 December 2020 13: 32
      +3
      Quote: APASUS
      60 tons of nails

      Are these homing nails? Will they maneuver in orbit? Or maybe you need not 60 tons, but 60 million tons?
      1. APASUS
        APASUS 25 December 2020 13: 50
        0
        Quote: iouris
        Are these homing nails? Will they maneuver in orbit?

        It's cramped in space.
        But starting next week, the American company SpaceX will start launching 60 satellites into orbit every few weeks.
        By the end of next year, there will be about 1500 new satellites in orbit, and by the mid-2020s their number will reach about 12 thousand https://www.bbc.com/russian/features-50925339

        It's not yet considering space debris
        As of 2017, there are about 18 thousand objects in orbit over 10 centimeters in size, including 1200 satellites, 750 thousand "flying bullets" (the size of each "bullet" is about a centimeter) and about 150 million very small fragments, the size of which is less millimeter ", - the document says.
        https://www.interfax.ru/world/646660
        1. The eye of the crying
          The eye of the crying 25 December 2020 15: 10
          -1
          Quote: APASUS
          It's cramped in space.


          It's very spacious in space. Because it's very big. About a wagon of nails and a bucket of nuts - here: https://fonzeppelin.livejournal.com/107823.html
        2. Shopping Mall
          25 December 2020 15: 11
          0
          Quote: APASUS
          Quote: iouris
          Are these homing nails? Will they maneuver in orbit?

          It's cramped in space.
          But starting next week, the American company SpaceX will start launching 60 satellites into orbit every few weeks.
          By the end of next year, there will be about 1500 new satellites in orbit, and by the mid-2020s their number will reach about 12 thousand https://www.bbc.com/russian/features-50925339

          It's not yet considering space debris
          As of 2017, there are about 18 thousand objects in orbit over 10 centimeters in size, including 1200 satellites, 750 thousand "flying bullets" (the size of each "bullet" is about a centimeter) and about 150 million very small fragments, the size of which is less millimeter ", - the document says.
          https://www.interfax.ru/world/646660


          The volume between orbits 200 and 1000 kilometers is 611 707 979 503,06 km3, between orbits 200 and 40000 kilometers - 75 683 938 710 666,70 km3

          Those. if we take 1 fragments of relatively large debris, then we get 000 fragment per 000 km1 between orbits 611 and 707,98 kilometers, or 3 fragment per 200 between orbits 1000 and 1 kilometers.

          But even if we take 150 particles, we get 000 fragment per 000 km1 between orbits 4 and 078,05 kilometers or 3 fragment per 200 km1000 between orbits 1 and 504 kilometers.

          What is the probability of collision with a satellite with a volume of 10 m3?

          60 tons of nails, let it be 4x100 mm 10 grams each, this is 6 nails + you need a system for spreading them, otherwise they will fly in a bunch, in total, the output of one super-heavy 000 nails, 000 launches per year (the end of the Russian economy) 6 000 nails per year, and taking into account the unsuccessful launches and the ruin of the economy in 000-10 years, we will get about 60 nails in orbit, i.e. get 000 nail per 000 km2 between orbits 3 and 150 kilometers or 000 nail per 000 km1 between orbits 4 and 078,05 kilometers.

          What will be the likelihood of satellites colliding with these nails? Will the price of luck be too high?
          1. The comment was deleted.
            1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Evil Booth
            Evil Booth 26 December 2020 15: 02
            -1
            fool firstly, there are enough needles so that * 100 secondly, their speed and orbits are equal to kka and the movement of targets in many zeros increases the likelihood of an accident in a week, and it can take months to rummage around in the orbits of carnations. everything was calculated and published long before you and more than once. you know this most likely and deliberately hide. Possibly the window for launching a rocket with a satellite must wait for hours so that you can not slip into something flying by.
      2. Lexus
        Lexus 25 December 2020 13: 57
        +1
        Even nails and those on the Russian market are predominantly Chinese.
  • dgonni
    dgonni 25 December 2020 13: 35
    0
    Respect! In fact, the author voiced the fact that mattresses predicted 7-9? Years ago!
    Namely, the side that has a large grouping in orbit wins the opposition. And can quickly build it up or replace those that have failed by the enemy
    Miniturization from the same opera.
    Given the depth of the gap in terms of electronic components and the availability of delivery vehicles. The conclusion suggests itself!
    As in the good old days, large battalions are more respectful.
    1. agond
      agond 25 December 2020 15: 22
      -1
      Quote: dgonni
      Namely, the side that has a large grouping in orbit wins the opposition. And can quickly build it up or replace those that have failed by the enemy

      The number of required satellites in the constellation is finite, and as soon as it is reached there will be no need for their further build-up, and whether we want it or not, the number they need will be achieved in the near future, it follows that we need to look for a countermeasure not in space , but on the ground, that is, he will learn to hide and hide his objects significant for defense
    2. Evil Booth
      Evil Booth 26 December 2020 15: 00
      -1
      your lag in what amd is doing in china)) and the pentium is not a cake. Elbrus, if worse, is purely due to the fact that it does not fall into the swabble market of gaming PCs)
  • Sanche
    Sanche 26 December 2020 11: 02
    -1
    Let's go down to earth and return to our rams. I am worried about one question, the Russians will someday make a car for people reliable, beautiful and not expensive, so that they want to buy it.
  • Evil Booth
    Evil Booth 26 December 2020 14: 59
    0
    hi low-grade all-spreading. in fact, microsatellites and their rapid entry into low orbits by the air force or rocket space have been dragged from us for a long time, as well as the technologies of the shattering of space by a storm of needles sweeping everything and everyone from orbit. as well as surveillance systems, while effective for flocks of small objects. as well as high-altitude fighters capable of reaching low orbits. as well as mobile strategic nuclear forces. kka and dazzlers of satellites tembolee little thing can not be jammed with overexposure, but corny with interference on a number of frequencies, on the radio wave so all at once) if in general ... and so on. the author, on the other hand, pulls his unknown one onto the globe given to him. it is especially important that bulo.
  • Local from the Volga
    Local from the Volga 26 December 2020 20: 27
    -2
    Soon all these observers will end up badly, because the whole world is already warming itself from everyone's attention! Stupidly, groups of dissatisfied people will begin to destroy all this electronic nonsense!
  • DLord
    DLord 28 December 2020 03: 33
    +1
    In space, one cannot lag behind for a single year, let alone a decade. Will not catch up later. I hope our wise elders still understand something about this and realize how far behind we are.
    1. putnik51
      putnik51 2 January 2021 09: 17
      0
      Our wise elders are more concerned with stuffing their pockets in order to slip to the west. As well as our great pop music together with the "near-television" community.
  • Shopping Mall
    4 January 2021 11: 01
    0
    https://3dnews.ru/1029247/pentagon-nagradil-spacex-pervim-v-2021-godu-kontraktom-na-zapusk-sputnikov

    The last day of the past year brought SpaceX a $ 150 million contract to launch satellites for the US Space Development Agency. The agency was created in 2019 to fend off threats from space and to ensure technological and military superiority. Under the contract, SpaceX will launch 2021 satellites into orbit by the end of 28. These will be the first spacecraft in the future US planetary military satellite network for monitoring and control tasks.

    According to the contract, SpaceX will launch two groups of satellites, 950 each, into two circular circumpolar orbits at an altitude of 14 km. Twenty out of 28 satellites belong to the formation of the so-called transport layer in orbit, the remaining eight are satellites for warning about missile launches, in particular, for tracking hypersonic missiles. Transport layer satellites must provide data transmission over optical communication channels between themselves and communication with control nodes.

    According to the plans of the Space Development Agency, about a hundred satellites of the transport layer should be deployed by 2024. The first of them, as we now know, will be put into orbit by SpaceX. In 2020, SpaceX made 25 successful launches and was awarded a contract, offering the best conditions for cost and other critical parameters of the tender. SpaceX also won the Agency's tender for the manufacture of four transport layer satellites, but due to the protest of competitors, the work was temporarily suspended.
  • FrankyStein
    FrankyStein 30 January 2021 04: 25
    0
    How about roasting them with lasers?