Military Review

An EU strike drone. Eurodrone MALE

49

All conflicts in recent years have been accompanied by the use of an unmanned aviation... At the same time, the intensity of its application and the range of tasks being solved gradually grew.


For many years, the United States remains the leader in the field of UAVs, especially large reconnaissance drones and strike vehicles. Israel has also made good progress in this area, and, as the war in Nagorno-Karabakh has shown, Turkey. In the near future, Turkish attack drones will definitely be in demand in the international arms market.

The EU decided to keep up with the emerging trends and, since the second half of the 2010s, has been actively developing its own large attack reconnaissance drone Eurodrone as part of the European MALE RPAS (Medium Altitude Long Endurance Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) program.

The device under development has impressive dimensions and weight. The drone, which in the long term should compete with the American "Reaper" MQ-9 Reaper, will be more than twice as heavy as the competitor.

What is known about the Eurodrone program


The development of a promising European medium-altitude strike-reconnaissance drone of long autonomy of action began on May 18, 2015. Initially, three countries worked on the project: Germany, France and Italy. Later they were joined by Spain.

In November of the same year, management of the program was transferred to the European Defense Procurement Agency OCCAR. The program is being implemented with support from the European Defense Agency (EDA).


Full-size mockup of the Eurodrone drone

Initially, the program was considered on the horizon for 10 years, with deliveries of the first drones in 2025. But, apparently, the project turned out to be too ambitious. Therefore, the timing of its implementation was shifted.

Today, the first flights of the new drone have been postponed to 2024–2025. And the delivery of the first complexes to service is scheduled no earlier than 2028.

For different European project participants, the delivery start dates may differ. At the same time, contracts with general contractors and subcontractors of the project are planned to be signed in early 2021.

Three of the largest European aircraft manufacturers are participating in the Eurodrone UAV program: Airbus, Dassault Aviation and Leonardo. They have been working on the concept and appearance of the future drone since September 2016.

The first demonstration of a full-size model of the future European strike-reconnaissance UAV Eurodrone took place in April 2018 in Berlin at the Berlin Air Show.

According to data from the French press, the initial plans of the EU to acquire new strike-reconnaissance drones are known. According to the famous French newspaper La Tribune, a group of European countries has already formed an order for 21 Eurodrone MALE RPAS complexes (each complex consists of three unmanned aerial vehicles). So the total initial order is already estimated at 63 UAVs.

The total amount of the transaction, including the cost of developing the drone, is estimated today at 7,1 billion euros.

According to the published financial indicators, it is expected that the cost of one European unmanned complex (excluding development and R&D costs) will be 40 million euros less than the US counterpart MQ-9 Reaper. As noted in the French Ministry of Defense, the cost of one complex will be 160 million euros against 200 million euros for the "Reaper" drones.

Another advantage in the French Ministry of Defense is the lower operating costs. It is expected that, despite its twice the weight, the new European drone will be able to confidently compete with American vehicles in the economic plane. The French military estimates the flight hour of the new European drone at 3000 euros, while the flight hour of the American MQ-9 Reaper UAV is 4000 euros.

If everything is done as intended, Eurodrone will be a quarter more economical to operate. Which is of great importance in the modern world.


Features and capabilities of the EU drone


Not much is known about the characteristics and capabilities of the promising European strike-reconnaissance drone Eurodrone.

First of all, the information that has already been disclosed at exhibitions in Europe is available.

It is known that Eurodrone will be a fairly massive aircraft. The length of the UAV is 16 meters, the wingspan is 26 meters, the maximum take-off weight is 11 kg, and the payload is up to 000 kg. The declared cruising speed should be at least 2300 knots (270 km / h), and the service ceiling should be 500 meters.

In the air, the device will have to solve traditional tasks: reconnaissance and observation, target detection and tracking, ground targets attack. The UAV will be able to work around the clock in various weather conditions.

In order to better imagine the dimensions of this UAV, one can compare it with the Su-25 attack aircraft, whose wingspan is 14,36 meters, length - 15,05 meters, normal curb weight is about 14 tons.

At the same time, the drone being developed in Europe is superior to its American counterpart. The length of the MQ-9 Reaper is 11 meters, the wingspan is 20 meters, and the maximum take-off weight is 4760 kg.

The fact that the European drone is more than twice as heavy as the American one has already attracted criticism from politicians. For example, the platform

“As too heavy, expensive and not attractive enough for export”,

previously criticized the French Senate.

And the French politician Christian Cambon, pointed out that

the developed drone Eurodrone is "obese".

It can be noted that publications in the media and public statements regarding this drone (especially in economic matters) are still multidirectional.

An EU strike drone. Eurodrone MALE

Externally, a promising European strike and reconnaissance drone is an aircraft made according to the traditional low-wing design with a T-shaped tail.

The drone received a normal sweep wing and a long stretched fuselage, which makes it akin to the American MQ-9 Reaper UAV. Like the American drone, the European analogue will receive a combined optical-electronic and thermal imaging reconnaissance and sighting station on a spherical suspension in the front of the fuselage.

A distinctive feature of the European drone is the presence of two turboprop engines with pushing propellers. The engines are located at the rear of the aircraft.

It is believed that the condition for the installation of two engines was dictated by Germany, which pays great attention to flight safety. The Germans hope that the two-motor scheme will make the device more tenacious, safe and reliable.

Safety is especially important given the size of the drone and its upcoming operation over densely populated and urbanized areas of Europe. This is also important when you consider that the device is planned to be used for civilian purposes.

It is worth noting that the Europeans have not yet decided on the engines for their drone.

Currently, the French company Safran Helicopter Engines (Safran HE), which promotes the Ardiden TP3 engine (maximum power 1700-2000 hp), and the American company General Electric are competing with each other. The latter is pushing its turboprop engine through its Italian subsidiary Avio, which has partly Europeanized the GE Catalist engine developed for the Cessna Denali aircraft.

It is noteworthy that the presented versions of the American engine are less powerful. Those that are installed on "Tsesna" develop 1300 liters. from. And the maximum power of the GE Catalist is most likely limited at this stage to 1600 hp. from.

The issue with the engines, most likely, will be resolved in the financial plane and in the area of ​​lobbying interests.

At the same time, the French Ministry of Defense is naturally interested in the Safran HE engines.
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  1. New Year day
    New Year day 23 December 2020 04: 54
    +5
    The war in Karabakh turned the traditional view of war upside down - the new war turned out to be high-tech, remote and solved problems without direct human participation. Sitting far, far away at the control panel, a person killed another person, destroyed tanks and weapons.
    It is clear that this experience of a new war shook the dust from traditional views and
    shook scientists. The world of murder is spiraling
    1. jonht
      jonht 23 December 2020 05: 09
      +8
      Not a single war has been won without infantry.
      And Karabakh is no exception.
      Here's to solve some problems, but drones can, but not win the war.
      1. Bourgeois 1963
        Bourgeois 1963 23 December 2020 09: 12
        +2
        The cavalry of the future is on its way, Boston Dynamics has launched the Spot robot into retail. Check the manufacturer's website to see what this thing can do. And then imagine a Marine, who has two partners, adapted for military, robots like Spot or WildCat weighing under one and a half hundred kilograms and a speed approaching thirty kilometers per hour, one of the robots has a machine gun with 500 rounds of ammunition integrated into the other, adapted for the robot RPG Carl Gustaf. How do you fight such a team?
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YD0NyL3kPWQ
        https://www.bostondynamics.com/
        1. jonht
          jonht 23 December 2020 10: 46
          -3
          Cut off from electricity, fuel and generators.
          Perhaps they will be able to carry out a blitzkrieg in a small area, but there is no protracted conflict.
          They broke away from the rear or smashed the rear, and instead of striking force you have a bunch of expensive scrap metal. Software crashed and where you and the forest will find a service to fix it.
          In my opinion, at the moment the level of software and other components has not yet reached the level of reliability for full-fledged implementation in the advanced orders of robots.
          1. Bourgeois 1963
            Bourgeois 1963 23 December 2020 12: 55
            +3
            You wrote "You have not won a single war without infantry." In turn, I wrote that a partial replacement of biological infantry with robots is coming, and this will not happen in another year. In my purely speculative version, one soldier for two robots, and this robotic infantry will enter into conflict only after the massive work of drones, missiles, and artillery will bring the enemy's side to complete disarray. Well, roughly like the modern Azerbaijani army rolled out the outdated army of Armenians. After that, I doubt that the demoralized enemy will be able to launch a counteroffensive, or destroy logistic communications. As for the software rallies, I do not know that these are the last many years. If you have high quality gadgets, then this problem is completely contrived.
        2. Intruder
          Intruder 24 December 2020 16: 19
          0
          adapted for military, robots such as Spot or WildCat weighing under one and a half hundred kilograms and a movement speed approaching thirty kilometers per hour, one of the robots is integrated with a machine gun with 500 rounds of ammunition in another adapted for the RPG Carl Gustaf robot. How do you fight such a team?
          , anti-personnel mines for WildCat (a), you can think of something from an IED, on your knee, in conditions close to ..., and the machine gun at Spot (a), the missile launchers of modern ATGMs have a greater effective range than any single machine gun that can install on this platform, we do not forget about the impulse when firing from a machine gun mount for the entire complex, especially in dynamics ... :)
    2. horus88
      horus88 23 December 2020 05: 12
      -2
      The main thing is that a rocket does not arrive at the distant remote control, as well as the person sitting behind it. And she will arrive.
      1. New Year day
        New Year day 23 December 2020 05: 15
        +7
        Quote: horus88
        And she will arrive.

        No doubt about it, but later. Although the remote may be in quiet Switzerland
        1. horus88
          horus88 23 December 2020 05: 24
          +2
          I think that placing the control panel of a UAV on its territory, from which an attack on any country is launched, will be regarded as a declaration of war. And the rocket will fly :)
          So Switzerland and the rest of the neutral countries need to think about what they are doing.
          Of course, there are nuances, if the UAV is controlled by a satellite from the Pentagon, for example, then you can only attack with a ballistic missile, and this is a nuclear war.
          Will the military-political leadership agree to this if the rippers suddenly hit our troops in Syria? I don’t think so. Rather, I hope it won't.
          But what then?
          1. New Year day
            New Year day 23 December 2020 05: 27
            +4
            Quote: horus88
            So Switzerland and the rest of the neutral countries need to think about what they are doing.

            Think Switzerland controls every office?
            Well fired, and where is the proof? This is how the injured party becomes guilty
          2. mark1
            mark1 23 December 2020 07: 33
            -3
            Quote: horus88
            Will the military-political leadership agree to this if the rippers suddenly hit our troops in Syria?

            It is necessary to strike at the American troops in Syria, and the method of attack is not necessarily (although desirable) drones, a lot of all kinds of people roam the desert with heavy weapons ...
        2. Revolver
          Revolver 23 December 2020 06: 27
          +5
          Quote: Silvestr
          Although the remote may be in quiet Switzerland

          Or in a well-buried and concrete bunker.
        3. Profiler
          Profiler 23 December 2020 08: 22
          -2
          Quote: Silvestr
          remote can be in quiet Switzerland

          Which will stop being quiet after that?
          1. New Year day
            New Year day 23 December 2020 08: 33
            +1
            Quote: Profiler
            Which will stop being quiet after that?

            Even Hitler did not succeed laughing
            1. Profiler
              Profiler 23 December 2020 08: 38
              -1
              Quote: Silvestr

              Even Hitler did not succeed


              Yes you ? Did he even try Switzerland "by the gut"?
              No ... He needed her in neutral status. She was even forgiven for several Luftwaffe aircraft shot down by her, who violated the airspace.
      2. The eye of the crying
        The eye of the crying 23 December 2020 13: 22
        +1
        Then the control will be carried out from the backup control panel.
    3. onstar9
      onstar9 23 December 2020 05: 20
      0
      Or maybe the world is developing in terms of establishing greater justice? Now many things in the world are resolved according to the principle "who dared, he ate" ... Someone seizes something, and the rest of the world insists on "fading" the conflict, hoping to resolve it sometime "in the future" .. A sort of pacifism, non-violence. But in the future, nothing is decided, as always, and thus everything goes to the "invader" ... Now it will be different ... Future "invaders" will not have to rely on the "pacifist" support of the world ... and they will think before to seize something ... Unfortunately, only a reasonable force forces to restore justice, and not endless "chants" and calls for "peaceful dialogue" ... The Karabakh war just proved this ...
      1. New Year day
        New Year day 23 December 2020 05: 24
        +6
        Quote: onstar9
        Or maybe the world is developing in terms of establishing greater justice?

        и
        Quote: onstar9
        Now many things in the world are decided according to the principle "who dared, he ate."

        Is there a contradiction in what has been said?
    4. prior
      prior 23 December 2020 09: 51
      -2
      "The war in Karabakh has turned the traditional view of the war"

      A military conflict between the tribes of modern savages is what happened in Karabakh, not a war.
    5. venik
      venik 23 December 2020 14: 10
      +3
      Quote: Silvestr
      new the war turned out to be high-tech, remote and solved problems without direct human participation... Sitting far, far away at the control panel, a person killed another person, destroyed tanks and weapons.

      ========
      belay And what before, "sitting at the consoles"OTRK or KR,"far far away"(in previous conflicts) one person did not kill another, did not destroy tanks, guns... ??? request What has changed? what Are there "drones"? So they have been actively used for God knows how many years! In 1982 (almost 40 years ago !) Israel suppressed Syrian air defense in the Bekaa valley, namely with active use of UAVs! So WHAT HAS CHANGED? The role of the UAV was higherthan before? Well, this was to be expected, given the specifics of this conflict, namely:
      - The colossal superiority in the forces of 10-million Azerbaijan over 130-thousand Artsakh, not only in numbers, but in all types of weapons, without exception, which is extremely limited participation in the conflict of the regular armed forces of Armenia, forced the militia of Artsakh to conduct passive positional defensive battles, catching on defense lines and fortified strongholds (and just in this case, the role of the UAV is reconnaissance, adjustment of artillery fire and destruction of individual goals is especially high);
      - The Artsakh army had almost no air defense (except for a few batteries of the outdated "Kub" and "Osa" air defense systems) and electronic warfare ("Krasua", "Avtobaza", "Repilent" systems in single copies - "they did not do the weather", and the complexes Armenian developments, also small in number, turned out to be ineffective);
      - Aviation was practically not used in the conflict.
      Well, the question is: WHAT was it necessary to "shake the dust" and WHAT should "stir up the scientists"?
      The fact that the capabilities of UAVs and their role are constantly growing is a "no brainer"! That their role is not allowed underestimate - also! But also overestimate - also dangerous - it may turn out that "the game is not worth the candle!" Alas! Much, very much depends and will depend on the CHARACTER of military operations! In Idlib, for example, Turkish UAVs inflicted serious damage on government troops, BUT (!) Exactly until the SAA dragged Buks with "Armor" and electronic warfare systems to the north (into the DB zone). Some of the UAVs were shot down, the Turks removed the rest of the UAVs from Syria "out of harm's way" ...
      hi
      1. Bakinec
        Bakinec 23 January 2021 06: 46
        -3
        Absolute ignorance to assert that the Armenian troops almost did not participate in the Karabakh war and only the troops of some Partzakh opposed the Azerbatsjan army.
        Armenia participated in all types of weapons - Elbrus, S 300, Smerch, Tor, etc. These weapons were not in the arsenal of the Partzakh and could not be. After all, you will not argue that Russia sold the Torah to the unrecognized Partzah.
        Armenia participated in live force, as evidenced by dozens of Armenian mothers rallying in front of the Armenian Defense Ministry and demanding information about their children. And in the end, if Armenia did not participate, then why was the peace treaty signed by Pashinyan and not the leader of the Partzakh Harutunyan?
    6. igor novices
      igor novices 27 December 2020 17: 40
      0
      If we replace “in Karabakh” with “in Iraq”, then the coup has long since taken place ...
    7. mister-red
      mister-red 5 February 2021 00: 01
      0
      A small local conflict is projected onto a global one and that's it, from that moment everything turned upside down and wars will be different. Nothing of the kind, of course there will be some adjustments, no more. The Armenians simply had nothing to counter the drones. And who is to blame? It was necessary to engage in intelligence normally and act proactively.
  2. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 23 December 2020 05: 10
    +5
    Honestly, I don't quite understand the excitement around drones exactly as an aircraft. Electronics and AI are, yes, they decide, but actually gliders, what is special about them?
    1. New Year day
      New Year day 23 December 2020 05: 17
      +3
      Quote: Vladimir_2U
      Electronics and AI yes

      And this is not even unimportant
    2. Crabong
      Crabong 23 December 2020 06: 38
      -5
      Recently, there has been a tendency to overestimate the complexity of developing glider construction. Meanwhile, it is not so easy to build a glider, even such a seemingly simple one - with a straight wing, subsonic. You need to guess the dimension, which is, in general, a rather difficult compromise. Strength, weight and size characteristics, layout, materials, manufacturability, etc. Aerodynamics. All this, in fact, requires an applied and practical scientific base, extensive experience, and developed industrial potential. Especially when it comes to a modern fighter and / or some kind of high-altitude vehicle. In addition, there are still a lot of nuances ...
      1. Vladimir_2U
        Vladimir_2U 23 December 2020 06: 41
        +7
        Quote: Krabong
        You need to guess the dimension
        The time of fortune-telling at the dawn of aviation was replaced by calculation, if I am not mistaken.
        Quote: Krabong
        All this, in fact, requires an applied and practical scientific base, great experience, developed industrial potential.
        All this is available, because we are not talking about some Guatemala, right?
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. Vladimir_2U
            Vladimir_2U 23 December 2020 11: 15
            +5
            Wow, this is the sunset, you write as if at least one of the Wright brothers. Although what kind of Wright you are, the word de-Generate is closer to you.
          2. SovAr238A
            SovAr238A 23 December 2020 19: 56
            +1
            Quote: Krabong
            You d @ lbaёb, what do you know about designing anything? And about the definition of dimensions.

            Handsome self-drank ...

            What do you know about modern design?
            Do you know where R&D starts?
  3. RealPilot
    RealPilot 23 December 2020 06: 00
    -2
    UAVs of this size can already be made optionally manned. It would seem, why?
    The size of the "cockpit" (although it is clear that this is a radio-transparent lantern for satellite dishes) hints that a place can be found.

    Firstly, in some cases the presence of a person on board facilitates work, reduces the restrictions on communication systems. And while often nothing threatens the pilot, not all opponents and barmaley have high-altitude air defense. And a reconnaissance platform with a lower cost of a flight hour would be useful in many cases. At the same time, the pilot can carefully leave this unit by parachute, if necessary, and the car will continue to perform a new mission as a UAV.

    Secondly, it is legislation. In the same Europe and the USA, the presence of UAVs in common with civil aviation airspace is very strictly limited. And the presence of a person on board also solves this issue.

    Thirdly, the operator on board can control a swarm of such devices, have several slaves. That is, the flight itself is according to the program, and the pilot is concentrated on the reconnaissance task.
    At the same time, UAVs can fly in radio silence mode, exchanging commands via IR or laser.

    Fourthly, the module with a human cockpit can be removed and used only if necessary, and leave most of the fleet unmanned.

    Why am I all this? And the tendency to completely remove a person from flying platforms has a number of significant disadvantages and potential problems. And from a certain size of aircraft, probably even slightly larger than this, the option of human piloting more than pays off!
    1. Kot_Kuzya
      Kot_Kuzya 23 December 2020 06: 18
      +4
      Nonsense. The aircraft must be either a pilot or a drone, there is no third option. Universalism in the army has always been a dead-end branch. A universal aircraft will be worse than both manned and unmanned aircraft, since it will be both more expensive and more massive than a specialized aircraft. As an example, we can recall Tukhachevsky's ravings with universal divisional guns, as a result, the F-22 came out much heavier and more expensive than a classic divisional gun, and at the same time was absolutely defective as an anti-aircraft gun.
      1. Revolver
        Revolver 23 December 2020 06: 36
        +3
        Quote: Kot_Kuzya
        The F-22 came out much heavier and more expensive than the classic divisional gun, and at the same time it was absolutely defective as an anti-aircraft gun.

        But the Germans, who had hit several hundred F-1941s in 22, enjoyed using them both as anti-tank and self-propelled guns Marder. They (or rather the Czechs for them) produced these self-propelled guns in series until the stock of captured guns ran out.
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 23 December 2020 06: 45
          +4
          Quote: Nagan
          But the Germans, who had hit several hundred F-1941s in 22, were happy to use them.
          And why should they be dissatisfied with such a freebie.
        2. Kot_Kuzya
          Kot_Kuzya 23 December 2020 06: 53
          0
          For free and vinegar is sweet. Moreover, in 1941 they had only 16 thousand 37-mm "beaters", absolutely useless against the T-34 and KV, and a little more than one thousand 50-mm guns, which were effective against the T-34 only at a distance of less than 500 m, but against KV are still useless. And until 1943, before the widespread use of the PAK-40, these captured guns were the only effective means of fighting the T-34 and KV.
      2. Crabong
        Crabong 23 December 2020 06: 41
        -1
        I agree. Or UAV or PLA. Only one thing.
      3. SovAr238A
        SovAr238A 23 December 2020 20: 05
        -2
        Quote: Kot_Kuzya
        Universalism in the army has always been a dead-end branch.


        Well yes. Well yes...

        The Soviet school is immediately visible.
        Build and have in service in the country - 6 types of clean interceptors at the same time.
        Train a variety of pilots for different types of aircraft.
        Have 6 types of ladders. 6 types of filling machines, oxygen machines and other BAO.
        Have a huge stock of spare parts in warehouses at the same time, with an incompatible nomenclature for 6 types of clean interceptors and, in exactly the same way, 6 different engines.

        So it is with the navy, so is the army.

        Is the phrase "Zoo lit up here" - not familiar? And it was precisely from the end of the 60s and it was from the army and the navy that it went into our everyday life ...

        And the enemy rivets 60 pieces of Elks, Virginia, Berkov, 3 thousand F-16 and thousand F-15 ...


        The army, besides being strong, must secondarily be economical.
        The ultra-expensive army ruins the country and the population of the country, falling into poverty - it rejects both the course of the government in general and the army in particular.
        And a poor country does not give taxes and a strong army suddenly becomes very weak ...
        And for this stage (from super-spending on the army to its complete death from poverty), it literally takes 10-15 years.
        learn to think. where is the money for the army and for the military in any country not in the world.

        It is not Putin who pays you, but taxes from the people ...
        1. Kot_Kuzya
          Kot_Kuzya 23 December 2020 20: 28
          0
          Friend of Tukhach? Still stinking about a million tanks in agriculture?
        2. Dread
          Dread 24 December 2020 07: 00
          -1
          Quote: SovAr238A
          The Soviet school is immediately visible.
          Build and have in service in the country - 6 kinds of net interceptors at the same time.

          Be so kind as to justify and give examples, otherwise this is not true, but a lie!
  4. Revolver
    Revolver 23 December 2020 06: 25
    +6
    BAD RPAS

    The name is completely politically incorrect and sexist. It emphasizes the exclusive role of males and thus belittles and insults women, as well as transgender people and other people who identify themselves as non-traditional gender groups. wassat
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 23 December 2020 06: 47
      +1
      Quote: Nagan
      thereby belittles and insults women

      Oh, see this Temples, oh that will begin !! laughing
  5. Jacket in stock
    Jacket in stock 23 December 2020 06: 41
    0
    Why so big?
    Airframe size and engine power are both derived from the expected load.
    What kind of equipment do they want to stuff there for more than two tons?
    By the way, there is not a word about this in the article at all, but this is the main thing, and not the dimensions, about which the author has already written three times.
    1. Kot_Kuzya
      Kot_Kuzya 23 December 2020 07: 57
      +2
      Quote: Jacket in stock
      What kind of equipment do they want to stuff there for more than two tons?

      Rockets and bombs, of course.
    2. Dkuznecov
      Dkuznecov 23 December 2020 16: 50
      0
      Well, obviously not leaflets with an appeal to surrender to scatter.
      More than two tons of various deaths.
  6. Land defence
    Land defence 23 December 2020 08: 11
    +11
    it is expected that the cost of one European unmanned system will be 40 million euros less than the US counterpart MQ-9 Reaper

    By that time, the Americans can reduce the price. And Asian dumping is generally out of competition.
  7. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 23 December 2020 14: 26
    +1
    Quote: Silvestr
    The war in Karabakh turned the traditional view of war upside down - the new war turned out to be high-tech, remote and solved problems without direct human participation. Sitting far, far away at the control panel, a person killed another person, destroyed tanks and weapons.

    As a result, 3 thousand people were killed on both sides - "without direct human participation."
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 24 December 2020 11: 19
      +1
      Are the drone operators killed?

      And they destroyed at least 400 pieces of equipment.
      Including MBT, Grad, Tornado, S-300, Torah ...
  8. iouris
    iouris 23 December 2020 14: 53
    -1
    Are they preparing for the end of the current cadence?
  9. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 24 December 2020 11: 18
    0
    Vertical keel? Europeans never heard of stealth ... belay
  10. Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 1 March 2021 09: 13
    0
    Why MALE? This is some kind of sexism - absolutely not in a European way.