Military Review

ACES 5. What is the new US ejection seat capable of, and what conclusions should Russia draw?

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When the question came about the "last hope" of pilots, the Russian K-36 ejection seats and their modifications have long been considered the best and a kind of standard of safety and quality. Many of the solutions implemented in these chairs have been copied over time by Western countries.


Such "glory" to Russian systems was ensured, among other things, thanks to a visual demonstration of their effectiveness at two airshows in Le Bourget - in 1989 and 1999. Both bailouts came from positions that were far from optimal.



However, technologies are developing, and the United States decided to implement some solutions that, in theory, can provide a significant increase in the safety of the use of ejection seats - the final product received the designation ACES 5.

Let's take a closer look at what has been implemented in this chair.

Adaptation of the seat to a wide range of anthropometric data of pilots


In the jet era of high speeds, the problem of leaving an aircraft has become more complex - in particular, the risks of collision with airframe elements when leaving the aircraft have increased.

In this regard, the ejection seat must provide a quick exit from a potentially dangerous area.

But such a decision is associated with large overloads that the pilot is exposed to, while a lighter person is exposed to more dangerous effects in the cervical spine.

Also, the difference in weight significantly changed the center of gravity of the entire system (seat + pilot), which did not allow the use of optimal load distribution during ejection.

Because of this, restrictions were adopted in the United States for a long time: pilots weighing less than 60 kg were not allowed, and those who weighed 60-75 were at increased risk in the event of a bailout.

Why has this problem worsened recently?


Cause 1 - new promising HMD helmets with visual information display on the pilot's visor. Electronics makes the structure heavier, with the result that existing samples weigh in the region of 2,3-2,5 kg. And naturally, when ejected, all this joy, acting on the neck, contributes to an increase in injuries. This means that the ejection system should be as much as possible "fitted" for a specific weight, so as not to expose the neck to unnecessarily strong influences.

Cause 2 - the trend towards an increase in the number of women in the US Air Force. The difference in anthropometry between M and F gives the most significant variation in weight.

What is fundamentally new in this system?


Separately, I would like to focus on one, at first glance, inconspicuous moment.

ACES 5, balanced taking into account the pilot's mass, allows the whole process to be carried out in a fundamentally different way: instead of throwing the pilot vertically upward with one powerful "kick", the system smoothly accelerates the seat "forward and up", thus the pilot "takes off smoothly" rather than "Fired", as in most modern ejection systems.

How smooth the process is can be seen in the video from the tests:


This detail may not be conspicuous, but it is essential to prevent injury. Physiologically, our body tolerates overloads directed "from the abdomen to the back" rather than "top-down from the head to the legs".

In addition, by providing acceleration in the horizontal plane, the seat has more time to "throw" the ejected aircraft over the tail of the aircraft, which means that this can be done more smoothly, with less vertical (the most dangerous for us) overload.

And it is precisely the reduction of injuries that is the main goal of modern developments in this area - it is important not only to save the pilot, but also to keep him healthy, ideally leaving him in the ranks.

Head and neck protection system


Another unpleasant effect during ejection is the blow of the pilot's head against the seat at the moment when the seat just leaves and enters the air stream.

This effect is demonstrated below in the context of time:


In this case, various displacements of the head to one side are also possible. To solve this problem, a corresponding system was developed.

At the moment of ejection, a special platform behind the head "neatly but strongly" tilts the head forward, resting the chin on the chest. The oncoming air then pushes the head back towards the headrest, but the system prevents the head from hitting. At the same time, side restraints prevent the head from turning.

This system looks like this:


Similar systems have already been used (albeit in a slightly different form) on French chairs.

But what can happen without this system (unfortunately, we could not find a better quality photo):

ACES 5. What is the new US ejection seat capable of, and what conclusions should Russia draw?


Hand and foot protection


The limbs are exposed to a separate danger: the oncoming stream can "bend" them away from the body, and then damage them (the moment is very traumatic).

Therefore, the legs are protected as standard, and no know-how is observed in this regard - the usual fixing loops. Also, optionally duplicated protection in the area of ​​the knee joints.


To protect the hands, a special net was developed that limits the amplitude of their movement back.

In theory, they are more reliable than the classic "armrests", especially when it comes to ejecting the second crew member, who " fix ".

The following demonstrates how nets limit the range of hand movement:


conclusions


In a number of aspects (such as limb protection), nothing fundamentally new happened: the existing developments were somewhere entirely and completely copied, and somewhere they were competently modified. The French head and neck protection system was also improved.

At the same time, the new system with a more gentle "ejection" opens up great prospects for the use of different ejection protocols, each of which will be the safest in specific conditions (taking into account the flight parameters).

The Americans have not forgotten about a number of "systemic" aspects, partially touched upon by me in previous articles (How long will Russia be foolish to lose its planes и How military aviation works).

In particular, about the cost of maintenance: according to the announced information, in this respect, the new chair also has advantages over previous models.


The bars indicate the "no maintenance" periods for the various components of the chair.

The issue of modernization and replacement of old seats for new ones also did not go unnoticed: a set was developed to turn the previous model into an actual one, which should speed up and reduce the cost of re-equipment to new systems.


Expected reduction in risks and prospects for the development of emergency systems in the future



The diagrams clearly show the risks for lighter pilots on the previous models of seats, they are absent on the new one.

Also, based on the results of simulations and tests, safety increased at speeds up to 1000 km / h.

Below is a chart showing the frequency of bailouts at different speeds, categorized by injury (green = no injury, yellow = minor injury, orange = major injury, red = fatal event):


These diagrams show that most often the ejection occurs at speeds of 300-500 km / h, at the same time, none of the existing solutions can ensure the safety of leaving the aircraft at speeds over 1000 km / h.

If such a need arises in the future, then, most likely, fundamentally different solutions will be developed for these tasks - ejection capsules.

This approach was implemented on the F-111 aircraft:


The use of capsules is capable of raising the safety of pilots to a fundamentally different level, since in them the pilots are protected from all external factors (temperature, pressure, low oxygen content, incoming air flow).

The capsule excludes crew mistakes when landing on the water: in a classic seat, the pilot must perform a number of complex manipulations before splashdown - such requirements are not entirely adequate to present to a person who has just ejected.

Installation of inflatable floats is possible, which will serve as additional. shock absorption when the capsule lands on the ground. Below are photos of F-111 rescue capsules with floats:



In addition, it is possible to implement emergency landing systems in a seat, similar to helicopter seats: when there are shock-absorbing elements that protect helicopter pilots during a hard landing.

At the same time, such a solution is much more complicated technically.

But it can be justified in the case of large aircraft, such as Tu-22 M and Tu-160, especially considering the high-speed capabilities of these machines, because it is unlikely to escape at high speed without a capsule. This is also true in the case of marine aviationwhen splashdown occurs in cold water.

In relation to such aircraft, the factor of the order of departure is also important: they cannot be catapulted at the same time - it is necessary to implement dispersion algorithms in the air (shooting at different angles in different directions).

In the case of the capsule, everyone leaves the plane at the same time.

As an alternative solution to protect against the oncoming flow, special flaps were used, however, the real effectiveness of such a system at speeds above 1000 km / h is not able to provide an acceptable level of safety.


Photos are taken from open sources from sites:

www.iopscience.iop.org
www.collinsaerospace.com
www.ru.wikipedia.org
Author:
86 comments
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 21 December 2020 05: 07
    +14
    Excellent article, and the topic is unbroken.
    new promising HMD helmets with visual information display on the pilot's visor
    Some kind of supports, quick-release or inflatable, can transfer the weight of the helmet from the neck to the shoulders.
    1. Vladimir_2U
      Vladimir_2U 21 December 2020 07: 11
      +18
      True, what conclusions Russia should draw is decidedly incomprehensible. )))
      1. BDRM 667
        BDRM 667 21 December 2020 08: 01
        +16
        The use of capsules is capable of raising the safety of pilots to a fundamentally different level, since in them the pilots are protected from all external factors (temperature, pressure, low oxygen content, incoming air flow).

        Yes, yes, it is. But how without "But"?

        With such a solution to the pilot (crew) rescue system, a whole heap of technical problems and issues appears, many of which will affect the reliability of the aircraft systems.
        In order to generally understand the depth of the problem with this approach, it is enough just to imagine how many different cables, pipelines, information buses "permeate" the cockpit of a modern combat aircraft ...
        When "capsulating", all this should be "easily detachable", with all the reliability issues arising from this decision, including the airframe.
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 21 December 2020 08: 06
          +4
          Quote: BDRM 667
          When "capsulating", all this should be "easily detachable", with all the reliability issues arising from this decision, including the airframe.

          Now, with the development of EDSU, the issue is solved much easier, all the same, wires and fiber optics are much easier to interrupt than mechanics and hydraulics, it seems to me.
          1. BDRM 667
            BDRM 667 21 December 2020 08: 09
            +4
            Quote: Vladimir_2U
            Now, with the development of EDSU, the issue is solved much easier, all the same, wires and fiber optics are much easier to interrupt than mechanics and hydraulics, it seems to me.

            The question is not about the difficulties to "kill" something, the squibs will solve this problem easily, but about the reliability of the connection, "contact" in these nodes during long-term military operation.
            1. Vladimir_2U
              Vladimir_2U 21 December 2020 08: 12
              +6
              Quote: BDRM 667
              Squibs will solve this problem easily, but in the reliability of the connection, "contact" in these nodes during long-term military operation.
              That and it is that it is not necessary to touch the connectors, the pirogillotines will open this case for a living.
              1. BDRM 667
                BDRM 667 21 December 2020 08: 20
                +7
                Quote: Vladimir_2U
                That and it is that it is not necessary to touch the connectors, the pirogillotines will open this case for a living.

                It would be so simple, such a system would have become commonplace long ago.
                But take a look at the already hated F-35 "cutaway". The pilot is almost sitting on the front fuel tank, next to the oxygen tank.

                "Neighborhood" is something else! yes And all this needs to be somehow "made friends" ...
                And there are many and many more yes
                1. Vladimir_2U
                  Vladimir_2U 21 December 2020 08: 24
                  +6
                  Incorrectly, in my opinion, after all, the F-111 (well, or its modification, I will not go deeper) was specially created for a detachable capsule, unlike other aircraft. No one in their right mind would demand to convert a living plane from a seat to a capsule.
                  1. BDRM 667
                    BDRM 667 21 December 2020 08: 37
                    +6
                    Quote: Vladimir_2U
                    Incorrectly, in my opinion, after all, the F-111 (well, or its modification, I will not go deeper) was specially created for a detachable capsule, unlike other aircraft. No one in their right mind would demand to convert a living plane from a seat to a capsule.

                    As no one in their right mind will design a capsule for each new aircraft model, and unification here, as you yourself understand, is not possible.

                    It is a different matter - already existing and operated chairs, which can be successfully integrated into new cars.

                    And in general, why "unfasten" a pile of scrap metal from a glider, if you can simply turn the ejection seat itself into a capsule, or its semblance?
                    Then a lot of technical problems become less intractable, and many disappear altogether.

                    In the photo, an American experience in ejecting ... grizzly bears fellow

                    1. Vladimir_2U
                      Vladimir_2U 21 December 2020 08: 40
                      +3
                      Quote: BDRM 667
                      It would not be in their right mind to design a capsule for each new aircraft model, and unification here, as you yourself understand, is not possible.

                      This is what I absolutely do not understand, why not unify within the aircraft class? Moreover, it's time to think about aerospace technology.
                      The bear is funny, looks like Snoop Dog with a squint. )))
                      1. BDRM 667
                        BDRM 667 21 December 2020 08: 42
                        +9
                        Quote: Vladimir_2U
                        The bear is funny, looks like Snoop Dog with a squint. )))

                        You would have been treated the same way with him, you would have narrowed your eyes too ...
                      2. Vladimir_2U
                        Vladimir_2U 21 December 2020 11: 54
                        +6
                        Quote: BDRM 667
                        You would be treated like him, you would have squinted like that too

                        Thank you for your kind wishes ))). Or maybe the bear had such a kind squint before the bailout, and after that they didn't dare to take pictures? ))
                    2. Biodred
                      Biodred 23 December 2020 20: 44
                      0
                      Well, are you thinking about aerospace technology. It is not harmful. Ejection from a car in space is a completely different story. The peculiarities of orbital maneuvering, most likely, will not allow picking up such a poor fellow in a more or less reasonable time.
                    3. Vladimir_2U
                      Vladimir_2U 24 December 2020 02: 27
                      0
                      Quote: BioDRED
                      The peculiarities of orbital maneuvering, most likely, will not allow picking up such a poor fellow in a more or less reasonable time.
                      And tadaaam, CAPSULE!
                    4. Biodred
                      Biodred 24 December 2020 07: 32
                      0
                      And what is a capsule? To prevent the ejected pilot from repeating Laika's fate, this capsule must be heavy and bulky. Nobody will go for it.
                    5. Vladimir_2U
                      Vladimir_2U 24 December 2020 08: 09
                      -1
                      Quote: BioDRED
                      And what is a capsule?
                      Well, a spacesuit will undoubtedly have more life support resources, right? And in the concept of "aerospace" there is a component "air". So, the capsule of the 60s of the last century made it possible to save pilots at a maximum speed of 2650 km / h. Do you understand what I mean?
                    6. Biodred
                      Biodred 24 December 2020 23: 11
                      0
                      No, I don’t understand. Because the salvation of a person catapulted into space is a fiction. And no one is conducting air battles at such a speed.
                    7. Vladimir_2U
                      Vladimir_2U 25 December 2020 03: 07
                      0
                      Quote: BioDRED
                      Because the salvation of a person catapulted into space is fiction
                      Like aerospace combat vehicles, but that's just for now.
                    8. Biodred
                      Biodred 25 December 2020 17: 58
                      0
                      Until? And what, the appearance of aerospace machines will abruptly abolish all the laws of celestial mechanics? I strongly advise you to forget all those vzhikh-vzhih and piu-piu fighters from "Star Wars", it is simply impossible to fly in space like that.
                    9. Vladimir_2U
                      Vladimir_2U 26 December 2020 03: 09
                      0
                      here is a missile under the tail to get already and in those years it was possible, correct if I am mistaken.
                2. Vladimir_2U
                  Vladimir_2U 25 December 2020 04: 12
                  0
                  Quote: BioDRED
                  And no one is conducting air battles at such a speed.

                  I did not immediately understand what you mean. Air maneuvering battles may not be, but it was already possible to get missiles under the tail in those years, correct if I am mistaken.
    2. Bshkaus
      Bshkaus 23 December 2020 16: 55
      +1
      In the photo, an American experience in ejecting ... grizzly bears

      You can read about the B-58 capsule in detail in this article, despite a bunch of BUTs, it was quite a workable capsule
      https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5ec81fa81c6c0b05eff079c2/sverhzvukovoi-bombardirovscik-v58-avariinaia-kapsula-vmesto-katapultnogo-kresla-5f5299ecc84c033ffdb1a486
  • Zhevlonenko
    Zhevlonenko 29 December 2020 16: 29
    0
    And pump it all up with squibs and you can forget about safety altogether.
  • CTABEP
    CTABEP 21 December 2020 11: 13
    0
    Besides, half a century ago this issue was somehow solved :)
  • Alexander Vorontsov
    21 December 2020 11: 10
    +1
    Quote: BDRM 667
    The use of capsules is capable of raising the safety of pilots to a fundamentally different level, since in them the pilots are protected from all external factors (temperature, pressure, low oxygen content, incoming air flow).

    Yes, yes, it is. But how without "But"?

    With such a solution to the pilot (crew) rescue system, a whole heap of technical problems and issues appears, many of which will affect the reliability of the aircraft systems.
    In order to generally understand the depth of the problem with this approach, it is enough just to imagine how many different cables, pipelines, information buses "permeate" the cockpit of a modern combat aircraft ...
    When "capsulating", all this should be "easily detachable", with all the reliability issues arising from this decision, including the airframe.

    I certainly agree with the difficulties - this is just material about the fact that there are such solutions.

    They were theoretically grounded, they were embodied. They have pluses they have minuses.
    Now this solution is not popular, but potentially, who knows how aviation will develop further.

    Well, a reference to the story of the death of Russian pilots - 2 Su-34s collided, 4 ejected, 3 people drowned.

    And this is to the issue of naval aviation - if at first a person is given a 5th point, throwing him 10 meters, so that he immediately has 10 hernias (well, I'm exaggerating), then he gets a shovel in the face from the incoming air stream, and then he must close the valve, estimate the distance to the water, unfasten the parachute in time.
    Plus, there should be a slightly different set of life-saving appliances on the water. More voluminous.
    Those. under certain conditions, this decision actually saves lives.
  • Bad_gr
    Bad_gr 21 December 2020 11: 45
    +12
    The main technical characteristics of our chair K-36D-5:
    The ejection seat provides rescue of a crew member in the speed ranges Vi (from 0 to 1300) km / h, M numbers up to 2,5 and flight altitudes of the aircraft (from 0 to 20000) m, including takeoff, post-landing run, mode "H = 0, V = 0" and is used with a set of protective gear and oxygen equipment of the KKO-15 type.
    The installation weight of the chair is not more than 100 kg (with NAZ)
    Development Year: 2013
    1. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 21 December 2020 20: 33
      +3
      Curiously, for the background information from the factory of the manufacturer of our ejection seats, which was published for comparison with the new American one, I received two minuses. At least one of the two minusers would explain the logic behind which it puts a minus.
      1. Evil Booth
        Evil Booth 24 December 2020 08: 23
        -1
        Ospadii yes to you everywhere in Runet for just writing something in the Russian Federation or about the Russian Federation and the United States, but the Russian Federation will be the first in order to slap a million instantly. really connected to the current?
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 24 December 2020 10: 37
          0
          Quote: Evil Booth
          Yes, you are everywhere in Runet for just writing something in the Russian Federation ...

          I always try to understand the logic of people's actions. If a person's behavior is incomprehensible to me, then in life I try to stay away from such people, or at least not have any business. And in net it is already a matter of habit.
  • bar
    bar 21 December 2020 21: 32
    +5
    True, what conclusions Russia should draw is decidedly incomprehensible. )))

    Well, what is incomprehensible? There is also a list of items.
    1 - make helmets lighter.
    2 - do not accept women in military aviation.
    laughing
    1. Intruder
      Intruder 21 December 2020 23: 38
      +2
      on point 2, I agree with all my hands, so many smart people in the past also believed: 1. Korolev: "... there is no place for women in space ..." after the flight of the first woman cosmonaut, by the way; 2. One famous German leader, at the beginning of the 20th century: "a woman's place: children, kitchen and church ..."
  • Evil Booth
    Evil Booth 24 December 2020 08: 22
    +1
    ordinary conclusions, while every tenth was dying during the ejection, they began to buy chairs in Russia. now, at last, they almost began to do almost normal ejection ... and of course they could not resist paying for another question on the topic of their superiority. you never know what traitor grows up and steals su10 in the united states. That is why such articles are posted and grants are given to all kinds of bulk Kaspars and other muhamats.
  • Lipchanin
    Lipchanin 21 December 2020 05: 21
    +1
    Very good article. I read it with great interest. good
    Thanks to the author
    1. Alexander Vorontsov
      21 December 2020 10: 54
      +5
      Quote: Lipchanin
      Very good article. I read it with great interest. good
      Thanks to the author

      I'm very glad I liked it)
      1. Lipchanin
        Lipchanin 21 December 2020 12: 22
        +3
        Quote: Alexander Vorontsov
        I'm very glad I liked it)

        There would be more of these on VO.
        And then half, if not more, of the articles are not about anything
      2. Amba412
        Amba412 21 December 2020 12: 52
        +4
        Most of the injuries to pilots are from the air flow. The Yankees, according to their data, write off 40 percent after the bailout. The percentage of collision with the aircraft structure is zero.
        1. Intruder
          Intruder 21 December 2020 23: 42
          0
          The percentage of collision with the aircraft structure is zero.
          well, equal to zero, according to the theory of large numbers, it cannot be, in the region of zero, it is still possible :) 40% is also a bit too much, this is almost every third guaranteed person with injuries, and plus a disability pension after writing off to the ground ...
          1. Amba412
            Amba412 28 December 2020 22: 25
            0
            This is the data of the Yankees themselves. And another 20 percent of those killed during the ejection
        2. tolancop
          tolancop 22 December 2020 17: 13
          +2
          Yanki
          Quote: Amba412
          Most of the injuries to pilots are from the air flow. The Yankees, according to their data, write off 40 percent after the bailout. The percentage of collision with the aircraft structure is zero.

          The Yankees may have had zero, but in the USSR, it seems that they did not. In any case, there was a rumor in the 70s and 80s about an unsuccessful ejection: the automatic equipment did not drop the flashlight and the pilot died. In any case, the probability of collision with structural elements will remain.
          And it is not very correct to estimate injuries according to American data, IMHO. I remember well the article in the newspaper after the bailout of Kvochur at Le Bourget. The bourgeois first went nuts that the pilot was still alive in such a situation, and then they went nuts again when Kvochur flew again, either the next day, or in a couple of hours. And in the article it was mentioned that the bourgeoisie in the USSR had different approaches to the design of seats: bourgeois - the probability of a pilot being saved should not be less than such and such a percentage; Soviet - the pilot must be saved in any case, incl. at zero speed and zero altitude.
          1. Podvodnik
            Podvodnik 22 December 2020 18: 03
            0
            then they went nuts again, when Kvochur flew again, either the next day, or after a couple of hours.


            Which speaks not only of the courage and psychological stability of the pilot, but also of the quality of the hands and engineering brains, to which the pilots will only "thank you, Lord." The Lord will smile, He has nothing to do with it.
          2. Amba412
            Amba412 28 December 2020 22: 27
            0
            So what is it about)))
  • Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 21 December 2020 05: 54
    +9
    ,
    the system smoothly accelerates the seat "forward and up", so the pilot "smoothly takes off" rather than "fired",
    And if the nose of the damaged aircraft is directed into the ground, and even at a critical height? ... such an acceleration may end badly, there may not be enough time to stabilize the seat and throw a parachute.
    In addition, how to fundamentally resolve the issue of when a pilot sometimes gets entangled in the links of the parachute system when landing.
    Thanks to Alexander for the article ... it was informative. hi
    1. Gardener91
      Gardener91 21 December 2020 23: 18
      0
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      And if the nose of the damaged plane is directed to the ground

      The autonomous seat position system constantly reads data on speed, angles and accelerations, and the machine determines the direction and force of the charge in the KSM, if necessary, correcting it by cutting off the number of squibs, or by adjusting the air pressure. The release time of the stabilizing parachute is also adjusted. Everything can be solved. An advanced chair Martin Baker, if desired, the information is complete. Here's ours: https://lik-o-dil-es.blogspot.com/2018/03/kak-proiskhodit-katapultirovanie.html
    2. Titus_2
      Titus_2 22 December 2020 05: 43
      0
      They took it off the tongue .... time is a very important factor.
    3. Podvodnik
      Podvodnik 22 December 2020 17: 51
      0
      the question of when the pilot, when landing, sometimes gets entangled in the links of the parachute system


      My father said that they took part in the search for a "sea" pilot in the East (it was a long time ago). Two planes collided. One was able to hold out, the second fell into the sea. Found. The pilot died. Found himself under an inflated lifeboat. I asked about the reason - I said that the line was very short (rope in "Russian"). Everything worked properly. but "covered with an inflated boat, the pilot could not get out. He choked.
      There are no trifles.
  • The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 21 December 2020 07: 10
    +1
    I thank the author for the very interesting material. The topic is new, not "sucked" dozens of times. I read it with pleasure.
  • letinant
    letinant 21 December 2020 07: 52
    +4
    The article is not very good, the author has transferred the video series of the commercial into text format. He described the American chair and very poorly (only the name) mentioned the K-36, although he did not forget to say that some technical solutions were applied from this chair. Didn't see the comparison. In addition, the design of the K-36 does not stand still.
    1. Alexander Vorontsov
      21 December 2020 11: 35
      +6
      Quote: letinant
      the author has transferred a number of video commercials to text format

      Well, not at all))
      First he told the background and the "legendary" first bailouts at the airshow.
      Then at least 2 sources that have nothing to do with advertising this chair - a book on physiology, where it is illustrated how the head beats against the headrest, such a peculiar whiplash effect.
      And the second source not related to advertising at all is the statistics of bailouts, which shows at what speeds pilots are bailing out and what it leads to.
      In the end, he also spoke about the solution with the F-111 and the capsule.
      1. letinant
        letinant 21 December 2020 12: 43
        +4
        Alexander, the construction of your article revolves around an advertising video. Sweat that this video is the only thing that gives more or less technical information. The rest is in passing. 0 K-36 you have presented only examples of application and no technical details. A little more about the F-111 escape pod, why didn't they talk about the B-58 Hustler then? This aircraft also has a capsule system, but more original than that of the F-111. And your article is built, a couple of examples and details about the product, such a structure in advertising.
  • Avior
    Avior 21 December 2020 08: 36
    +1
    Interesting article
    All the same, the technique does not stand still, development is going on all the time
  • Gust
    Gust 21 December 2020 08: 43
    +2
    The topic is really relevant. It is necessary to provide, among other things, adaptive acceleration when leaving the aircraft. Very often, leaving occurs at a decent height and relatively low speed, there is a margin of a few seconds (knocked out, spin, loss of surface, taxiway breakdown, etc.). For all these options, a reduced overload mode can be provided. For the rest (at the ground, at high speed, cab down), a sharp start and a controlled separation in terms of speed, thrust vector, and rotation phase are required. This is in addition to the points listed in the article.
    1. Amba412
      Amba412 28 December 2020 22: 33
      0
      Have you seen how Kvachur ejected twenty years ago ??
  • The comment was deleted.
  • NDR-791
    NDR-791 21 December 2020 08: 55
    +1
    ... the system smoothly accelerates the seat "forward and up", so the pilot "smoothly takes off" rather than "fired"
    I don't know how about more efficiency. Here is a video from the MiG-29, where would THIS chair fly? Smoothly accelerated into the ground?
    1. vadimtt
      vadimtt 21 December 2020 13: 15
      +6
      You didn't read it very carefully. All these dances with "saving" the pilot's neck will be only if it is possible in the given circumstances, in all the rest - the machine decides on the classic hard ejection, even more severe than in modern seats.
      It's just that this new seat will spare the pilots' health, if possible and nothing more.
      And if it was possible to "softly" save, then such a pilot can be quickly returned to service (well, if he survives in the DB zone).
      The only question is about the adequacy of decision-making algorithms.
      1. Narak-zempo
        Narak-zempo 21 December 2020 14: 23
        -4
        Quote: vadimtt
        You didn't read it very carefully. All these dances with "saving" the pilot's neck will be only if it is possible in the given circumstances, in all the rest - the machine decides on the classic hard ejection, even more severe than in modern seats.
        It's just that this new seat will spare the pilots' health, if possible and nothing more.
        And if it was possible to "softly" save, then such a pilot can be quickly returned to service (well, if he survives in the DB zone).
        The only question is about the adequacy of decision-making algorithms.

        Generally an interesting thought.
        After all, you can set it up so that if the chance to land without serious injury is small, then the bailout does not occur, and the former pilot, thus, will not hang on the budget in the form of a military pensioner with all the required benefits.
  • Givi_49
    Givi_49 21 December 2020 11: 14
    -3
    It is not enough to give the pilot the opportunity to leave the aircraft, I think it is time to expand the functions of the rescue system, so that the downed pilot would not passively land by parachute into the enemy's territory to meet his death, but would have the opportunity to fly to a safer place where he will be rescued for sure or return to his ship. Technologies have already been created where people fly on jet thrust with and without wings, and we are losing combat pilots who land by parachute on the heads of enemies. To order, to set impossible tasks, then science will start thinking and will do what is needed.
    1. Narak-zempo
      Narak-zempo 21 December 2020 11: 38
      0
      Quote: Givi_49
      so that the downed pilot does not passively land by parachute into the enemy's territory to meet his death

      À la guerre comme à la guerre
    2. Alexander I
      Alexander I 21 December 2020 13: 40
      +2
      In Syria, one pilot was killed while still in the air, while the other, upon landing, had a chance to hide in the forest and wait for help, which ultimately saved.
  • certero
    certero 21 December 2020 13: 43
    +1
    Quote: Vladimir_2U
    True, what conclusions Russia should draw is decidedly incomprehensible. )))

    It is necessary to develop unmanned aircraft.
    we will never be able to create the number of aircraft equal to or even close to the USA due to the smaller economy. Therefore, you need to rely on a drone, which is much less sorry than pilots
  • anzar
    anzar 21 December 2020 14: 15
    +1
    Also, the difference in weight significantly changed the center of gravity of the entire system (seat + pilot), which did not allow the use of optimal load distribution during ejection.
    Because of this, restrictions were adopted in the United States for a long time: pilots weighing less than 60 kg were not allowed, and those who weighed 60-75 were at increased risk

    Didn't you think of putting an individually selected ballast weight on the chair? High tech? You can even increase the NAZ - it is known that the thin ones eat more))
    It is not clear why the "new" chair accelerates FORWARD (and up) Translation error?
    1. Alexander Vorontsov
      21 December 2020 14: 41
      +1
      Quote: anzar
      Also, the difference in weight significantly changed the center of gravity of the entire system (seat + pilot), which did not allow the use of optimal load distribution during ejection.
      Because of this, restrictions were adopted in the United States for a long time: pilots weighing less than 60 kg were not allowed, and those who weighed 60-75 were at increased risk

      Didn't you think of putting an individually selected ballast weight on the chair? High tech? You can even increase the NAZ - it is known that the thin ones eat more))
      It is not clear why the "new" chair accelerates FORWARD (and up) Translation error?

      No, not a mistake. The seat must be thrown over the tail so that the pilot does not chop.
      If we implement the concept when acceleration occurs only upward, then very large overload values ​​are required in the most traumatic direction - along the axis of the spine.

      By accelerating the seat forward, the vertical component of the g-forces can be significantly reduced.


      Didn't you think of placing an individually selected ballast weight on the chair?

      There are several problems in this regard.
      1 - the plane became rigidly "individual". This greatly reduces the operational and operational capabilities. Those. in Syria, for example, when it was necessary to strike, the pilot simply boarded the plane that was equipped with the necessary AAS for this particular task.

      Or let's say Vasya made 4 sorties and was tired. And the plane can make 5, 6 and 7.
      But with another pilot - you need to adjust the seat again. For a start, it's trite not to forget about it. And then adjust it back (again, do not forget). This is all possible, but if it happens due to automation it saves both time and is more reliable (they will not forget).

      2- not only the weight itself is important, but also its distribution. If the system is balanced in such a way that the extra 20 kg is closer to the shoulders, and they are thrown into the box closer to the legs, the devil knows how this chair will turn there and where it will eventually fly.
  • kit88
    kit88 21 December 2020 14: 37
    +7
    How long does it take for the system to "smoothly accelerate the seat" from the moment of initiation to the moment of exiting the plane? Is it enough?
    For example, in the K-36DM this parameter is 0,45 s.
  • Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 21 December 2020 14: 43
    +1



    B-58 Escape Capsule
    Not all was well with the individual capsule either.
    "Guillotine" however - with cutting off all unnecessary :)

    Automatic equipment, used, for example, in the capsule of the B-58 aircraft, prepares for ejection, ejection itself and landing. Preparation for ejection in this capsule involves positioning the human body, closing the capsule and sealing it. The ejection mechanism is set in motion using one of two levers located on the armrests of the chair. After that, a powder charge is ignited, the gases of which enter two drives; one of them pulls up and fixes the legs, the other pushes the body back and stabilizes the position of the head. After these operations, the propellant gases penetrate into the capsule hermetically sealed mechanism. The duration of these operations is about one second, after which the cabin is pressurized and a pressure corresponding to an altitude of 5000 m is created, which takes another 2-3 seconds. Closing the capsule triggers multiple circuit limit switches. The capsule closing alarm circuit sends a signal to the rest of the crew about the decision to eject. The other circuit includes communication means that transmit alarm signals. After the capsule is closed, the pilot retains the ability to control the aircraft, since the steering wheel remains in its normal position inside the capsule, and its fairing has a window through which it is possible to observe the readings of the instruments and part of the cockpit equipment. This design allows (if the accident is not catastrophic) a descent, a change in flight direction, and even the opening of the capsule while maintaining the possibility of its re-sealing. The ejection system does not depend on the preparatory operations, therefore, the process of ejection of the capsule itself can be carried out in the event of their failure, for example, in the event of a breakdown or failure of devices that ensure the execution of preparatory operations.
    1. Reserve buildbat
      Reserve buildbat 21 December 2020 16: 22
      0
      "The duration of these operations is about one second, after which the cabin is pressurized and a pressure corresponding to an altitude of 5000 m is created, which takes another 2-3 seconds."
      Did I understand correctly that it took 58-3 seconds to eject from the B-4?
      1. Dmitry V.
        Dmitry V. 22 December 2020 13: 45
        -1
        Quote: Stroibat stock
        "The duration of these operations is about one second, after which the cabin is pressurized and a pressure corresponding to an altitude of 5000 m is created, which takes another 2-3 seconds."
        Did I understand correctly that it took 58-3 seconds to eject from the B-4?


        Yes - if not more.
        There is a video where you can see how this structure slams shut - but it most likely saves on supersonic.
        The author has good graphics - modern armchairs do not guarantee rescue at supersonic speeds.
  • Bryanskiy_Volk
    Bryanskiy_Volk 21 December 2020 15: 36
    -1
    What anthropometric features is the author rubbing in? Has anyone seen 2-meter fighter pilots weighing over 120kg?
    1. Bryanskiy_Volk
      Bryanskiy_Volk 21 December 2020 15: 43
      0
      py.sy. By the way, in the attached video from the Su-30, visually both pilots "shoot back" upward and forward and it is clearly seen that after landing they are on their feet
  • Freedim
    Freedim 21 December 2020 16: 04
    -1
    For 60 years, the genius of Guy Ilyich has not given the Americans peace ... The wretchedness of their decisions has been patched up with stolen patents and cracked crutches .. It is painted beautifully .. What's inside is unclear .. Another Frankenstein of the immense sawing of the dough and the backstage fuss of the star-striped military industry. And then the pilots take the rap .. And judging by the fact that they misinformed with the 35th, they will often have to take the rap .. Don't go to the fortuneteller, because one dviglo is one dviglo ..
  • Reserve buildbat
    Reserve buildbat 21 December 2020 16: 13
    +3
    I watched the videos and imagined how the pilot flies out of the MiG-29 and, with additional acceleration from the seat engine, is smeared on the ground. What a beauty ... Is it okay that the seat should save the pilot at any position of the aircraft in space, at any speed (conventionally) and at any maneuver?
    In addition, as far as I remember, the requirements for ejection seats for the Yankees are much softer than the Russians, which is why there is a much greater risk of injury. Although the weight of the seats is less. So you should look at what they are doing "there", but you cannot cross out your unique and much more effective path.
  • Sancho_SP
    Sancho_SP 21 December 2020 16: 46
    0
    The main disadvantage of the capsule is that it is larger. The higher the likelihood of damage along with the aircraft and the higher the likelihood of jamming in the rails.
  • Thanos
    Thanos 21 December 2020 16: 56
    0
    Alexander, thanks for the article! It is not often that you come across articles in an accessible language!
    Mercy)
  • businessv
    businessv 21 December 2020 19: 11
    +1
    Alexander, thanks for the interesting article and video - photo selection!
  • zenion
    zenion 21 December 2020 20: 09
    +1
    Of course, not everything is written, but I can add. If the pilot ejected, and then remembered that he had forgotten the lighter in the plane, or wants to continue the flight, he presses the anti-catapult button and the chair will catch up with the plane and sit him down exactly where he was sometimes even at risk for the plane. This is America and they do not like to chat.
  • Out
    Out 21 December 2020 23: 52
    +1
    If I'm not mistaken for a moment-21, the pilot protected the lantern during ejection - this is the topic of capsules and cockpits)))
  • serezhasoldatow
    serezhasoldatow 22 December 2020 09: 01
    0
    So what? What conclusions should be drawn? Something nothing about developments in Russia.
  • KOMA
    KOMA 23 December 2020 01: 13
    0
    The armchair is priced at 17 million rubles apiece. Oh well!
    1. uncle Vlad
      uncle Vlad 5 January 2021 18: 50
      0
      What I wanted, sawing brother sawing .. New mine detector for the RF Ministry of Defense -600 tr. Full Largus.
  • tolancop
    tolancop 23 December 2020 11: 44
    +1
    Quote: Givi_49
    It is not enough to give the pilot the opportunity to leave the aircraft, I think it is time to expand the functions of the rescue system, so that the downed pilot would not passively land by parachute into the enemy's territory to meet his death, but would have the opportunity to fly to a safer place where he will be rescued for sure or return to his ship. .....

    You are thinking about it now, and I saw mention of similar elaborations in a magazine article in 1971 (50 years ago !!). Ejection seat, as the basis of a mini-aircraft, allowing the pilot to fly several tens of kilometers and choose the moment of using the parachute. But, obviously, so far everything remains the same. But why you got minus is not clear to me.
  • Lew
    Lew 24 December 2020 14: 07
    0
    an extended lecture, or rather a children's educational program, on getting up to speed on what an ejection seat is and why it is needed. What does the American bullshit have to do with it, it is not clear.
    And what nonsense with tilting the head during the bailout !! Author, where have you read such nonsense?
    However, the more amers and NATO members in general, tilt their heads like this, the less we will have to knock down!)))
  • Falcon iba
    Falcon iba 25 December 2020 15: 43
    +1
    Himself really did not have the opportunity to eject (flew on KM-32 seats). But when training at the NKTL on the ground, I caught myself hitting my chin on my knee in the belts that were completely locked. I believe that the simpler the systems in the chair, the more reliable, the more bells and whistles, the greater the likelihood of failures. About capsules generally not for a combat aircraft (if damaged, you cannot get out of the cockpit at all).
  • Alecsandr
    Alecsandr 27 December 2020 09: 18
    0
    Excellent article. Respect to the author! And then everything about guns, rockets and machine guns, but how to escape from them is rarely where the issue is covered.
  • Stalnov I.P.
    Stalnov I.P. 27 December 2020 15: 06
    0
    The question is, but these chairs, someone saved, were used in a combat situation, there is no data. Ours have already been applied. This is how they will act, after that it is necessary to judge.
  • Flanker27
    Flanker27 29 December 2020 11: 59
    0
    They would show a test in an inverted flight, or at least from zero speed, and so - ideal conditions.
  • Vladimir Koshevoi
    Vladimir Koshevoi 30 December 2020 20: 23
    0
    Rescue capsule for naval aviation. And when will the "landowners" come up with a flying platform-chair?
  • uncle Vlad
    uncle Vlad 5 January 2021 18: 48
    0
    There is nothing purely about analytics, well, they added a network, the rest is all standard, the speed is 500-700. Sit and wait for the speed.
  • blind
    blind 4 March 2021 18: 10
    0
    that is, the pilot must align the car before ejection, otherwise I can not imagine how the pilot will get out of the danger zone when the car goes up, say, and even along the radius