Military Review

December 19 - Military Counterintelligence Day

37
December 19 - Military Counterintelligence Day

On December 19, the Russian Federation celebrates the Day of Military Counterintelligence. It is this day of 1918 that is considered the day of the creation of the Special Department of the Cheka for the fight against counter-revolution and sabotage under the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR. The main task of the new service was to counter the activity of representatives of foreign military intelligence services during the period of military intervention on the territory of Soviet Russia.


Today, the military counterintelligence service of Russia is a part of the Federal Security Service system in the Armed Forces of the country. The main task of the "special officers" is to counteract the activities of foreign states and individual institutions that can inflict any damage on the Russian Armed Forces, including those associated with ferrying out secrets in the field of the creation and use of weapons and military equipment.

The path of military counterintelligence in Russia was thorny and difficult. This service has repeatedly changed its names, underwent various organizational changes, but the essence of its work remained unchanged.

Of course, the bodies involved in the search for spies, scouts, defectors and traitors in the regular army have existed since the beginning of the 18th century, but the prototype of modern military counterintelligence in Russia arose in 1903, when an Intelligence Department was created at the General Staff, designed to combat espionage.

In 1911, special counterintelligence departments were created at the headquarters of the military districts, whose task, in addition to suppressing foreign espionage, was to prevent "measures of foreign states that could harm the interests of the state's defense." Since 1914, counterintelligence departments were organized at the headquarters of the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, the headquarters of the fronts and armies and the Naval General Staff and the headquarters of the fleets. All of them were abolished in 1918.

The birthday of Soviet counterintelligence was December 19, 1918, when the Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) issued a decree on the unification of the front-line and army Cheka with the military control bodies, and on the creation on their basis of the Special Department of the Cheka under the SNK of the RSFSR. Later, a unified centralized system of security organs was created in the troops.

In the 1920s - 1930s, the military counterintelligence bodies were strengthened. In 1934, the Special Department became part of the Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB) of the NKVD of the USSR as the 5th department (since 1936), and in 1938, after the abolition of the GUGB, on the basis of the 5th department, the 2nd Directorate of special departments of the NKVD of the USSR. However, in 1938, on the initiative of Lavrenty Beria, the Main Directorate of State Security was re-established. The 4th Special Department of the GUGB, in charge of military counterintelligence, was revived in its composition.

In 1941, the Office of Special Departments was recreated, which included the 3rd Directorate of the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR and the Special Department of the NKVD of the USSR. On April 19, 1943, by a decree of the State Defense Committee of the USSR, the legendary Main Directorate of Counterintelligence "SMERSH" of the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR was created, which during the war years played a major role in identifying German spies and traitors, policemen, punishers and their accomplices from among Soviet citizens.


In May 1946, the military counterintelligence bodies were transformed into special departments and transferred to the USSR Ministry of State Security (since 1954 - the USSR State Security Committee). During the Cold War, the secret services of NATO countries became the main opponents of military counterintelligence.

In 1991, the state security agencies were reformed, and later on, military counterintelligence was included in the system of Russian security agencies under various names. In 2004, military counterintelligence was reorganized into the Department of Military Counterintelligence of the FSB of Russia.

Nowadays, officers of the military counterintelligence agencies continue to carry out their heavy and dangerous service to protect the national security of the Russian state.

Voennoye Obozreniye congratulates the military counterintelligence officers and all veterans of the service on their professional holiday!
37 comments
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  1. Crowe
    Crowe 19 December 2020 07: 43
    +20
    Happy Communion Day!
  2. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 19 December 2020 07: 43
    +12
    Congratulations colleagues! Success in work and long life for pensioners.
    1. Anatole Klim
      Anatole Klim 19 December 2020 08: 45
      +9
      I remembered a real case. In the 90s I served at an artillery ammunition base and sent a team of soldiers to our base to stack stacks and clear the technical area from grass and bushes for fire safety. We were supervised by the captain of the special officer, who often came to our base, walked, looked, talked with everyone, I was a little annoyed by this that you were hanging out here. And then somehow he recalls me to the smoking room and says: you are preparing a crime, namely the theft of ammunition, one of the seconded soldiers, taking advantage of the fact that your senior officer of the team was away for a few minutes as needed, opened the box with the RPG "Fly "took one shot and hid it in a pile of garbage, the garbage was then taken out by a dump truck and dumped into a ravine outside the unit. I say that we will prepare an ambush in a ravine? wait for someone to come to pick up. He says, but why complicate things, I'll take the soldier now, he will tell everything. I wanted to use physical pressure to Prapor, but he wrote a report for transfer to another part. How the special department learned about all this is not important, the main thing was the result.
      Congratulations on the holiday to the military counterintelligence officers, active and veterans, your work is needed!
      1. dauria
        dauria 19 December 2020 14: 12
        +2
        How the special department learned about all this is not important, the main thing was the result.

        I put the video camera ... laughing Yes, through an informant from the same soldiers. And voluntary, ideological, which you think of in the last place. Undoubtedly, the work of the curators is important and necessary, but their methods .... Well, they did not come up with others. By the way, this "comrade" also knew a lot about you personally. Just for nonsense, they did not touch anyone to certain boundaries.
        We have our own high school kids from the first BC Mi-24
        NURS whistled. S-5 kpb ... laughing They hid it right there in the woods. They wanted to launch it. Day after 4 themselves and "found and brought."
        1. Anatole Klim
          Anatole Klim 19 December 2020 14: 29
          0
          Quote: dauria
          Yes through an informant from the same soldiers. And voluntary, ideological, which you think of in the last place.

          Yes, of course, we suspected the same in our unit, he was the commandant of the unit, he knew everything what was happening, an ideal option for recruiting.
          and I probably knew a lot about you personally.

          Of course I knew that after this incident we sat down, 0,5 for each eye, a normal man, just such work, by the way, really helped, imagine if this "Fly" shot somewhere, I would also be called to account.
  3. apro
    apro 19 December 2020 08: 00
    -9
    I wonder why the date was taken from the formation of the Cheka? And not from the birth of the counterintelligence service of Ri or Denikin? 7 November somehow they were able to postpone. And from February 23, not everything is so simple ...
    1. rotmistr60
      rotmistr60 19 December 2020 08: 31
      +4
      You would google something. The formation of the Cheka-VChK on December 20, 1917, and the military counterintelligence on December 19, 1918.
      1. apro
        apro 19 December 2020 08: 39
        -7
        The key word is soviet.
        1. sniperino
          sniperino 20 December 2020 02: 58
          0
          Quote: apro
          The key word is soviet.
          Because the whole world of violence was destroyed to the ground in one single country. They built a new world and destroyed it again. This is what's left. As soon as Russia began to gather and raised its status from a hegemonic friend (look to the left) to a hegemonic enemy, the fiery ones again swooped in, shouting, they say, the world of violence and again want to destroy it in order to build it as it was before, only better. Like a sand house. It might be better to revise the theory of class struggle, at least ...
          1. apro
            apro 20 December 2020 03: 48
            -1
            Quote: sniperino
            Once Russia

            Are Russia and the Soviets somehow connected?
            Quote: sniperino
            It might be better to revise the theory of class struggle, at least ..

            Why? Russian go about your Russian affairs ... why do you need Soviet?
            1. sniperino
              sniperino 20 December 2020 11: 06
              0
              Quote: apro
              Russia and the Soviet are somehow connected
              Of course, like everything that happened to the Russians, starting with the formation of Kievan Rus. The division of the Russian world into separate "worlds", which was actually begun by Peter I, contributes to the fragmentation of the historical consciousness of the Russians, turning them not into a state-forming, but into a state-destroying people. Then we received not only the navy, but also the Church schism, and Westernism, a readiness to destroy our own, so that later we could scratch our turnips, how to build something new according to someone else's patterns. And the Russian people do not fit well into them, and they begin to scroll it like in a meat grinder. Instead of progressive - project ("evolutionary") - development, we periodically have a situation when at the top there is a desire to destroy everything to the bottom, and the base does not care, its fragmented historical consciousness ceases to resist and turns into minced meat.
              1. apro
                apro 20 December 2020 11: 09
                0
                Quote: sniperino
                Of course

                And what is the goal-setting of the Russians and the Soviet?
                1. sniperino
                  sniperino 20 December 2020 11: 19
                  0
                  Russians, Soviet, American or Syrian do not and cannot have goal-setting. This is not the prerogative of the community, but of a person, a subject, although not everyone has a goal. There is a goal - there is a passionate. And if the goal is even assigned by a person, but superficially, at the level of "it would be nice", then he will easily abandon it, there would be a reason.
    2. 4NCTOKOHKPETHO
      4NCTOKOHKPETHO 19 December 2020 10: 40
      -2
      The NKVD is closer to them than the corps of gendarmes! How can the satraps and accomplices of the bloody tsarist regime not stand in the same ranks with the fighters for the happiness of the working people and the vile intrigues of the counter-revolution
    3. Obliterator
      Obliterator 19 December 2020 12: 57
      +1
      Quote: apro
      I wonder why the date was taken from the formation of the Cheka? And not from the birth of the counterintelligence service of ri or GDenikin? 7 November somehow they were able to postpone. And from February 23, not everything is so simple

      Because there is no continuity between the tsarist and Soviet systems, on the contrary, the tsarist specialists were the primary enemies of the future security officers. Therefore, it makes no sense to change the dates to "royal" ones, because the staff will not appreciate it anyway. Similarly, there is a memorable date for the formation of the growing police under the kings, only the cops themselves love and celebrate only November 10 as the day of the police.
      Quote: 4NCTOKOHKPETHO
      The NKVD is closer to them than the corps of gendarmes! How can the satraps and accomplices of the bloody tsarist regime not stand in the same ranks with the fighters for the happiness of the working people and the vile intrigues of the counter-revolution

      The Cheka were, first of all, the soldiers of the party, the happiness of the people interested them no more than the same gendarmes.
      1. apro
        apro 19 December 2020 13: 16
        -1
        Quote: Obliterator
        Because there is no continuity between the tsarist and Soviet systems

        And there is between the Soviet and the Russian? It's like putting an equality between a policeman and a thief ..
        1. Obliterator
          Obliterator 19 December 2020 13: 33
          +1
          Quote: apro

          And between the Soviet and the Russian is there? It's like putting equality between a policeman and a thief

          Speaking about systems, I meant the fact that the Soviet special services were created from scratch, and they were not going to take anyone from the secret police there. And if they took it as an exception, then it would not be for long.
    4. RUSS
      RUSS 19 December 2020 19: 29
      -1
      Quote: apro
      I wonder why the date was taken from the formation of the Cheka? And not from the birth of the counterintelligence service of Ri or Denikin? 7 November somehow they were able to postpone. And from February 23, not everything is so simple ...

      On June 8, 1911, Minister of War Vladimir Sukhomlinov signed the "Regulations on counterintelligence divisions" created at the headquarters of the military districts.
      The beginning of the systematic activities of military counterintelligence in Russia was laid.
      1. apro
        apro 20 December 2020 01: 21
        0
        Quote: RUSS
        8 June 1911 year

        That is the date ... why is it alien to Russians?
        1. RUSS
          RUSS 20 December 2020 10: 29
          -1
          Quote: apro
          Quote: RUSS
          8 June 1911 year

          That is the date ... why is it alien to Russians?

          The current Chekists will leave at the head of the Chief Chekist, then the date of the holiday can be changed.
          1. apro
            apro 20 December 2020 10: 38
            0
            Quote: RUSS
            The current Chekists will leave at the head of the Chief Chekist, then the date of the holiday can be changed.

            To call traitors Chekists ...
  4. Evil 55
    Evil 55 19 December 2020 08: 18
    +11
    And with them it is dangerous and without them anywhere .. Operational luck, mutual understanding with subordinates and competent bosses of the service.
    1. Crowe
      Crowe 19 December 2020 09: 11
      +11
      Quote: Angry 55
      And it's dangerous with them

      If you are not a spy recruited by an adversary, then there is nothing to fear)))
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 19 December 2020 13: 00
        +3
        You said correctly
  5. Ros 56
    Ros 56 19 December 2020 08: 26
    +6
    Maybe someone doesn't like them, but they have such a service.
    Happy Holidays.
  6. iva12936
    iva12936 19 December 2020 08: 30
    +8
    Happy holidays, health and good luck !!!
  7. XXXIII
    XXXIII 19 December 2020 08: 43
    +8
    Thank the granfather for the victory!
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 19 December 2020 13: 12
      +3
      When I hear about "SMERSH", I automatically remember: "The moment of truth." When I read it for the first time, and I reread it already 2_ times, I imagined everything live: Tamantseva, Blinova
  8. Momotomba
    Momotomba 19 December 2020 09: 17
    +8
    Special officers are feared and disliked by those who have something to hide wink Happy Holidays!
  9. Alien From
    Alien From 19 December 2020 10: 02
    +5
    Happy holiday to all involved))) only tiiiho)))
  10. Vladimir Mashkov
    Vladimir Mashkov 19 December 2020 11: 33
    +4
    Neither himself, nor the father and son are involved. But the father of his son-in-law served in the Great Patriotic War in "Smersha". Still vigorous, athletic, fit and alert.
    Happy holiday to all counterintelligence officers! yes smile
  11. vladcub
    vladcub 19 December 2020 12: 58
    +2
    That in 1903, that in 1923, that in 1963, that in 2003 the counterintelligence had, is and will be the same: to tear off the "curious Varvara" nose.
    I would gladly read something from the history of counterintelligence.
  12. Orkraider
    Orkraider 19 December 2020 15: 34
    +2
    Happy Holidays!
    Take care of our homeland from threats.
    1. iouris
      iouris 20 December 2020 01: 25
      +1
      Quote: Orkraider
      Take care of our homeland from threats.

      Our Motherland is the USSR.