Military Review

Combat aircraft. He flies, what more do you want?

48
Yes, today we are not talking about a wonderful plane. Although, why, this thing was quite wonderful. But in the negative sense of the word.


Combat aircraft. He flies, what more do you want?

In general "Hampden" was one of the three bombers with which Great Britain entered the war. Wellington, Whitley and our hero. We talked about Wheatley, Wellington is ahead of us, but those two participants in the initial stage of the war deserved warm words about themselves.

With Hampden, things are more complicated.

It is more difficult because, in fact, the developer company is not, as it were, to blame for the fact that it turned out to be a "Flying Suitcase". These were the conditions of the mission, into the framework of which the plane had to be literally driven.

When did it all start? When some progressive (in fact, progressive in the most conservative Britain!) Forces decided that all these biplanes with their cables, braces, drains and other anachronisms such as non-retractable landing gear should go away.

Really, all over the world in aviation something out of the ordinary was happening: seaplanes with floats won speed over land aircraft, passenger monoplane airliners overtook fighters, and only bombers personified such a leisurely force.

By the way, in the "backward" USSR TB-1 and TB-3 were at least monoplanes. Albeit very unhurried. Others were much sadder.

In general, after looking at all this, the British Royal Air Force decided: general cleaning of the air fleet and monoplanes with retractable landing gear! But all that type of "Overstrand" and "Sidestrend" from Bolton Paul had to go. On retire. With the subsequent sawing for firewood.


This is Overstrand. Very modern for the time.

In general, despite all the tricks of the League of Nations and agreements such as the Washington and London treaties, the arms race not only continued, but began to gain momentum in full.

Speaking of the agreements between London and Washington, which concerned naval aviation, and even then not very strongly, this is probably not the best example. Although, as an attempt to slow down the development of the naval forces - quite.

Aviation had its own "Washington" - the Geneva Treaty of 1932, which tried to limit the bomb load and weight of the aircraft depending on the engine power.

As a result, in the bowels of the military department, a draft assignment for a bomber was born, which could carry 1 kg of bombs over a distance of 600 km (1 with suspended tanks) at a speed of at least 000 km / h. The maximum operating altitude of the new aircraft was determined at 2 m.

The crew was supposed to consist of four people: a pilot, a navigator and two gunners, one of whom was supposed to be assigned the duties of a radio operator. Defensive armament was to consist of two machine gun turrets.

For such a promising order in 1933, Bristol, Gloucester, Vickers and Handley Page came together in a battle. During 1933 and 1934, Gloucester and Bristol retired, leaving only Vickers and Handley Page on the virtual battlefield. Both projects caught the interest of the RAF, and - strangest of all - both went into production.

The prototype of the Vickers firm later became the Wellington, a real heavy bomber, but the Heidley Page had a lower class machine. Medium bomber.


The bomber project, named HP.52, was planned for testing with Rolls-Royce "Goshawk" engines. These motors were not the height of perfection, moreover, they had a very weak point - an evaporative cooling system. Meanwhile, the plane could fly at a speed higher than required. According to calculations, with engines Bristol "Mercury VI", HP.52 could accelerate to 370 km / h.

And here the world community, stubbornly unwilling to disarm, did the aircraft manufacturers a favor by breaking several treaties on arms limitation. The result of these failures was the complete lifting of restrictions on aircraft in general and bombers in particular.

Naturally, the RAF removed all power restrictions and even increased the required range to 2414 km. The "heart" of the future bomber was Bristol "Pegasus XVIII", the best British air-cooled engine at that time.

The result was an airplane, albeit very extraordinary in terms of appearance.

The cockpit, along with armament and main onboard systems, was very tightly packed in a high but narrow forward fuselage. It was for this that the plane received the nickname "Flying Suitcase".


The layout was really peculiar. In the nose of the fuselage, with solid glazing, was the cockpit of the navigator-bombardier.



Navigator's seat, but no bombsight is visible. So - a torpedo bomber.

Above him was the pilot.


The cockpit was placed in front of the wing edge and provided excellent visibility, plus the canopy on it moved back, like a fighter, that is, in order to leave the car in which case it was very easy.

The pilot actually sat on the bomb bay, and behind the bomb bay, above and below, were the arrows.


The lower one sat in a retractable machine-gun turret (nicknamed "trash can"), and the upper one operated with a conventional turret.



Coaxial machine guns indicate that this is most likely already 1942.

They wanted to install the "trash can" in the nose, according to the fashion of that time, but it did not fit into the narrow space of the fuselage. Therefore, they simply installed two course machine guns, and on this we finished with weapons.

After the cockpit, such a thin tail boom began, which carried a horizontal trapezoidal tail with rounded tips and two small keels.


The motors were placed as close to the fuselage as possible in order to minimize the turning moment.

The Hampden made its first flight on June 21, 1936. "Pegasi" with a capacity of 1000 hp each car accelerated to 426 km / h.

The plane could take on board about 1800 kg of bombs: two 906 kg each or eight 226 kg.


Instead of bombs, it was possible to take sea mines weighing 680 kg.


In the case of using "Hampden" as a mine layer, for flights at a considerable distance, he relied on a more powerful radio station and radio direction finder.

All this slightly increased the weight of the aircraft by about a ton. It was an unpleasant moment, and therefore they decided to abandon the towers. More precisely, from the tower, because at the time of 1937 the bow tower was not yet ready. As a result, the shooters received turrets with coaxial machine guns 7,62 mm Vickers "K". Two machine guns were in the bow. The navigator fired from the first, the second, fixed, was under the control of the pilot.

Even in 1937 it was not enough. But the military department considered that weak defensive weapons would be compensated for by high speed. "Yes Yes!" - grinned in "Messerschmitt", finishing Bf.109 ...

The aircraft received the name "Hampden". In honor of the British city and at the same time the defender of freedoms, John Hampden, an orator from the 17th century.

The first series of 180 aircraft was ordered in September 1936, when British intelligence reported that the Junkers Ju-86 and Dornier Do-17 were launched in Germany.

The production aircraft went into service in 1938. The car flew at a speed of 408 km / h, the range increased to 3 km with a bomb load of 060 kg. The cars were assembled not only in Britain, the Canadian consortium CAA joined the production, which established the production of Hampdens for Britain at its factories in Canada.

Hampdens were also produced at factories of other companies, for example, Short Brothers and Garland. A total of 1 copies were made.

When the Second World War began, there were 226 Humpdens in the units. But in reality, only 10 RAF battalions flew (one battalion - 16 aircraft). In general, the Hampdens and Wellingtons had to assume a major role in the early stages of the war.


The Hampdens made their first sortie on September 3, 1939. But combat activity was reduced to laying mines (Operation "Gardening") in German waters and scattering leaflets.

On September 29, the 144th Bomber Command Division carried out an afternoon raid on German destroyers off Helgoland Island. The Germans quite calmly shot down 5 of the 11 planes that flew. After that, the use of Humpdens during the day began to be reduced to a minimum. Losses have decreased, but so have efficiency.

Overall, it became clear that the latest Royal Air Force aircraft was not that great in terms of speed and maneuver.

Therefore, all that is left is to use planes at night.

The Hampdens continued to throw out leaflets, bomb various infrastructure at night, and plant mines.

The effect, however, was small. Affected by the low training of flight personnel for night operations. Therefore, it is not surprising that all the 900-kg Hampden bombs dropped on the Scharnhorst in Kiel on July 2, 1940 passed by.

There were also successes. On the night of 13 August, the Hampdens destroyed the locks on the Dortmund-Ems Canal with high-explosive bombs.

In the year since the beginning of the war, the crews of the Hampdens have laid 703 mines in German waters. For 1209 sorties, the losses amounted to 21 aircraft, which can be considered quite acceptable losses.

The "Suitcases" also took part in raids on cities, including Berlin. With the extra outboard tanks, it was easy.


In general, by the end of 1940, the Hampdens had become full-fledged "night lights", although from time to time they were attracted to daytime raids. It is believed that it was the "Hampden" from the 44th division that hit the "Gneisenau" in the port of Kiel in May 1941.

There was an attempt to turn the Hampden into a night fighter to fight German bombers. For this, another shooter was added to the navigator, the machine gun was replaced with two 20-mm Hispano cannons. However, the absence of the radar did not give the expected results, because the aircraft were disarmed and returned to the bomber units. The Hampden's heavy night fighter did not work.

The Hampdens also took part in the famous Thousand Aircraft raids. The operation was conceived as a response to the Luftwaffe bombing. The bomber command allocated 700 of its bombers, but this was not enough. Then the Coastal Command and frontline aviation were connected, with the help of which the number of aircraft was brought to 1.

On the night of May 31, 1942, a raid was made on Cologne. 898 aircraft dropped 540 high-explosive and 915 incendiary bombs on targets. The attack cost 40 bombers shot down. Another 85 British aircraft were damaged by antiaircraft artillery and 12 by night fighters.

In total, the Hampdens made 16 sorties, in which they dropped 541 tons of bombs. 9 aircraft were lost in battles, 261 were lost in accidents and disasters for various reasons.


As part of the Coastal Command, five squadrons of bombers and torpedo bombers "Hampden" were in operation until the end of 1943, but even in BC "Hampdens" were changed at the earliest opportunity for more modern aircraft.

These planes also ended up in the Soviet Union. Moreover, under very peculiar circumstances.

1942 year. That is, the year when everyone is trying to get rid of the Humpdens. And then two squadrons on these "Suitcases" were sent to the USSR to help escort the PQ-18 caravan, after, again, on their "wise" initiative, the British presented the PQ-17 convoy to the Germans.


Two squadrons, British and Australian (144th and 455th) flew to the Kola Peninsula and fought there for two months. And then exhaling, with the words "finally!", With relief and pleasure they left their planes to the allies. That is, to us.

"Modern" aircraft, with an exhausted resource, practically without spare parts. A very generous gift. Plus motors designed for other gasoline and oils, plus inevitable problems with weapons.

In all stories I would like to say only one thing about relations between us and the British allies: the British have always been with great pleasure to share with us all the rubbish that they themselves did not need.


It applied to everything. Old "Hurricanes" of the first issues, transferred from Africa Tanks with a depleted resource, rusty destroyers and so on. I paid a lot of attention to the "Other Lend-Lease", and tried to speak as fairly as possible about deliveries. And after studying a lot of documents and evidence, I can only say that the Americans behaved like people and allies, and the British behaved as usual.

Well, since we were no stranger to wearing British rags, then in the 24th and 9th mine-torpedo air regiments these nightmares were exploited right up to 1943.

About weapons. The British, who gave us the planes, did not feel any emotion at the very thought that there would be nothing to fight on these planes. The Soviet air torpedo was as much as 75 centimeters longer than the British one. Nothing, got out. They cut the bottoms, moved the power supports, welded on the hatch flaps, remade the grippers. And in the end they shoved our 45-36AN instead of the British Mark XII.

In the field.

And on December 18, 1942, a combat mission took place with the participation of the torpedo bomber "Hampden" - one Il-4 and one "Hampden" took off to free hunt for enemy ships in the Tanafjord area.

And so they fought until these machines were completely worn out. And they fought well. The feat of the crew of Captain V.N. Kiseleva. A group of torpedo bombers (5 units) under the cover of Pe-3 fighters (6 vehicles) on July 24, 1943, attacked the convoy transports en route to Germany from Norway. The ships of the convoy covered seaplanes and Me-110 that took off from the coastal airfields.

In the ensuing battle, one "Messerschmitt" Me.110 and one "Heinkel" He.115 were shot down, on our side two Pe-3s and one "Hampden" were lost. The leader of the group, Captain Kiselev, was shot down by the anti-aircraft guns of the convoy.

The crew decided to go to the end, the burning plane dropped a torpedo and got into the Leese transport (displacement of 2 tons) and headed for another transport with the intention of ramming. But it did not reach several tens of meters and fell into the water.

The torpedo bomber's crew was awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

And shortly before this incident, on January 14, 1943, two torpedo bombers "Hampden" discovered a caravan of seven ships. The plane of captain A.A. Bashtyrkov was hit by escort ships when going into the attack. The torpedo bomber caught fire, but did not turn off the combat course and, before falling into the sea, managed to drop a torpedo along the transport. True, the transport dodged her. Nevertheless, the crew commander A. A. Bashtyrkov and the gunner - radio operator V. N. Gavrilov were posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

The second "Hampden" was able to drop a torpedo under fire and return to base. Captain V.N. Kiselev ...


These two cases became the basis for one of the best and most poignant films about that war - "Torpedo Bombers". Only in the film, as those who watched know, the IL-4 was shot. Which is in principle justified. Heroes must fight on domestic planes, not on a foreign "suitcase".

The last sorties in the composition of the Soviet air force "Hampdens" made at the very end of 1943.

In general, about this machine, you can say about the same thing that we said about our SB and TB-3, on which we started the war. "There was no other."

In principle, the Hampden was a good aircraft, quite modern at the time of its creation, but somehow it was rapidly outdated. Moreover, its obsolescence was all postures of the auspices of the word "too".

Too slow speed, too clumsy (especially for a torpedo bomber), too weak defensive armament, absolutely no armor for the crew. The range and bomb load were good, but what good is a good range if there is only one pilot?

Yes, at the end of Hampden's service, coaxial machine guns appeared on the gunners' turrets, but in 1942 the 7,7-mm caliber was no longer very serious.

But there was no other, that's why they fought on the "Suitcase". And as soon as there was something, they immediately replaced it.

Which, on the whole, was perfectly fair.


LTH Hampden B.Mk.I

Wingspan, m: 21,08
Length, m: 16,33
Height, m: 4,55
Wing area, м2: 60,75

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 5 343
- normal takeoff: 8 508
- maximum take-off: 9 525

Engine: 2 x Bristol Pegasus XVII x 1000

Maximum speed km / h: 426
Cruising speed, km / h: 349
Practical range, km: 3 203
Combat range with maximum load, km: 1 400
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 300
Practical ceiling, m: 6 920

Crew, prs: 4

Armament:
- two 7,7 mm machine guns in the bow;
- two 7,7 mm machine guns installed in the dorsal and dorsal positions;
- bomb load up to 1814 kg inside the fuselage.
Author:
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Combat aircraft. Terribly beautiful and vice versa
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  1. bistrov.
    bistrov. 13 December 2020 05: 58
    +3
    And this policy of Great Britain to "sniff out" the "natives" of the unnecessary continues to this day.
    1. Elturisto
      Elturisto 14 December 2020 09: 40
      -2
      Saxon is the second half of the 70s ...
  2. andrewkor
    andrewkor 13 December 2020 06: 50
    +5
    In the article of the distinguished Author, Soviet TB-1 and TB-3 are mentioned.
    It was not out of place to emphasize that these were the world's first monoplane bombers in 1925 and 1930, respectively.
    "All subsequent bomber aircraft, all" flying fortresses "and" super-fortresses "were essentially the development of types
    TB-1 and TB-3 ".V.B.Shavrov" History of the development of aircraft designs in the USSR until 1938 "
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 13 December 2020 09: 09
      +5
      All aircraft are essentially the development of the Wright brothers' apparatus
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 13 December 2020 13: 28
        +1
        All aircraft are essentially the development of the Wright brothers' apparatus

        Well, don't generalize like that. The Wright Brothers' apparatus was, as they say now, a "demonstrator." Statically unstable.
      2. Reviews
        Reviews 14 December 2020 12: 11
        +1
        Quote: mr.ZinGer
        All aircraft are essentially the development of the Wright brothers' apparatus

        Lilienthal's gliders. For he was the first to carry out a controlled meaningful flight and most of his gliders had a normal aerodynamic design. And "Flyer" is a "duck". Moreover, a completely schizophrenic HMG (albeit copied for a long time afterwards).
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 13 December 2020 14: 33
      +13
      It was not out of place to emphasize that these were the world's first monoplane bombers in 1925 and 1930, respectively.
      Not the first. TB-1 is not the world's first monoplane bomber, but the world's first serial monoplane bomber. TB-1 performed its first flight in November 1925. American Stout ST - April 1922.
      1. Reviews
        Reviews 13 December 2020 19: 51
        +1
        Quote: Undecim
        the world's first serial monoplane bomber.

        k.30 / YUG-1. 1926 year.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 13 December 2020 20: 10
          +5
          Maybe so, although it is, nevertheless, the conversion of a civilian aircraft into a military one.
          1. Reviews
            Reviews 13 December 2020 21: 54
            0
            Quote: Undecim
            Maybe so, although it is, nevertheless, the conversion of a civilian aircraft into a military one.

            And, like, those on whom a ton of bombs are rained from it, it makes it easier. :)
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 13 December 2020 22: 05
              +6
              So we are not discussing the moral aspects of the use of aviation for military purposes, but technical ones.
              1. Reviews
                Reviews 13 December 2020 22: 10
                0
                Quote: Undecim
                So we are not discussing the moral aspects of the use of aviation for military purposes, but technical ones.

                And I'm talking about them - a bomber made from a passenger one carries the same bombs as a "purebred" bomber. It doesn't matter where to throw. The FAB-100 dropped from the bomber version of the Li-2 or from the U-2VS is exactly the same as the one dropped from the TB-3 or Il-4, for example. :) Well, of course, if the enemy's air defense is not very powerful, but that's another question ...
  3. Fitter65
    Fitter65 13 December 2020 06: 53
    +7
    But in reality, only 10 RAF battalions flew (one battalion - 16 aircraft).

    while other sources say that
    The main tactical unit of the British Air Force was a squadron, which in the pre-war period consisted of 12 single-engine aircraft or 10 twin-engine aircraft.
    In all the RAF combat descriptions, Sqn-Squadron - squadron ...
  4. Fitter65
    Fitter65 13 December 2020 07: 27
    +13
    On September 29, the 144th Bomber Command Division carried out an afternoon raid on German destroyers off Helgoland Island. The Germans quite calmly shot down 5 aircraft out of 11 that flew
    Our "favorite" author writes, and in another source this moment is described like this
    September 29, 1939, the first collision with enemy fighters took place. In the Heligoland Bay area, two groups of "Hampdens" of 144 Squadron with a total of 11 aircraft were attacked by Messerschmitts Bf 109E, which took off from the Frisian Islands. All five "Humpdens" of the first group, commanded by Wing Commander J. Cunningham, were shot down.
    It turns out that a total of 11 aircraft flew, and did not fly, and again from 144 squadrons, not a division ... About the operation of Hempdenn in the USSR
    These planes also ended up in the Soviet Union. Moreover, under very peculiar circumstances.
    1942 year. That is, the year when from the Humpdens all trying to get rid of.
    I just want to ask the author, but all who is this? RAF and ... that's it. How many of these aircraft were delivered to the USSR? We read what they write in the primary source
    .The torpedo version of "Hampden" was introduced in the USSR, when in 1942 the planes of the RAF flew to Murmansk to fly from here to protect the convoy PQ 18 .... and torpedo bombers "Hampden", which were represented by two squadrons (144- th and 445 th) .... Operation "Orator" to escort convoy PQ-18 ended on 22 September. And the question arose - what to do next with British aircraft? The complexity of the return flight made it completely meaningless. As a result of the negotiations, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill approved the transfer of torpedo bombers to the Red Army. All "Hampdens" became part of the 24th mine and torpedo aviation regiment (24th MTAP) of the Northern Fleet Air Force.
    Reading the articles of "our great reprint" one would like to ask, Roman, what are you smoking?
    On January 14, 1943, two Hampden torpedo bombers discovered a caravan of seven ships. The plane of captain A.A. Bashtyrkov was hit by escort ships when going into the attack. The torpedo bomber caught fire, but did not turn off the combat course and, before falling into the sea, managed to drop a torpedo along the transport. True, the transport dodged her. Nevertheless, the crew commander A. A. Bashtyrkov and the gunner - radio operator V. N. Gavrilov were posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.
    Where did January 14 come from (?) When they write everywhere
    Crews of captains V.N. Kiselev and A.A. Bashtyrkov 15 January attacked an enemy convoy off the Norwegian coast. "Hampden" Bashtyrkov caught fire on a combat course, but the pilot did not turn it away until the torpedo was dropped
    About the feat of Captain Kiselev
    Captain Kiselev repeated the feat of his deceased friend three months later. The five N.R. 52 led by them as their target on April 25, 1943, chose a convoy of seventeen ships under the cover of Luftwaffe fighters. German aircraft tied up twin-engined Pe-3 fighters from the 95th IAP in combat, allowing the torpedo bombers to attack.

    Kiselev went to the lead transport Leesee, but got hit in the left engine, which immediately caught fire. Nevertheless, "Hampden" remained on course and dropped a torpedo from a height of 400 m. All the anti-aircraft weapons of the convoy concentrated fire on the flaming Kiselev plane. In the end, the torpedo bomber fell into the water not far from the sinking Leesee. For his feat, V.N. Kiselev, together with the navigator M.F. Pokalo, were posthumously awarded the title of Heroes.
    It actually happened in Skomorokhov's reality, it happened ... drum roll - tadam !!!
    ... July 24, 1943 ...
    Well done guessed at least a year !!!
  5. fa2998
    fa2998 13 December 2020 09: 17
    +9
    Quote: bistrov.
    "sniff" unnecessary "natives"

    In the North, at that time there was a proverb among the pilots - "You are my friend, or Hamden" wassat wassat
  6. sevtrash
    sevtrash 13 December 2020 11: 33
    +8
    For fishlessness and cancer, Hampden may not be ideal, but he got it for nothing, he could fight and what, in fact, was the alternative? DB3 / Il4? Yes, an alternative, but a very difficult take-off, landing, weak motors for him, unstable, one pilot and no autopilot. And the Douglas a20G came only in 1943.
  7. Constanty
    Constanty 13 December 2020 13: 05
    +7
    "Torpedo bombers". Only in the film, as those who watched know, the IL-4 was filmed. Which is justified in principle. Heroes must fight on domestic planes, not on a foreign "suitcase".


    Very strange logic.
    And as for the historical truth - these Heroes flew on the Gampdens, Pokryshkin fought on the Aircobra for a long time, many tankers fought on the Shermans ...
    Show everyone only on DB-3, La-5 or T-34 - falsification of history.
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 13 December 2020 14: 30
      +6
      Quote: Constanty
      And as for the historical truth - these Heroes flew on the Gampdens,

      As for the historical truth, the film was dedicated to all the pilots of the North Sea. In those documentary shots that flicker in the film, not only the IL-4 is visible, but at the end of the film Heroes who fought in the North are shown, there are not only torpedo bombers, there are attack aircraft, fighters, mastheads ... And the film was not filmed on a documentary basis And the images of these crews are collective, and in addition to these two crews on the Hempdens there were those who fought, oddly enough, both on the IL-4 and on the A-20 ... If it comes to that then in Kurochkin's story, based on which the film "In War, As in War" was filmed, the action generally unfolds in winter, and it is not the gunner Domeshek who perishes, but Lieutenant Maleshkin himself, and they fought not on the Su-100, but on the Su-85 ... Let's be indignant here too, what kind of falsification of history is this ...
      1. Constanty
        Constanty 13 December 2020 14: 34
        +4
        I didn't mean this film, but the position of the author:
        Which is justified in principle. Heroes should fight on domestic planes, not on a foreign "suitcase"
    2. Fitter65
      Fitter65 13 December 2020 14: 36
      +10
      Quote: Constanty
      And as for the historical truth - these Heroes flew on the Gampdens, Pokryshkin fought on the Aircobra for a long time, many tankers fought on the Shermans ...
      Show everyone only on DB-3, La-5 or T-34 - falsification of history.

      To shoot and show films like "Penal Battalion", "Bastards" and the like, this is the falsification of history ...
      1. Constanty
        Constanty 13 December 2020 15: 00
        +6
        Yes, this is also often a falsification of history. only expects something different from feature films, from historians.

        The primacy of the only correct ideology over the truth leads to such curiosities as replacing tanks at the Soviet monument in Gdansk.
        From the really combat first tank that entered Gdansk - Soviet Sherman with tail number 216.

        politically correct
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 13 December 2020 23: 58
          0
          And who changed something?
          1. Constanty
            Constanty 14 December 2020 00: 05
            +1
            In the case of this monument, as far as I understand, the Polish authorities did it in 1946.
            1. Fitter65
              Fitter65 14 December 2020 12: 06
              +1
              Quote: Constanty
              In the case of this monument, as far as I understand, the Polish authorities did it in 1946.

              There was a "Sherman" of the Soviet troops, became the T-34 of the Polish Army ... During his service in the SGV, in the 80s of the last century, I had to travel around the former Eastern Pomerania, as there were very often memorials dedicated to World War II - there was everywhere Soviet equipment of that period with the insignia of the Polish Army. At the time, we did not consider it shameful. Together with the Polish zholnezhy they stood on the guard of honor on May 9 at the monument to those who died in Stargard ...

              And I still have such an anniversary medal (a sign if you like)

              PS And that Sherman maybe just had to be returned back, according to the Lend-Lease article ...
              1. Constanty
                Constanty 14 December 2020 12: 24
                0
                Unfortunately, as far as I know, Sherman was scrapped :-(
                The T-34 from Gdansk is a historical sample from a relatively early version, as well as a historical document, but you are right - only Soviet weapons were exhibited on all monuments, until 1990 you could hardly find an image of the Lend-lee weapon, even from museums they were removed and valuable rare exhibits were destroyed because they were politically incorrect - such as Hetzer, 2 Spitfire, Aircobra.

                Now, in turn, we are turning in the other direction and removing Soviet tanks and guns :-(
                It’s good if it’s like the T-35 with Westerplatte or two SU-152s from the Tsibinka cemetery, which ended up in the museum in Drzonovo - although the latter, unfortunately, are in poor condition), it’s worse if the madness of "improving history" ends in the destruction of valuable monuments ...

                Residents often “protect” Soviet tanks, for example, in Gliwice or the IS-2 from Lembork.

                Therefore, he nervously reacts to all the voices of Fr.
                Heroes should fight on domestic planes, not on a foreign "suitcase"


                Hi
                1. Fitter65
                  Fitter65 14 December 2020 12: 37
                  +1
                  Quote: Constanty
                  Now, in turn, we have a turn in the other direction

                  We might be a little better. Although it is better to name attempts to rehabilitate the traitor Vlasov, or to justify the punisher of Siberia-Kolchak, the language does not turn. But I paraphrase one Great Man, thanks to whom both Russia and Poland are on the maps - "History Improvers" come and go, but the Polish and Russian peoples remain ... It's scary, of course, what could be like in Ukraine, because there are already some "history improvers" "in Poland, who offer to justify the crimes of Bandera for the sake of friendship with the descendants of these Bandera. But thank God there are still reasonable people, I really am afraid that really - for now ...
                  Hello for you too.
  8. Undecim
    Undecim 13 December 2020 14: 14
    +10
    Aviation had its own "Washington" - the Geneva Treaty of 1932, which tried to limit the bomb load and weight of the aircraft depending on the engine power.
    As usual, the author equips the copyright with his own fantasies.
    There was no "Washington" for aviation. The Geneva Conference on Disarmament, convened in 1932, after two years of unsuccessful negotiations, was interrupted by Germany's withdrawal from the League of Nations and ended in nothing. Not a single document was adopted within the framework of this conference.
  9. Undecim
    Undecim 13 December 2020 14: 52
    +14
    The Hampden made its first flight on June 21, 1936. "Pegasi" with a capacity of 1000 hp each car accelerated to 426 km / h.
    Even in 1937 it was not enough. But the military department considered that weak defensive weapons would be compensated for by high speed. "Yes Yes!" - grinned in "Messerschmitt", finishing Bf.109 ...
    Instead of trying to write a military-historical humoresque, the author would improve knowledge.
    The Soviet DB-1937 bomber, which began production in 3, had a speed of 400 km / h and defensive armament of three 7,62 mm ShKASs. And the rated bomb load is almost half that.
    1. Bormanxnumx
      Bormanxnumx 13 December 2020 20: 44
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      Instead of trying to write a military-historical humoresque, the author would improve knowledge.

      The author was not up to it, he "studied" the lend-lease)
    2. Left shot
      Left shot 14 December 2020 05: 40
      -5
      From 41-42, there was not a DB-3F, but an Il-4, armament 2 ShKAS and 1 UBT. The speed is 430 km / h.
      In addition, no one argued that the 42 Il-4 was outdated, the new was the Tu-2, for example.
      And no one should argue that the allies supplied obsolete and illiquid shit as "aid" for gold.
      1. Bormanxnumx
        Bormanxnumx 14 December 2020 08: 18
        +2
        Quote: Shot from the left
        And no one should argue that the allies supplied obsolete and illiquid shit as "aid" for gold.

        The list of "shit" was agreed with the receiving party (USSR), no one forcibly supplied.
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        2. Left shot
          Left shot 16 December 2020 00: 21
          0
          I have already answered this lie 2 times. The USSR (the delegations being sent) asked for one thing, they refused it and tried something else.
          The USSR was forced to take what they were sniffing, otherwise it would have disappeared.
          If you are dying of hunger, but you have no food, and you have to eat nettles, this does not mean that nettles are good food.
          1. kuzimka
            kuzimka 26 February 2021 21: 42
            0
            I searched on the Internet, I could not find how many great Soviet Union presented / sold aircraft to Great Britain during the period from September 1939 to June 22, 1941. Great Britain has already fought against Nazi Germany. I suppose not at all .... Why are the gallant commentators so famously spreading rot about Great Britain's aid to the Soviet Union after June 22, 1941? Because - nowadays in the trend there is black ingratitude and squeals that we ourselves have defeated everyone ... It's a pity that you can't send these demagogues at 41 to feel how then the Soviet Union defeated everyone ...
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      4. fone
        fone 1 February 2021 20: 21
        0
        And what, the Soviet Union itself produced all-wheel drive trucks, jeeps, torpedo boats?
  10. BAI
    BAI 13 December 2020 19: 26
    +3
    Well, since we were no stranger to wearing British rags, then in the 24th and 9th mine-torpedo air regiments these nightmares were exploited right up to 1943.

    Even a bad weapon is better than no weapon. Do not forget - England sat in a naval blockade on imported raw materials and waged war since 1939.
    1. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 13 December 2020 20: 59
      +3
      Quote: BAI
      Even a bad weapon is better than no weapon.

      It is worth noting that England gave way in the 20th century between the wars. If earlier Britain was the undisputed trendsetter in the designs of new cars, then the 20-30s shows a complete failure of British design thought in all directions. Except for Spitfire in general, there is really nothing to remember.

      IMHO was affected by the monstrous human losses in WWI. And they knocked out the best.
      1. Abalon
        Abalon 13 December 2020 23: 40
        +1
        Lancaster, Sunderland, Beaufighter, Mosquito. Why remember them?
        1. Saxahorse
          Saxahorse 14 December 2020 23: 25
          0
          Mosquito well, maybe, although a kind of solution. Lancaster is the third grade, even the B-17 was clearly inferior to the B-29, although it is of the same age. Beaufighter is generally squalor, like the hero of this article - he flew and all right.
      2. Left shot
        Left shot 14 December 2020 17: 22
        +1
        Spitfire is a successful air defense aircraft, all their thoughts on this assignment came down to and finally came down to.
        The rest was affected by the complete misunderstanding of the British about the land war on the continent.
      3. PilotS37
        PilotS37 14 December 2020 18: 33
        0
        Quote: Saxahorse
        Except for Spitfire in general, there is really nothing to remember.

        Well, of course! And the Mosquito?
        And their engines? ..
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    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 14 December 2020 12: 26
      +2
      Quote: Left Shot
      This shit supplied by the brits is another illustration for the discussion of another article about Lend-Lease, where I argued to those who were jerking off on supposedly key supplies for the USSR that any illiquid was merged for gold.

      And, again, in the case of the Hampdens, the USSR received exactly the same thing that the Allies flew on. As before, in the same theater of operations, in the case of the Hurricanes.

      Do you know why the SF took the Hampdens? Because our expensive aviation industry in 1942 generally scored for the needs of the fleet, supplying the Il-4 only to the DBA. As a result, the torpedo aircraft of the Northern Fleet in one of the periods was reduced to 9 machines.
      However, the Northern Fleet Air Force was still lucky - they got something from Lend-Lease. At the Red Banner Baltic Fleet in 1942, the most important transport artery that supplied Leningrad was covered by the regiments on the I-16.
      1. Left shot
        Left shot 14 December 2020 17: 05
        -3
        In 41-42, the allies did not fly on harricanes, this is not true. But they were shaking off in the USSR.
        And as far as I understand, we have not flown on the Hampdens already ... however, I will try to clarify
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 14 December 2020 18: 40
          +1
          Quote: Shot from the left
          In 41-42, the allies did not fly on harricanes, this is not true.

          The key point of the Mediterranean theater of operations - Malta - was defended by the Hurricanes in splendid isolation until March 1942. And only in March they began to gradually change to Spita.
          And in the Air Force of the Desert, "Hurricanes" flew even in October 1942. And not in trace quantities at all - at El Alamein they were raised by as many as 6 squadrons.
          1. Left shot
            Left shot 14 December 2020 20: 30
            -3
            And I forgot the important thing. Hurricanes, later, were not at all those supplied by the USSR. Not with 8 machine guns of exclusively rifle caliber and only in the wings. Already with guns, etc.
            So on the did not fly, I assure you.
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 14 December 2020 20: 49
              0
              Quote: Left Shot
              And I forgot the important thing. Hurricanes, later, were not at all those supplied by the USSR. Not with 8 machine guns of exclusively rifle caliber and only in the wings. Already with guns, etc.
              So on the did not fly, I assure you.

              We flew and flew - cannon "Khuri" were supplied to the USSR since 1942.
              In total, in 1941-44, 3082 aircraft of this type were received in the USSR, including 2834 aircraft received by military aviation. At least 210 machines of modification IIА, 1557 - IIВ and similar Canadian X, XI and XII were sent, 1009 - IIC, 60 - IID and 30 - type IV.
              © "Hurricanes in the Soviet Union". Aviation and astronautics. 2007. No. 05
              1. Left shot
                Left shot 16 December 2020 00: 19
                0
                So I am mistaken about the modifications or have looked up to this information on deliveries for 41-42 years. Not the point.
                In 41-42, Soviet aviation suffered from an acute shortage of aircraft fleet and personnel. And they supplied mainly what was impossible or very difficult to fight on. And then ...
                "From 1943 they were concentrated in the air defense aviation and were in service until the end of 1945 (as in Great Britain)." (http://armedman.ru/samoletyi/1919-1936-samoletyi/istrebitel-houker-harrikeyn.html)
                I.e - not to the front.
                And if you start citing a list of statements about harrikeins in the USSR, it will be too long for a comment.
                As an example, Hero of the Soviet Union S.F. Dolgushin: "The Hurricane is a disgusting machine. Low speed, heavy ... I shot down four or five planes on the Hurricane, but these victories required special conditions."

                I repeat, the Allies in the most difficult period of 41-42 years supplied shit, for gold. The same harricane began to supply used and in disgusting condition.
                All these valentines, harricanes, the same hamdens and substandard non-combat goods.
                1. Left shot
                  Left shot 16 December 2020 21: 33
                  0
                  ... You can also recall Matilda's tanks, that still a gift with a 45-mm cannon. Moreover, unlike light mobile tanks with such a caliber, this one is a slow coffin. Matilda's armor was initially good, but not at the time of delivery under the Lend-Lease program.
  12. Comrade Kim
    Comrade Kim 3 February 2021 17: 03
    0
    Wonderful article!
    Another lend-lease appeared in a perverted form and with "Bostons"
    In the first volume of "Stalin's Correspondence with ..." there is a letter from Churchill to Stalin, in which he asks to give the Bostons sent by Roosevelt to the USSR to the British. Stalin gave it away.